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OCR (A) specifications: 5.1.

2a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h

Chapter 2
Accelerated motion
Worksheet
Worked examples
Practical 1: Determining the acceleration of a trolley
Practical 2: Estimating the acceleration of falling objects
End-of-chapter test
Marking scheme: Worksheet
Marking scheme: End-of-chapter test

Worksheet
Intermediate level
1
2

Define acceleration and state whether it is a scalar or a vector.

[2]

A footballer kicks a ball from rest. The foot is in contact with the ball for 0.30 s
and the final velocity of the ball is 15 m s1. What is the average acceleration of
the ball?

[3]

The diagram shows the velocity against time graph for an object.
v (m s1)

35

20

0
8.0

t (s)

Describe the motion of the object.

[1]

Calculate the acceleration of the object.

[3]

Use the graph to determine the distance travelled by the object in 8.0 s.

[3]

A car slows down from a velocity of 22 m s1 to 5.0 m s1 in a period of 6.0 s.


For this car, calculate:
a

its deceleration;

[3]

its average velocity;

[1]

the distance travelled in 6.0 s.

[2]

Higher level
5

6
7

A painter accidentally drops a can of paint from a bridge over a river. The can is
in free fall for a time of 2.3 s before it hits the water below. The acceleration of
free fall is 9.81 m s2.
a

Calculate the velocity of the can when it hits the water.

[3]

What is the height of the bridge?

[3]
1

A cyclist is travelling at a constant velocity of 4.0 m s . She suddenly accelerates


at 0.45 m s2 for a distance of 9.0 m. Calculate her final velocity.

[3]

A racing car travelling at a velocity of 45 m s hits a safety barrier. The car comes
to a halt after travelling a distance of 20 m. Calculate the average deceleration
of the car.
[3]

2 Accelerated motion

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Extension
8 An object has a uniform acceleration a. After a time t its final velocity is v.
a

Sketch a graph of velocity against time for this object.

Hence show that the displacement of the object in this time is given by:
s = vt

[2]

1 2
at
2

[4]

9 A metal ball is dropped from a height of 6.0 m onto soft ground. The ball hits the
ground and penetrates a distance of 8.5 cm. Calculate the deceleration of the ball
as it enters the ground. You may assume that the ball decelerates uniformly.
(Acceleration of free fall = 9.81 m s2.)
[5]

10 The diagram shows the variation with time t of the velocity v of a car travelling
along a straight road.
v (m s1)

20
15
10
5
0
0

10

15

20

25

t (s)

Calculate the distance travelled by the car between 4.0 s and 8.0 s.

[2]

Calculate the acceleration of the car at 12.5 s.

[3]

Sketch a graph of acceleration against time for the car.

[2]
Total: Score:
48

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2 Accelerated motion

Worked examples
Example 1
A car is involved in an unfortunate accident. The tyre skid marks left on the road were
measured by accident investigators and found to be 16 m in length. Calculate the initial
velocity of the car, assuming it had a deceleration of magnitude 28 m s2.
s = 16 m

u=?

v2 = u2 + 2as
0 = u2 + [2 (28) 16]

v=0

a = 28 m s2

t=?

Read the question carefully and


write down the s u v a t
values. From these, identify which
equation of motion can be used.

u2 = 896
u 30 m s1

Tip
The acceleration a of the car is negative because it is decelerating. If you give it the
wrong sign, you will end up trying to find the square root of a negative number.

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Example 2
A car is travelling along a level road at a constant velocity of 12 m s1. The driver sees a
pedestrian unexpectedly cross the road. The reaction time of the driver is 0.70 s. When
the brakes are applied, the car takes 3.0 s to come to a halt. The car decelerates
uniformly. Calculate the total distance travelled by the car from the instant the driver
saw the pedestrian. Illustrate your answer with a sketch graph
of velocity against time.
Sketch:

v (m s1)
12
3.7 s

0
0

0.7
3.0 s

t (s)

The total distance travelled by the car = area under the velocity against time graph.
1
total distance = (12 0.70) + ( 3.0 12)
2
total distance = 26.4 m 26 m
Area = area of rectangle + area of triangle.

Tip
You can use the equations of motion to calculate the total distance.
For the first 0.7 s the velocity is a constant. The distance travelled is:
12 0.7 = 8.4 m
For the next 3.0 s, the car decelerates uniformly. The distance travelled is:
1
1
s = (u + v)t = (12 + 0) 3.0 = 18 m
2
2
Therefore, the total distance is:
8.4 + 18.0 = 26.4 m

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2 Accelerated motion

Practical 1
Determining the acceleration of a trolley
Safety
There are not likely to be any major hazards in carrying out this experiment. However,
teachers and technicians should always refer to the departmental risk assessment before
carrying out any practical work.

