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OCR (A) specifications: 5.1.

4h,i,j,k,l,m,n

Chapter 6
Work, energy and power
Worksheet
Worked examples
Practical: Gravitational potential energy to
kinetic energy transformation
End-of-chapter test
Marking scheme: Worksheet
Marking scheme: End-of-chapter test

Worksheet
acceleration of free fall g = 9.81 m s2

Intermediate level
1
2
3
4
5

Define work done by a force.

[1]

A force of 80 N moves an object through a distance of 7.0 m in the direction of


the force. Calculate the energy transferred by the force.

[2]

Calculate the work done by a person of mass 72 kg in climbing a ladder


5.0 m high.

[2]

A car of mass 900 kg is travelling at a speed of 18 m s . Calculate its kinetic


energy when travelling at this speed.
Which of the following has greater kinetic energy?

[2]

A 10 g meteor hurtling through the Earths atmosphere at 5.0 km s1.


A 65 kg jogger running at 5.0 m s1.

[3]

A water pump lifts 9.0 kg of water through a vertical height of 3.5 m in


1.0 minute. Calculate:
a

the gain in gravitational potential energy of the water;

[2]

the power of the pump.

[2]

Higher level
7

A ball of mass 800 g is dropped from a height of 5.0 m and rebounds to a height
of 3.8 m. The air resistance is negligible. Calculate:
a

the kinetic energy of the ball just before impact;

[2]

the initial rebound speed of the ball;

[3]

the energy transferred to the ground during the impact.

[1]

The diagram shows a child on a swing.


The mass of the child is 35 kg. The child is raised to point A
and then released. She swings downwards through the
equilibrium position B.
a

Calculate the loss in gravitational potential energy


of the child between A and B.

rope

[2]

Assuming that air resistance is negligible, calculate


the speed of the child as she passes through the
equilibrium position B.
[2]

The rope stays taut throughout. Explain why the


work done by the tension in the rope is zero.

35 kg

[1]

1.5 m

B
0.80 m

Extension
9

A bullet of mass 30 g and travelling at a speed of 200 m s1 embeds itself in a


wooden block. The bullet penetrates a distance of 12 cm into the wood. Using
the concepts of work done by a force and kinetic energy, determine the average
resistive force acting on the bullet.

6 Work, energy and power

[3]

Cambridge University Press 2005

53

10 The diagram shows a 50 kg crate being dragged by a cable up a ramp that makes
an angle of 24 with the horizontal.

cable
ramp
350 N
30
crate
24

The crate moves up the ramp at a constant speed and travels a total distance of 20 m
up the ramp. Determine the magnitude of the friction between the crate
and the surface of the ramp.
[6]
Total: Score:
34

54

Cambridge University Press 2005

6 Work, energy and power

Worked examples
Example 1
In a competition, a weightlifter can raise a log of weight 980 N to a height of 2.0 m in
1.5 s. Calculate the rate of work done against gravity.
work done, W = Fx
P=

W Fx
=
t
t

P=

980 2.0
= 1307 1.3 103 J s1
1.5

The rate at which work is done is the same as power.

(1.3 kW)

Example 2
In a fairground ride, a 300 kg carriage runs downhill through a vertical distance of 48 m.
The final kinetic energy of the carriage is 40% of its initial gravitational potential
energy. Determine the final speed v of the carriage.
carriage

48 m

loss in gravitational potential energy, Ep = mgh


Ep = 300 9.81 48 = 1.41 105 J
The final kinetic energy, Ek = 0.40 1.41 105 = 5.65 104 J
Therefore:

The final kinetic energy of


the carriage is 40% of the
initial potential energy.

1 2
mv = 5.65 104
2
v=

2 5.65 104
= 19.4 19 m s1
300

Tip
The actual mass of the carriage is not needed. You can do the question as follows:
Ek = 0.40 Ep
1 2
mv = 0.40mgh
2

(The mass cancels in this equation.)

v = 0.40 (2gh) = 0.40 2 9.81 48 = 19.4 19 m s1


6 Work, energy and power

Cambridge University Press 2005

55

Practical
Gravitational potential energy to kinetic energy
transformation
Safety
There are not likely to be any major hazards in carrying out this experiment. However,
teachers and technicians should always refer to the departmental risk assessment before
carrying out any practical work.

Apparatus
1 m ramp
clamp stand
light gate

digital timer
trolley with a 10 cm card
metre rule

Introduction
In this experiment, you will investigate the transfer of gravitational potential energy to
kinetic energy for a trolley rolling down a ramp.

Procedure
The transfer of gravitational potential energy to kinetic energy is discussed in detail on
pages 62 and 63 of Physics 1.

ramp
light gate

to digital
timer

trolley

1
2
3

Measure the mass m of the trolley.


Place the trolley at the top of the ramp. Adjust the angle of the slope so that the
trolley drops a vertical height of 5.0 cm from the point of release to the light gate.
Release the trolley and record the time t taken by the 10 cm card to pass through
the light gate. The speed v of the trolley at the bottom of the ramp is given by:
v=

0.10
m s1
t

Determine the loss of gravitational potential energy Ep of the trolley and its final
1
kinetic energy Ek at the bottom of the ramp. (Reminder: Ep = mgh and Ek = 2 mv 2.)

