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3a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h,i

Chapter 20

Superposition of waves

Worksheet

Worked examples

Practical 1: Determining the wavelength of microwaves

Practical 2: Stationary waves on a stretched string

End-of-chapter test

Marking scheme: Worksheet

Marking scheme: End-of-chapter test

Worksheet

Intermediate level

1

2

3

4

5

[1]

[2]

[1]

varies along the length of the rope.

[2]

demonstrate the interference of water waves.

a

What is the path difference of the waves

from the gaps S1 and S2?

[1]

Determine the path difference for the

waves arriving at point B. Name the type

of interference taking place at this point.

[3]

A

A

S

S11

S22

B

B

S

15.5

cm

S11BB===15.5

15.5cm

cm

S

14.0

cm

S22BB===14.0

14.0cm

cm

wavelength is given by the equation:

ax

D

[3]

Higher level

7

towards a metal plate with two

narrow vertical slits. A receiver is

slowly moved along the line XY as

shown in the diagram.

a

registers a series of maxima

and minima.

182

receiver

transmitter

4.0 cm

[3]

is 2.8cm. The separation between

the slits is 4.0cm and the receiver

is a distance of 80cm from the

slits. Calculate the separation

between adjacent maxima.

[3]

Describe the effect on your

answer to b when:

80 cm

slits

X

[1]

ii

[1]

20 Superposition of waves

a

b

75 cm

air column of the tube.

[3]

frequency for this tube. (Speed of sound = 340 m s1.)

[4]

tube

Extension

9

From OCR Module 2 you will be familiar with the idea that moving electrons

behave as a wave. The wavelength is given by the de Broglie equation. An atom of

hydrogen may be modelled as a positive nucleus with an electron wave trapped in

a small region of space. A very simplified model of the hydrogen atom is as follows.

The confined electron creates a stationary wave with nodes at the ends of

the atom very similar to a stationary wave produced on a taut string fixed at

both ends.

The diagram below shows the fundamental frequency for the confined electron.

atom

a

b

wavelength in terms of the length L?

Show that the kinetic energy Ek of the electron is given by:

Ek =

[2]

h2

8mL 2

[3]

The diameter of the hydrogen atom is 1010 m. Determine the kinetic energy

of an electron within the hydrogen atom in electron-volts.

[3]

(m = 9.1 10

31

kg; h = 6.63 10

34

J s;

1 eV = 1.6 10

19

J.)

Total: Score:

36

20 Superposition of waves

183

Worked examples

Example 1

Two loudspeakers are connected in parallel to a signal generator set at 1000 Hz. A

student moving along a line at a distance of 5.0 m away from the loudspeakers notices

regions of loud and quiet sound. The distance between adjacent regions of loud sound is

2.1 m and the separation between the loudspeakers is 0.80 m. Use this information to

determine the speed of sound in air.

In order to determine the speed, we need to calculate the wavelength of the sound

emitted from the loudspeakers.

interference of sound from the two loudspeakers.

ax

D

a = 0.80 m

x = 2.1m

D = 5.0 m

0.80 2.1

= 0.336 m 0.34 m

5.0

v = f = 1000 0.336 = 336 m s1 340 m s1

speed of sound in air 340 m s1

Tip

You can derive a single equation for the speed of sound using v = f and =

ax.

D

v=

fax

D

Example 2

The diagram shows a stationary (standing) wave in an open

tube. What is the frequency of the tuning fork? (Speed of

sound in air = 340 m s1.)

= 45

2

= 45 2 = 90 cm

45 cm

tuning

fork

(0.90 m)

antinodes) =

2

f=

Therefore:

f=

340

380 Hz

0.90

184

20 Superposition of waves

Practical 1

Determining the wavelength of microwaves

Safety

Anyone with an artificial pacemaker must not get too close to the transmitter. Microwaves

are quite dangerous. Keep a safe distance between your eyes and the transmitter. Teachers

and technicians should follow their school and departmental safety policies and should

ensure that the employers risk assessment has been carried out before undertaking any

practical work.

Apparatus

two-slit arrangement

microwave transmitter

microwave receiver with output

displayed on a microammeter (100 A)

connecting leads

Introduction

In this experiment you will determine the wavelength of microwaves using the equation:

ax

D

Procedure

slits

described on page 175 of Physics 1. The main

features of the experimental setup are shown.

receiver

microwave

transmitter

1

2

Secure a metre rule to the bench at a distance of about 50 cm from the two slits.

The rule must be parallel to the slits.

Move the receiver slowly along the length of the metre rule. The microammeter will

show a series of minima and maxima. Mark crosses on the rule at the points where

the receiver registers a maximum signal.

4

5

6

7

Measure the distance D between the slits and the metre rule.

Measure the distance a between the centres of the two slits.

Calculate the wavelength of the microwaves using:

ax

D

How does your value compare with the actual value given by the manufacturer?

(The wavelength is typically 2.8 cm.)

The above procedure may be adapted to determine the wavelength of light from a laser.

The interference pattern is formed on a distant screen. Students will have to be given

the separation a between the two slits. The distance D between the screen and the slits

can be in the range 2.0 m to 6.0 m. Laser light is dangerous. Students must wear safety

goggles and must not look directly into the laser beam.

