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Certification and Home Study Guide

Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values

Prepared by
Bill J. Bonnstetter
Randy Jay Widrick
Rick Bowers

Table of Contents

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i

Chapter 1: The History of Attitudes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Chapter 2: What is an Attitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Chapter 3: The Six Attitudes of Spranger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Chapter 4: Reading the Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Chapter 5: The Merging of the Attitudes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

Chapter 6: Interacting Attitudes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

Research and Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values

INTRODUCTION
Every day, organizational decision makers struggle to find ways to affect the bottom line. Having a desire to
find better ways of selecting employees is one of these struggles. According to recent research the cost of hiring
the wrong person could be as high as ten times their annual salary. Today labor costs constitute the largest cost
category for most businesses. Furthermore, these personnel costs are rising at a record rate. Fringe benefits
allocated to employees are making up a larger and larger share of an individuals compensation. Fringe benefits
now account for 30 percent of payroll cost for organizations. Moreover, this form of compensation is generally
unrelated to a persons productivity. Typically, employers compensate employees for their time and not for what
they produce. Only 14 percent of U.S. workers receive piece-rate wages or commissions in which compensation
is computed directly on the basis of output.
The vast majority of workers are paid by the hour, week or month. They are paid, in short, to show up for work
and to follow orders. This form of compensation requires that employers give careful attention to worker
motivation and dependability and the selection of productive workers will undoubtedly continue to increase.
Equal Employment Opportunity concerns also indirectly affect the need for better, more valid personnel selection
techniques. The attack on psychological testing has accelerated the search for both improved and alternative
means of assessment. As the guidelines for selection tests become more stringent, organizations will
increasingly seek methods that will allow them to hire those who will be the most productive to the organization.
While organizational decision makers are concerned about getting the right people into their organizations, they
are also concerned with promoting the kind of people who will be beneficial to the organization in the long run.
From the organizations viewpoint, effective management promotions are central to the efficient utilization of its
human resources and are likely to affect future strategic decisions. However, unlike employment selection
decisions which are often conducted by personnel professionals, promotion decisions are often made by managers
in all types of departments and at all levels of management.

Copyright 1993-1998 Behavioral-Values Research Associates, Ltd.

Preface
The function of this Study Guide is to assist you in preparation for the certification test on Sprangers Attitudes,
offered by Target Training International, Ltd., Scottsdale, Arizona.
As a certified trainer on Attitudes, you will be among the elite trainers in the nation, equipped with an
unparalleled understanding of human behavior. With your knowledge and ability to make application, you will be
able to coach individuals and companies through change, into growth and development.
TTI, under the direction of Bill Bonnstetter, continues to pioneer advances into the deeper waters of human
behavior. As a certified trainer, you will understand, train and apply the most advanced material available in the
world today.
Included in the Study Guide you will find the following:
1.

Chapter Summaries: Brief overviews of the chapters content.

2.

Chapter Outlines: Detailed reviews for your study.

3.

Notes: Clarification of important points.

4.

Fill-in Questions: These questions will assist you in review of the chapter, making sure you understand
the material.

5.

Multiple Choice/True or False Questions: The difficulty will vary.

6.

Application Questions: Using the chapter material, you will make application to real people situations.

Answers to some questions will be in the chapter. Answers to others will be at the end of the Study Guide.

Chapter One

The History of Attitudes

Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values

History of Psychological Testing for Pre-employment Selection


The use of psychological testing for pre-employment evaluation of individuals has a long history. The first use of
psychological testing as an aid in employment decisions has been traced to ancient China. The Chinese
developed an extensive system of civil service examinations to determine which individuals were qualified for
positions in government.
The use of behavioral assessments in personnel decisions in the U.S. began very early in the century. By 1909,
for example, Parsons and Musterberg were doing vocational assessments for industries. The massive army recruit
screening program during World War I legitimized behavioral measurement in the publics mind. During the
1920s and 1930s there was an upsurge in the use of behavioral assessments in industry. Special interest
centered on the assessment of sales personnel. During the economically troubled 1930s tests were used to
identify stable and cooperative employees. World War II brought the Office of Strategic Services selection
program, and selection was a primary, if not the prime concern of Industrial/Organizational psychologists
through World War II.
The post-World War II period saw a virtual explosion in behavioral inventory construction, and in the 1950s the
use of assessment centers began to grow rapidly. Personnel testing, in general, rose to a peak in the early 1960s.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the EEOCs, Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures,started a new era
of selection/promotion procedures. Indeed, many court cases and much debate regarding tests and other methods
used in making selections decisions ensued.
More recently, a survey done at a meeting of the American Society of Personnel Administrators found that 98
percent of practitioners thought behavioral/motivation constructs should be measured in selection/placements
systems and 75 percent were doing so in one form or another. Indeed, increasing numbers of organizations in
many industrial contexts consider it desirable to employ consultants or to hire trained personnel to conduct
behavioral selection.
Overall, the psychological tests used most often for pre-employment screening have involved measures of general
intellectual patterns and to some extent, attitudes and values.

What are Beliefs, Values and Attitudes?


Every day we are faced with real situations that call for thought, decision, opinion and action. Consciously or
subconsciously, every decision, reaction and course of action arises from our beliefs, that which we value (values)
and attitudes.
It is said by some that we are the sum total of all of our experiences. Multiple experiences lead to beliefs. The
intensity of each experience results in beliefs of varying strengths. The repetition of the same experiences also
strengthen the beliefs.
For example, you may value certain breeds of dogs and despise other breeds. All of your experiences with dogs
will cluster into a category called dogs. Generally, you will either value dogs or not value dogs. Your category
of dogs will be filled with varying positive and negative beliefs that result from your experiences with dogs.
Recent research examined the truth of the saying once bitten, twice shy and concluded that a fear of dogs is the
result of negative experiences with dogs. Therefore, when you experience anything related to a dog, the
information will be processed against all your beliefs about dogs. In milliseconds, a positive or negative response
will be played out through your behavioral style.
Values are more accurately defined as that which you value. Your experiences lead to beliefs which cluster
together into your values (that which you value). Conversely, your beliefs will also cluster together into that
Copyright 1993-1998 Behavioral-Values Research Associates, Ltd.

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Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values


which you do not value. You may value dogs but not value religion. Your valuing of life then shapes itself, over
time into a world view, which is called an attitude.
Eduard Spranger observed six attitudes through which we value the world. These attitudes define the why of
your actions. You move into action based on what you value; you pursue what you value. You will tend to be
negative or indifferent toward experiences and people whose valuing is opposite of yours.
Your valuing of life is your attitude. Of the six attitudes observed by Spranger, the top two will move you into
action. Your understanding and application of your top two attitudes will move you quickly toward the
achievement of your potential.
Experiences Beliefs Values (that which you value) Attitudes

Attitudes: Their Impact in the Workplace


Companies with a focus on the success of each individual employee outperform companies who have more of a
task orientation. Modern corporations are looking to develop the potential of each individual, realizing that a
healthy, motivated work force leads to a healthy, profitable company. Special attention has been focused on the
fit of the person with the job. Each individual is unique just as each career is unique. If the individual is
matched to the appropriate career, success should follow.

If you value knowledge and the search for truth (Theoretical attitude), how will you survive and grow in a
career that doesnt challenge your learning or allow for continuing education?

If you value form, harmony, beauty and balance (Aesthetic attitude), how will you grow in an environment
that is chaotic and unbalanced?

If you live by a closed system of principles (Traditional attitude), will you grow in a company that actively
promotes an opposing system of beliefs?
If you have a passion to lead, direct and control others (Individualistic attitude), wouldnt you be more
fulfilled in a career that allows for quick advancement?
If you have a humanitarian drive: a desire to eliminate pain and conflict in the world (Social attitude),
would you thrive in an environment that rewards return on investment of time, talent and resources
(Utilitarian attitude)?
Studies suggest that over 50% of the work force may be in jobs that are not suited to who they are and what they
value. A study from California suggests the number is as high as 90%. If your career is an extension of who you
are, you will not have to be motivated. You will get up in the morning and desire to go to work, because your
environment will be providing the valuing you need in order to achieve your maximum potential.
Ethics demand that we assist others in achieving their potential, that we strive toward mutually beneficial win/win
scenarios. The cost of hiring a person who is a misfit to the job can be as high as ten times their annual salary.
Companies all over the world are realizing that an investment on pre-selection assessments can facilitate a
win/win scenario for the employee and the company, moving both toward their goals and redirecting others to a
position where a win/win is achievable.

Copyright 1993-1998 Behavioral-Values Research Associates, Ltd.

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Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values

The History of the Personal Interests Attitudes and Values


The Personal Interests and Values Inventory is based on the writings and research of Eduard Spranger. Gordon
Allport, P.E. Vernon, and G. Lindzey developed an instrument based on Sprangers classification of types. Bill
Bonnstetter validated the Allport instrument for use in job selection. This chapter focuses on these men and their
contributions to the study of human values.
I.

II.

Eduard Spranger 1882 - 1963.


A.

A German psychologist, teacher and philosopher.

B.

Ph.D. in Philosophy, University of Berlin. (1909)

C.

Wrote Types of Men in 1928.


1.

In Types of Men, Spranger detailed six types of people.

2.

Each of the six types made themselves known in a specific arena of activity, attitudes and values.

3.

Sprangers six attitudes were Theoretical, Economic, Aesthetic, Social, Political and Religious.

4.

The attitudes are hierarchical in the individual, with the top two attitudes coloring or flavoring the
other four.

5.

Spranger believed the attitudes were predetermined...become what you are.


(Rejected by most others.)

6.

The top two attitudes dictate what a person values positively and is passionate about...that which
will move a person into action.

7.

Each of the attitudes of Spranger has an overriding law to which it is subservient.

8.

Attitudes answer the WHY of a persons actions...why you do what you do.

9.

Spranger did not develop an assessment instrument for his attitudes.

Gordon Willard Allport 1897 - 1967.


A.

Ph.D. in Psychology, Harvard University. (1922)

B.

Allport was a psychologist who viewed personality as a system of traits, characteristics and attitudes.

C.

The foundation for personality is the self (proprium).


1.

The self in each of us is constantly striving to achieve its maximum potential.

2.

Differing from Spranger, Allport believed the self was motivated by environment and the social
element as opposed to heredity or genetics.

3.

