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Salvia officinalis
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the culinary herb known as "sage". For other uses see Sage
Salvia officinalis


Scientific classification















S. officinalis

Binomial name
Salvia officinalis

Salvia officinalis (sage, also called garden sage, or common sage) is a perennial,
evergreen subshrub, with woody stems, grayish leaves, and blue to purplish flowers. It is a
member of the family Lamiaceae and is native to the Mediterranean region, though it has
naturalized in many places throughout the world. It has a long history of medicinal and culinary
use, and in modern times as an ornamental garden plant. The common name "sage" is also used
for a number of related and unrelated species.

1 Names

2 Taxonomy

3 Description

4 History

5 Uses

6 Cultivars

7 See also

8 References

9 Further reading

10 External links

Salvia officinalis has numerous common names. Some of the best-known are sage, common
sage, garden sage, golden sage, kitchen sage, true sage, culinary sage, Dalmatian sage, and
broadleaf sage. Cultivated forms include purple sage and red sage. In Turkey,Salvia officinalis is
widely known as adaay, meaning "island tea". In Palestine it is called maramia. The specific
epithet officinalis refers to plants with a well-established medicinal or culinary value. [1]

Salvia officinalis was described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. It has been grown for centuries in the
Old World for its food and healing properties, and was often described in oldherbals for the many

miraculous properties attributed to it.[2] The specific epithet, officinalis, refers to the plant's
medicinal usethe officina was the traditional storeroom of a monastery where herbs and
medicines were stored.[1][3] S. officinalis has been classified under many other scientific names
over the years, including six different names since 1940 alone. [4]


Sage leaves

Cultivars are quite variable in size, leaf and flower color, and foliage pattern, with many
variegated leaf types. The Old World type grows to approximately 2 ft (0.61 m) tall and wide, with
lavender flowers most common, though they can also be white, pink, or purple. The plant flowers
in late spring or summer. The leaves are oblong, ranging in size up to 2.5 in (6.4 cm) long by 1 in
(2.5 cm) wide. Leaves are grey-green, rugose on the upper side, and nearly white underneath
due to the many short soft hairs. Modern cultivars include leaves with purple, rose, cream, and
yellow in many variegated combinations.[2]


Painting from Koehler's Medicinal Plants (1887)

Salvia officinalis has been used since ancient times for warding off evil, snakebites, increasing
women's fertility, and more. Theophrastus wrote about two different sages, a wild undershrub he
called sphakos, and a similar cultivated plant he called elelisphakos. Pliny the Elder said the
latter plant was called salvia by the Romans, and used as a diuretic, a local anesthetic for the
skin, a styptic, and for other uses.Charlemagne recommended the plant for cultivation in the

early Middle Ages, and during the Carolingian Empire, it was cultivated in monastery gardens.
Walafrid Strabo described it in his poem Hortulus as having a sweet scent and being useful for
many human ailmentshe went back to the Greek root for the name and called it lelifagus.[6]
The plant had a high reputation throughout the Middle Ages, with many sayings referring to its
healing properties and value.[7] It was sometimes called S. salvatrix (sage the savior), and was
one of the ingredients of Four Thieves Vinegar, a blend of herbs which was supposed to ward off
the plague. Dioscorides, Pliny, and Galen all recommended sage as a
diuretic, hemostatic, emmenagogue, andtonic.[6]


Sage (Salvia officinalis) essential oil in a clear glass vial

The top side of a sage leaf -trichomes are visible.

The underside of a sage leaf - more trichomes are visible on this side.

A pot of salvia officinlis

The seeds of sage

Common sage is grown in parts of Europe for distillation of an essential oil, though other species,
such as Salvia fruticosa may also be harvested and distilled with it.
In Britain sage has for generations been listed as one of the essential herbs, along
with parsley,rosemary and thyme (as in the folk song "Scarborough Fair"). It has a savoury,
slightly peppery flavor. It appears in many European cuisines, notably Italian, Balkan and Middle
Eastern cookery. In British and American cooking, it is traditionally served as sage and onion
stuffing, an accompaniment to roast turkey or chicken at Christmas or Thanksgiving Day. Other
dishes include pork casserole,Sage Derby cheese and Lincolnshire sausages. Despite the
common use of traditional and available herbs in French cuisine, sage never found favour there.
In Traditional Tamil Siddha medicine , Sage(Karpooravalli) is used for respiratory ailments like
asthma and alleviating nasal discharge associated with Upper respiratory infections. Sage leaves
are crushed in boiling water and the fumes are inhaled.
In the traditional Austrian medicine Salvia officinalis herb has been used internally (as tea or
directly chewed) for treatment of disorders of the respiratory tract, mouth, gastrointestinal tract,
and skin.[8]

