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OCR (A) specifications: 5.1.1a; 5.1.

2a,b,d

Chapter 1
Kinematics describing motion
Worksheet
Worked examples
Practical: Displacement against time graphs
End-of-chapter test
Marking scheme: Worksheet
Marking scheme: End-of-chapter test

Worksheet
Intermediate level
1

2
3
4

5
6

Explain what is meant by:


a

a scalar quantity;

[1]

a vector quantity.

[1]

Name any three scalar quantities.

[3]

Define the velocity of an object.

[1]

Use your answer to a to explain why velocity is a vector quantity.

[2]

Cannons are being fired in a mock battle scene. The spectators are at a safe
distance of 600 m from the cannons. Calculate how long it would take for
the sound from the cannons to reach the spectators. (Speed of sound in air =
340 m s1.)

[2]

A small insect travels a distance of 24 cm in a time of 4.0 minutes. Calculate


the average speed of the insect in m s1.

[2]

The displacementtime graph for an object is shown below.


s (m)

8.5

0
3.2

7.0

t (s)

What does the gradient of a displacementtime graph represent?

[1]

Describe the journey of the object.

[2]

Calculate the velocity of the object at 2.0 s.

[2]

Higher level
7

A cyclist travels a distance of 3.2 km in 15 minutes. She rests for 30 minutes.


She then covers a further distance of 6.2 km in a time of 40 minutes.
Calculate the average speed of the cyclist in m s1:

for the first 15 minutes of the journey;

[2]

for the total journey.

[2]

The diagram shows the displacementtime graph for an object.


s (m)

7.0

0
0

5.0

15.0

Calculate the velocity of the object at times a 4.0 s and b 8.0 s.


2

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t (s)

[4]
1 Kinematics describing motion

9 The diagram below shows a conker moving in a horizontal circle of radius 70 cm.

70 cm

string

conker

The conker takes a time of 0.62 s for each revolution.


a

Calculate the speed of the conker. (Hint: In a time of 0.62 s, the conker
travels a distance equal to the circumference of the circle.)

[2]

The conker starts at point A. What is the magnitude of the displacement


of the conker from A after a time of:
i

0.31 s;

[1]

ii

0.62 s.

[1]

Extension
10 The table below shows the time taken t and the displacement s of a trolley rolling
down a ramp.
Time t (s)

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

Displacement s (102 m)

0.8

3.0

6.8

12.0

18.9

27.0

Describe the motion of the trolley. Explain your answer.

[2]

Plot a graph of displacement against time. (Make sure that you sketch
a smooth curve.)

[2]

By drawing tangents to the curve at times 0.2 s and 0.5 s, determine the
velocities of the trolley at these times (see page 8 of Physics 1).

[2]

c
d

The acceleration a of the trolley is given by:

a=

change in velocity
time taken

Use the equation above and your answers to c to determine the


acceleration a of the trolley.
Total:

1 Kinematics describing motion

[2]
Score:
37

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Worked examples
Example 1
A train travels a total distance of 120 km between two stations. The total journey time is
3.2 hours. Calculate the average speed of the train in m s1.
distance = 120 000 m

time = 3.2 60 60 = 11 520 s

average speed =

total distance
time

average speed =

120 000
10.4 m s1
11 520

In order to calculate the speed in m s1, the distance has


to be in metres and the time in seconds.

Tip
It is very helpful in AS Physics to write small and large numbers in standard form
(scientific notation). It saves you writing all those zeros and also helps to avoid serious
errors in tests and examinations. In the example above, we could have written:
v=

1.2 105
10.4 m s1
1.152 104

Example 2
The displacementtime graph for an object travelling in a straight line is shown.
Calculate the maximum velocity of the object.
s (m)

20
15
10
5
0
0

10

15

20
t (s)

The gradient of a displacement


time graph is equal to velocity.

The slope of the graph is a maximum between 10 s and 15 s.


maximum velocity =

s
20 5
=
= 3.0 m s1
t 15 10

Tip
Always set out all the stages of your answer. Always follow these steps:
Write down the relevant physics or the equation.
Substitute values correctly into the equation. Make sure that the quantities are
in the correct units.
Write your final answer together with the correct unit.
4

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1 Kinematics describing motion

Practical
Displacement against time graphs
Safety
Be careful when running in the laboratory. Make sure there are no obstacles in your way.
Teachers and technicians should follow their school and departmental safety policies and
should ensure that the employers risk assessment has been carried out before
undertaking any practical work.

Apparatus

ticker-timer
power supply for ticker-timer
trolley on an inclined slope
adhesive tape

ticker-tape
metre rule
connecting leads

Introduction
You can investigate the motion of an object by analysing the information from a tickertape attached to the moving object. In this experiment you will determine the average
velocity of a trolley travelling down a ramp and of a person running.

Procedure
Details of how to use a ticker-timer to study the motion of an object are given on
pages 6 and 7 of Physics 1.

1 Attach a length of ticker-tape to a trolley at the top of a ramp. Release the trolley
and obtain a series of dots on the ticker-tape.

2 The ticker-timer produces 50 dots every second. Five dots are produced in a time
of 0.1 s.

3 Use the ticker-tape to measure the displacement of the trolley at time intervals
of 0.1 s.

4 Record your results in a table.


5 Plot a graph of displacement against time.
6 Use the graph to describe the motion of the
trolley. What is the average velocity of the
trolley travelling down the ramp?

7 Next, attach a length of tape to yourself.

Time (s)

Displacement (m)

0.1
0.2

(Make sure the ticker-timer is secured.)