Allports person is very active and progressive, seeking new heights and challenges in the quest to
reach its maximum potential.

Copyright 1993-1998 Behavioral-Values Research Associates, Ltd.

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Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values


4.

D.

E.

Allport held to the trait theory, believing there are traits, like habits, common to the individual and
to most individuals.

Contributions to psychological assessment tools.


1.

With Floyd Allport, he developed the A-S Reaction Study.

2.

Working with P.E. Vernon and G. Lindzey, Allport developed the Study of Values (1931), an
assessment tool based on Sprangers six types.

3.

The Study of Values assessment has been widely used and accepted. It was revised in 1951 and
finally in 1961. It is still in use today.

Publications by Gordon Allport.


1.

Trait Names: A Psychological Study, 1936.

2.

Personality and Encounter, 1960.

3.

Becoming: Basic Considerations for a Psychology of Personality, 1955.

4.

Pattern and Growth in Personality, 1961.

5.

The Use of Personal Documents in Psychological Science, 1942.

III. Bill J. Bonnstetter 1938 A.

M.A. in Business Education, University of Northern Iowa.

B.

Bonnstetters contributions began with the application of the research of others to the business
community. As he ran into problems with application, he surrounded himself with researchers and
developed and validated new assessment instruments.

C.

Bonnstetter holds to the trait theory of Allport and Spranger.

D.

1.

He asserts that there are specific traits that can be observed in individuals and that these traits can
be categorized into a language of understanding.

2.

Bonnstetter observed and validated two aspects of the person, both able to be categorized.

3.

Bonnstetter designed and validated assessment instruments for both aspects of behavior and values.

4.

Bonnstetter has validated an Adaptation Theory. This theory states that by recognizing and
appreciating others behavior and attitudes and adapting, a person can increase relationships,
communication, understanding and even sales.

5.

Bonnstetter teaches that both genetics and environment impact the individuals development. He
partially rejects Sprangers assertion that states become what you are.

Bonnstetters primary focus is the use of assessment tools to assist leaders and workers in achieving
their maximum potential.

Copyright 1993-1998 Behavioral-Values Research Associates, Ltd.

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Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values


E.

Bonnstetter validated the Allport, Vernon, Lindzey Study of Values to be used as a job selection tool,
assisting companies in matching the person to the job, increasing job satisfaction and reducing turnover.

F.

As a result of continuing research, Bonnstetter believed the Study of Values instrument needed to be
revised and brought into the modern era.
1.

In 1990, he developed the Personal Interests and Values instrument with Jon Hall, a more
sophisticated assessment tool, based on the six attitudes of Spranger.

2.

The Personal Interests and Values (now referred to as Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values)*
computerized assessment compares the persons responses to the questionnaire twelve times, as
opposed to the double comparison of the Study of Values instrument. This delivers a more accurate
picture of a persons attitudes, truer to Sprangers research and writings.

3.

In 1998, the Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values report was advanced to a dual outlook, based
on continuing observation and study. The new report provides information on personal motivation
as well as information on how the person perceives others and is perceived by others.

NOTE: The name was changed in late 1996 to Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values. ONLY the name was
changed the assessment remains the same.
G.

Values Assessment Tools.


1.

Personal Interests and Values, 1990.

2.

Success Performance Index, 1992.

3.

Additional instruments are currently in development.

Copyright 1993-1998 Behavioral-Values Research Associates, Ltd.

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Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values

Developing the Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values


I.

Causes For Development.


A.

Bonnstetters application focus, utilizing psychological assessment tools to assist businesses in


productivity, led him to investigate Allports Study of Values Instrument and Sprangers writings for
use in job selection.

B.

Bonnstetter validated Allports Study of Values instrument as a job selection tool (1981).

C.

After years of working with the Study of Values and monitoring its application and use, Bonnstetter
believed the instrument needed to be more sophisticated and modern.

D.

NOTE:

II.

1.

The Study of Values compared the responses to Sprangers attitudes only twice.

2.

In the revised 1961 edition the reading of the instrument and the format of the responses were
outdated and, in some cases, sexist.

Bonnstetter, in 1990, developed and validated the Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values assessment
(PIA&V).
1.

The PIA&V instrument is more modern, and truer to Sprangers writings.

2.

The PIA&V instrument is more sophisticated, comparing the responses to Sprangers attitudes
twelve times, as opposed to the twice comparison of the Study of Values instrument.

3.

Bonnstetter validated the PIA&V instrument for use in Job Selection (1991).

Certain jobs such as sales and middle to top management are easier to validate. Not all jobs will
validate.
4.

Bonnstetter, in a research study, validated a very low correlation between attitudes (why we act)
and behavior (how we act), indicating two separate, valuable instruments.

5.

The instrument is computerized, printing out a report that can be easily read and understood by the
lay person.

Additional Research and Development.


A.

In 1996, Bonnstetter revised and upgraded the PIA&V report, to be even truer to Sprangers writings.

B.

As a result of observation and field testing, Bonnstetter changed the names of three of Sprangers
attitudes.
1.

Economic changed to Utilitarian.

2.

Political changed to Individualistic.

3.

Religious changed to Traditional.

Copyright 1993-1998 Behavioral-Values Research Associates, Ltd.

6.

C.

Realizing the need for a foundational level of training, Bonnstetter commissioned a seminar, Your
Attitude is Showing, written by Randy Jay Widrick and Judy Suiter (1996).

D.

To ensure a higher level of understanding, Bonnstetter commissioned the certification process to be


written by Randy Jay Widrick (1996).

E.

Advancing into the deeper waters of understanding, Bonnstetter is currently validating success beliefs
related to Sprangers attitudes and methods for changing beliefs.

F.

In 1998, the PIA&V instrument was revised to provide an even clearer understanding of the person. The
computerized report was divided into two parts:

NOTE:

1.

Personal Motivation.

2.

How the person perceives others and is perceived by others.

A clear differentiation between Bonnstetter, Allport and Spranger should be noted at this point.
Spranger is clearly a theorist, intent on discovering and understanding the truth. Allport was also a
theorist with a desire to apply the truth, but focused heavily on understanding the truth. Bonnstetter is
completely and totally committed to application of the truth in the marketplace. Driven by a desire to
only know that which can be applied, Bonnstetter exhibits little interest in knowing just for the sake of
knowing and a huge passion for knowing and understanding that which can get results. By pure
definition, Bonnstetter is a marketer of applied knowledge.

III. The Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values Instrument.


A.

The PIA&V Response Form.


1.

There are twelve categories for response, each with six items for the subject to consider.

2.

The instrument is not a fixed time response.

3.

The subject is to rank the six items in each category in numerical order.

4.

a.

First choice would be #1, second would be #2.

b.

Each number, 1-6 must be used once in each category question.

The responses, entered into the software program, are compared to Sprangers six categories and a
hard copy print out is generated.
a.

The person is ranked from a 10-75 score in each of the six attitudes and is then compared to
the National Mean.

b.

Key correlations are identified and further information is given.

c.

A graph page, showing the hierarchy (1-6) of the attitudes and the comparison of each to the
National Mean is included.

Chapter Two

What is an Attitude

Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values


How are our attitudes formed? How can we know whether a belief we have learned is really true? How do these
beliefs work together to form an attitude? Beliefs are the building blocks of Sprangers attitudes. This chapter
focuses on defining beliefs and attitudes and explaining their formation.
I.

What is an Attitude?
A.

A world view, a way of looking at life, a mind set, a paradigm of thought.

B.

Our attitude, according to Spranger, determines what we value positively or judge negatively in life.

C.

A set of beliefs comprise an attitude.

D.

Two different persons with the same attitude can have different beliefs, yet they will still value the same
things in life.

NOTE:

Two persons, both having a desire and passion to attain position and power, may achieve it in
completely different ways. One may believe in working through others, while the other may believe in
stepping on others.

E.

We see the world through the window of our attitudes. Our view of the world is colored by our top two
attitudes.

II.

The Formation of Beliefs.


A.

B.

C.

Most researchers believe we develop in stages. (Erickson, Piaget, Fowler, Massey, Graves, Allport,
Spranger and Kohlberg)
1.

Our development is related to negative stimuli, such as conflict, dissatisfaction, discomfort, pain
and...

2.

Our development is related to positive stimuli such as pleasure, joy and satisfaction.

Our experiences result in a set of beliefs.


1.

A belief is a statement in which you have trust or confidence.

2.

A belief may not be true and may be unchallenged or untested.

3.

A belief may change when it is challenged.

4.

The beliefs we develop will be positive or negative.

Multiple experiences result in a set of beliefs, positive or negative.


1.

Beliefs tend to cluster into similar categories and similar topics.

2.

Each belief has a different intensity attached to it stemming from the way the belief was formed.

3.

Clusters of beliefs will evolve into a hierarchy of attitudes.

III. The Hierarchy of Attitudes.


Copyright 1993-1998 Behavioral-Values Research Associates, Ltd.

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Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values


A.

The top two attitudes in the hierarchy move the person to action and color the other four.

B.

From these attitudes, we gain purpose and direction for our lives. We judge negatively or value
positively people, places and experiences.

C.

The fulfillment of our attitudes causes us to enjoy and value life.

IV. Valuing and Judging: An internal scale.


A.

Your subconscious is filled with positive and negative beliefs of varying intensities.

B.

These beliefs are clustered together into a hierarchy of attitudes, two of which color your whole
perspective.

C.

Experiencing stimuli around you triggers these positive or negative beliefs causing you to value or judge
the stimuli.

NOTE:

1.

We experience an event.

2.

We instantly and unconsciously process the event.

3.

We value it positively or judge it negatively, based on our beliefs.

4.

We express our response behaviorally (DISC).

DISC enters here! Attitudes put the thought in your mind and heart and impel you to action. Behavior
(DISC) is the methodology for carrying out that action. This distinction between behavior and attitudes
is a key contribution of Bonnstetters research.

The Advanced DISC model from TTI and the Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values assessment measure two
distinct and yet related aspects of a person. This chapter identifies the differences between the two instruments
and their respective functions.
V.

The Advanced DISC Model from TTI.


A.

Based on the book The Emotions of Normal People by William Moulton Marston.

B.

A universal language of observable behavior and emotions.

C.

1.

The methodology of action for pursuing your beliefs and attitudes. DISC is the HOW of your
behavior.

2.

The doorway of communication TO you and FROM you.


a.

Tone of Voice

b.

