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US006550302B1

(12) United States Patent

(10) Patent N0.2

Gh0sh

(54)

(45) Date 0f Patent:

SHEET METAL STAMPING DIE DESIGN

4,137,105 A

1/1979 Ness ................... .. 148/115 R

4,145,903 A

3/1979 Leach et al. ................. .. 72/60

Inventor: Amit K_ Ghosh, Ann Arbor, MI (Us)


Assigneez

The
Michigan
Regents
Ann
ofArbor
the University
MI (Us) of

(*)

(21)

Notice:

60

(51)

......

. . . ..

72/61

4,888,973 A

12/1989 Comley

.... .. 72/342

5,515,705 A

5/1996

Weldon
Folmer .et
. . . a1.
. . . . . .............
. . . . . . . . . . . . .... 72/19.1

5,729,462 A

3/1998

Newkirk et al. ..... .. 364/468.25

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS


2692504

* 12/1993

72/3428

JP

62-270225

* 11/1987

~~~~~~~~~~ "I: 72/3427

JP

5-212485

8/1993

.............. .. 72/342.7

JP

6-55230

3/1994

............ .. 72/34292

JP

6-79353

3/1994

72/342.8

SU

1409379

7/1988

.............. .. 72/3427

Jul- 25, 2000

* cited by examiner

P
"
l
l' t'
N. 60145784 ?l d
J l. 27
lgggslona app lea Ion 0
/

e on u

Primary ExaminerEd Tolan

I t C] 7

(74) Attorney, Agent, or FirmBarbara M. Burns

B211) 37/16
.............................................. ..

US. Cl. ............... ..

72/342.8; 72/3427; 72/347

of Search ........................... ..

R f
Ct d
e erences l e
US, PATENT DOCUMENTS
2,455,702 A
2,760,543

(57)

ABSTRACT

In metal Stamping dies,

726428 34292 347 350 364


56
( )

72/69

USC 15 4(1)) by 24 days


Appl. No.: 09/625,426

(52)

CroWe

FR

Related US. Application Data


(

10/1980

4/1986 Leonard

Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this

P116911

4,584,860 A

patent is extended or adjusted under 35

(22)

Apr. 22, 2003

FOR WARM FORMING

4,227,396

(75)

US 6,550,302 B1

advantage of improved

material ?oW by selectively Warming the die, ?at sections of


the die can contribute to the How of material throughout the
workpiece. Local surface heating can be accomplished by
placing a heating block in the die. Distribution of heating at
the ?at loWer train central regions outside of the bend region

12/1948 Rechton et a1 """"""" " 153/21

alloWs a softer ?oW at a loWer stress to enable material ?oW

8/1956

Wood

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . ..

153/21

2,944,500 A

7/1960

Raynes ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

~~~

113/43

into the thinner, higher strain areas at the bend/s. The heating

153/21

block is inserted into the die and is poWered by a poWer

2,966,195 A
3,025,905 A

3,528,276 A
3,926,029 A

12/1960 Roberts et a1_


*

3/1962 Haerr ......... ..

72/34292

9/1970 Schmidt et al.


72/342
12/1975 Abson et a1. ............... .. 72/342

Supply

12 Claims, 18 Drawing Sheets

16

U.S. Patent

Apr. 22, 2003

Sheet 1 0f 18

US 6,550,302 B1

10
14

16

U.S. Patent

Apr. 22, 2003

Sheet 2 0f 18

US 6,550,302 B1

U.S. Patent

Apr. 22, 2003

18

Sheet 3 0f 18

US 6,550,302 B1

U.S. Patent

Apr. 22, 2003

Sheet 4 0f 18

US 6,550,302 B1

24 24 24

22w

24

U.S. Patent

3C.E@E0u2MQE5F 562:.05
*0
9:

Apr. 22, 2003

9:
c
2
*0
o
m
s
b
m
o
u
NF8EB30cm2oQ5E P

Sheet 5 0f 18

US 6,550,302 B1

U.S. Patent

Apr. 22, 2003

Sheet 7 0f 18

US 6,550,302 B1

9%

22Uwmhm
(ww) uldacl 119d

U.S. Patent

EmJQ5.ct9ox0a.5mc

0O

O.
0
0.
1.

O42862
o

_
q
_
_

- > _ . Fn P

Apr. 22, 2003

Sheet 8 0f 18

US 6,550,302 B1

ppmA

wm w

m
=0.
.d

e
+

5C|

A
il

T2

A1A|.
m
M

h1.,

A}:A4-,}:.,

W
n
10
eI P.