8 Obtain a ticker-tape for yourself running.


9 Once again, record your results in a table

0.3
etc.

and draw a graph of displacement against time.

10 Use the graph to describe your motion.


What is your average velocity?

Guidance for teachers


Instead of using ticker-timers, you can use a motion sensor to display displacement
against time graphs in real time. You can then focus more on the interpretation of
these graphs rather than on plotting them.

1 Kinematics describing motion

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End-of-chapter test
Answer all questions.

2
3

Define speed.

[1]

State whether speed is a scalar or a vector quantity.

[1]

The diagram shows an artificial satellite


orbiting the Earth. Its orbital speed is
constant. With reference to the velocities
of the satellite at points X and Y, state:
i

one similarity;

[1]

ii

one difference.

[1]

satellite

Y
Earth

An athlete takes a time of 9.82 s to cover a distance of 100 m. Calculate the


average speed of the athlete.

[2]

The displacement against time graph for an object is shown below.


s (m)

10

5
0
0

10

12
t (s)

Describe the motion of the object.

For the object, calculate:

[3]

its velocity at 2.0 s;

[2]

ii

its average velocity for a period of 12 s.

[2]

The diagram below shows the path taken by a boat sailing from port A.
B
land

C
N

40 km

30 km

sea

The boat takes 1.5 hours to travel from port A to port B. It immediately sails from
port B towards port C. The boat takes 2.0 hours to travel from B to C. The distances
travelled for each section of the journey are shown on the diagram.
As the boat sailed from A to C, calculate:
a

its average speed;

[3]

the magnitude of its displacement.

[2]
Total:

Cambridge University Press 2005

Score:
18

1 Kinematics describing motion

Marking scheme
Worksheet
1

A scalar quantity has only magnitude (size). [1]

A vector quantity has both magnitude (size) and direction. [1]

Any three sensible suggestions, e.g. distance, speed, volume, area and
temperature. [3]

Velocity =

Displacement is a vector quantity and time is a scalar. [1]


Since velocity is determined by dividing a vector by a scalar, it must be a
vector quantity. [1]

Speed =

340 =

change in displacement
(velocity = rate of change of displacement). [1]
time

distance
time

600
600
so t =
[1];
340
t

Speed =

t = 1.76 s 1.8 s [1]

distance
time

distance = 0.24 m, time = 4 60 = 240 s


v=

0.24
[1]
240
(1.0 103 m s1 or 1 mm s1) [1]

v = 0.001 m s1

Gradient = velocity [1]

From the start to 3.2 s: The object travels at a constant velocity. [1]
From 3.2 s to 7.0 s:

Velocity at 2.0 s = gradient of line at 2.0 s.


v=

s 8.5
=
t 3.2

Distance = 3200 m, time = 15 60 = 900 s

9400
[1]; average speed = 1.84 m s1 1.8 m s1 [1]
5100

Velocity at 4.0 s = gradient of line at 4.0 s


Velocity =

3200
[1]; average speed = 3.56 m s1 3.6 m s1 [1]
900

Distance = 3200 + 6200 = 9400 m, time = (15 + 30 + 40) 60 = 5100 s


Average speed =

v = 2.66 m s1 2.7 m s1 [1]

[1];

Average speed =
b

The object is stationary. [1]

7.0
[1];
5.0

velocity = 1.4 m s1 [1]

Velocity at 8.0 s = gradient of line at 8.0 s


Velocity =

7.0
[1]
15.0 5.0

Velocity = 0.7 m s1 [1] (negative slope, hence the negative sign)

1 Kinematics describing motion

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9 a Distance = circumference of circle


Distance = 2r = 2 0.70 4.40 m [1]
Speed =
b

4.40
7.1 m s1 [1]
0.62

The displacement is the direct distance from point A.


Displacement = 2 radius = 140 cm (1.4 m) [1]

ii

The conker is back where it started, hence the displacement is 0 m. [1]

10 a The trolley is accelerating. [1]


The gradient of the graph (which is velocity) increases with time. [1]
b

Correct plotting of graph. [1]


A smooth curve through all the data points. [1]

At 0.2 s:

velocity, u = 0.30 m s1

(within 0.05 m s1) [1]

At 0.5 s:

velocity, v = 0.75 m s1

(within 0.07 m s1) [1]

a=

vu
0.75 0.30
=
t
0.3

(time taken = 0.5 0.2 = 0.3 s) [1]

a = 1.5 m s2 [1]

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1 Kinematics describing motion

Marking scheme
End-of-chapter test
1

distance
[1]
time

Speed =

Speed is a scalar quantity. [1]

The magnitude of the velocity at X and Y is the same. [1]

ii

The direction of the velocity at Y is opposite to that at X. [1]

Speed =

distance
time

v=

100
[1];
9.82

From the start up to 4.0 s:

It travels at a constant velocity. [1]

Between 4.0 s and 8.0 s:

It is stationary. [1]

Between 8.0 s and 12.0 s:

It is travelling at a constant velocity,


but returning (negative velocity). [1]

so

v = 10.2 m s1 [1]

Velocity = gradient

velocity =

10.0
[1]
4.0

velocity = 2.5 m s1 [1]


ii

Since the object returns to its starting point, its displacement is zero. [1]
average velocity =

0
= 0 m s1 [1]
12

Total distance = 70 km, total time = 3.5 hours (12 600 s) [1]
average speed =

70 000
[1]
12 600

average speed 5.6 m s1 [1]


b

Displacement, s, is the direct distance between A and C.


s2 = 302 + 402 = 2500 [1]

C
40 km

s = 2500 = 50 km [1]
30 km

displacement

1 Kinematics describing motion

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