Words

c.

Pace of Speech and Actions

d.

Body Language

Communication can be shut down simply by the wrong body language.

Copyright 1993-1998 Behavioral-Values Research Associates, Ltd.

10.

NOTE: The DISC model does not measure beliefs, only observable behavior and emotions. If your passion is to
change the world, for example, your action (how you do it) is measured by the DISC model. Research
by Bill Bonnstetter proves that communication, understanding, appreciation and sales increase by
adapting (tone of voice, words, body language, pace) to another persons behavioral design.
VI. Attitudes.
A.

Based on the book Types of Men by Eduard Spranger. (1928)


1.

Identifies six attitudes, or world views.

2.

Examines the passions that lead us to action.

B.

Focus is on what causes us to value (+) life or judge (-) life. The WHY of our actions.

C.

In the communication process, attitudes are the arena.

A person has a passion to find and prove the existence of Bigfoot. He searches for the truth, often at great
personal risk (Theoretical attitude). His motivation to search for Bigfoot is the result of his dominant attitudes.
Once he moves into action, how he searches for Bigfoot is measured by the advanced DISC model.

Chapter Three

The Six Attitudes of Spranger

Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values


Chapter six details each of the six attitudes researched by Eduard Spranger: Theoretical, Utilitarian, Aesthetic,
Individualistic, Social and Traditional.
I.

The Theoretical Attitude.


A.

World attitude: I will use my cognitive ability to understand, discover and systemize the truth.

B.

Goal: Discovery of truth and knowledge.

C.

Passions: These will impel a person to action.

D.

E.
Note:

1.

Solving problems or mysteries.

2.

Identifying, differentiating, generalizing, systematizing.

3.

Intellectual process.

4.

Pursuit of knowledge, identifying truth and untruth.

5.

Discovery.

Characteristics of the person scoring the Theoretical attitude as #1 or #2.


1.

Objectivity in all areas of life.

2.

Little emphasis on the subjective, always focused on the objective.

3.

Values which can be rationally explained.

4.

Judges and rejects that which is by faith or subjective.

5.

That which is unknown can be known by applying our cognitive abilities.

Overextensions: Theoretical
An overextension occurs when a person is completely lost in their passion, becoming oblivious to
potential personal danger and/or the effects of their actions on those around them.
attitude has potential overextensions, but a twenty-point distinction above or below the National Mean
is NOT an overextension.

F.

1.

Pursuit of knowledge or truth can be so primary that practical matters (home, family, money) are
neglected or ignored.

2.

Discovery of truth may be placed higher than personal safety.

Stress Factors/Dissatisfiers: Theoretical


1.

Each attitude will experience stress, dissatisfaction and pain if the passion of that attitude is not
fulfilled.

2.

Theoretical passion for truth and understanding will be taxed by an inability to know or discover
and by irrational, subjective experience.

Copyright 1993-1998 Behavioral-Values Research Associates, Ltd.

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Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values


G.

Powerful communication: Theoretical


1.

Focus on rational, objective fact and experience.

2.

Focus on solving mysteries and problems.

3.

Present research and draw conclusions.

A person with a Theoretical drive is usually not concerned with application of the facts, only with discovery.
Discovery is the end of the road, the end of the journey. Many great truths, discovered and searched out are
hidden on library shelves waiting for application. The Theoretical dispassion for application often explains the
division between academic institutions and the business world. To the pure Theoretical truth does not have a price
tag. Other values will color this information. If the Utilitarian attitude is in the top three of the hierarchy, past
knowledge will be applied to solve future problems.
H.

Passionate Careers/Activities: Theoretical


1.

Careers and activities that are in line with a persons attitudes will arouse a passion in the person
impelling them to action.

2.

Careers and activities that are opposite a persons attitudes will cause stress and dissatisfaction, a
negative response or indifference.

3.

A person whose Theoretical score ranks in the #1 or #2 position will require careers and activities
that contain the following ingredients:

4.

a.

Continuing education

b.

Lifelong learning

c.

Seminars

d.

Ability to advance knowledge

e.

Analyzing, clarifying, systematizing

f.

Research and discovery questions

g.

Ability to have personal knowledge challenged

A person whose Theoretical score ranks in the #5 or #6 position will be negative or indifferent to
the above ingredients in their career and activities. Their personal passion will come from one or
two of the other four attitudes. Their negative response will be expressed through their behavioral
style (DISC).

Copyright 1993-1998 Behavioral-Values Research Associates, Ltd.

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Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values

II.

The Utilitarian Attitude.


A.

World Attitude: Every investment I make will have a greater return in time and/or resources.

B.

Goal: Utility and what is useful.

C.

Passions: These will move a person to action.

D.

E.

F.

G.

1.

Utilizing resources to accomplish results.

2.

Gaining a measurable return on all investments.

3.

Creative application of resources.

4.

Capitalism.

Characteristics of the person with a Utilitarian attitude scoring in the #1 or the #2 position.
1.

Practicality in all areas of life, both time and resources.

2.

Surpassing others in attainment of wealth or conservation of wealth.

3.

Tremendous ability to maximize resources.

4.

Judges and rejects that which is a waste of resources.

5.

Very aware of return on investment of personal time and resources.

6.

Efficient.

7.

Sensitive to wastefulness of resources and time.

Overextensions: Utilitarian
1.

Willing to give but always wants something in return.

2.

May be a workaholic.

Stress Factors/Dissatisfiers: Utilitarian


1.

Wasted resources, time and material.

2.

Investments with inadequate or no return.

Powerful Communication: Utilitarian


1.

Focus on return of investment.

2.

Prove return on investment of time and resources.

3.

Make sure return on investment promised is of value to the person.

Copyright 1993-1998 Behavioral-Values Research Associates, Ltd.

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Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values


H.

Passionate Careers/Activities: Utilitarian


1.

A person whose Utilitarian score ranks in the #1 or #2 position will require careers and activities
that contain the following ingredients:
a.

Efficiency

b.

Practicality

c.

Pay for individual performance

d.

Pay proportionate to effort

e.

Bonuses and incentives

f.

Ability to gain a rewarding return on investment of their time, talent and resources

If a person does not have the ability in their career to meet their #1 and # 2 attitudes, the person will struggle
tremendously and eventually leave the job. The environment does not provide the individual with the ingredients
necessary to advance them toward their full potential. This does not indicate that anything is wrong with the
person, but only that a different environment is needed. Example: A sales/commission environment does not
reward someone with a humanitarian attitude (Social), however it does reward the Utilitarian attitude.
III. The Aesthetic Attitude.
A.

World Attitude: I will enjoy and experience the beauty around me and allow it to mold me into all I can
be.

B.

Goal: Self-Actualization.

C.

Passions: These will move a person to action.

D.

1.

Appreciation, enjoyment and striving for form, harmony, beauty and balance.

2.

Subjective experience.

3.

Understands feelings of self and others.

4.

Appreciation of all impressions.

Characteristics of the person with the Aesthetic attitude scoring in the #1 or #2 position.
1.

Creative expression.

2.

Appreciates all impression and expression.

3.

Notices the uniqueness of experiences often missed by others.

4.

Tends to reject and avoid that which causes personal pain and disharmony.

5.

Focuses more on the subjective.

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Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values


6.

E.

F.

G.

H.

Necessity of and striving for balance in all areas of life (the entire painting must be in focus, an
unfocused area, personal or professional, affects the whole picture).

Overextensions: Aesthetic
1.

Subjective feeling will conflict with objective reality.

2.

May struggle with the realities of every day life and see an unrealistic picture.

Stress Factors/Dissatisfiers: Aesthetic


1.

Disturbance of form, harmony and beauty in self, others and the environment.

2.

Objective truth.

3.

Pain and obstacles in life can affect the whole person.

4.

Inability to personally grow.

5.

An environment that doesnt allow for personal growth and development.

6.

Disarrayed surroundings or a chaotic environment.

Powerful Communication: Aesthetic


1.

Focus on subjective experience of self and others.

2.

Focus on achievement of form and harmony.

3.

Focus on removal of pain and discomfort.

4.

Focus on personal growth and development.

5.

Identify areas that are out of balance and focus on achieving or restoring form, harmony and
beauty.

Passionate Careers/Activities: Aesthetic


1.

Careers and activities that are in line with a persons attitudes will arouse a passion in the person
moving them to action.

2.

Careers and activities that are opposite a persons attitudes will cause stress and dissatisfaction, a
negative response or indifference.

3.

A person whose Aesthetic score ranks in the #1 or #2 position will require careers and activities
that contain the following ingredients:
a.

Personal growth and development: physical, mental and spiritual.

b.

Self-help training and seminars.

c.

Ability to freely express thoughts and opinions.

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Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values


d.

Movement toward form, beauty and harmony.

e.

Opportunity to continually experience new things.

f.

Ability to achieve a balance in all areas of life.

IV. The Social Attitude.


A.

World Attitude: I will invest myself, time and resources in helping others to achieve their potential.

B.

Goal: To eliminate hate and conflict in the world.

C.

Passions: These will move a person to action.

D.

E.

F.

G.

1.

Opportunities to develop potential in others.

2.

Championing worthy causes.

3.

Bettering society and elimination of conflict and pain.

4.

Needs and struggles of persons they come in contact with.

Characteristics of the person with the Social attitude scoring in the #1 or #2 position.
1.

Selflessness.

2.

Investment of time and resources in others expecting no return.

3.

Generosity, with little or no expectation of return.

4.

Energy expended in the elimination of the pain and suffering of others.

Overextensions: Social
1.

Primary focus on others can be injurious to self.

2.

Overzealousness for a cause may lead to harmful behavior to self.

3.

Proneness toward lose/win relationships, focusing only on the benefit to others.

Stress Factors/Dissatisfiers: Social


1.

Too much emphasis on bottom-line results.

2.

Decisions or actions which are insensitive to people.

Powerful Communication: Social


1.

Focus on how others will benefit.

2.

Focus on how pain and conflict will be decreased and potential of people will be maximized.

Copyright 1993-1998 Behavioral-Values Research Associates, Ltd.

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Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values


H.

Passionate Careers/Activities: Social


1.

Careers and activities that are in line with a persons attitudes will arouse a passion in the person
moving them into action.

2.

Careers and activities that are opposite a persons attitudes will cause stress and dissatisfaction, a
negative response or indifference.

3.

