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OCR (A) specifications: 5.1.

5a,b,c,d,e,f,g

Chapter 8
Deforming solids
Worksheet
Worked examples
Practical 1: Determining the breaking stress
and Young modulus for copper
Practical 2: Forceextension graphs for
two polymers rubber and polythene
End-of-chapter test
Marking scheme: Worksheet
Marking scheme: End-of-chapter test

Worksheet
acceleration of free fall g = 9.81 m s2

Intermediate level
1
2

Springs and wires obey Hookes law. State Hookes law.


A spring has a natural length of 2.5 cm. A force of 4.0 N extends the spring to a
length of 6.2 cm.
a

[1]

What is the extension of the spring?

[1]
1

Determine the spring (force) constant for the spring in N m .

Calculate the extension of the spring when a tensile force of 6.0 N is applied.
You may assume that the spring has not exceeded its elastic limit.
[2]

The diagram shows the stressstrain


graphs for two wires made from
different materials A and B.

[3]

Stress
breaks
breaks

The wires have the same length and


cross-sectional area. Explain which of
the materials is:

brittle;

[1]

stiffer;

[1]

stronger.

[1]

A
0
Strain

A forceextension graph is shown for a spring.


Force (N)
30

20

10

0
0

2.0

4.0

6.0
Extension (cm)

Use the graph to determine the spring (force) constant k of the spring.

[2]

Calculate the energy stored in the spring when its extension is 5.0 cm.

[3]

Higher level
5

A length of cable of diameter 1.2 mm is under a tension of 150 N. Calculate


the stress in the cable.

8 Deforming solids

[3]

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The diagram shows two springs X and Y connected in series


and supporting a weight of 8.0 N.
The force constants of the springs are shown on the diagram.
a

Calculate the extension of each spring.

[2]

Determine the spring (force) constant for the


combination.

[2]

k = 20 Nm1

k = 60 N m1

According to a student, the spring (force) constant for the


springs in series is the sum of the spring (force) constants
of the individual springs. Is the student correct?
[1]

A metal wire of diameter 0.68 mm and natural length 1.5 m is


fixed firmly to the ceiling at one end. When an object of mass
6.8 kg is hung from the free end, the wire extends by 2.8 mm.
Calculate:
a

the stress in the wire;

[3]

the Young modulus of the material of the wire.

[4]

A 180 g trolley is placed on a frictionless air track. One end


of the trolley is attached to a spring of spring (force) constant
50 N m1. The trolley is pushed against a fixed support so
that the compression of the spring is 8.0 cm. The trolley is
then released.

8.0 N

What is the initial acceleration of the trolley when it is released?

[3]

What is the initial energy stored in the spring?

[3]

Calculate the final speed of the trolley along the frictionless air track.
You may assume that there is 100% transfer of energy from the spring
to the trolley.

[2]

Extension
9

The forceextension graph for a length of metal wire is shown below.


Force

0
0

Extension

The gradient of the graph is equal to the spring (force) constant k of the wire.
Show that the spring (force) constant k is given by:
EA
l
where E is the Young modulus of the material of the wire, A is the
cross-sectional area of the wire and l is the natural length of the wire.
k=

Explain how the gradient of the forceextension graph would change for a wire
of the same material but:
i

twice the length;

[1]

ii

twice the radius.

[1]
Total: Score:
44

72

[4]

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8 Deforming solids

Worked examples
Example 1
A spring of natural length 250 mm is hung vertically. Its length increases to 350 mm
when a weight of 12.0 N is attached to the other end. Calculate the spring (force)
constant of the spring.
What is the work done on the spring when its length is increased from 350 mm
to 400 mm? (You may assume that the elastic limit of the spring has not been exceeded.)

The spring obeys Hookes law, therefore:


F = kx
k=

F
12.0
=
x (350 250) 103

Do not forget that the extension x is the


change in the length of the spring. It also
needs to be in metres.

k = 120 N m1
work done = change in the stored energy in the spring
energy stored in the spring =

work done =

1 2
kx
2

(21 120 0.150 ) (21 120 0.100 )


2

work done = 0.75 J

Example 2
A metal wire of diameter 1.00 mm has a natural length of 2.10 m. A tensile force of
50.0 N extends the wire by 6.20 mm. Calculate the Young modulus of the material of the
wire. (You may assume that the wire has not exceeded its elastic limit.)
What value for the Young modulus would you get if a wire made of the same material
but twice as long was used?

stress =

F
50.0
=
= 6.37 107 Pa
A (0.50 103)2

x 6.20 103
strain = =
= 2.95 103
L
2.10
Young modulus, E =

E=

stress
strain

Remember that radius =

diameter
2

Strain has no unit.

6.37 107
= 2.16 1010 Pa
2.95 103

A wire of twice the length will still have the same value for the Young modulus because
the Young modulus depends on the material and not on the dimensions of the wire.