Repeat the experiment for different heights h and record your results in a table.

h (m)

t (s)

v (ms1)

Ep (J)

Ek (J)

Plot a graph of Ek against Ep. Draw a straight line of best fit. Determine the
gradient of the line. What does the gradient represent? Explain why the gradient
is not equal to one?

56

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6 Work, energy and power

End-of-chapter test
Answer all questions.
acceleration of free fall g = 9.81 m s2

Define power and state its unit.

Write a word equation for the kinetic energy of a moving object.

[2]
[1]

A car of mass 1100 kg starting from rest reaches a speed of 18 m s in 25 s.


Calculate the average power developed by the engine of the car.

[4]

Define the joule.

[1]

A 20 kg box is lifted from the floor to a shelf 2.1 m above the floor.
i

Calculate the work done against the weight of the box.

[2]

ii

The box accidentally falls off the shelf. Assuming that air resistance is
negligible, calculate the speed of the box just before it hits the ground.

[3]

The diagram shows a 60 kg skateboarder travelling at a speed of 8.0 m s about to


climb a ramp.
ramp
skateboarder

60 kg

8.0 m s1

Calculate the kinetic energy of the skateboarder at the bottom of the ramp.

[2]

Determine the maximum vertical height attained by the skateboarder


assuming that 30% of the initial kinetic energy is lost as heat due to
friction along the ramp.

[3]

Total: Score:
18

6 Work, energy and power

Cambridge University Press 2005

57

Marking scheme
Worksheet
1
2

Work done = force distance moved in the direction of the force [1]
Energy transferred = work done by the force
energy transferred = Fx = 80 7.0 [1];

energy transferred = 560 J [1]

Work done, W = gain in gravitational potential energy


gain in gravitational potential energy = mgh
work done = 72 9.81 5.0 [1];

Ek =

1 2
mv
2

Ek =

1
900 182 [1];
2

Meteor: E k =
Jogger: E k =

work done = 3.5 103 J [1]

Ek = 1.46 105 J 1.5 105 J [1]

1
1
mv 2 = 0.010 50002 1.3 106 J [1]
2
2

1
1
mv 2 = 65 5.02 810 J [1]
2
2

The meteor has greater kinetic energy than the jogger. [1]

Ep = mgh
Ep = 9.0 9.81 3.5 [1]; Ep = 309 310 J [1]

P=

W
t

P=

309
[1];
60

P 5.2 W [1]

Final kinetic energy = loss of gravitational potential energy


Hence:
final kinetic energy = mgh = 0.800 9.81 5.0 [1]
final kinetic energy = 39.2 J 39 J [1]

Final gravitational energy after bounce = 0.800 9.81 3.8 = 29.8 J [1]
Ek = 29.8 J
1
0.800 v 2 = 29.8 [1]
2
v=

2 29.8
8.6 m s1 [1]
0.800

Energy transfer to ground = 39.2 29.8 = 9.4 J [1]

Ep = mgh
Ep = 35 9.81 (1.5 0.80) [1]
Ep 240 J [1]

1 2
mv = mgh
2
v2 = 2gh = 2 9.81 (1.5 0.80) [1]
v 3.7 m s1 [1]

c
58

There is no distance moved in the direction of the tension in the rope. Hence,
no work is done by the tension. [1]

Cambridge University Press 2005

6 Work, energy and power

9 Work done by resistive force = initial kinetic energy of bullet [1]


F 0.12 =
F=

1
0.030 2002 [1]
2

0.030 2002
5.0 104 N (50 kN) [1]
2 0.12

10
20 m
20 sin 24
24

Work done by tension in the rope = F cos x


= 350 cos 30 20 [1]
= 6.06 103 J [1]
Gain in gravitational potential energy = mgh
= 50 9.81 20 sin 24 [1]
= 3.99 103 J [1]
Work done against friction = 6.06 103 3.99 103 = 2.07 103 J [1]
Since work done is given by:
work done = force distance
we have:
friction =

2.07 103
= 104 N 100 N [1]
20

6 Work, energy and power

Cambridge University Press 2005

59

Marking scheme
End-of-chapter test
1

Power is work done per unit time. [1] The unit of power is the watt, W. [1]

Kinetic energy =

Ek =

1
mv 2
2

Ek =

1
1100 182 [1];
2

P=

1
mass speed2 [1]
2

Ek = 1.78 105 J 1.8 105 J [1]

W 1.78 105
=
[1]
t
25

P 7100 W (7.1 kW) [1]

The joule is the work done (or the energy transferred) when a force of 1 N
moves a distance of 1 m in the direction of the force. [1]

W = Fx, F = weight = mg = 20 9.81 196 N [1]


W = 196 2.1 = 412 J 410 J [1]
(The work done = gain in gravitational potential energy.)

ii

Ek = 412 J [1]
1
20 v2 = 412 [1];
2

Ek =

1 2
mv
2

Ek =

1
60 8.02 [1];
2

v 6.4 m s1 [1]

Ek = 1.92 103 J 1.9 103 J [1]

Ep = 0.7Ek = 0.7 1.92 103, Ep = 1.34 103 J [1]


mgh = 1.34 103 J;

60 9.81 h = 1.34 103 [1]

h 2.3 m [1]

60

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6 Work, energy and power