A person whose Social score ranks in the #1 or #2 position will require careers and activities that
contain the following ingredients:
a.

Ability to help others.

b.

Opportunities to eliminate the pain and conflict.

c.

Opportunities to better society and humanity.

d.

Worthy global causes.

Many times a person with the Social attitude in #1 or #2 will throw themselves into a cause that cannot be won,
focusing their entire passion and effort into making a bit of a difference in a few lives.
V.

The Individualistic Attitude.


A.

World Attitude: I will advance to the highest position in life and gain the greatest power. I will lead and
direct others.

B.

Goal: To assert self and have a personal cause victorious.

C.

Passions: These will move a person to action.

D.

1.

Achieving position.

2.

Advancing position (forming strategic alliances).

3.

Planning and carrying out a winning strategy.

4.

Leading others.

5.

Working in and respecting authority and the chain of command.

Characteristics of the person with the Individualistic attitude scoring in the #1 or #2 position.
1.

Attaining and using power to accomplish purpose.

2.

Advancing of personal position.

3.

Tactical in approach to life.

4.

Forms personal relationships to advance position.

5.

Respects the chain of command and demands respect for personal position gained.

Copyright 1993-1998 Behavioral-Values Research Associates, Ltd.

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Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values


6.
E.

F.

G.

NOTE:

H.

NOTE:

Willingness to direct and control self, others and resources to accomplish success.

Overextensions: Individualistic
1.

Individual advancement may be more important than people.

2.

Power can control the person.

Stress Factors/Dissatisfiers: Individualistic


1.

Actual or perceived threatening, diminishing or loss of position and power.

2.

Inability or lack of opportunity to advance.

3.

Lack of respect given to personal position gained or lack of respect for the chain of command.

Powerful Communication: Individualistic


1.

Focus subtly on how position will be advanced.

2.

Focus on how position and power can be used to help others.

3.

Focus on opportunities for leadership.

The Individualistic attitude is considered, in most societies, to be self-centered. You will find many
people will downplay this attitude. An Individualist cannot attain position or advancement without the
assistance of others. Therefore, the Individualistic attitude is always expressed, in action, through
another attitude.
Passionate Careers/Activities: Individualistic
When the Individualistic attitude scores as #1 or #2, the following ingredients are necessary in the
persons activities and careers:
1.

Opportunities to advance quickly.

2.

Authority equal to responsibility.

3.

Ability to lead, direct and control self and others.

4.

The rewards of position and recognition for position attained.

5.

Career pathing.

If these are not present, the person will struggle in the environment and will not find it extremely
stressful.

Copyright 1993-1998 Behavioral-Values Research Associates, Ltd.

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Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values

VI. The Traditional Attitude.


A.

World Attitude: I will pursue the highest meaning in life.

B.

Goal: To search for and find the highest value in life.

C.

Passions: These will move a person to action.

D.

E.

F.

1.

Pursuit of the divine in life.

2.

Converting others to their system.

3.

A worthy cause.

4.

Understanding the totality of life.

5.

Living and applying their principles to all situations.

Characteristics of the person scoring the Traditional attitude as #1 or #2.


1.

Living according to a closed book system; a system of principles.

2.

Following, to the death, a worthy cause.

3.

May not be open-minded to new ideas or changes.

4.

All decisions will emanate from the principles held.

Overextensions: Traditional
1.

May break the law believing their book is higher.

2.

Sacrifice of self for beliefs or cause.

3.

Closed-minded and judgmental toward other viewpoints.

Stress Factors/Dissatisfiers: Traditional


1.

G.

H.

Opposition to their cause or beliefs.

Powerful Communication: Traditional


1.

Focus on the meaning and totality of life.

2.

Bring spiritual element into the conversation.

3.

Show how your plans will move us toward the ideal.

4.

Focus on how their system improves the world.

Passionate Careers/Activities: Traditional

Copyright 1993-1998 Behavioral-Values Research Associates, Ltd.

21.

1.

Careers and activities that are in line with a persons attitudes will arouse a passion in the person
impelling them to action.

2.

Careers and activities that are opposite a persons attitudes will cause stress and dissatisfaction, a
negative response or indifference.

3.

A person whose Traditional score ranks in the #1 or #2 position will require careers and activities
that contain the following ingredients:

4.

a.

Rules to live by.

b.

Rules for others to live by.

c.

Systems, beliefs and principles.

d.

Causes.

e.

A historical past.

A person whose Traditional score ranks in the #5 or #6 position will be negative or indifferent to
the above ingredients in their career and activities. Their personal passion will come from one or
two of the other four attitudes. Their negative response will be expressed through their behavioral
style (DISC).

A person whose Traditional score ranks in the #1 or #2 position will require careers and activities that are in line
with the persons system of principles. The person must believe in the cause they are supporting or they will
struggle. They can find their cause in the military or the corporate world, but do need to believe their work is
making a difference. When the Traditional attitude is in the #5 or #6 position, you have a person who is willing to
sample from many different belief systems. Like a hungry person at a buffet table, he will sample a little of each
entree and will not necessarily believe that one way is the only way. He may feel that others (who have
Traditional in #1 or #2) are continually condemning his way of life.

Chapter Four

Reading the Graphs

Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values

Understanding and Debriefing the Report


Feedback for Personal Growth and Development
Feedback on:

Personal motivators
Perception of others
Others perception of the Individual
I.

Introduction
The PIA&V instrument has been shown to add immense value to a persons understanding of . Most
psychologists agree that the initial step in achieving your maximum potential is a clear understanding of who
you are. The PIA&V assessment provides that foundation.
The individuals responses to the questionnaire generate a graph from which the computerized report is
driven. Feedback is given in three areas:
A. Personal motivation.
B. Othersperception.
C. Perception of others.

II. Reading the graph


A) The horizontal axis lists each of the six attitudes
The =
Soc =

Theoretical
Social

Uti
Ind

=
=

Utilitarian
Individualistic

Aes =
Tra =

Aesthetic
Traditional

B) The vertical axis tracks the score of each persons response to the survey. The score can range from 10-75.
C) The bar line ( ) in the graph box indicates the National Mean for that particular attitude. Note the National Mean
varies for each of the six attitudes.
D) The bar graph shows the score and intensity of each attitude.
1) The higher the score the greater the intensity of the passion the individual will have for that attitude.
2) The lower the score, the less intensity of passion a person will have for that specific attitude. The
sample graph will be used to explain how to analyze the graph.
III. The Attitudes Wheel
A. The Attitudes Wheel displays the #1-#6 hierarchy of an individuals attitudes.
B. The shaded area is based on the scoring from 10-75, showing the intensity of that particular attitude.
C. Each attitude is labeled based on its position in the hierarchy 1-6 and its score from 10 75.
Copyright 1993-1998 Behavioral-Values Research Associates, Ltd.

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Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values


Name: Jane Citizen
THE.

UTI.

AES.

SOC.

IND.

TRA.

70

70

65

65

60

60

55

55

50

50

45

45

40

40

35

35

30

30

25

25

20

20

15

15

Score
Rank

THE.
49
2nd

UTI.
61
1st

AES.
32
5th

Copyright 1993-1998 Behavioral-Values Research Associates, Ltd.

SOC.
29
6th

IND.
49
3rd

TRA.
32
4th

25.

Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values

Feedback for Personal Growth and Development


The initial objective is to assist an individual to understand why they are motivated to act. By understanding
the why of their actions, the individual can take charge of their life and environment and achieve a more
fulfilled life.
To assist an individual in the understanding of their motivations, the six values are ranked from 1-6 based on the
score on the vertical axis ( the score for each attitude is also listed on the bottom horizontal axis).
Jane Citizens top six attitudes are:
#

ATTITUDE

SCORE

Uti

61

The

49

Ind

47

Aes

32

Tra

32

Soc

29

PASSION
The top two attitudes move a person into action. Jane will have a passion for activities, people and environments
that fulfill her top two attitudes.
1) Utilitarian: Jane will have a passion for the return on investment of time, talent and resources. She will be strongly
motivated by the conservation of and/or the production of goods and services. Utility and practicality will mark her
actions.
2) Theoretical: Jane will be passionate about learning and advancing her knowledge in all area. Environments that
allow for continued education and learning will motivate her.
Situational: Positive, Negative or Indifferent
The individual will situational toward attitudes in the 3rd and 4th position. In certain areas they may value these
attitudes and in other areas they may not care, or even be negative.
3) Individualistic: Jane may in certain situations have a passion to increase or advance her position and in other
situations she may show no desire to further advance her position. Generally, her main motivators will come from
one of the top two attitudes.
4) Aesthetic: Jane may show, situationally a passion for form, harmony and beauty, but its presence or absence will not
affect her adversely in her daily life. Her main passion will be found in the top two attitudes.

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Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values


Negative or Indifferent
The attitudes that score as #5 and #6 will evoke a negative or indifferent response from the individual. If the
person has any positive valuing of the attitude, it will be extremely situational. Their passions will definitely be
found in one of the other two attitudes.
5) Traditional: Jane may be negative toward others who live by a specific set of principles and attempt to force her to
apply those principles to her life. She may feel she is being judged or condemned. She will probably sample
many different belief systems to decide what works best for her. Her passion will be found in two of the other
attitudes( Uti and The ).
6) Social: Jane may respond negatively to programs and people who give money away without expecting any return.
She will not tend to feel the painof society around her and may be viewed by others as insensitive. This does not
mean she wont help others, but only if she sees them making an honest effort. Her passions will be found in
Utilitarian and Theoretical.
Note: When the focus is on the personal growth and development of the individual, the National Mean does not
matter. When motivating the person, the National Mean has no bearing. The important items are the personal
scores of the individual and how they rank (#1-#6). When the person is completely aware of the why of their
actions only then can they look at how they will view and fit in with society.

PERCEPTIONS
When the focus is on the motivation of the individual, the PIA&V report is debriefed most effectively by scoring
the attitudes from #1- #6, the top two attitudes motivating the person into action. With an understanding of the
hierarchy of their six attitudes, individuals can effectively take charge of themselves and their environments
allowing them to achieve their maximum potential.
The power of the PIA&V report is magnified as the individual is compared to society. According to Zig Zigler,
those who are most successful in achieving their goals are people who have learned to communicate effectively
with others. By comparing the individual with the National Mean, information is gained in two areas:
1) How the individual will perceive others.
2) How others will perceive the individual.
By comparing the score of each attitude to the National Mean, predictions can be made about the comparison of
the individuals attitude to the world around. How will the person fit in and how will the world be seen.
If an attitude is significantly higher than the National Mean (greater than or equal to 15 points) the persons
viewpoint will tend to be out of the mainstream and different, perhaps causing harsher judgment by society and
of society.