8 Deforming solids

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73

Practical 1
Determining the breaking stress and Young modulus
for copper
Safety
Wear eye protection throughout the course of the experiment. Teachers and technicians
should follow their school and departmental safety policies and should ensure that the
employers risk assessment has been carried out before undertaking any practical work.

Apparatus

two small wooden blocks


G clamp
adhesive tape
bench pulley
metre rule

100 g masses and hanger


32 swg bare copper wire
micrometer screw gauge
eye protection
sand tray (to protect the floor from falling weights)

Introduction
In this experiment you will determine the value for the Young modulus and the
breaking stress (known as the ultimate tensile stress, or UTS) for copper.

Procedure
Details on the Young modulus of materials are given on page 77 of Physics 1. The
arrangement below may be used to determine the Young modulus and breaking stress
for copper.
copper wire

Important concepts

G clamp

marker

metre rule

wooden blocks

pulley

extension = length of wire original length


stress =

tensile force
cross-sectional area

strain =

extension
original length

table

masses

sand tray on floor

You will need a long length of copper wire in this experiment. It is recommended
that you use a length of about 2.5 m.

Set up the apparatus as shown in the diagram above. For further details, see page
76 of Physics 1. The marker should be about 30 cm away from the pulley.

Increase the tensile force on the copper wire in equal increments. For each tensile
force, measure the length l of the wire between the wooden blocks and the marker
and the diameter d of the wire. (The wire gets thinner as it gets longer.)

74

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8 Deforming solids

For each value of tensile force F, calculate the extension x of the wire, the crosssectional area A, the tensile stress and the tensile strain.

5
6

Keep increasing the tensile force until the wire breaks.


Record the results in a table.

F (N)

7
8
9

l (m)

x (m)

d (m)

A (m2)

Tensile stress (Pa)

Tensile strain

Plot a graph of tensile stress (y axis) against tensile strain (x axis).


Determine the gradient of the linear region of the graph. The gradient is equal to
the Young modulus of copper.
What is the breaking stress (UTS) of copper? How does your value compare with the
accepted value of 150 MPa?

8 Deforming solids

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75

Practical 2
Forceextension graphs for two polymers rubber
and polythene
Safety
Wear eye protection when doing the experiment with the rubber band. Teachers and
technicians should follow their school and departmental safety policies and should
ensure that the employers risk assessment has been carried out before undertaking any
practical work.

Aparatus

rubber band
hanger and 100 g slotted masses
clamp stand
metre rule
strip of polythene 1 cm by 20 cm

cardboard
adhesive tape
two wooden blocks
eye protection

Introduction
In this experiment, you will determine the forceextension graphs for rubber and
polythene samples.

Procedure
The behaviour of polymers is easy to investigate because they are easier to strain.
Further details on polymers may be found on page 79 of Physics 1.

Force

rubber

rubber band
rule

load

loop

masses
unload
0
0

Extension

l h

Rubber

1
2

Hang the rubber band from the clamp.


Attach masses in increments of 100 g and determine the extension of the rubber
band for tensile forces up to 12 N. Take care when adding weights; do not allow the
tension in the rubber to decrease.

Remove the masses one at a time and determine the extension of the rubber band
as the tensile force is reduced.

4
5
6

Record your results in a table.

76

Plot a graph of tensile force against extension for both loading and unloading.
Is rubber an elastic material? Does the rubber band obey Hookes law? What is the
significance of the area of the loop between the loading and unloading sections of
the graph?

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8 Deforming solids

Polythene

Grip one end of the polythene strip tightly between two


wooden blocks.

Add masses in increments of 100 g and determine the


rubber band
extension of the strip.

3
4

5
6
7

clamp

wooden blocks

polythene strip

Keep loading until the strip breaks.

rule

At some stage, the polythene strip shows creep (the


strip continues to extend even though the force applied
remains constant). Wait until the creep stops before
masses
determining the extension.

cardboard

Record your results in a table.


Plot a graph of tensile force against
extension.
Is the polythene an elastic
material? Does the polythene
strip obey Hookes law?

8 Deforming solids

masses
polythene
punched
hole

cardboard
and adhesive
tape

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77

End-of-chapter test
Answer all questions.

Define the following terms:


a

stress;

[1]

strain;

[1]

Young modulus of a material.

[2]

The diagram shows the forceextension graph


for a spring.
a
b
c

Force

State what the gradient of the graph


represents.

[1]

State what the area under the graph


represents.

[1]

The spring has a spring (force) constant of


80 N m1. The energy stored in the spring is
used to propel a dart of mass 40 g. The spring
is compressed by 6.0 cm and then released.

0
0

Extension

How much energy is stored in the spring when it is compressed by 6.0cm?