Salvia and "sage" are derived from the Latin salvere (to save), referring to the healing properties
long attributed to the various Salviaspecies.[6] It has been recommended at one time or another
for virtually every ailment by various herbals. Modern evidence shows possible uses as an
antisweating agent, antibiotic, antifungal, astringent, antispasmodic, estrogenic, hypoglycemic,
and tonic.[9] In a double blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial, sage was found to be
effective in the management of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. [10]
The strongest active constituents of sage are within its essential oil, which
contains cineole, borneol, and thujone. Sage leaf containstannic acid, oleic acid, ursonic
acid, ursolic acid, cornsole, cornsolic acid, fumaric acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic
acid, niacin,nicotinamide, flavones, flavonoid glycosides, and estrogenic substances.[9]
Investigations have taken place into using sage as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease patients.
Sage leaf extract may be effective and safe in the treatment of hyperlipidemia.[14]

In favourable conditions in the garden, S. officinalis can grow to a substantial size (1 square
metre or more), but a number of cultivarsare more compact. As such they are valued as small
ornamental flowering shrubs, rather than for their herbal properties. Some provide low ground
cover, especially in sunny dry environments. Like many herbs they can be killed by a cold wet
winter, especially if the soil is not well drained. But they are easily propagated from
summer cuttings, and some cultivars are produced from seeds.
Named cultivars include:

'Alba', a white-flowered cultivar

'Aurea', golden sage

'Berggarten', a cultivar with large leaves, which rarely blooms,

extending the useful life of the leaves

'Extrakta', has leaves with higher oil concentrations

'Icterina', a cultivar with yellow-green variegated leaves

'Lavandulaefolia', a small leaved cultivar

'Purpurascens' ('Purpurea'), a purple-leafed cultivar

'Tricolor', a cultivar with white, yellow and green variegated


'Icterina'[15] and 'Purpurascens'[16] have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden

See also[edit]

Aroma compound

Essential oil

Sage oil



1. ^ Jump up to:a b Harrison, Lorraine (2012). RHS Latin for
gardeners. United Kingdom: Mitchell Beazley.
p. 224. ISBN 9781845337315.
2. ^ Jump up to:a b Clebsch, Betsy; Carol D. Barner (2003). The
New Book of Salvias. Timber Press. p. 216. ISBN 978-088192-560-9.
3. Jump up^ Stearn, William T. (2004). Botanical Latin. Timber
Press (OR). p. 456. ISBN 0-88192-627-2.
4. Jump up^ Sutton, John (2004). The Gardener's Guide to
Growing Salvias. Workman Publishing Company.
p. 17. ISBN 978-0-88192-671-2.
5. Jump up^ Watters, L. L. (1901). An Analytical Investigation of
Garden Sage (Salvia officinalis, Linne). New York: Columbia
6. ^ Jump up to:a b c Kintzios, Spiridon E. (2000). Sage: The
Genus Salvia. CRC Press. pp. 1011. ISBN 978-90-5823-0058.
7. Jump up^ An Anglo-Saxon manuscript read "Why should man
die when he has sage?" Kintzios, p. 10
8. Jump up^ Vogl S, Picker P, Mihaly-Bison J, Fakhrudin N,
Atanasov AG, Heiss EH, Wawrosch C, Reznicek G, Dirsch VM,
Saukel J, Kopp B. Ethnopharmacological in vitro studies on