20 Superposition of waves

185

Practical 2

Stationary waves on a stretched string

Safety

There are not likely to be any major hazards in carrying out this experiment. However,

teachers and technicians should always refer to the departmental risk assessment before

carrying out any practical work.

Apparatus

pulley

light string or rubber cord

3 N weight

metre rule

clamp stands

Introduction

In this experiment you will use an arrangement known as Meldes experiment to

determine the speed of transverse waves on a stretched string. The arrangement of

the experiment is shown in figure 20.28 on page 184 of Physics 1.

Procedure

The speed v of the transverse wave on a stretched string is given by:

v = f

where f is the frequency of the mechanical vibrator or the frequency of the waves

produced on the string and is the wavelength of the transverse waves on the string.

For a stationary wave, the separation between adjacent nodes (or antinodes) is

equal to .

N

A

2

fundamental

overtones

formed on the stretched string.

Slowly increase the frequency of the signal generator until the fundamental pattern

is formed. Note the frequency f, measure the separation between two adjacent nodes

and determine the wavelength of the transverse wave on the string.

Repeat the procedure above for the first, second, third, etc. overtones. Record your

results in a table.

f (Hz)

(m)

v (ms1)

How is the frequency f of the stationary wave related to the number n of loops and

the fundamental frequency f0?

For each stationary wave pattern, determine the speed of the transverse wave on

the string using v = f.

The speed of the transverse wave on the string is independent of the wavelength or

the frequency. Do your results support this statement? What is the speed of the

transverse wave on the string?

186

20 Superposition of waves

End-of-chapter test

Answer all questions.

1

2

[2]

A taut string is fixed between two ends. The diagram below shows the string

displaced vertically.

plucked string

stationary wave

60 cm

is produced between the two fixed points.

a

[2]

Complete the diagram above to show the stationary wave created. Mark the

positions of the nodes (N) and the antinode (A).

[3]

Determine:

i

[2]

ii

[2]

used to determine the wavelength of

light from a laser.

a

b

narrow slits.

Dark and bright fringes are

observed on the screen. What

is the phase difference of the

waves arriving at the centre

of a dark fringe?

4.0 m

[1]

laser

laser light

[1]

slits

screen

The separation between the slits is 0.25 mm and the screen is at a distance

of 4.0 m from the slits. The separation between adjacent bright fringes is

1.0 cm. Determine the wavelength of the light from the laser.

[3]

The distance between the screen and the slits is decreased. Describe the

effect this has on the appearance of the fringes. Explain your answer.

[2]

Total: Score:

18

20 Superposition of waves

187

Marking scheme

Worksheet

1

Principle of superposition: When two waves meet, the net displacement at a point

is equal to the algebraic sum of the individual displacements at that point. [1]

A stationary wave is the result of the superposition of two waves [1] of the

same wavelength (and hence frequency) travelling in opposite directions. [1]

3

4

At the nodes, the amplitude of the stationary wave is zero. [1]

Moving from a node towards an antinode, the amplitude increases to a maximum

at the antinode. The nodes and the antinodes are equally spaced. [1]

The path difference is

2

x = separation between adjacent maxima (or minima) of the interference pattern. [1]

D = separation between the screen and the slits. [1]

Beyond the slits, the waves interfere. A maximum signal is registered when the

waves interfere constructively. [1]

A minimum signal is registered when the waves interfere destructively. [1]

D 2.8 80

=

[1]; x = 56 cm [1]

a

4.0

ax

[1];

D

x=

D 1

; hence as a is halved, x is doubled (112 cm). [1]

a

a

ii

x=

D

D ; hence as D is doubled, x is doubled (112 cm). [1]

a

x=

Place a loudspeaker at the open end of the tube and connect it to a signal

generator. [1]

Adjust the frequency of the sound [1]

until you hear a loud sound coming from the tube. [1]

(As an alternative, you can use a selection of tuning forks.)

Length of tube =

v = f

188

so

so

75 =

v 340

f= =

[1];

3.0

4

75 cm

20 Superposition of waves

2

L=

Ek =

mv 2 p2

=

[1];

2

2m

Ek

(h/)2

h2

h

=

2 (de Broglie equation: = ) [1]

2m

2m

p

c

Ek =

h2

8mL2

so

Ek =

(6.63 1034)2

[1]

8 9.1 1031 (1010)2

20 Superposition of waves

h2

h2

[1]

2=

2m(2L) 8mL2

6.04 1018

38 eV [1]

1.6 1019

189

Marking scheme

End-of-chapter test

1

from two coherent sources. [1]

Waves travel towards the fixed ends and are reflected. [1]

These reflected waves superimpose to produce a stationary wave pattern. [1]

A

N

Antinode (A) shown [1]

60 cm

[1]

2

2

ii

The laser light is diffracted at the narrow slits. The diffracted light then

interferes in the space beyond the slits. [1]

ax

[1]

D

a = 0.25 mm

=

d

D = 4.0 m

[1];

4.0

x = 1.0 cm

The separation between the dark (or bright) fringes decreases. [1]

This is because the fringe separation x is directly proportional to the distance D

between the slits and the screen. That is:

x=

190

D

D [1]

a

20 Superposition of waves

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