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# OCR (A) specifications: 5.1.

2a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h

Chapter 2
Accelerated motion
Worksheet
Worked examples
Practical 1: Determining the acceleration of a trolley
Practical 2: Estimating the acceleration of falling objects
End-of-chapter test
Marking scheme: Worksheet
Marking scheme: End-of-chapter test

Worksheet
Intermediate level
1
2

## Define acceleration and state whether it is a scalar or a vector.



A footballer kicks a ball from rest. The foot is in contact with the ball for 0.30 s
and the final velocity of the ball is 15 m s1. What is the average acceleration of
the ball?



The diagram shows the velocity against time graph for an object.
v (m s1)

35

20

0
8.0

t (s)



## Calculate the acceleration of the object.



Use the graph to determine the distance travelled by the object in 8.0 s.



## A car slows down from a velocity of 22 m s1 to 5.0 m s1 in a period of 6.0 s.

For this car, calculate:
a

its deceleration;





## the distance travelled in 6.0 s.



Higher level
5

6
7

A painter accidentally drops a can of paint from a bridge over a river. The can is
in free fall for a time of 2.3 s before it hits the water below. The acceleration of
free fall is 9.81 m s2.
a




1

## A cyclist is travelling at a constant velocity of 4.0 m s . She suddenly accelerates

at 0.45 m s2 for a distance of 9.0 m. Calculate her final velocity.



A racing car travelling at a velocity of 45 m s hits a safety barrier. The car comes
to a halt after travelling a distance of 20 m. Calculate the average deceleration
of the car.


2 Accelerated motion

## Cambridge University Press 2005

11

Extension
8 An object has a uniform acceleration a. After a time t its final velocity is v.
a

## Sketch a graph of velocity against time for this object.

Hence show that the displacement of the object in this time is given by:
s = vt



1 2
at
2



9 A metal ball is dropped from a height of 6.0 m onto soft ground. The ball hits the
ground and penetrates a distance of 8.5 cm. Calculate the deceleration of the ball
as it enters the ground. You may assume that the ball decelerates uniformly.
(Acceleration of free fall = 9.81 m s2.)


10 The diagram shows the variation with time t of the velocity v of a car travelling
v (m s1)

20
15
10
5
0
0

10

15

20

25

t (s)

Calculate the distance travelled by the car between 4.0 s and 8.0 s.






Total: Score:
48

12

## Cambridge University Press 2005

2 Accelerated motion

Worked examples
Example 1
A car is involved in an unfortunate accident. The tyre skid marks left on the road were
measured by accident investigators and found to be 16 m in length. Calculate the initial
velocity of the car, assuming it had a deceleration of magnitude 28 m s2.
s = 16 m

u=?

v2 = u2 + 2as
0 = u2 + [2 (28) 16]

v=0

a = 28 m s2

t=?

## Read the question carefully and

write down the s u v a t
values. From these, identify which
equation of motion can be used.

u2 = 896
u 30 m s1

Tip
The acceleration a of the car is negative because it is decelerating. If you give it the
wrong sign, you will end up trying to find the square root of a negative number.

2 Accelerated motion

## Cambridge University Press 2005

13

Example 2
A car is travelling along a level road at a constant velocity of 12 m s1. The driver sees a
pedestrian unexpectedly cross the road. The reaction time of the driver is 0.70 s. When
the brakes are applied, the car takes 3.0 s to come to a halt. The car decelerates
uniformly. Calculate the total distance travelled by the car from the instant the driver
of velocity against time.
Sketch:

v (m s1)
12
3.7 s

0
0

0.7
3.0 s

t (s)

The total distance travelled by the car = area under the velocity against time graph.
1
total distance = (12 0.70) + ( 3.0 12)
2
total distance = 26.4 m 26 m
Area = area of rectangle + area of triangle.

