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5a,b,c,d,e,f,g

Chapter 8

Deforming solids

Worksheet

Worked examples

Practical 1: Determining the breaking stress

and Young modulus for copper

Practical 2: Forceextension graphs for

two polymers rubber and polythene

End-of-chapter test

Marking scheme: Worksheet

Marking scheme: End-of-chapter test

Worksheet

acceleration of free fall g = 9.81 m s2

Intermediate level

1

2

A spring has a natural length of 2.5 cm. A force of 4.0 N extends the spring to a

length of 6.2 cm.

a

[1]

[1]

1

Calculate the extension of the spring when a tensile force of 6.0 N is applied.

You may assume that the spring has not exceeded its elastic limit.

[2]

graphs for two wires made from

different materials A and B.

[3]

Stress

breaks

breaks

cross-sectional area. Explain which of

the materials is:

brittle;

[1]

stiffer;

[1]

stronger.

[1]

A

0

Strain

Force (N)

30

20

10

0

0

2.0

4.0

6.0

Extension (cm)

Use the graph to determine the spring (force) constant k of the spring.

[2]

Calculate the energy stored in the spring when its extension is 5.0 cm.

[3]

Higher level

5

the stress in the cable.

8 Deforming solids

[3]

71

and supporting a weight of 8.0 N.

The force constants of the springs are shown on the diagram.

a

[2]

combination.

[2]

k = 20 Nm1

k = 60 N m1

springs in series is the sum of the spring (force) constants

of the individual springs. Is the student correct?

[1]

fixed firmly to the ceiling at one end. When an object of mass

6.8 kg is hung from the free end, the wire extends by 2.8 mm.

Calculate:

a

[3]

[4]

of the trolley is attached to a spring of spring (force) constant

50 N m1. The trolley is pushed against a fixed support so

that the compression of the spring is 8.0 cm. The trolley is

then released.

8.0 N

[3]

[3]

Calculate the final speed of the trolley along the frictionless air track.

You may assume that there is 100% transfer of energy from the spring

to the trolley.

[2]

Extension

9

Force

0

0

Extension

The gradient of the graph is equal to the spring (force) constant k of the wire.

Show that the spring (force) constant k is given by:

EA

l

where E is the Young modulus of the material of the wire, A is the

cross-sectional area of the wire and l is the natural length of the wire.

k=

Explain how the gradient of the forceextension graph would change for a wire

of the same material but:

i

[1]

ii

[1]

Total: Score:

44

72

[4]

8 Deforming solids

Worked examples

Example 1

A spring of natural length 250 mm is hung vertically. Its length increases to 350 mm

when a weight of 12.0 N is attached to the other end. Calculate the spring (force)

constant of the spring.

What is the work done on the spring when its length is increased from 350 mm

to 400 mm? (You may assume that the elastic limit of the spring has not been exceeded.)

F = kx

k=

F

12.0

=

x (350 250) 103

change in the length of the spring. It also

needs to be in metres.

k = 120 N m1

work done = change in the stored energy in the spring

energy stored in the spring =

work done =

1 2

kx

2

2

Example 2

A metal wire of diameter 1.00 mm has a natural length of 2.10 m. A tensile force of

50.0 N extends the wire by 6.20 mm. Calculate the Young modulus of the material of the

wire. (You may assume that the wire has not exceeded its elastic limit.)

What value for the Young modulus would you get if a wire made of the same material

but twice as long was used?

stress =

F

50.0

=

= 6.37 107 Pa

A (0.50 103)2

x 6.20 103

strain = =

= 2.95 103

L

2.10

Young modulus, E =

E=

stress

strain

diameter

2

6.37 107

= 2.16 1010 Pa

2.95 103

A wire of twice the length will still have the same value for the Young modulus because

the Young modulus depends on the material and not on the dimensions of the wire.

8 Deforming solids

73

Practical 1

Determining the breaking stress and Young modulus

for copper

Safety

Wear eye protection throughout the course of the experiment. Teachers and technicians

should follow their school and departmental safety policies and should ensure that the

employers risk assessment has been carried out before undertaking any practical work.

Apparatus

G clamp

adhesive tape

bench pulley

metre rule

32 swg bare copper wire

micrometer screw gauge

eye protection

sand tray (to protect the floor from falling weights)

Introduction

In this experiment you will determine the value for the Young modulus and the

breaking stress (known as the ultimate tensile stress, or UTS) for copper.

Procedure

Details on the Young modulus of materials are given on page 77 of Physics 1. The

arrangement below may be used to determine the Young modulus and breaking stress

for copper.

copper wire

Important concepts

G clamp

marker

metre rule

wooden blocks

pulley

stress =

tensile force

cross-sectional area

strain =

extension

original length

table

masses

You will need a long length of copper wire in this experiment. It is recommended

that you use a length of about 2.5 m.

Set up the apparatus as shown in the diagram above. For further details, see page

76 of Physics 1. The marker should be about 30 cm away from the pulley.

Increase the tensile force on the copper wire in equal increments. For each tensile

force, measure the length l of the wire between the wooden blocks and the marker

and the diameter d of the wire. (The wire gets thinner as it gets longer.)

74

8 Deforming solids

For each value of tensile force F, calculate the extension x of the wire, the crosssectional area A, the tensile stress and the tensile strain.

5

6

Record the results in a table.

F (N)

7

8

9

l (m)

x (m)

d (m)

A (m2)

Tensile strain

Determine the gradient of the linear region of the graph. The gradient is equal to

the Young modulus of copper.

What is the breaking stress (UTS) of copper? How does your value compare with the

accepted value of 150 MPa?

