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ESOPHAGUS

Muscular tube about 10 inches long that conveys food from the pharynx to
the stomach
Epithelium: Stratified Squamous but at the junction of esophag with the
cardia of the stomach, the epithelium is Columnar
Lamina propia: consists of Loose connective tissue with thin collagenous and
elastic fibers, connective tissue cells, numerous lymphocytes and lymphatic
nodules and esophangeal mucous glands
Muscularis mucosa: contains elastic fibers with smooth muscles
Submucosa: contains dense connective tissue
Muscularis externa: Upper one third made up of striated muscle
Middle 1/3 has smooth muscle gradually replacing striated
muscle
Lower 1/3 contains only smooth muscle
Outer surface of esophagus: has tunica Adventitia made up of loose
connective tissue which connects the esophagus with the surrounding
structures
Glands: esophageal glands secreting mucus found in the lamina propia and
submucosa
STOMACH
Organ concerned with both storage and digestion of food
Parts: Cardia, fundus, corpus, and Pylorus
Mucosa: has simple columnar epithelium, forms numerous longitudinal folds
or rugae with invaginations called Gastric pits, contains 3 types of glands
**gastric glands are composed of 4 types of cells
1. Chief or zymogenic cells-contains granules of pepsinogen which is
antecedent of enzyme pepsin
2. Parietal or oxyntic cells pyramidal cells scattered among the zymogenic
cells producing HCl and the intrinsic factor
3. Neck mucous cell located between the parietal cells in the neck of the
glands, secrete mucus
4. Argentaffin cells-small granulated cells scattered singly in the epithelium,
synthesize and store serotonin and hormone gastrin
**cardiac glands: contain mucous cells and few Argentaffin cells
**pyloric glands: contain mucous cells, few parietal and Argentaffin cells
Lamina propia: has loose connec. Tissue which occupies the narrow spaces
between the glands, may have strands of smooth muscle in the pyloric region
Muscularis mucosa: consists of an inner circular and outer longitudinal layers
of smooth muscle and sometimes an additional outer circular layer
Submucosa: made up of dense connective tissue, has large lymph and blood
vessels and venous plexuses
Muscularis externa: consists of 3 layers of smooth muscle, inner oblique,
middle circular and outer longitudinal
-In the pylorus, this forms a thick, circular sphincter called Pyloric Sphincter
Serosa: outermost layer, has thin layer of connective tissue and outer aspect
is covered with mesothelium
CELL REGENERATION: rapid regeneration of superficial portions of mucosa

SMALL INTESTINES
Divided into: Duodenum, jejunum, ileum
Functions:
1.to move forward the chime that is receive from the stomach
2. to continue its digestion with special juices secreted by its own intrinsic glands
and its accessory glands
3.to absorb into the blood and lymph vessels in the mucosa the nutrient materials
needed by digestion
Mucosa: has structural specializations needed to increase the absorptive area
of the small intestines
1. Plicae circularis or valves of Kirckring- crescentic folds that extend half to
two thirds of the way around the lumen, involves both the mucosa and
submucosa
2. Intestinal villi fingerlike projections of the mucosa, may invaginate to
form tubular glands called cypts of Lieberkuhn or intestinal glands

Epithelium: simple columnar epithelium with striated or brush border


**TYPES of cells present:
1.intestinal absorptive cells-columnar cells with striated border, increase
absorptive area, have a protective role and active participation in digestive
process
2.goblet cells-irregularly scattered among the absorptive cells, shaped like a
wine glass, secrete mucus to lubricate and protect the surface epithelium,
play a role in protein synthesis from aminoacid precursors and in
polyssacharide formation
3.Argentaffin cells (basal granular or enterochromaffin cells)- rounded or
pyramidal cells at the base of the epithelium containing granules
-endocrine cells found in stomach and small intestines, abundant in the
appendix
-secrete serotonin which causes vigorous contraction of smooth muscles
(Important in the generation of peristaltic movements that propel food and
wastes through the gut)

4.paneth cells-pyramidal cells occurring in small groups in the crypts, have


granules, function unknown
Lamina propia: fills the spaces between the intestinal glands and forms the
cores of the
intestinal villi
-has elastic and reticular fibers
-is highly cellular with strands of smooth muscle
-has lymphoid tissue(Peyers patches in the ileum)
Muscularis mucosa: has an inner circular and outer longitudinal smooth
muscle layers

Submucosa: dense connec. Tissue with abundant elastic tissue and adipose
tissue
-in the duodenum, it is occupied by a thick layer of duodenal
glands or BRUNNERS glands (tubular glands) whose cellular
secretions (clear, viscous, alkaline fluid) protect duodenal
mucosa against the erosive effects of the acid gastric juice
Muscularis Externa: Internal and external smooth muscle layers between
these layers is the sympathetic myenteric nerve plexus (Auebachs Plexus)
Serosa: mesothelial cells resting on loose connective tissue