Tip
You can use the equations of motion to calculate the total distance.
For the first 0.7 s the velocity is a constant. The distance travelled is:
12 0.7 = 8.4 m
For the next 3.0 s, the car decelerates uniformly. The distance travelled is:
1
1
s = (u + v)t = (12 + 0) 3.0 = 18 m
2
2
Therefore, the total distance is:
8.4 + 18.0 = 26.4 m

14

## Cambridge University Press 2005

2 Accelerated motion

Practical 1
Determining the acceleration of a trolley
Safety
There are not likely to be any major hazards in carrying out this experiment. However,
teachers and technicians should always refer to the departmental risk assessment before
carrying out any practical work.

Apparatus

ticker-timer
power supply for ticker-timer
trolley
1 m ramp

ticker-tape
metre rule

Introduction
In this experiment you will determine the acceleration of a trolley rolling down a ramp
from its displacement against time graph.

Procedure
Details of how to use a ticker-timer to study the motion of an object are given on pages
6 and 7 of Physics 1. The velocity of an object may be determined from the gradient of a
displacement against time graph (see Physics 1, page 20).

Attach a length of ticker-tape to a trolley at the top of a ramp. Release the trolley
and obtain a series of dots on the ticker-tape.

The ticker-timer produces 50 dots every second. Five dots are produced in a time
of 0.1 s.

3
4
5

Use the tape to measure the displacement of the trolley at time intervals of 0.1 s.

## Record your results in a table.

Plot a graph of displacement
s against time t.
Determine the velocity u of the
trolley at t = 0.2 s.

Time t (s)

Displacement s (m)

0
0.1
0.2

## Determine the velocity v of the

trolley at t = 0.5 s.

a=

0.3
etc.

vu
t

## Remember, t is the time taken for the

trolley to change its velocity from u to v
it has a value of 0.3 s.

## Guidance for teachers

This experiment gives students the opportunity to draw tangents to a curve and interpret
displacement against time graphs. As a rough guide, the acceleration a down the ramp is
given by:
a = 9.81 sin

(m s2)

## where is the angle of the ramp with the horizontal.

2 Accelerated motion

## Cambridge University Press 2005

15

Practical 2
Estimating the acceleration of falling objects
Safety
There are not likely to be any major hazards in carrying out this experiment. However,
teachers and technicians should always refer to the departmental risk assessment before
carrying out any practical work.

Apparatus
aluminium plate 10 cm by 5 cm (or dark card of similar dimensions weighted
at the bottom by a 30 g mass)
light gate
digital timer
metre rule

Introduction
The acceleration of free fall is outlined in chapter 3 of Physics 1. You may regard this as a
preliminary experiment before you study the topic of free fall in some depth.
Do all objects falling in the Earths gravitational field have the same acceleration? This
experiment gives you the chance to investigate this important question.

Procedure

of the plate.

## Hold the aluminium

plate at a vertical
distance of 1.00 m
above the light gate.

## Release the plate. Make

sure that the entire
length of the plate
travels through the
light gate. Record the
time t taken for the
plate to travel through
the light gate from the
digital timer.
Determine the final velocity
v of the plate after falling
through a vertical distance
s of 1.00 m using the
relationship:
v=

weighted plate
Blu-tack

metre rule

s =1.00m

digital timer

L
t

light gate

Calculate the acceleration a of the falling plate using the equation of motion:
v2 = u2 + 2as

(u = 0)

## By attaching different amounts of Blu-tack to the bottom of the aluminium plate,

repeat the experiment for different masses. The mass of the object does not affect
its acceleration of free fall. Do your results support this statement?

7
8

16

## Make a list of the main sources of inaccuracy in this experiment.

2 Accelerated motion

End-of-chapter test

## A student writes the following statement in his summary notes:

Acceleration is the rate of change of speed.





ii

## State the unit for deceleration.



A velocity against time graph is given for an object. Explain how you would use
the graph to determine:
a





## The diagram shows the initial velocity and

the final velocity of a ball hit by a racquet.
The racquet is in contact with the ball for
a period of 0.25 s.