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Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values


Example: Jane Citizen
Utilitarian: Janes Utilitarian score is above the National Mean by about 13 points. Her passion for return on
investment of time, talent and resources will be readily apparent to others.
1) Janes perception of others: She may view society as too wasteful and unproductive. She may resist going along
with the status quo and not invest her time or resources in area she feels are meaningless.
2) Othersperception of Jane: Others who interact with Jane may believe she always has to have a hook
attached...always making decisions based on whats in it for me. This may be (wrongly) viewed as selfish and
self-centered. Jane will not attend any meetings just to be there or be seen which may cause others to believe that
she is not a team player. Every decision will be weighed based on utility, practicality and efficiency.
Social: Jane scored 15 points below the National Mean in the social attitude scale.
1. Janes perception of others: She will have a negative reaction to programs and people that give away their resources
expecting nothing in return. She does not tend to feel the pain of society around her and will tend to believe that
success is achievable for everyone if they are willing to work for it. She will help people if she believes they are
trying their best.
2. Othersperception of Jane: She will definitely not be viewed as a humanitarian. Others may view her as insensitive
to society, not caring about others, placing her own needs first.

Note: When the persons score is significantly lower that the National Mean they will tend to react negatively to
that attitude, but their passion to move into action flows from their #1 and #2 attitude. Even though Janes Social
is significantly lower than the National Mean, her solution to humanitarian issues is:
1) Utility
2) Practicality
3) Accountability
All of her arguments will come from her top two passions. She may even lead the effort to change the system if
she is given the power and authority and it advances her career. (Ind=#2).

Review: To debrief the report for the maximum results to the person, do the following in order.
A) Rate the attitudes #1 - #6, based on their score.
#1 and #2: The person will be passionate when these have the potential to be or can be fulfilled.
#3 and #4: The person will situationally place a positive or negative valuing on experiences and persons
with these attitudes.
#5 and #6: The person will not value experiences or persons who exhibit these attitudes.
B) Debrief sentence by sentence each of the six attitudes in order of hierarchy.
C) Note each attitudes comparison to the National Mean.

Copyright 1993-1998 Behavioral-Values Research Associates, Ltd.

28.

1) Comment on the persons viewpoint of society.


2) Comment on how society may view the person.
3) Discuss the impact of each.
The proper sequential debriefing of the PIA&V report yields some of the most significant results seen in personal
motivation. Some of the largest and most progressive companies in the world have adopted the process as the
foundation of their training program.

Real self Ideal self Potential self


The goal of all organizations, businesses and interactions should be to assist each person in the achievement of
their maximum potential.
The achievement of maximum potential of the person begins with the understanding of the real self. This
understanding of the real self places the tools in the hand of the individual to be able to alter their environment
and work towards their ideal self. Focused action on achieving the ideal takes the person past their goal to the
achievement of their highest potential. (potential self)

Chapter Five

The Merging of the Attitudes

Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values


Your attitudes give you purpose and direction in life. The top two attitudes in the hierarchy require satisfaction.
These two will move you into action. The merging of the attitudes will sometimes result in Me/Me conflict, and
will at other times be friendly in their interaction. This chapter examines the merging of attitudes which scored in
the #1 and #2 position.
I.

II.

Theoretical - Utilitarian
A.

The search for truth (The) will employ the wisest use of resources (Uti) to accomplish the objective.

B.

The Utilitarian mindset will acquire the knowledge (The) necessary to increase levels of efficiency.

C.

Knowledge is utilized to ensure economic security.

D.

Me/Me conflict occasionally regarding the decision of which is primary: the search for truth or the
utilization of resources.

E.

Futuristic pioneering type mindset.

Theoretical - Aesthetic
A.

Beauty, form and harmony are appreciated (Aes) and then dissected to understand the components
(The).

B.

Knowledge is beautiful. To understand the parts gives more appreciation to the whole.

C.

Interest in studying beauty, form and harmony.

D.

Me/Me conflict: The subjective nature of the Aesthetic will clash with the objective nature of the
Theoretical attitude.

E.

This attitude combination is a present mindset, seeking to understand what already is.

III. Theoretical - Social


A.

Use of knowledge (The) to help others (Soc).

B.

A focus on understanding (The) the causes of social problems can lead to the elimination of social ills
and the betterment of society.

C.

May result in gathering so much data they dont apply and solve the social problems.

NOTE:

A passion for truth combined with a people focus can result well-intentioned, untested experiments
which may look good on the drawing board, but not work in the real world.

D.

A mindset focused on elimination of hate and conflict in the world and maximizing the potential of each
person.

E.

Me/Me conflict: The Social attitude focuses on the good of others while the Theoretical search for truth
is focused on personal understanding. Could others be damaged in the process of searching for truth?
Truth at what price?

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31.

Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values

IV. Theoretical - Individualistic

V.

A.

Knowledge (The) is power (Ind).

B.

The search for and discovery of truth has, as its primary purpose, the advancement of position and
power.

C.

The game of life will be analyzed and researched before strategic alliances are formed.

D.

A cautious approach, a seeking to objectively understand will preface each action, desiring to predict
and control all possible outcomes.

E.

A wise strategist, perhaps a bit slow to react.

Theoretical - Traditional
A.

A passionate desire to understand, categorize and explain (The) the elements of the way to live (Tra).

B.

God is the greatest thinker: we can search, understand and know Him.

C.

A thinker and philosopher who searches explains the path to the divine and argues against other
explanations.

D.

A need to develop a specific, defendable dogma.

E.

Me/Me conflict: The unexplainable issues of many religions and experiences often defy explanation and
rationalization (The).

VI. Utilitarian - Aesthetic


A.

Beautiful possessions are the visible result of a wise use of resources.

B.

Desire to achieve the greatest beauty with the least resources.

C.

Form, beauty and harmony cannot stand alone, but must be combined with utility. Example: A national
scenic view is appreciated, so lets sell tickets for people to enjoy it.

D.

Me/Me conflict: The useful is often hurtful to the beautiful. Example: A scenic view is often
permanently damaged by the number of tourists who visit.

E.

Objects of beauty purchased require a return on the investment.

VII. Utilitarian - Social


A.

Me/Me conflict: Any investment in others requires a return at some point in the future. Will give but
wants a future benefit.

B.

Resources may be given to others, but not freely given. Expectations will be attached and accountability
will be required.

C.

Because of attached performance expectations, social progress will occur as people are held
accountable.

D.

Social projects will have a required return on investment expected.

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32.

Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values


E.

This mindset may be the true social reformer because of the accountability required: you give me this
promise and I will then donate the money.

F.

Me/Me conflict: Self-preservation, conservation and accumulation of resources conflicts with


other-oriented philosophy.

VIII. Utilitarian - Individualistic


A.

Resources are examined and utilized (Uti) to achieve the greatest position and form the strongest
alliances (Ind).

B.

Resources can be used to establish position and assert influence over others.

C.

He who has the gold makes the rules or he who makes the rules gets the gold.

D.

Resources and power are married with a unified objective focused on the advancement of self.

E.

This person can be a hero or a tyrant depending on their moral integrity.

IX. Utilitarian - Traditional

X.

A.

A traditionalist operates within a closed set of beliefs. Resources are used to promote and defend those
beliefs.

B.

The accumulation of resources may lead to a belief that the person is divinely appointed.

C.

Good at integrating past, present and future.

D.

Causes believed in are strongly supported with time and money.

Aesthetic - Social
A.

Others are appreciated; will see the beauty of people helping people.

B.

Elimination of social ills leads to a more harmonious, balanced society.

C.

May avoid involvement with the true painful aspects of social problems.

D.

Will enjoy the experience that relationships bring.

E.

Me/Me conflict: The other, self-denial focus of the social attitude opposes the personal appreciation
needed by the Aesthetic attitude. The pain of relationships may be problematic for the Aesthetic.

F.

May cause a person to be overly sensitive.

XI. Aesthetic - Individualistic


A.

The beautiful things of life (Aes) often indicate position and influence (Ind).

B.

Decisions may be made based on How does it look?

C.

Wants their legacy to be both beautiful and permanent.

D.

Will use aesthetics to sell ideas.

E.

Diplomacy and social grace has a winning look.

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33.

Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values


F.

Power may be used to eliminate personal pain, which may also eliminate the pain of others.

G.

Position can advance a more harmonious, balanced environment.

XII. Aesthetic - Traditional


A.

The beautiful in life points to the divine.

B.

God, the author of all beauty, is bringing out the beauty in me.

C.

The world is in a forming process, becoming all it can be.

D.

Me/Me conflict: the painful, suffering, self-denial aspect of many religious systems will be rejected. The
accepting of a good Deity who has the power to stop evil, yet allows it, may create internal conflict.

XIII. Social - Individualistic


A.

Will direct self and others toward the elimination of pain.

B.

Will lead others to be involved in worthy social causes.

C.

Community and social concern is a necessary garment for a leader to wear.

D.

Me/Me conflict: The advancement of self may conflict with concern for others. Both drives require
satisfaction.

XIV. Social - Traditional


A.

The reverence for each soul is the source of love for life.

B.

To help others achieve their potential is the essence of a system for living.

C.

Social acts undertaken have rules to be followed.

D.

Social causes supported promote the set of beliefs adopted by the person because of their keen interest
in the whole of society.

NOTE:

The Social and Traditional attitudes are friends with each other.

XV. Individualistic - Traditional


A.

Advancement and promotion of a specific closed book set of beliefs.

B.

Tradition used to guide people is now a vehicle for individual advancement.

C.

Person will lead the way in the dissemination, explanation and promotion of the adopted beliefs.

D.

May feel or sense a divine mandate; a higher purpose.

Copyright 1993-1998 Behavioral-Values Research Associates, Ltd.

34.

XVI. The Attitudes and Morality.


A.

The attitudes model does not measure ethics (good versus bad).

B.

Each attitude can become good or bad, depending on the ethics of the person.

C.