Austria's folk medicine - An unexplored lore in vitro antiinflammatory activities of 71 Austrian traditional herbal drugs. J
Ethnopharmacol.2013 Jun13. doi:pii: S0378-8741(13)00410-8.
10.1016/j.jep.2013.06.007. [Epub ahead of print]
23770053. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23770053
9. ^ Jump up to:a b "Sage". OBeWise Nutriceutica. Applied Health.
Retrieved 2008-02-04.
10. ^ Jump up to:a b Akhondzadeh S, Noroozian M, Mohammadi M,
Ohadinia S, Jamshidi AH, Khani M. (2003). "Salvia officinalis
extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate
Alzheimer's disease: a double blind, randomized and placebocontrolled trial". J Clin Pharm Ther 28 (1): 53
9. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2710.2003.00463.x. PMID 12605619.
11. Jump up^ Dos, Santos-Neto, Ll; De, Vilhena, Toledo, Ma;
Medeiros-Souza, P; De, Souza, Ga (December 2006). "The
use of herbal medicine in Alzheimer's disease-a systematic
review" (Free full text). Evidence-based complementary and
alternative medicine : eCAM 3 (4): 441
5. doi:10.1093/ecam/nel071.PMC 1697739. PMID 17173107.
12. Jump up^ Perry, Ek; Pickering, At; Wang, Ww; Houghton, P;
Perry, Ns (Winter 1998). "Medicinal plants and Alzheimer's
disease: Integrating ethnobotanical and contemporary scientific
evidence".Journal of alternative and complementary medicine
(New York, N.Y.) 4 (4): 419
28. doi:10.1089/acm.1998.4.419. ISSN 1075-5535. PMID 9884
13. Jump up^ Iuvone, T; De, Filippis, D; Esposito, G; D'Amico, A;
Izzo, Aa (June 2006). "The spice sage and its active ingredient
rosmarinic acid protect PC12 cells from amyloid-beta peptideinduced neurotoxicity" (Free full text). The Journal of

Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 317 (3): 1143

9.doi:10.1124/jpet.105.099317. PMID 16495207.
14. Jump up^ Kianbakht S, Abasi B, Perham M, Hashem
Dabaghian F"Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Salvia officinalis L.
Leaf Extract in Patients with Hyperlipidemia: A Randomized
Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Phytother Res.
2011 Apr 19;
15. Jump up^ "RHS Plant Selector - Salvia officinalis 'Icterina'".
Retrieved 26 July 2013.
16. Jump up^ "RHS Plant Selector - Salvia
officinalis 'Purpurascens'". Retrieved 2 June 2013.

Further reading[edit]

The Herb Society of America New Encyclopedia of Herbs &

Their Uses, Deni Bown (New York: DK, 2001)

External links[edit]

American Botanical Council

USDA Plants Profile

Historical medicinal use: from botanical.com

Salvia officinalis in Plantarium Database - A Photo Guide.

Salvia officinalis Israel native Plants

Wikimedia Commons has

media related to Salvia

Azadirachta indica
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Neem)

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please

help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2011)

Azadirachta indica, flowers &


Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae









A. indica

Binomial name
Azadirachta indica
A.Juss., 1830[1]


azadirachta (L.) Adelb.

Melia azadirachta L.

Melia indica (A.

Juss.) Brandis

Azadirachta indica, also known as Neem,[2] Nimtree,[2] and Indian Lilac[2] is a tree in
the mahogany family Meliaceae. It is one of two species in the genus Azadirachta, and is native
to India and the Indian subcontinent including Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladeshand Sri Lanka.
Typically growing in tropical and semi-tropical regions. Neem trees now also grow in islands in
the southern part ofIran. Its fruits and seeds are the source of neem oil.