O OC

a w r e.

n
lD

mm
s n mmme

u
|

.
3

5i

Am2cIE0uYo:.Qm

Ir

1O

Original

3O

Ldngitudinal

Distance from Part Center, mm

Fl 15%

70

U.S. Patent

Apr. 22, 2003

Sheet 9 0f 18

25

US 6,550,302 B1

Die Temperatur?
350 0C

t.5Ema0
300 C

CFC!

2%

F1

2C

250 LC

200 DC
|

lllllll

150

250

200

400

350

300

Punch TemperatureZC
25

Die Temperature
' 350 DC
20"

t.EoQEmD

300 0C

41 5

- -

I 250 DC

41 O

200 0C

Al 5182+Mn
150

200

250

350

300

400

Punch TemperatureZC

25

20"

Die Temperature
350 QC

t.5Eu2m50

300 C
250 0C
200 0C

Al6lll-T4
150

200

250

300

Punch Temperature

350

400

U.S. Patent

Apr. 22, 2003

Sheet 10 0f 18

US 6,550,302 B1

25

E
E

20 __
-

.c'
9"

..

g 15 _.
O

C
m

n-

10 _.

1 50

200

250

300

Temperature, C

(Pig; 3

J_

350

400

U.S. Patent

Apr. 22, 2003

Sheet 12 0f 18

US 6,550,302 B1

Minor
axis ,

Type 1

Formed Part

U.S. Patent

Apr. 22, 2003

Sheet 13 0f 18

US 6,550,302 B1

Allo 5754
350 C

IH

B.

S.2F5:

a :1 safe

10

Minor Strain, %

12

U.S. Patent

Apr. 22, 2003

Sheet 14 0f 18

US 6,550,302 B1

2O

200

50 1T@m ma

F Forming_ Tom peratplre


350 0C

FO

aIU

Mm5

0_

6..

lr

+Pm.
15

1O

Minor Strain, e2 %

Minor Strain, e2%


200

Al 61 ll-T4
150 -

Forming Temperature

5o -

250 0C

10

Minor Strain, 92%

Pl

15

15

U.S. Patent

Apr. 22, 2003

Sheet 15 0f 18

US 6,550,302 B1

Pl 854
30

Die Temperature

52_MG9.a:_>i.2E5

eQ0FmEozm eom

231

Die Temperature

21

O5 O0

2 0O

250

300

350

200

Punch Temperature,C

300
_250
Punch Temperature,C

350

30
Al 5182+Ml

AI 5182+Ml

Die Temperature 35 I.

Die Temperature

ean.EEozem om

25E9.>26

O
2OO

250

300

Punch Temperature,C

350

200

25O

3 00

Punch Temperature,C

350

U.S. Patent

Apr. 22, 2003

Sheet 16 0f 18

@954

@9113

400 F

30

Al 5754

Al 5754

350':

Die-Punch

25

Temperatures J50 0300 C

E 300--

Die-Punch

E"

Temperatures

.C

..-

3,250?

2
65

US 6,550,302 B1

.5 20

_'>

_50 C -00 C

F
-

a
g 15

1,

E200:
>-

10

250 C~2OO 0C

150':
I

350 oC-3OO 0C

0-

100

"""i""i"i"i"

Blank Holding Pressure, MPa

Hank Homing pressure, MP3

400

30

Al 5182+M|

350;
in

'

A| 5182+M|

Die-Punch Temperatures
250 @0200 QC

25

'5 soot

'

'

*5 20

31250?

350 C-30O HC

$1

<7:

g 15

.U

E 200-:
>-

Die-Punch Temperatures

\"

1O

J30 (x300

100'"'i""i""i*"i'L"iL
1

C_2OO C

5.""!"5""!""!L"%"
1

Blank Holding Pressure, MPa

Biank Holding Pressure, MPa

51996

@919

U.S. Patent

Apr. 22, 2003

Sheet 17 0f 18

US 6,550,302 B1

PC! 1068
m
Lm

mu

m
.1
D

25.EE:E92>5

l3

5.