An ethical person is one who, regardless of the hierarchy of their attitudes, makes sure that each
decision is mutually beneficial to all involved. An ethical person will not put their stamp of approval on
an interaction requiring someone to lose, including self.

D.

Ethics is possible with each of the attitudes.

E.

Society tends to view Social and Traditional attitudes as ethical and better and Utilitarian,
Individualistic, Aesthetic, and Theoretical attitudes as somewhat self-centered. This view point is
incorrect.

NOTE:

If the trainer does not keep ethics out of the model, those being trained will become even more
judgemental of each other causing a breakdown in teamwork and communication. The evidence
indicates that any of the attitudes can create ethical scenarios or unethical scenarios. The attitudes model
does not measure morality.

XVII. Examples of the attitudes and ethics.


The following short examples will assist you in understanding the neutral nature of the attitudes.
A.

I want to make a dollar on every transaction, but only if everyone else makes at least a dollar also.
(Win/Win philosophy from Utilitarian #1 and Individualistic #2).

B.

People need what I have so much of, I just keep giving it away and now I dont have any cash flow.
(Lose/Win philosophy from Social #1 and Traditional #2: unethical) Note: The Social attitude contains a
propensity toward allowing others to win and self to lose. If anyone loses, including self, it is considered
unethical. The person should make sure he/she wins so he/she can continue to effectively help others.

C.

My education is important. Ill spend time with my son when he is older. ( Win/Lose philosophy form
Theoretical #1: unethical).

D.

Scenarios:
1.

A leader who uses his/her power to benefit others. (Win/win:ethical)

2.

Dictators (Win/Lose:unethical)

3.

Puffing and overselling in the business world. (Win/lose: unethical)

4.

Traditional beliefs forced on others. (Win/lose:unethical)

The effort, in understanding the six attitudes, is to assist others in achieving their maximum potential by and
through creating win/win scenarios.

Chapter Six

Interacting Attitudes

Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values


Each person, in order to achieve their maximum potential (Potential Self) needs to understand their top two
attitudes. This is effectively accomplished through the Success Discovery Process. Once the person is aware of
the how and why of their behavior and actions, the objective is to assist the person in planning their course to
achievement of their goals and dreams. A person once said There is no such thing as a good enemy. To achieve
their maximum potential, a person must learn to interact with society, take control of their life and chart a course
toward their lifelong goals, the Continuous Lifelong Learning process was designed to assist the person in the
process.
This chapter explains the Success Discovery Process and the Continuous Lifelong Learning Process, as well
as giving information on how the attitudes interact with one another.
I.

The Success Discovery Process (SDP).


A.

The Success Discovery Process (SDP) was designed in 1998 for one of the largest banks in the world
by Dr. Charles Cassetta. With the assistance of Bill Bonnstetter and Randy Jay Widrick it was perfected
and extended to the PIA&V instrument and has become the primary process to assist an individual in
self understanding.

B.

The SDP initially debriefs the PIA&V report in a one-on-one setting using two methods.

NOTE:

1.

First, the attitudes are ranked #1 - #6 and are debriefed from top to bottom, as indicated in the
previous chapter.

2.

Second, because the SDP is a private, confidential process and no one else is present, the persons
six attitudes are compared to the National Mean to speculate how they might perceive others and
be perceived by others.
a.

In a real life scenario, where the individual is interacting with a specific person or group, the
National Mean becomes irrelevant and the focus is placed on understanding the differences
between the actual #1 - #6 attitudes of the two persons.

b.

If, in the Success Discovery Process, the persons attitudes are significantly above or below
(20 pts) the National Mean, the person is taught that their viewpoint in that specific attitude
may be viewed by most people as out of the mainstream or different.

Less and less importance is being placed on the National Mean as research continues. The National
Mean is valuable to make speculations as to the overall drives of society and to observe norms and
patterns. However, the emphasis of TTI is to assist the individual toward maximum potential, knowing
that the success of the individual will lead to the success of the organization. When two or more
individuals PIA&V graphs can be observed (as in the SDP triad), the National Mean is irrelevant.
The National Mean becomes relevant when specific attitude graphs are unavailable and speculation is
needed. For example, in strategic planning, the overall average graph of the company could be
compared to the National Mean and speculation made as to how the company is perceived by society.
Changes could then be planned.

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II.

The Continuous Lifelong Learning process (CLL).


A.

All personal development toward maximum potential begins with an understanding of the real self (who
you are).

B.

Once the individual has gone through the Success Discovery Process, it is recommended that the
person begin the Continuous Lifelong Learning process in order to achieve their maximum potential.

C.

The CLL process is a mentoring process that walks the person through an advanced self awareness plan
that leads to goal setting and life changing action plans. It addresses the following areas:

D.

1.

An understanding of the howof your behavior (DISC).

2.

An understanding of the whyof your actions (PIA&V).

3.

An understanding of your strengths as viewed by others (Discovery 360 Feedback).

4.

The positive and negative impact you have on those around you, business and personal.

5.

A goal setting process of prioritization and action plans.

6.

Analysis of current competencies and capabilities.

7.

A seven-step lifelong improvement process.

Continuous Lifelong Learning is a mentoring process that was developed by Bill Bonnstetter, Randy
Jay Widrick, Dr. Charles Cassetta and Susan Murphy-Fronk in 1998. It is being quickly recognized as
one of the best mentoring programs available, primarily because of its strong and effective use of
validated behavioral models to assist in self understanding.

III. The Interacting Attitudes


The first method of reading the graph was to score the attitudes from #1 to #6. This provides insight into the
personal passions of the individual. Once the individual understands what moves her to action, you then can focus
on how she will tend to perceive others and be perceived by others. Her individual attitudes will interact in three
areas:
A.

You/Me interactions: These are interactions that occur when a person is involved in conversation,
discussion or activities with one or more other people.
1.

Positive example: Fred (The #1) enjoys discussions about virtually any topic with Sue (The #2).
Within five minutes of meeting each other they are involved in a deep conversation.

2.

Conflict example: Fred (The #1) has difficulty relating to Jim (Aes #1). Jim doesnt seem to always
have the facts. Fred is forever asking him for more information to substantiate his position. Jim
seems to think that a gut call is valid.

3.

Positive example: Dave (Soc #1) is good friends with Al (Tra #1). Several times a year, especially
holidays, they partner together and give away food and things to help the needy. Both tend to give

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freely of their time, talent and resources. Al seems to give only to specific causes that he believes
in, but thats not a big arguing point for Dave, although he thinks Al is a little narrow-minded.

B.

C.

D.

4.

Conflict example: Joan, on the other hand, (Uti #1, Soc #6), resents Dave and Al and all the food
drives and such they do at work. Not that she doesnt care, but Joan believes that they shouldnt be
helping people who are unwilling to work.

5.

Conflict example: Bob (Tra #1) often is offended by Rita (Tra #6). She doesnt seem to understand
how strongly he is committed to his principles and that he is not motivated by money or position.
Rita believes that Bob is closed-minded and judgmental. He is way too rigid and needs to
understand that there are more right ways than just his.

Me/Job interactions: If the job matches and rewards that which the person values, they will be able to
achieve and excel in the job. If the jobs systems, structures and activities are not in line with the
persons top two attitudes, that person will struggle and probably leave the job if something better is
offered (not necessarily money).
1.

Positive example: Jeff (The #1, Aes #2) loves the military. His job allows him to travel the world
and experience many different societies and cultures. He is continually given opportunities to learn,
often attending seminars at least once a month. The money isnt great (Uti #6), but thats
okay...money isnt everything. He is going to make it a career.

2.

Conflict example: Marshall (Soc #1, The #2) decided hed try sales. He hates it...having to talk
people into things. The used car they drive in seems to be fine. Why would they want to trade it
anyway? He enjoys talking to the people, but when it comes to the negotiating...oh boy...thats
tough. He has sold a few cars, but then wondered if he had pushed them too hard (Uti #5). Hes
thinking about finding another job.

Me/Environment interactions: If a persons top two attitudes are not rewarded within the environment,
inside or outside of work, the person will not find fulfillment in the environment, but instead will
develop an aversion to the environment.
1.

Positive example: Rick (Soc #1, Tra #2) is the Executive Director of a compassion ministry. Day
after day he is able to ease the pain and suffering of society and give hope through food, shelter and
clothing. To see the hope come back into a persons eyes is so fulfilling. He loves his work... the
only problem is that sometimes he cannot separate himself from the pain of the world around him.

2.

Conflict example: Julia (Uti #1, Ind #2) is in the military. She didnt realize it was the way it is.
She thought it might be a good way to get an education and maybe she could stick it out, but she
cant get ahead. You work your butt off and the person next to you gets the same pay. People
order you around just because they have been in a few days longer than you. Its a waste of time.

Further examples to aid in understanding.


1.

Theoretical #1 or #2: search for truth. Theoretical #5 or #6: negative or indifferent to a passion for
truth.

Example: Frank (The #1), when given a project, examines every last detail of the project, exploring all tangents to
their conclusion. His reports tend to be very long, causing frustration to the President, (The #6) who just wants the
minimal amount of knowledge to make a decision.

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2.

Utilitarian #1 or #2: passion for return on investment in all areas of life. Utilitarian #5 or #6:
negative or indifferent to the above passions.

Example: A USAF Colonel (Uti #6), becomes angry when he feels someone is trying to sell him something. He
calls them cookie pushers.
3.

Aesthetic #1 or #2: passion for form, harmony, beauty and balance. Aesthetic #5 or #6: negative or
indifferent to the above passions.

Example: Jeff (Aes #5), does not understand the feelings and expressions of Susan. She likes to go to the
mountains, enjoy the trees and the wind. He believes such efforts are a waste of time, often saying, Hey, it
doesnt have to be pretty, as long as it works. He doesnt understand why one area of Susans life seems to affect
all other areas.
4.

Social #1 or #2: passion to eliminate hate and conflict in the world. Social #5 or #6: no passion for
the above.

Example: Frank and Judy are married. Frank (Soc #2) continually donates his time to church and community
organizations. Judy (Soc #5), believes they take advantage of him and he should say no more often and invest
more time with his family. Why does he have to be such a bleeding heart?
5.

Individualistic #1 or #2: passion for position and power. Individualistic #5 or #6: negative or
indifferent to the above.

Example: Jill (Ind #1), aligns herself with people of position and stature whenever there is a company gathering.
She enjoys being around the movers and the shakers. Her best friend, Debbie (Ind #5), has no desire to hobnob
with the right people and Jills actions dont seem to bother her. She goes along for the fun of it.
6.

