Physics Rules

© All Rights Reserved

121 visualizações

Physics Rules

© All Rights Reserved

- Sparkschart - Chemistry
- Physics Rules 5
- Physics Rules 4
- Physics Rules 3
- Quick Study Academic Physics 600dpi
- Calculus Reference (SparkCharts)
- Physics Rules 2
- 107 Rules in Physics
- Reproductive System Notes
- Chemical Basis of Life
- Physics Rules 1
- Digestive System
- Anatomy and Physiology
- Human Physiology Master
- 227213407-Trigonometry-Spark-Charts.pdf
- Viruses
- MCAT Biology Notes 2.pdf
- DNA Notes
- Botany-QuickStudy.pdf
- 33471063 SC Physics Formulas

Você está na página 1de 9

Physics Overview

The following does not cover every facet of this introductory college level course. It does contain key information to solve complex problems. The student should refer to

the previous review sheets for details on Newtonian Mechanics, Thermal Physics, Electricity & Magnetism, Waves & Optics, and Modern Physics.

The pages that follow focus heavily on major principles that allow a student to recognize the nature of a complex problem and move smoothly between all five strands

taught in this course. It pays particular attention to Energy, and also addresses Force, Kinematics, Collisions, Circular Motion, Graphing, Rates, and Electricity and

Magnetism. Many items are mentioned repetitively. The information may seem redundant, however you will be asked in exams to use the information in a variety of

ways. So some of the same information is presented in a variety of ways.

This document is a review, designed for students familiar with the variables and equations. The important equations to begin a problem are given, but the subsequent

substitutions, of minor equations given with the test, is up to the student.

The following equations and facts are not given on the exam, but are essential for your success.

v=

x

t

v=

2 r

T

g =G

mAv Ai + mB vB i = mAv A f + mB vB f

mAv Ai + mB vB i =( mA + mB ) v AB f

1

1

mghi + mv 2i =mgh f + mv 2 f

2

2

mghtop =

1 2

mv bottom

2

m

r2

( mA + mB ) vAB i =mAvA f

+ mB vB f

1 2 1 2

kx = mv

2

2

K lost / dissipated = K i K f

qV =

1 2

mv

2

And any combination of Work Energy Theorem and Conservation of Energy that might be applicable to the problem.

Adiabatic (fast)

Q=0

U = Q W

so

U =

W

Isothermal (slow) U

U = Q W so

=

0

Q =W

expands. W work done on engine.

Gas is compressed.

+Q heat is added.

Q heat is subtracted.

E=k

q

r2

P = I 2R

P=

V2

R

E=

hc

Lenses: Rays thru center keep going straight. Rays arriving parallel go thru far focus on convex lenses, and the back trace goes thru the near focus in concave lens.

Mirror: Rays thru 2F bounce straight back. Rays arriving parallel go thru the focus on concave mirrors, and the back trace goes thru the focus on convex mirrors.

Right Hand Rule: Used for positive current. Thumb is +particle / +current, fingers are magnetic field lines, and palm is force. Use left hand for -particles / -current.

V= Ir

A changing flux induces a current in a wire. The direction of the current is the opposite that specified by the right hand rule.

The current induced in the wire generates its own magnetic field, which is opposite to the field that caused the emf.

Energy Overview

Energy is a central concept that connects the various strands of physics. Through the Work Energy Theorem

and the Principle of Conservation of Energy a host of equations and possibilities help generate solutions.

Work Energy Theorem

Work is a change in any energy

W = Energy

Newtonian Mechanics

K=

Us =

1 2

mv

2

U g = mgh

1 2

kx

2

Work, in the center, is equal to any change in energy around the circle. For

example:

Ug =

Q= ncT

E = hf

Thermal

Physics

Q

= mcT

W= F d cos

Modern

Physics

E=

Gm1m2

r

hc

Q = mL

1

2

W=

K = m ( v )

2

so

1

2

F d cos = m ( v )

2

W=

U g =

mg h

so

F d cos =

mg h

W=

Q =

mcT

so

F d cos =

mcT

W=

U E =

qV

so

F d cos =

qV

Conservation of Energy

Energy can change forms

Total Energyi = Total Energy f

Any energy around the circle can change into another energy around the

circle. For example:

U E = qV

1

U c = QV

2

1

U c = CV 2

2

1

2

m ( v ) = mg h

2

=

qV

1

2

m ( v )

2

1

2

m ( v ) = mcT

2

so

1

1

mghi + mv 2i =mgh f + mv 2 f

2

2

Power: If work and energy are important, then any variable that has work / energy in its equation is equally important.

Power is the rate that work is done or that energy is delivered, expended, or used. So from power we can get work and energy,

and from work and energy we can get power. One easy way is to set time to 1.0 s. Then power and work / energy have the same

value, but different units. If you find the time later in the problem just multiply or divide by the time to solve as necessary.