1 Description

2 Ecology
2.1 Weed status

3 Uses

3.1 As a vegetable

3.2 Traditional medicinal use

3.3 Safety issues

3.4 Pest and disease control

3.5 Other uses

4 Association with Hindu festivals in India

5 Chemical compounds

6 Genome and Transcriptomes

7 Patent controversy

8 Gallery

9 See also

10 References

11 Further reading

12 External links

Neem is a fast-growing tree that can reach a height of 1520 metres (4966 ft), rarely to 3540
metres (115131 ft). It isevergreen, but in severe drought it may shed most or nearly all of its
leaves. The branches are wide and spreading. The fairly dense crown is roundish and may reach
a diameter of 1520 metres (4966 ft) in old, free-standing specimens. The neem tree is very
similar in appearance to its relative, the Chinaberry (Melia azedarach).
The opposite, pinnate leaves are 2040 centimetres (7.915.7 in) long, with 20 to 31 medium to
dark green leaflets about 38 centimetres (1.23.1 in) long. The terminal leaflet is often missing.
The petioles are short.
The (white and fragrant) flowers are arranged in more-or-less drooping axillary panicles which
are up to 25 centimetres (9.8 in) long. The inflorescences, which branch up to the third degree,
bear from 150 to 250 flowers. An individual flower is 56 millimetres (0.200.24 in) long and 811
millimetres (0.310.43 in) wide. Protandrous, bisexual flowers and male flowers exist on the
same individual tree.
The fruit is a smooth (glabrous) olive-like drupe which varies in shape from elongate oval to
nearly roundish, and when ripe is 1.42.8 centimetres (0.551.10 in) by 1.01.5 centimetres
(0.390.59 in). The fruit skin (exocarp) is thin and the bitter-sweet pulp (mesocarp) is yellowishwhite and very fibrous. The mesocarp is 0.30.5 centimetres (0.120.20 in) thick. The white, hard
inner shell (endocarp) of the fruit encloses one, rarely two or three, elongated seeds (kernels)
having a brown seed coat.

The neem tree is noted for its drought resistance. Normally it thrives in areas with sub-arid to
sub-humid conditions, with an annual rainfall 4001,200 millimetres (1647 in). It can grow in
regions with an annual rainfall below 400 mm, but in such cases it depends largely on ground
water levels. Neem can grow in many different types of soil, but it thrives best on well drained
deep and sandy soils. It is a typical tropical to subtropical tree and exists at annual mean
temperatures between 2132 C (7090 F). It can tolerate high to very high temperatures and
does not tolerate temperature below 4 C (39 F). Neem is one of a very few shade-giving trees
that thrive in drought-prone areas e.g. the dry coastal, southern districts of India and Pakistan.
The trees are not at all delicate about water quality and thrive on the merest trickle of water,

whatever the quality. In India and tropical countries where the Indian diaspora has reached, it is
very common to see neem trees used for shade lining streets, around temples, schools & other
such public buildings or in most people's back yards. In very dry areas the trees are planted on
large tracts of land.

Weed status[edit]
Neem is considered a weed in many areas, including some parts of the Middle East, and most of
Sub-Saharan Africa including West Africa and Indian Ocean states. Ecologically, it survives well
in similar environments to its own, but its weed potential has not been fully assessed. [3]


Neem tree

Neem tree in the Philippines

neem tree leaves in india

Neem leaves are dried in India and placed in cupboards to prevent insects eating the clothes and
also while storing rice in tins.[4] Neem leaves are dried and burnt in the tropical regions to keep
away mosquitoes.[citation needed] These leaves are also used in many Indian festivals like Ugadi. See
below: #Association with Hindu festivals in India. As Ayurveda herb, Neem is also used in baths.

As a vegetable[edit]
The tender shoots and flowers of the neem tree are eaten as a vegetable in India. A souplike
dish called Veppampoo charu (Tamil) (translated as "neem flower rasam") made of the flower of
neem is prepared in Tamil Nadu. In West Bengal, young neem leaves are fried in oil with tiny
pieces of eggplant (brinjal). The dish is called nim begun and is the first item during a Bengali
meal that acts as an appetizer.[5] It is eaten with rice.
Neem is used in parts of mainland Southeast Asia, particularly in Cambodia, Laos (where it is
called kadao), Thailand (where it is known as sadao or sdao), Myanmar (where it is known
as tamar) and Vietnam (where it is known as su u and is used to cook the salad gi su u).
Even lightly cooked, the flavour is quite bitter and the food is not enjoyed by all inhabitants of
these nations, though it is believed to be good for one's health. Neem gum is a rich source of
protein. In Myanmar, young neem leaves and flower buds are boiled with tamarind fruit to soften
its bitterness and eaten as a vegetable. Pickled neem leaves are also eaten with tomato and fish
paste sauce in Myanmar.