Die at35OC

,c

c<0.EGo?mcom

4|1|21

m
m

O
23O5-

r].M.
w

u
n
-_
~
_
.
-

I?w
m

w
m

As- formed

+ Baked

200

250

300

350

200

Punch Tem perature,C

250

300

350

Punch Temperature,C

0
_

i .m
0O

C
m
m
.o

.m
m
0. M0

. eO

| 5.|

1_O

2nlr.

1
O

w
m2

n5.E2E9.2% 3456OO

*
u

H
P
O
m
.m
d0. m

:FmQ0GE QBE

33

_
-

3S2

.T
d2D

904|

m
AI
r
D5

_U

A
B
I
e
A
B
. a
S
. k
H
_I m
w
-r m
,

Blank Holding Pressure, MPa

CFQQ 10C

Blank Holding Pressure, MPa

(Fl

IOCD

U.S. Patent

Apr. 22, 2003

Sheet 18 0f 18

US 6,550,302 B1

Table 1 Chemical Compositions (wt. %) of Sheet Alloys


Si

Mg

Cu

Mn

Fe

Al

0.2

3.1

0.04

0.25

balance

5182+Mn

0.07

4,05

0.03

[.26

0.22

balance

6111

0.5-0.9

0.6

balance

5754

Table 2 Room Temperature Tensile Properties Obtained for Different Tempers


Alloy and Temper
Al 5754:

Hot-rolled (ayreceivedl
Cold-rolled (before umnrtorming)
After 200 C forming
After 350 C forming
Al SISZTIPQMn: Hot-rolled (as-received)
Cold-rolled (before arm-forming)
After 200 C forming
After 350 C forming
KFGI l l:
H0trolled (LlSlCCClVCdl
T4
(before arm-forming)
After 200 4C forming
After 350 C forming

Yield Strength. MPa

Elongation. %

(0.2% Off-set]
I01
254
255
I05
217
35l
350
150
160
169
l74

(25.4mm Gauze Length)


29
7
8
27
25
6
9
26
l6
23
l9

148

37

US 6,550,302 B1
1

2
Forming speed (strain rate) effect in addition to tempera

SHEET METAL STAMPING DIE DESIGN


FOR WARM FORMING

ture effect Was observed With cup height increased With

increasing forming temperature and/or decreasing punch


speed for an Al2Mg alloy. Punch stretching alloy 5182-O,

REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION

This application is based on provisional patent application


No. 60/145,784, ?led Jul. 27, 1999.
This invention Was made in part With government support
aWarded by the Department of Energy Contract LMES
86-X-SU544C. The government has certain rights in the

required similar temperature and forming speed. Strains near


the neck of the stretched part Were more uniformly distrib

uted at higher temperatures and sloWer punch speeds, imply


ing increased strain rate sensitivity. By punch stretching the
same alloy at a typical automotive strain rate of 1 sec-1,
10

invention.

make improvements over the room temperature value, or,

the punch speed had to be sloW enough (about 10% of a


typical automotive strain rate) to exhibit improved Warm

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The ?eld of the invention pertains to sheet metal stamping


and in particular to an apparatus and method to facilitate
forming of metal. Material stretches more at a deformation

15

forming performance over that of AKDQ steel at room


temperature. Moreover, plant trials of Warm forming Were

conducted, forming alloy 5182-O at 120 degrees C. in


General Motors proved successful in producing inner door

or corner and becomes thinner thereat.