[3]

ii

Calculate the speed of the dart, assuming 50% of the energy stored by
the spring is transferred as kinetic energy of the dart.

[2]

The diagram below shows the stressstrain graph for a metal wire.

Stress (GPa)
1.6

1.4
breaks
1.2
elastic limit
1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0

2.0

4.0

6.0

8.0

10.0

12.0
Strain (103)

The wire has a diameter of 0.84 mm and a natural length of 3.5 m. Use the graph
to determine:
a

the Young modulus of the wire;

[3]

the extension of the wire when the stress is 0.6 GPa;

[2]

the breaking force, assuming that the cross-sectional area of the wire
remains constant.

[3]

Total: Score:
19
78

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8 Deforming solids

Marking scheme
Worksheet
1

The extension is directly proportional to the applied force, as long as the elastic
limit is not exceeded. [1]

Extension = 6.2 2.5 = 3.7 cm [1]

F = kx

F
[1]
x

k=

4.0
[1];
3.7 102

x=

F 6.0
=
[1];
k 108

A is brittle because the graph shows no plastic deformation. [1]

B is much stiffer than A because the gradient of the graph at the start
is larger. [1]

B is stronger because it requires a larger force (for the same cross-sectional area)
to break. B has a larger breaking stress than A. [1]

k = gradient of the graph


k=

k=

30
[1];
0.06

k = 108 N m1 110 N m1 [1]


x 5.6 102 m (5.6 cm) [1]

k = 500 N m1 [1]

Energy stored = area under the graph (from extension 0 cm to 5 cm)


E=

1
1
Fx = kx2 [1]
2
2

E=

1
500 0.052 [1];
2

Stress =

F
[1]
A

stress =

150
[1]
(0.60 103)2

E 0.63 J [1]

stress = 1.33 108 Pa 1.3 108 Pa [1]

Spring X

x=

F 8.0
=
= 0.40 m [1]
k 20

Spring Y

x=

F 8.0
=
= 0.133 m 0.13 m [1] (The force F is the same.)
k 60

k=

F
8.0
=
[1]
x (0.40 + 0.133)
1

k = 15 N m [1]
c

No, the student is wrong. [1]

Note
The rule for the spring (force) constant k for springs in
series is:
1 1 1
= +
k k1 k 2
In our case, we have:
1 1
1 60 + 20
=
+
=
k 20 60 20 60
k=

8 Deforming solids

20 60
= 15 N m1
20 + 60

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79

Stress =

F
[1]
A

stress =

6.8 9.81
[1]
(0.34 103)2

stress = 1.84 108 Pa 1.8 108 Pa [1]


b

Strain =

x 2.8 103
=
[1]
L
1.5

strain = 1.87 103 [1]


Young modulus =

stress
strain

1.84 108
[1]
1.87 103

E=

E 9.8 1010 Pa [1]

F = kx = 50 0.08 = 4.0 N [1]


F
4.0
=
[1]
m 0.180

a=

a = 22.2 m s2 22 m s2 [1]
b

E=

1
1
Fx = kx2 [1]
2
2

E=

1
50 0.082 [1]
2

E = 0.16 J [1]
c

1
mv 2 = 0.16 [1]
2
v=

k=

2 0.16
1.3 m s1 [1]
0.180
F
[1]
x

F = stress A
k=

x = strain L [1]

and

stress A
stress
A
=
[1]
strain L
strain
L

Young modulus, E =

stress
[1]
strain

Therefore:

80

k=

EA
L

The gradient of the graph is halved because k

ii

The gradient of the graph is increased by a factor of 4 because k A r 2. [1]

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1
. [1]
L

8 Deforming solids

Marking scheme
End-of-chapter test
1

Stress =

force
[1]
cross-sectional area

Strain =

extension
[1]
original length

Young modulus =

stress
[1]
strain

as long as the material does not extend beyond its elastic limit. [1]

The gradient is equal to the spring (force) constant. [1]

The area under the forceextension graph is work done or energy stored by the
spring. [1]

Energy stored = area under the graph


E=

1
1
Fx = kx 2 [1]
2
2

E=

1
80 0.062 [1]
2

E = 0.144 J 0.14 J [1]


ii

1
mv 2 = 0.144 0.50 [1]
2
v=

E = gradient of the graph [1]


E=

2 0.144 0.50
1.9 m s1 [1]
0.04

1.2 109
[1];
8.0 103

E = 1.5 1011 Pa [1]

From the graph, strain = 4.0 103 [1]


Strain =

x
L

x = 4.0 103 3.5 = 1.4 102 m (1.4 cm) [1]


c

Breaking stress =

breaking force
[1]
cross-sectional area

Breaking force = 1.5 109 [ (0.42 103)2] [1]


breaking force 830 N [1]

8 Deforming solids

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