Start a problem by asking What is the object doing?, then What is causing it to do that?.

What direction is it moving in (if two find x and y components)? Is it moving at constant v (this includes v = 0)? Is it accelerating? Force? Energy change?

See if energy solves the problem first. Then think force and kinematics.

Most common usage is boxed. But, the most common usage is often a special case. Knowing the overall equations and logic will allow you to solve any scenario.

Situation

Kinematics

Constant Velocity

FN

v=

v

Fg

Energy

motion is horizontal

Fg = mg

x = vt

FN = mg cos

W= F d cos

F =

0

x

t

or

d or x

Force

Always think sum of force

W= F d cos 90

o

W =0

0 slope

FN = mg

Use Kinematic Equations

Accelerating in x

v=

vo x + at

x

FN

Fret

FP

Fg

d or x

vx =vo x + 2a ( x xo )

2

1

x =xo + vo x t + at 2

2

F =

ma

Fx = Fp x Fretarding x

example

Fx = Fp x Ffr

v=

vo y + gt

y

v y =vo y + 2 g ( y yo )

Fret

1

y =yo + vo y t + gt 2

2

h or y

Fg

Horizontal projectile or

dropped object

y=

1 2

gt

2

Wx =

Fx d cos

W= F d cos 0o

W= F d

W = Energy

1

2

W=

K = m ( v ) The only thing changing is velocity, so K is changing.

2

In projectile motion

x = vo x t

Accelerating in y

Fy = Fg Fretarding y

example

Fy = Fg Fair resistance

Wy =

Fy h

W= Fg h

No retarding forces

W=

U g =

mg h Height is changing, so U is changing.

1

2

W=

K = m ( v ) Velocity is changing, so K is changing.

2

mg =

h

1

2

m ( v )

2

1

1

mghi + mv 2i =mgh f + mv 2 f Energy conserved.

2

2

Situation

Kinematics

Kinematic Equations Apply

Inclines

a

vx =vo x + 2a ( x xo )

2

1

x =xo + vo x t + at 2

2

x

Fret

v=

vo x + at

x

FN

v=

vo y + gt

y

v y =vo y + 2 g ( y yo )

2

Fg

y =yo + vo y t +

Down a curve

Steep slope, large a

Less steep, a

decreaseing

1 2

gt

2

Force

Energy

is caused by the addition of

F g and F N . The resultant of

these two vectors is F g sin.

Since the natural motion is

down the slope set that

direction as +. In some

problems it is useful to

reverse this (if the object is

going up hill).

W= F d

W= Fx d x

W= Fy d y

=

F Fg sin Fretarding

FN = mg cos

Kinematics Fail

Force Fails

as the vectors F g and F N

change. In addition the

direction is changing.

the vectors F g and F N

change.

1

2

W=

K = m ( v )

2

W=

U g =

mg h

mg =

h

Pendulum or Swing

R

y

x

h

h= R y

y=

R x = R cos

2

1

2

m ( v )

2

1

1

mghi + mv 2i =mgh f + mv 2 f

2

2

Energy is directionless.

1

2

W=

K = m ( v )

2

W=

U g =

mg h

Acceleration is changing.

a=0

constant

velocity from

this point on

mg =

h

are designed for changing

velocity, but only work for

uniform (constant)

acceleration.

1

2

m ( v )

2

1

1

mghi + mv 2i =mgh f + mv 2 f

2

2

mghtop =

1 2

mv bottom

2

Kinematics Fail

Force Fails

curve above.

curve above.

1

2

W=

K = m ( v )

2

either end.

at the ends, as is the

acceleration.

W=

U g =

mg h

the lowest point

the middle, and so is the

acceleration.

Energy is directionless.

mghtop =

1 2

mv bottom If it has no initial velocity and goes all the way down.

2

At the ends it is all potential no motion, in the middle it

is all motion no potential.

Situation

Kinematics

Object on string,

Vertical loop

v

FT

Center seeking.

Unlike previous scenarios, the object definitely has velocity at the top.

Instantaneous velocity is

tangent to the circlular

motion.

sum of force in circular

motion. Toward center is +.

There is a height difference from top to bottom, but the object has speed at

the top as well. And the bottom may not necessarily be the lowest point in

the problem

2 r

T

Acceleration is toward

center, centripetal.

ac =

Object on string,

Horizontal loop

FT

Fg

FT

Object turning on

flat surface

FN

Ffr

Fg

Roller Coaster

v

r

F=

FT + Fg

c

1

1

2

2

mghtop i + mvtop i = mghbottom f + mvbottom f

2

2

F=

FT Fg

c

Center seeking.

No work is done

Instantaneous velocity is

tangent to the circlular

motion.

sum of force in circular

motion. Toward center is +.