8 Deforming solids

75

Practical 2

Forceextension graphs for two polymers rubber

and polythene

Safety

Wear eye protection when doing the experiment with the rubber band. Teachers and

technicians should follow their school and departmental safety policies and should

ensure that the employers risk assessment has been carried out before undertaking any

practical work.

Aparatus

rubber band

hanger and 100 g slotted masses

clamp stand

metre rule

strip of polythene 1 cm by 20 cm

cardboard

adhesive tape

two wooden blocks

eye protection

Introduction

In this experiment, you will determine the forceextension graphs for rubber and

polythene samples.

Procedure

The behaviour of polymers is easy to investigate because they are easier to strain.

Further details on polymers may be found on page 79 of Physics 1.

Force

rubber

rubber band

rule

load

loop

masses

unload

0

0

Extension

l h

Rubber

1

2

Attach masses in increments of 100 g and determine the extension of the rubber

band for tensile forces up to 12 N. Take care when adding weights; do not allow the

tension in the rubber to decrease.

Remove the masses one at a time and determine the extension of the rubber band

as the tensile force is reduced.

4

5

6

76

Plot a graph of tensile force against extension for both loading and unloading.

Is rubber an elastic material? Does the rubber band obey Hookes law? What is the

significance of the area of the loop between the loading and unloading sections of

the graph?

8 Deforming solids

Polythene

wooden blocks.

rubber band

extension of the strip.

3

4

5

6

7

clamp

wooden blocks

polythene strip

rule

strip continues to extend even though the force applied

remains constant). Wait until the creep stops before

masses

determining the extension.

cardboard

Plot a graph of tensile force against

extension.

Is the polythene an elastic

material? Does the polythene

strip obey Hookes law?

8 Deforming solids

masses

polythene

punched

hole

cardboard

and adhesive

tape

77

End-of-chapter test

Answer all questions.

a

stress;

[1]

strain;

[1]

[2]

for a spring.

a

b

c

Force

represents.

[1]

represents.

[1]

80 N m1. The energy stored in the spring is

used to propel a dart of mass 40 g. The spring

is compressed by 6.0 cm and then released.

0

0

Extension

[3]

ii

Calculate the speed of the dart, assuming 50% of the energy stored by

the spring is transferred as kinetic energy of the dart.

[2]

The diagram below shows the stressstrain graph for a metal wire.

Stress (GPa)

1.6

1.4

breaks

1.2

elastic limit

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0

2.0

4.0

6.0

8.0

10.0

12.0

Strain (103)

The wire has a diameter of 0.84 mm and a natural length of 3.5 m. Use the graph

to determine:

a

[3]

[2]

the breaking force, assuming that the cross-sectional area of the wire

remains constant.

[3]

Total: Score:

19

78

8 Deforming solids

Marking scheme

Worksheet

1

The extension is directly proportional to the applied force, as long as the elastic

limit is not exceeded. [1]

F = kx

F

[1]

x

k=

4.0

[1];

3.7 102

x=

F 6.0

=

[1];

k 108

B is much stiffer than A because the gradient of the graph at the start

is larger. [1]

B is stronger because it requires a larger force (for the same cross-sectional area)

to break. B has a larger breaking stress than A. [1]

k=

k=

30

[1];

0.06

x 5.6 102 m (5.6 cm) [1]

k = 500 N m1 [1]

E=

1

1

Fx = kx2 [1]

2

2

E=

1

500 0.052 [1];

2

Stress =

F

[1]

A

stress =

150

[1]

(0.60 103)2

E 0.63 J [1]

Spring X

x=

F 8.0

=

= 0.40 m [1]

k 20

Spring Y

x=

F 8.0

=

= 0.133 m 0.13 m [1] (The force F is the same.)

k 60

k=

F

8.0

=

[1]

x (0.40 + 0.133)

1

k = 15 N m [1]

c

Note

The rule for the spring (force) constant k for springs in

series is:

1 1 1

= +

k k1 k 2

In our case, we have:

1 1

1 60 + 20

=

+

=

k 20 60 20 60

k=

8 Deforming solids

20 60

= 15 N m1

20 + 60

79

Stress =

F

[1]

A

stress =

6.8 9.81

[1]

(0.34 103)2

b

Strain =

x 2.8 103

=

[1]

L

1.5

Young modulus =

stress

strain

1.84 108

[1]

1.87 103

E=

F

4.0

=

[1]

m 0.180

a=

a = 22.2 m s2 22 m s2 [1]

b

E=

1

1

Fx = kx2 [1]

2

2

E=

1

50 0.082 [1]

2

E = 0.16 J [1]

c

1

mv 2 = 0.16 [1]

2

v=

k=

2 0.16

1.3 m s1 [1]

0.180

F

[1]

x

F = stress A

k=

x = strain L [1]

and

stress A

stress

A

=

[1]

strain L

strain

L

Young modulus, E =

stress

[1]

strain

Therefore:

80

k=

EA

L

ii

1

. [1]

L

8 Deforming solids

Marking scheme

End-of-chapter test

1

Stress =

force

[1]

cross-sectional area

Strain =

extension

[1]

original length

Young modulus =

stress

[1]

strain

as long as the material does not extend beyond its elastic limit. [1]

The area under the forceextension graph is work done or energy stored by the

spring. [1]

E=

1

1

Fx = kx 2 [1]

2

2

E=

1

80 0.062 [1]

2

ii

1

mv 2 = 0.144 0.50 [1]

2

v=

E=

2 0.144 0.50

1.9 m s1 [1]

0.04

1.2 109

[1];

8.0 103

Strain =

x

L

c

Breaking stress =

breaking force

[1]

cross-sectional area

breaking force 830 N [1]

8 Deforming solids

81

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