Apparatus

ticker-timer
power supply for ticker-timer
trolley
1 m ramp

adhesive tape
ticker-tape
metre rule
connecting leads

Introduction
In this experiment you will determine the acceleration of a trolley rolling down a ramp
from its displacement against time graph.

Procedure
Details of how to use a ticker-timer to study the motion of an object are given on pages
6 and 7 of Physics 1. The velocity of an object may be determined from the gradient of a
displacement against time graph (see Physics 1, page 20).

Attach a length of ticker-tape to a trolley at the top of a ramp. Release the trolley
and obtain a series of dots on the ticker-tape.

The ticker-timer produces 50 dots every second. Five dots are produced in a time
of 0.1 s.

3
4
5

Use the tape to measure the displacement of the trolley at time intervals of 0.1 s.

Record your results in a table.


Plot a graph of displacement
s against time t.
Determine the velocity u of the
trolley at t = 0.2 s.

Time t (s)

Displacement s (m)

0
0.1
0.2

Hint: gradient = velocity.

Determine the velocity v of the


trolley at t = 0.5 s.

Use the equation:


a=

0.3
etc.

vu
t

to determine the acceleration a of the trolley.

Remember, t is the time taken for the


trolley to change its velocity from u to v
it has a value of 0.3 s.

Guidance for teachers


This experiment gives students the opportunity to draw tangents to a curve and interpret
displacement against time graphs. As a rough guide, the acceleration a down the ramp is
given by:
a = 9.81 sin

(m s2)

where is the angle of the ramp with the horizontal.

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Practical 2
Estimating the acceleration of falling objects
Safety
There are not likely to be any major hazards in carrying out this experiment. However,
teachers and technicians should always refer to the departmental risk assessment before
carrying out any practical work.

Apparatus
aluminium plate 10 cm by 5 cm (or dark card of similar dimensions weighted
at the bottom by a 30 g mass)
light gate
digital timer
metre rule

Introduction
The acceleration of free fall is outlined in chapter 3 of Physics 1. You may regard this as a
preliminary experiment before you study the topic of free fall in some depth.
Do all objects falling in the Earths gravitational field have the same acceleration? This
experiment gives you the chance to investigate this important question.

Procedure

Measure the length L


of the plate.

Hold the aluminium


plate at a vertical
distance of 1.00 m
above the light gate.

Release the plate. Make


sure that the entire
length of the plate
travels through the
light gate. Record the
time t taken for the
plate to travel through
the light gate from the
digital timer.
Determine the final velocity
v of the plate after falling
through a vertical distance
s of 1.00 m using the
relationship:
v=

weighted plate
Blu-tack

metre rule

s =1.00m

digital timer

L
t

light gate

Calculate the acceleration a of the falling plate using the equation of motion:
v2 = u2 + 2as

(u = 0)

By attaching different amounts of Blu-tack to the bottom of the aluminium plate,


repeat the experiment for different masses. The mass of the object does not affect
its acceleration of free fall. Do your results support this statement?

7
8

What is your average value for the acceleration of free fall?

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Make a list of the main sources of inaccuracy in this experiment.


2 Accelerated motion

End-of-chapter test
Answer all questions.

A student writes the following statement in his summary notes:


Acceleration is the rate of change of speed.

Explain why this statement is wrong.

[1]

Explain what is meant by deceleration.

[1]

ii

State the unit for deceleration.

[1]

A velocity against time graph is given for an object. Explain how you would use
the graph to determine:
a

the acceleration of the object at any time;

[2]

the total displacement of the object.

[1]

The diagram shows the initial velocity and


the final velocity of a ball hit by a racquet.
The racquet is in contact with the ball for
a period of 0.25 s.

15 ms1

7.0 ms1

Calculate:

the change in the velocity of the ball;

[1]

the average acceleration of the ball.

[2]

positive direction

The diagram below shows the velocity against time graph for a stone thrown
vertically upwards.
v (m s1)
15
1.5s

10
5
0
5

1.0

2.0

3.0
t (s)

10
15

Explain what the gradient of the graph represents in this case.

[1]

Where is the ball in its flight when the time t is 1.5 s?