Traditional medicinal use[edit]

Products made from neem trees have been used in India for over two millennia for their
medicinal properties.[4] Neem products are believed by Ayurvedic practitioners to be anthelmintic,
antifungal, antidiabetic, antibacterial, antiviral, contraceptive and sedative.[6] It is considered a
major component in Ayurvedic and Unani medicine and is particularly prescribed for skin
diseases.[7] Neem oil is also used for healthy hair, to improve liver function, detoxify the blood,
and balance blood sugar levels.[8] Neem leaves have also been used to treat skin diseases like
eczema, psoriasis, etc.[4]
However, insufficient research has been done to assess the purported benefits of neem. [9] In
adults, short-term use of neem is safe, while long-term use may harm the kidneys or liver; in
small children, neem oil is toxic and can lead to death.[9] Neem may also cause miscarriages,
infertility, and low blood sugar.[9]

Safety issues[edit]
Neem oil can cause some forms of toxic encephalopathy and ophthalmopathy if consumed in
large quantities.[10]

Pest and disease control[edit]

Neem is a key ingredient in non-pesticidal management (NPM), providing a natural alternative to
synthetic pesticides. Neem seeds are ground into a powder that is soaked overnight in water and
sprayed onto the crop. To be effective, it is necessary to apply repeatedly, at least every ten
days. Neem does not directly kill insects on the crop. It acts as an anti-feedant, repellent, and
egg-laying deterrent, protecting the crop from damage. The insects starve and die within a few
days. Neem also suppresses the hatching of pest insects from their eggs. Neem cake is often
sold as a fertilizer.[11]
Neem oil has been shown to avert termite attack as ecofriendly and economical agent. [12]

Other uses[edit]

Toiletries: Neem oil is used for preparing cosmetics such as soap, shampoo, balms and
creams as well as toothpaste.

Toothbrush: Traditionally, slender neem twigs (called datun;) are first chewed as
a toothbrush and then split as a tongue cleaner.[13] This practise has been in use in India,
Africa, and the Middle East for centuries. Many of India's 80% rural population still start their
day with the chewing stick, while in urban areas neem toothpaste is preferred. Neem twigs
are still collected and sold in markets for this use, and in rural India one often sees
youngsters in the streets chewing on neem twigs. It has been found to be equally effective as
a toothbrush in reducing plaque and gingival inflammation.[14][15]

Tree: Besides its use in traditional Indian medicine, the neem tree is of great importance
for its anti-desertification properties and possibly as a good carbon dioxide sink.[citation needed]

Practitioners of traditional Indian medicine recommend that patients with chicken

pox sleep on neem leaves.[citation needed]

Neem gum is used as a bulking agent and for the preparation of special purpose foods.

Neem blossoms are used in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka to
prepare Ugadi pachhadi. A mixture of neem flowers and jaggery (or unrefined brown sugar)
is prepared and offered to friends and relatives, symbolic of sweet and bitter events in the
upcoming new year, Ugadi. "Bevina hoovina gojju" (a type of curry prepared with neem
blossoms) is common in Karnataka throughout the year. Dried blossoms are used when

fresh blossoms are not available. In Tamil Nadu, a rasam (veppam poo rasam) made with
neem blossoms is a culinary specialty.

Cosmetics : Neem is perceived in India as a beauty aid. Powdered leaves are a major
component of at least one widely used facial cream. Purified neem oil is also used in nail
polish and other cosmetics.

Bird repellent: Neem leaf boiled in water can be used as a very cost effective
bird repellent, especially for sparrows.

Lubricant : Neem oil is non drying and it resists degradation better than most vegetable
oils. In rural India, it is commonly used to grease cart wheels.

Fertilizer : Neem has demonstrated considerable potential as a fertilizer. Neem cake is

widely used to fertilize cash crops, particularly sugarcane and vegetables. Ploughed into the
soil, it protects plant roots from nematodes and white ants, probably as it contains the
residual limonoids.[citation needed] In Karnataka, people grow the tree mainly for its green leaves
and twigs, which they puddle into flooded rice fields before the rice seedlings are

Resin : An exudate can be tapped from the trunk by wounding the bark. This high protein
material is not a substitute for polysaccharide gum, such as gum arabic. It may however,
have a potential as a food additive, and it is widely used in South Asia as "Neem glue".

Bark : Neem bark contains 14% tannin, an amount similar to that in conventional tannin
yielding trees (such as Acacia decurrens). Moreover, it yields a strong, coarse fibre
commonly woven into ropes in the villages of India.

Honey : In parts of Asia neem honey commands premium prices, and people
promote apiculture by planting neem trees.

Soap : 80% of India's supply of neem oil is now used by neem oil soap manufacturers.