Traditional #1 or #2: passion to find the highest meaning of life. Traditional #5 or #6: negative or
indifferent to the above.

Example: Amy (Tra #5) is angered when she meets with the other managers who believe their way and methods
are totally right, just because they have had a little success. They (Tra #1) seem to be very closed-minded in their
willingness to accept the new ideas Amy brings to the table. Amy is definitely perceived as an out of the box
thinker...way out of the box.
E.

Often, by examining conflicts, you will find they emanate from differing world views.

F.

By understanding the other persons viewpoint, the conflicts can often be resolved.

G.

Attitudes interact in three ways:


1.

The top two attitudes of Person A interact with the dominant attitudes of the other person, job or environment.

2.

The top two attitudes of Person A create conflict with the #5 and #6 attitudes of the other person,
job or environment.

3.

The #5 and #6 attitudes of Person A are negative toward the dominant attitudes of the other person,
job or environment.

H.

Interactions between the #1 and #2 attitudes of two persons can be friendly or conflictive.

I.

We each see the world differently. These different pictures can cause interpersonal You/Me conflict.

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J.

Based on the hierarchy of our attitudes, that which we value or devalue in life causes conflict with
others who value different things in life.

IV. Interacting You/Me attitudes (each attitude could be in the #1 or #2 position of each person).
A.

The-The: Objective discussion and search for truth could differ on facts.

B.

The-Uti: Search for truth can conflict with utility.

C.

The-Aes: Objective truth clashes with subjective experience.

D.

The-Soc: To know the truth for self is opposite of helping others.

E.

The-Ind: Knowledge is power.

F.

The-Tra: The unproveable aspects of religion are rejected.

G.

Uti-Uti: Excel in application of resources; may be competitive.

H.

Uti-Aes: The useful is often hurtful to the beautiful.

I.

Uti-Soc: Gaining resources for self is opposed to other orientation.

J.

Uti-Ind: Wealth is power. Utility leads to control.

K.

Uti-Tra: Resources can be used to achieve and promote the divine.

L.

Aes-Aes: Will enjoy the mutual focus on beauty and harmony.

M. Aes-Soc: Self-actualization vs. other actualization.

V.

N.

Aes-Ind: Beauty and form may enhance position.

O.

Aes-Tra: The beautiful side of life and religion is accepted.

P.

Soc-Soc: Both are in harmony to help and assist others.

Q.

Soc-Ind: Other-oriented focus opposes self-advancement.

R.

Soc-Tra: Helping others points to the divine in life.

S.

Ind-Ind: A jockeying for position or a strategic alliance to advance both positions.

T.

Ind-Tra: Change versus no change.

U.

Tra-Tra: If agreed, unity of purpose. If a different set of beliefs....war!

Understanding your attitudes and those of others will assist immensely in diffusing a conflictive situation.

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Recognizing Others Attitudes


Through dialogue with another person, you can recognize the hierarchy of Sprangers attitudes and identify the
dominant attitudes. Communication will be enhanced and conflict diffused by seeing the world through the eyes
of the other person.
I.

Keys to Attitude Recognition.


A.

B.

C.

Listening.
1.

Attitudes are categorized into the why of behavior. Why do we do what we do?

2.

To recognize a persons attitudes, dialogue is required with the person or with someone who knows
the person well.

3.

Instead of assuming everyone in life is like you, understanding the other persons viewpoint is the
key to attitude recognition, meaning you have to ask questions and listen.

4.

Steven Coveys fifth principle, Seek to understand before you are understood, applies.

Questioning.
1.

The one who asks the questions is the one who controls the conversation.

2.

To understand others viewpoints, they have to do most of the talking.

3.

Two types of questions can be randomly utilized.


a.

Open-ended questions ask for feelings or opinions, encouraging a person to verbalize. How do
you like your new job? What concerns do you have regarding our companys direction?

b.

Closed-ended (lawyer type) questions ask for a yes, no or a fact response. What is your
education level? Did you want red or green?

4.

Closed-ended questions can be excessively confrontive and are best used after several open-ended
questions to nail down a fact.

5.

Open-ended questions are friendlier, allowing for broader, indirect feedback.

Open-mindedness and desire to understand.


1.

As you dialogue with others, rather than immediately judge them as wrong, attempt to understand
why they think the way they do.

2.

How did they arrive at that world view?

3.

If you think you have the answer to a question, rather than give your answer, explore what their
answer might be.

4.

In your exploration process of understanding their viewpoint, you will find you appreciate, in many
cases, how they arrived at their world view and how they can defend it.

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5.

II.

Roger Dawson, in Secrets of Power Negotiating said Smart is dumb. Dumb is smart! Play
dumb, listen and ask questions to understand.

Steps to Attitude Recognition.


A.

If you want to know what a person values, look where they spend their time, money and energy.

B.

Actions speak louder than words.

C.

Step 1: Focus on a person you wish to better understand.

NOTE:

1.

What is their occupation?

2.

Do they enjoy their occupation?

Often, in our initial introduction to a person, we ask questions concerning their career field. Typically,
What do you do? and How do you like it? are two questions asked immediately. Note that the first
is a closed-ended question and the second is open-ended.

D.

Step 2: List the activities where the selected person invests time, money and energy. (Information can be
obtained through dialogue with the person or someone who knows the person.)

E.

Step 3: Review data obtained from Step 1 and 2.


1.

Does the data give insight into the dominant attitude?

2.

Which attitude(s) seems to be driving the persons actions?

F.

Step 4: List each of the attitudes in order from #1-#6.

G.

Step 5: Focus your communication and/or presentation on the arena of their dominant attitude.

H.

1.

Theoretical: Focus on the search and discovery of truth and the value of knowledge.

2.

Utilitarian: Focus on adequate return on investment or what is useful.

3.

Aesthetic: Focus on form, harmony and self-actualization.

4.

Social: Focus on helping others achieve their potential.

5.

Individualistic: Focus on advancement of position and power.

6.

Traditional: Focus on the divine in life, a higher meaning.

Step 6: Observe and alter.


1.

If you communicate to a person in the arena of their dominant attitudes, they will move into action
because you are valuing that which they value.

2.

If you communicate with a person against their attitude(s), they will be negative or indifferent to
your conversation or actions.

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43.

3.

Remember, a person may have two, three or sometimes four attitudes above the National Mean!
The top two impel to action.

III. Points to Remember


A.

Sun Tsu states, The ability to recognize, change and adapt to the enemy to obtain victory is
called...GENIUS.

B.

Attitude recognition is primarily based on dialogue, as opposed to observation.

Research and Validation

Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values

MANAGERIAL DECISION MAKING


The linkage between managerial values and decision making has been widely documented (England, 1967;
England, Dhingra & Agarwal, 1974; England & Keaveny, 1969; Guth & Tagur, 1965; Hegarthy, 1976).
Much research on managerial decision making in cross-cultural settings has relied on differences in values to
explain the variance in decision preferences.
Dr. David D. Palmers research on personal values looked at managers with similar values in the United States
and India. By clustering the values into two groups, Group I had managers who scored above the mean in
Utilitarian, Individualistic and Theoretical. Group II contained managers who scored above the mean in Social,
Aesthetic and Traditional.
Group I placed their emphasis on economic utility and rationality. It could be predicted that they would be less
likely to support decisions which were not clearly financially advantageous to the firm. Group II tended to favor
more strongly those decisions involving employee safety, personnel development and water pollution. There
were men and women in both groups.

TOP SALESPEOPLE RESEARCH


In 1997, 166 organizations provided TTI with the Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values results on their top
salesperson. They came primarily from the following industries: floor covering, auto sales, real estate, insurance,
investments and mortgage brokers.
PIA&V Data
Top Sales Performers
N = 166
119 males
47 females
Each person was viewed based on their top choice. This type of view provides a clearer understanding of the real
attitudes from each top performer. The results are:
Utilitarian
Traditional
Individualistic
Social
Theoretical
Aesthetic

72%
8%
7%
7%
4%
2%
___
100%

As you can see, Utilitarian was the number one driving force for 72% of the top performers. All other attitudes
were represented but there was a big difference between Utilitarian and the rest of the field. A total of 119 out of
the 166 had Utilitarian as their first choice.
When we looked at those who had a different attitude as first choice but also had Utilitarian as their next driving
force, our numbers jumped again. 137 out of the 166 had Utilitarian attitude as their first or second choice. 83%
of the top performers fell into this category.

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When the total group was analyzed on their top 3 choices, 152 out of 166 (92%) had Utilitarian as one of their top
three. 92% of the top performers had Utilitarian as their top three preferences. Only 8% had Utilitarian in 4th,
5th or 6th place.

GENERAL CONCLUSIONS
The top performers are greatly influenced by the attitude of Utilitarian.
Even when Utilitarian was not their first choice it impacted their overall attitude.
Those with Utilitarian as highest (119 out of 166) had the following as second:
Theoretical
Individualistic
Aesthetic

26%
35%
7%

Social
Traditional

14%
18%

Knowledge and power were the two most common attitudes combined with Utilitarian for success.
Utilitarian attitude is very important for salespeople.
Only 14 people (8%) out of 166 cannot be explained with graphs alone. Such things as territory, products
sold, age, etc. need to be looked at as they are an exception to the attitudes rule. Most were of the D and I
behavior so this could add another dimension to the evaluation.
Also, 28% of the top performing salespeople were female.
A persons attitudes and values and behavior are a better prediction of sales performance than behavior
alone. (TTI has preached this for many years.)
With the appropriate attitude and all things being equal, all behavioral styles can be a top performer.

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PIA&V Utilitarian as #1
Traditional
8%
Individualistic
7%

Theoretical
4%

Social
7%
Aesthetic
2%

Utilitarian
72%

Theoretical

Utilitarian

Aesthetic

Social

Individualistic

Traditional

PIA&V Utilitarian as #1 or 2

Other
17%

Utilitarian
83%

Utilitarian

Other

PIA&V Utilitarian as #1, 2 or 3


Other
8%

Utilitarian
92%

Utilitarian

Other

SUMMARY A ND CONCLUSIONS

The value patterns of male and female managers were more similar than dissimilar.
Managers with high altruistic (social) values will favor people in their decisions.
Managers with high Utilitarian or Individualistic values will favor the bottom line.
Managers (male and female) with similar value clusters will make similar decisions even if they live in
different countries.
Female managers tend to score lower than men managers on Theoretical values.
Female managers tend to score higher on Social and Aesthetic values, although differences were not
significant.