[1]

Use the information on the graph to determine the maximum height attained
by the stone.
[3]

An aeroplane has a maximum acceleration of 6.0 m s2. Calculate the minimum


length for a straight runway so that the aeroplane, starting from rest, can safely
take off at a velocity of 90 m s1.
[3]
Total: Score:
17

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Marking scheme
Worksheet
1

Acceleration =

change in velocity
[1]
time

Acceleration is a vector. [1]

v = 15 m s1

u=0

a=?

a=

vu
[1];
t

The object is travelling initially at 20 m s1 and has a constant acceleration. [1]

a = gradient of graph [1]


a=

a=

15 0
[1];
0.30

t = 0.30 s

35 20
[1];
8.0

a = 50 m s2 [1]

a = 1.88 m s2 1.9 m s2 [1]

Distance = area under the graph [1]


distance = area of trapezium =

1
(20 + 35) 8.0 [1]
2

distance = 220 m [1]

u = 22 m s1
a=

vu
[1];
t

a 2.8 m s2

v = 5.0 m s1
a=

(negative value deceleration) [1]

22 + 5
= 13.5 m s1 [1]
2

Average =

Distance = average velocity time

u=0

t = 6.0 s

5.0 22
[1]
6.0

distance = 13.5 6.0 [1];

a=?

a = 9.81 m s2

v=?

v = u + at [1];

distance = 81 m [1]
t = 2.3 s

v = 0 + 9.81 2.3 [1]

v = 22.6 m s1 23 m s1 [1]
b

s=?
s = ut +

a = 9.81 m s2

u=0
1 2
at [1];
2

s=0+

t = 2.3 s

1
9.81 2.32 [1]
2

s 26 m [1]

s = 9.0 m

u = 4.0 m s1

v2 = u2 + 2as [1];

v=?

a = 0.45 m s2

v2 = 4.02 + (2 0.45 9.0) = 24.1 [1]

v = 24.1 4.9 m s1 [1]

s = 20 m
2

u = 45 m s1

v=0

a=?

v = u + 2as [1]
a=

v2 u2 0 452
=
[1]
2s
2 20

a 51 m s2 [1]

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2 Accelerated motion

8 a

Velocity

Line of positive slope [1]


Correct labels on axes [1]

v
v = at

0
t

Time

s = area under the graph


s = area of larger rectangle area of shaded triangle [1]
1
s = (vt) ( [v]t) [1]
2
v = at [1]; hence s = vt

1
1
(at)t or s = vt at2 [1]
2
2

9 During free fall:


s = 6.0 m

u=0

a = 9.81 m s2

v=?

v2 = u2 + 2as [1]
v = 2 9.81 6.0 [1]
v = 10.85 m s1 [1]
During landing on soft ground:
u = 10.85 m s1

s = 0.085 m
2

v=0

a=?

v = u + 2as
a=

v2 u2 0 10.852 [1]
=
2s
2 0.085

a 690 m s2 [1]

10 a Distance = area under graph from 4 s to 8 s


distance =
b

1
(12 + 6.0) 4.0 [1];
2

distance = 36 m [1]

Acceleration = gradient of graph at 12.5 s [1]


acceleration =

v 13
=
[1]
t 20

acceleration = 0.65 m s2 (allow 0.10 m s2 ) [1]


c

Acceleration
(m s2)
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0
0

10

15

20

25

t (s)

Constant acceleration of 1.5 m s2 from 0 to 10 s [1]


Acceleration gradually decreasing to zero after 10 s [1]

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Marking scheme
End-of-chapter test
1

In the statement it should be velocity and not speed. [1]

Deceleration means the velocity of an object is decreasing (the


acceleration of the object is negative). [1]

ii

m s2 the same as for acceleration [1]

Draw a tangent to the graph [1]


and determine its gradient. [1]

The area under the graph is equal to the displacement. [1]

Initial velocity = +15 m s1, final velocity = 7 m s1 (since travelling in


opposite direction)
Change in velocity = final velocity initial velocity
Change in velocity = (7 m s1) (+15 m s1) = 22 m s1 [1]

a=

v 22
=
[1]
t 0.25

a = 88 m s2 [1] (The minus here means that the direction of the ball is
reversed.)

The ball is decelerating due to the Earths gravitational pull. The magnitude
of the gradient is equal to the acceleration of free fall. [1]

At t = 1.5 s, the ball is at its maximum height because its velocity is zero. [1]

Height = area under graph from t = 0 to t = 1.5 s. [1]


Height =

s=?

1
15 1.5 [1];
2

u=0

v = 90 m s1

height = 11.25m 11 m [1]


a = 6.0 m s2

v2 = u2 + 2as [1]
s=

v2 u2 902 0
=
[1]
2a
2 6.0

s = 675 m 680 m [1]

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2 Accelerated motion