Aluminum is a brittle material, that is, alumninum is less


ductile than other materials. In the past, a die Was entirely
heated or the sheet of material Was entirely heated to

forming temperature had to exceed about 250 degrees C. to

panels and a V-6 oil pan at commercial press speeds, by


heating both the die and the blank and using a mica lubricant
20

facilitate ?oW during the stamping/molding process. An


individual punch could also be heated.
Heating of certain metals to modest temperatures above

and a MoSi2/graphite release agent. Cooperative investiga


tions betWeen Alcan and Chrysler tested various alloys,
precipitation hardenable bumper alloys 7046-T6 and 7029
T6 to the strain hardenable alloys 5182-H14 and 5083-H14,

Were tested at elevated temperatures using heated blanks but


room temperature can increase their strain to failure, and 25 unheated dies. It Was found that some precipitation hardened

simultaneously increase their strain rate sensitivity. These


characteristics produce favorable conditions for forming

sheet metals, but strain localiZation at elevated temperatures


can be intense due to a loss in their Work hardening capacity

thus minimiZing strain uniformity in the part. Maintaining of

30

spatial variation in temperature on mated die surfaces can


alloW How of softened material from certain sections of the

part to other regions to enhance the overall formability of


sheets. It is hoWever not clear as hoW to provide appropriate

control of differential temperature in different regions of the

35

die or hoW to construct these dies to avoid excessive heat

Formability of Al alloys must be improved under rapid


manufacturing conditions (strain rate ~110 s1). Technical
40

of aluminum alloys in automotive industry, e. g. the shipment


billion pounds in 1987 to 4.04 billion pounds in 1997. This
increase is attributed not only to issues of energy-saving, but
45

ment friendliness. HoWever, structural and body parts that


rely on the formability of sheet metals, aluminum alloys are

Critical QuestionszWarm formability drops With increasing


Forming Rate. Can sufficient formability be achieved at high

applications, despite their higher strength-to-Weight ratio

strain rate? Which alloys and micro structure Will maximiZe


Warm formability and yet not degrade room temperature

and excellent corrosion resistance. The limited use of alu

minum alloys in the automotive industry is partly due to

strength?

their poor formability at room temperature and thus, if Warm


forming at a rapid forming rate can be implemented in

In uniaxial tension, total elongation generally increases


With increasing temperature but decreases With increasing

production, many of the goals related to lightWeighting,


55

Warm forming by deep draWing both rectangular and

Warm forming as described above has been directed to


60

Warming of the blank and/or the entire die and not selective
Warming of certain segments of a die.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

alloys are better than the annealed alloys at room

temperature, suggesting the possibility of draWing high


strength aluminum alloys for structural parts at moderate
elevated temperatures rather than draWing them in the
annealed state and heat-treating after forming.

strain rate. Strain rate sensitivity increases With increasing


temperature. Strain hardening index decreases With increas

ing temperature, indicating a softening effect. HoWever, the

circular cups from annealed and hardened aluminum sheet

alloys has been investigated in the past. Studies shoWed


signi?cant improvement in the draWability (in terms of cup
height) at a relatively moderate temperature of about 150
degrees C. even for the precipitation hardened alloys (like
2024-T4 and 7075-T6). The draWability of these hardened

temperature, Strain Hardening Rate of AlAlloys is improved


someWhat, but not enough. At Modestly Elevated Tempera
tures (200350 C.), the Strain Rate Sensitivity and Forming
Limit of Al alloys are improved signi?cantly. L(derOs Band
and Surface Defects are eliminated by Warm Forming.

ranked far behind loW carbon steels in automotive

energy and environmental friendliness can be realiZed.

Issues: Most Aluminum Alloys have the loWest formability


at or near room temperature. At temperatures beloW room

of aluminum to automotive market increased from 1.6

also to those of safety, resource conservation and environ

potential of existing and neW aluminum alloys.


The need for Fuel Savings and Structural Weight Reduc
tion in vehicles is driving the replacement of Steel by
Aluminum. But formability of Al alloys is half that of steels.
This poses a major economic barrier to its application Goal:

loss, support of internally imbedded heating elements With


out heat equilibrium betWeen different regions and provide
the most desirable extent of metal ?oW.
Recently there has been a remarkable increase in the use

alloys could also be Warm formed successfully to produce


components at 250 degrees C. at a cycling rate (~5 parts/
min.). The optimum forming temperatures Were found to be
200 degrees C. and 250 degrees C. for the precipitation
hardened and the strain hardened alloys, respectively. These
early trials act as an important database for todays advanced
manufacturing and/or further exploration of Warm forming

65

It is therefore an object of this invention to provide


selective heating to a die facilitate Warm forming.
It is also an object of this invention to provide such
selective heating to enable material ?oW into a end region
from a ?at region of a die.