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Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values

Value Clusters by Occupational Groups


General Business Population
Middle to top management

Bankers
Middle to top management

High Utilitarian
High Individualistic

High Utilitarian
High Individualistic

Life Insurance Companies


Sales Managers
High Theoretical
High Utilitarian
High Individualistic

Employed Engineers
High Theoretical
High Utilitarian
High Individualistic

Basic premise to remember when dealing with a persons value set:


1. Values tend to interact with each other.
Example: High Individualistic value with a low Social value. This type will tend to respond to a set of
circumstances differently than the type with high Social and low Individualistic values. The interaction and the
relationship causes different types of attitudes to prevail.
Most of TTIs studies show two or three values are dominant. Example: Values that are most important to that
person will impel action.
(An individual must be sure to look at the dominant values to see how they relate to those values that are deemed
to be less important.) The very lack of importance of other values can be significant in itself.
2. Over time, ones beliefs, needs, wants and desires change. Values can and will change over a period of time.
As ones values become satisfied and needs are met, another value may then become more important.
Example: For years a Utilitarian value is seen as being the most important aspect of why a person does things a
certain way. But, once the children are educated, the house is paid for and the individuals needs become less
materially-oriented, another value may begin to surface. Thus, a person with a high Utilitarian value may then
shift that value to a lower Utilitarian standing and let a higher Social value have more influence on his decisions
and actions. In other words, They have what they need now, helping others to achieve Utilitarian needs
becomes of paramount importance to them.

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This contradicts the statements of Piaget and Massey who felt that a persons values were determined by the time
they were three or four years old. However, this theory was formulated in a world in which change was not
commonplace. Today the body of information doubles every two years. This pressure causes and allows for
individuals to change their outlook.
African-Americans, the Gray Panthers, Womens Rights groups, etc., have all contributed to major social changes
in the last few years. We are continually being bombarded by change, but people tend to concentrate on an
external more than an internal change.
When you add government regulations, religious movements and other crosscurrents, the messages that people
receive are being constantly challenged.
Values give continuity to all decisions and actions on any level of goal setting. Values are influenced by two
areas:
Affective the area of feelings
Cognitive the knowledge we have
These areas play a major role in deciding which values will remain constant and which values will change with
time and expanded experience.
Example: A person chooses to pursue a graduate level scholastic program. Why? This may be because of a high
Utilitarian value the need for an increase in salary.
or
Desire for power. This person may have decided that she wants to be in charge of her destiny, as well as that of
others.
or
Acquisition of knowledge. This person just wants to know more about a particular area of interest. He enjoys
learning about ideas. This type wants to add to the store of personal knowledge.
The decision to return to a university can be made for one reason or another. People have something (value) that
prompts them to make a decision which leads them to pursue a course of action.
Can you visualize how this decision may have long-term effects for those persons who share the same dream? It
is possible for the same value or group of values to continue to affect future decisions.
Things of great value are those that will be diligently sought as possessing worth or interest. Values may be
considered incentives to action because they offer the stimuli for behavior. These questions may be clarified
when you consider that values operate at three different levels; each capable of providing motivation but, also, to
the degree that motivation will vary considerably.
Personal Level: This is the highest degree of internal motivation, because the person is gaining satisfaction at the
personal level or at the present level. This value or set of values is learned in a positive and personally pleasing
way and is responded to from within.
Superimposed values: These may be influenced from the outside, as in business that influences the employees.
The value is a learned response, but the response is not as personally intense; and therefore, the motivation is not
as strong or as long-lasting.
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An example of this superimposed value is the employee who has been taught to believe the only way to get ahead
in business is to become a manager (power-seeking, Individual), but he/she is really a loner, more intellectually
curious and good technically (Theoretical). Such a person will respond initially and try to climb the managerial
ladder, but usually will become disenchanted and perhaps, unsuccessful relatively early in the climb. In other
words, the true motivation (value) was not being satisfied and was discarded in a relatively short time.
Repressed: (Also known as presently inactive) In some respects, this is the highest level in terms of internal
motivation and personal life satisfaction. A repressed value is one whose time has not yet come. You might
think of these values as presently subjugated or subdued. For example, there is perhaps one or more among you
who would like nothing more than to be a poet on the Left Bank, but who also likes food with your meals!
Therefore, this person decides that, at least for now, working at a less pleasing job is better than starving.
People tend to want to satisfy their values and attempt to attain their values in a variety of ways; from a vocational
pursuit, to waiting for retirement. Remember, in the mid-life crisis we see a sudden floundering; a person will
often make an abrupt career change or even change spouses. The happiest and most productive people I know are
those who understand their value needs and aggressively pursue their satisfaction.
First, some values do not remain constant during an entire lifetime, but rather as one (or more) become satisfied,
one value tends to move aside and another moves to the top of your personal priority list.
Second, the various drives tend to pair up, i.e., the two values that are most important to a person at a given
time seem to both influence and complement each other to produce a specific effect.

Values and Behavior

CONCLUSION
Very low correlation between values and behavior indicates their independence.
Low correlation indicates two separate and valuable instruments.

Copyright 1993-1998 Behavioral-Values Research Associates, Ltd.

51.

Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values

Perceived Accuracy of Software Reports


The Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values instrument is a widely used, objective instrument that assesses the
value structure of an individual on six dimensions. The six dimensions evaluated include Theoretical (The),
Utilitarian (Uti), Aesthetic (Aes), Social (Soc), Individualistic (Ind) and Traditional (Tra). The interpretation of
the scores on these scales provides a mechanism to understand the value structure of an individual that may
significantly influence his/her behaviors. In interpreting the scores for each of the Personal Values the strengths
indicated by the level of the score are emphasized. For example, an individual scoring high on the Utilitarian
value would be described as an individual with strong emphasis on materialistic objects and a tendency to
perceive their activities in terms of time, talent and resources. On the other hand, an individual scoring low on
this scale would be seen as one who disregards these material things and places a greater emphasis on service
rather than material gain. The descriptors used for this scale provide a view of the individuals value structure,
which may allow the client and the supervisor to have better insight into those values that motivate, direct and
reinforce the individual.
The utility of the interpretation of these personal values is based, at least in part, on the extent to which the client
recognizes these characteristics as being an accurate description of their value structure. The present study
attempted to determine the clients perceived accuracy of these interpretations and to provide some information
regarding the factors which may influence these perceptions of accuracy.

Methods
A sample of 293 individuals who had completed the Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values as part of an overall
assessment of interests and values were asked to rate the accuracy of the interpretations. Each individual was
requested to provide a percentage figure that indicated the extent to which they felt the interpretation was an
accurate description of their value structure. The individuals were free to rate the accuracy from zero to one
hundred percent accurate.

Results
Table 1 shows the distribution of the frequency of the percentage ratings of accuracy of interpretations. As can be
seen from the table, the overall range was truncated with a range from 70 percent and 79 percent, 45.05 percent
rated the accuracy at between 80 percent and 89 percent and 44.37 percent rated the accuracy of the description
between 90 percent and 99 percent accurate.
The truncated range is indicative of the very high level of agreement expressed by the subjects in the sample.
Taken as a whole, these data suggest that the interpretations are seen as valid, accurate descriptions of the
individuals self-perceptions.

Discussion
The overall data on perceived accuracy of interpretations indicate that, in general, the individuals tested felt the
descriptors were an accurate reflection of their value structure, and the level of agreement was generally very
high. Over two-thirds of the individuals under study rated the accuracy at 85 percent or better. This could be
interpreted as a general satisfaction with the description of the individualsvalues. This high level of perceived
accuracy can be interpreted as indicating that the descriptors presented to them were viewed as valid and
generally acceptable to the individual. It is important to note that the accuracy rating is based on the overall
impression of the accuracy of all of the descriptions presented in the Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values
report. The present database does not allow a more in-depth analysis of the extent to which each of the scale
interpretations is considered to be accurate, but rather focuses on the overall view of the accuracy of the
Copyright 1993-1998 Behavioral-Values Research Associates, Ltd.

52.

Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values


interpretation given from the data provided in the Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values Instrument. The
analysis of those factors related to the level of accuracy provides an interesting form of construct validation for
the nature of the instrument.
Table 1
Frequency of Percentage Ratings
of Accuracy of Interpretations
% Accurate
70
75
77
80
85
88
90
92
95
97
98
99

Number
11
19
1
65
66
1
66
1
53
1
1
8
293

% of 100

Cum. %

3.75
6.48
.34
22.18
22.52
.34
22.52
.34
18.09
.34
.34
2.82

3.75
10.23
10.57
32.75
55.27
55.61
78.13
78.47
96.56
96.90
97.23
100

Interval Validation Required


The Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values report was designed to be self-validating. Simply run all the people
from a particular job through the system and compare their reports with performance. Top performers in any job
will be graphically different from low performers.
EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION
Validation for purposes of the EEOC law is the technical process whereby the employer defends the use of a
selection device or a standard demonstrates a very close relationship between performance against the standard
and performance on the job.
A company may not use any selection device or standard that has an adverse impact on the protected group. The
protected group is usually a minority person, a female or a person over the age of forty. But, it can be anyone.
The Behavioral and the Values Instruments used by Target Training International, Ltd. have never been
challenged by EEOC. The Behavioral Instrument was first used in 1959.
EEOC legislation was aimed at employers who administered tests which were not job related or who
discriminated against a protected group. For example, giving a math test to keep someone from being hired as a
police officer was deemed not job related and therefore, illegal.
The Behavior and the Values Instruments are job related. It is relatively easy to determine if they are job related.
Simply test your top performers with the bottom performers in a particular job. There will be a difference in 99
percent of all jobs for which performance criteria has been developed.
The Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values report will remove human bias and truly provide the documentation
required to prove a bonafide business necessity. The use of proper instruments will reduce or eliminate the risk of
EEOC complaints.
Copyright 1993-1998 Behavioral-Values Research Associates, Ltd.

53.

Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
A special thank you to Graham Clinch for his contribution to this Personal Interests, Attitudes and Values manual
and for his study.

Copyright 1993-1998 Behavioral-Values Research Associates, Ltd.

54.