Although much of it goes to small scale speciality soaps, often using cold-pressed oil,

large scale producers also use it, mainly because it is cheap. Additionally it is antibacterial
and antifungal, soothing and moisturising. It can be made with up to 40% neem oil. [16] Well
known brands include Margo. Generally, the crude oil is used to produce coarse laundry

Association with Hindu festivals in India[edit]

Neem leaf or bark is considered an effective pitta pacifier due to its bitter taste. Hence, it is
traditionally recommended during early summer in Ayurveda (that is, the month ofChaitra as per
the Hindu Calendar which usually falls in the month of March April).
In the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, Neem flowers are very popular for their
use in 'Ugadi Pachhadi' (soup-like pickle), which is made on Ugadi day. In Karnataka, a small
amount of Neem and Jaggery (Bevu-Bella) is consumed on Ugadi day, the Kannada new year,
indicating that one should take both bitter and sweet things in life, joy and sorrow.
During Gudi Padva, which is the New Year in the state of Maharashtra, the ancient practice of
drinking a small quantity of neem juice or paste on that day, before starting festivities, is found.
As in many Hindu festivals and their association with some food to avoid negative side-effects of
the season or change of seasons, neem juice is associated with Gudi Padva to remind people to
use it during that particular month or season to pacify summer pitta.
In Tamil Nadu during the summer months of April to June, the Mariamman temple festival is a
thousand year old tradition. The Neem leaves and flowers are the most important part of the
Mariamman festival. The goddess Mariamman statue will be garlanded with Neem leaves and
flowers. During most occasions of celebrations and weddings the people of Tamil Nadu adorn
their surroundings with the Neem leaves and flowers as a form of decoration and also to ward off
evil spirits and infections.
In the eastern coastal state of Odisha the famous Jagannath temple deities are made up of
Neem heart wood along with some other essential oils and powders.

Native of Chhattisgarh with Neem branches and leaves for Hareli Festival

Chemical compounds[edit]
Salimuzzaman Siddiqui was the first scientist to bring the anthelmintic, antifungal, antibacterial,
and antiviral constituents of the Neemtree to the attention of natural products chemists. In 1942,
he extracted three bitter compounds from neem oil, which he named asnimbin, nimbinin, and
nimbidin respectively.[17][full citation needed] The process involved extracting the water insoluble
components withether, petrol ether, ethyl acetate and dilute alcohol. The provisional naming
was nimbin (sulphur-free crystalline product with melting point at 205 C, empirical composition
C7H10O2), nimbinin (with similar principle, melting at 192 C), and nimbidin (cream-coloured
containing amorphous sulphur, melting at 90100 C). Siddiqui identified nimbidin as the main

active antibacterial ingredient, and the highest yielding bitter component in the neem oil. [18][full citation
These compounds are stable and found in substantial quantities in the Neem. They also
serve as natural insecticides.[19][full citation needed]

Genome and Transcriptomes[edit]

Neem genome and transcriptomes from various organs have been sequenced, analyzed and
published by Ganit Labs in Bangalore, India.[20][21]

Patent controversy[edit]
In 1995, the European Patent Office (EPO) granted a patent on an anti-fungal product derived
from neem to the US Department of Agriculture and W. R. Grace and Company.[22] The Indian
government challenged the patent when it was granted, claiming that the process for which the
patent had been granted had actually been in use in India for over 2,000 years. In 2000, the EPO
ruled in India's favour but W. R. Grace appealed, claiming that prior art about the product had
never been published in a scientific journal. On 8 March 2005, that appeal was lost and the EPO
revoked the Neem patent.[22]


Squirrel on Neem tree inChennai, India.

Flowers in Hyderabad, India.

Animals under a Neem tree in a rural Punjabi home

Neem flowers in closeup

A Neem tree with blossoms at Bodwad,India

Unripe fruit in Chennai, India

Wikimedia Commons
has media related
to Azadirachta

See also[edit]


Neem cake

Neem oil


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^ Jump up to:a b c d "USDA GRIN Taxonomy".


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^ Jump up to:a b c Anna Horsbrugh Porter (17 April 2006). "Neem: India's tree of life".
BBC News.


Jump up^ "Neem Baigan". Jiva Ayruveda.


Jump up^ D.P. Agrawal (undated). "Medicinal properties of Neem: New Findings".