15 ms1

7.0 ms1

Calculate:



## the average acceleration of the ball.



positive direction

The diagram below shows the velocity against time graph for a stone thrown
vertically upwards.
v (m s1)
15
1.5s

10
5
0
5

1.0

2.0

3.0
t (s)

10
15



## Where is the ball in its flight when the time t is 1.5 s?



Use the information on the graph to determine the maximum height attained
by the stone.


## An aeroplane has a maximum acceleration of 6.0 m s2. Calculate the minimum

length for a straight runway so that the aeroplane, starting from rest, can safely
take off at a velocity of 90 m s1.

Total: Score:
17

2 Accelerated motion

## Cambridge University Press 2005

17

Marking scheme
Worksheet
1

Acceleration =

change in velocity

time

v = 15 m s1

u=0

a=?

a=

vu
;
t

a=

a=

15 0
;
0.30

t = 0.30 s

35 20
;
8.0

a = 50 m s2 

## Distance = area under the graph 

distance = area of trapezium =

1
(20 + 35) 8.0 
2

u = 22 m s1
a=

vu
;
t

a 2.8 m s2

v = 5.0 m s1
a=

22 + 5
= 13.5 m s1 
2

Average =

u=0

t = 6.0 s

5.0 22

6.0

## distance = 13.5 6.0 ;

a=?

a = 9.81 m s2

v=?

v = u + at ;

distance = 81 m 
t = 2.3 s

## v = 0 + 9.81 2.3 

v = 22.6 m s1 23 m s1 
b

s=?
s = ut +

a = 9.81 m s2

u=0
1 2
at ;
2

s=0+

t = 2.3 s

1
9.81 2.32 
2

s 26 m 

s = 9.0 m

u = 4.0 m s1

v2 = u2 + 2as ;

v=?

a = 0.45 m s2

s = 20 m
2

u = 45 m s1

v=0

a=?

v = u + 2as 
a=

v2 u2 0 452
=

2s
2 20

a 51 m s2 

18

## Cambridge University Press 2005

2 Accelerated motion

8 a

Velocity

## Line of positive slope 

Correct labels on axes 

v
v = at

0
t

Time

## s = area under the graph

s = area of larger rectangle area of shaded triangle 
1
s = (vt) ( [v]t) 
2
v = at ; hence s = vt

1
1
(at)t or s = vt at2 
2
2

## 9 During free fall:

s = 6.0 m

u=0

a = 9.81 m s2

v=?

v2 = u2 + 2as 
v = 2 9.81 6.0 
v = 10.85 m s1 
During landing on soft ground:
u = 10.85 m s1

s = 0.085 m
2

v=0

a=?

v = u + 2as
a=

v2 u2 0 10.852 
=
2s
2 0.085

a 690 m s2 

## 10 a Distance = area under graph from 4 s to 8 s

distance =
b

1
(12 + 6.0) 4.0 ;
2

distance = 36 m 

acceleration =

v 13
=

t 20

c

Acceleration
(m s2)
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0
0

10

15

20

25

t (s)

## Constant acceleration of 1.5 m s2 from 0 to 10 s 

Acceleration gradually decreasing to zero after 10 s 

2 Accelerated motion

## Cambridge University Press 2005

19

Marking scheme
End-of-chapter test
1

## Deceleration means the velocity of an object is decreasing (the

acceleration of the object is negative). 

ii

## Initial velocity = +15 m s1, final velocity = 7 m s1 (since travelling in

opposite direction)
Change in velocity = final velocity initial velocity
Change in velocity = (7 m s1) (+15 m s1) = 22 m s1 

a=

v 22
=

t 0.25

a = 88 m s2  (The minus here means that the direction of the ball is
reversed.)

The ball is decelerating due to the Earths gravitational pull. The magnitude
of the gradient is equal to the acceleration of free fall. 

At t = 1.5 s, the ball is at its maximum height because its velocity is zero. 

Height =

s=?

1
15 1.5 ;
2

u=0

v = 90 m s1

## height = 11.25m 11 m 

a = 6.0 m s2

v2 = u2 + 2as 
s=

v2 u2 902 0
=

2a
2 6.0

20

## Cambridge University Press 2005

2 Accelerated motion