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Journal of Neuroradiology (American Society of Neuroradiology) 31: E60


Jump up^ Material Fact Sheets Neem[dead link]


Jump up^ YashRoy R.C. and Gupta P.K.(2000) Neem-seed oil inhibits growth of
termite surface-tunnels. Indian Journal of Toxicology, vol. 7(1), pp. 4950.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/230822367_Neemseed_oil_inhibits_growth_of_termite_surface-tunnels?ev=prf_pub


Jump up^ "Make A Neem Toothbrush (Neem Tree Home Remedies)". Discover
Neem. Birgit Bradtke. Retrieved 16 July 2013.


Jump up^ Bhambal, Ajay; Sonal Kothari, Sudhanshu Saxena, Manish Jain
(September 2011)."Comparative effect of neemstick and toothbrush on plaque removal and
gingival health A clinical trial". Journal of Advanced Oral Research 2 (3): 51
56. ISSN 2229-4120. Retrieved July 2013.


Jump up^ Callahan, Christy (Oct 11, 2010). "Uses Of Neem Datun For
Teeth".Livestrong.com. Demand Media. Retrieved 16 July 2013.


^ Jump up to:a b Bradtke, Birgit. "Neem Soap And Its Uses". Discover Neem.
Retrieved 5 November 2013.


Jump up^ Ganguli (2002). p. 1304


Jump up^ Siddiqui (1942). pp. 278279


Jump up^ Sidhu et al. (2004), pp. 69-75.


Jump up^ Krishnan, N; Swetansu Pattnaik, S. A. Deepak, Arun K. Hariharan,

Prakhar Gaur, Rakshit Chaudhary, Prachi Jain, Srividya Vaidyanathan, P. G. Bharath Krishna
and Binay Panda (2011-12-25). "De novo sequencing and assembly of Azadirachta indica
fruit transcriptome". Current Science 101 (12): 15531561.


Jump up^ Krishnan, N; Swetansu Pattnaik, Prachi Jain, Prakhar Gaur, Rakshit
Choudhary, Srividya Vaidyanathan, Sa Deepak, Arun K Hariharan, PG Bharath Krishna,
Jayalakshmi Nair, Linu Varghese, Naveen K Valivarthi, Kunal Dhas, Krishna Ramaswamy
and Binay Panda (2012-09-09). "A Draft of the Genome and Four Transcriptomes of a
Medicinal and Pesticidal Angiosperm Azadirachta indica". BMC
Genomics 13. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-13-464.


^ Jump up to:a b "India wins landmark patent battle". BBC. 9 March 2005. Retrieved 2
October 2009.

Further reading[edit]

Ghorbanian, M; Razzaghi-Abyaneh M; Allameh A; Shams-Ghahfarokhi M; Qorbani M

(Jan 2008). "Study on the effect of neem (Azadirachta indica A. juss) leaf extract on the

growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and production of aflatoxin by it at different incubation

times". Mycoses 51 (1): 3539. PMID 18076593.

Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi; Allameh A., Tiraihi T., Shams-Ghahfarokhi M. and

Ghorbanian M. (June 2005). "Morphological alterations in toxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus
exposed to neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf and seed aqueous
extracts". Mycopathologia 159 (4): 565570. doi:10.1007/s11046-005-43324. PMID 15983743. Retrieved July 2013.

Allameh, A; Razzaghi Abyane M, Shams M, Rezaee MB, Jaimand K. (2002). "Effects of

neem leaf extract on production of aflatoxins and activities of fatty acid synthetase, isocitrate
dehydrogenase and glutathione S-transferase in Aspergillus
parasiticus". Mycopathologia 154 (2): 7984. PMID 12086104.

"Neem officially becomes Sindhs tree". Daily Times (Karachi). April 14, 2010. Retrieved
15 July 2013.

External links[edit]

Invasiveness information from Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

Neem information from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR)

Caldecott, Todd (2006). Ayurveda: The Divine Science of Life. Elsevier/Mosby. ISBN 07234-3410-7. Contains a detailed monograph on Azadirachta indica (Neem; Nimba) as well
as a discussion of health benefits and usage in clinical practice.

Azadirachta indica in West African plants A Photo Guide.

Plants used in Ayurveda

Invasive plant species


Flora of Uganda

Trees of India

Trees of Pakistan

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