W= F d cos

2 r

T

Acceleration is toward

center, centripetal.

ac =

Fc

Tangential Velocity

v=

Fg

Energy

Tangential Velocity

v=

ac

Force

Fc + Fg

v

r

2 r

T

ac =

=

FT

W= F d cos 90o

W =0

At any instant the direction of motion (tangent to the circle) is perpendicular

to the center seeking F c , the F T , and the F g.

Tangential Velocity

v=

to tail). Then solve for F T .

And for one revolution there is no total displacement from the origin, since a

single revolution brings you back to the starting point.

Why is there circular motion?

No work is done

car turning on a road.

See above.

Fc = Ffr

v

r

sections that have

constant slope.

have passengers feel

weightless at the top of the

loop

You can solve for any point A using any other point B. Use the complete

equation. The car will usually have both speed and height at every point.

An exception is the lowest point on the track, or if it starts with zero velocity

at the top of a hill (this is unlikely since roller-coasters dont stop at the top of

each hill). If it has velocity and height at the top you need to include both.

energy.

Fc = Fg

1

1

2

2

mghA + mv A =mghB + mvB

2

2

Situation

Spring

-x

x=0

+x

m

Kinematics

Force

Kinematics Fail

Force Fails

Pendulum above.

Pendulum above.

maximum +/- x

(amplitude)

at maximum +/- x

(amplitude).

x=0

x = 0, and so is the

acceleration.

Potential difference.

m

Particle accelerated

by electric field

x = vx o t

y=

Charged particle in a

magnetic field

1 2

at get a from F

2

v=

2 r

T

ac =

v2

r

into speed of the object pushed / pulled by the spring

1 2 1 2

kx = mv

2

2

1 2 1 2 1 2

1

kx i + mv i = kx f + mv 2 f

2

2

2

2

W=

U E =

qV

qV =

1 2

mv

2

1

1

qVi + mv 2i =

qV f + mv 2 f

2

2

plate with opposite sign.

W= F d

F

q

F = qE

F =

ma

ma = qE

E=

the particle will follow a

circular path.

1

2

W=

U S =k ( x )

2

1

W=

K = mv 2

2

opposite direction.

But, + particles are more

massive, dont accelerate

as quickly, and have lower

final velocities.

Charged particle

parallel to plates

1

2

W=

K = m ( v )

2

W = Energy

F = qE

Velocity increases.

Energy

Energy is directionless.

Fc = FB

v2

m = qvB

r

W

= qE d

No work is done

W= F d cos 90o

W =0

At any instant the direction of motion (tangent to the circle) is perpendicular

to the center seeking F c , and the F B .

Collisions

Momentum is always conserved in a collision

Know the following equations

Circular Motion

The key to circular motion is to ask:

What is causing it to stay in a circle?

mAv Ai + mB vB i = mAv A f + mB vB f

mAv Ai + mB vB i =( mA + mB ) v AB f

( mA + mB ) vAB i =mAvA f + mB vB f

mC vC , mD vD , etc.

If the collisions happen in two dimensions, x and y, turn all mv vectors into x

and y components. Solve for the result in the x direction and then solve for the

result in the y direction. Take the final x and y and use Pythagorean Theorem

to find the overall resultants.

Total energy is also conserved, but energy changes forms.

Perfectly elastic collision (An idealized unrealistic case)

Kinetic energy is conserved in this rare case.

Use these two equations together (System of 2 equations & 2 varibles).

mAv Ai + mB vB i = mAv A f + mB vB f

1

1

1

1

2

2

mAv A i + mB vB i =

mAv A 2 f + mB vB 2 f

2

2

2

2

Inelastic Collision (The common type)

Kinetic energy is lost or dissipated.

Any force pointing away from the center is a negative force.

It is not drawn on free body diagrams since it is the net force.

Any force (gravity, tension, friction, normal, magnetic, etc.) can contribute to F c

Possible equations

To find minimum speed at the top of a roller coaster loop.

Fc = Fg

Fc = Ffr

Fc = FT

=

Fc

FT Fg

2

F=

FT + Fg

c

An object (at the top) spinning at the end of a string in a

F=

FT Fg

c

vertical circle.

An object (at the bottom) spinning at the end of a string in a

Fc = FN

Fc = FB

vertical circle.

Inside an amusement park ride (Gravitron)

For a charged particle in a magnetic field.

K lost / dissipated = K i K f

v2

r

Velocity is Tangential

kinetic energy is K f K i . The value is the same, but the sign is

reversed.)

1

1

1

2

2 1

K lost / dissipated = mAv A i + mB vB i mAv A 2 f + mB vB 2 f

2

2

2

2

The kinetic energy lost often turns into heat from the impact

K lost / dissipated= mcT

Fc = m

v=

2 r

T

If the object is released (the force stops working) then the object will move at

this velocity in a direction tangent to the circle at the time of the release.

In the graphed examples the y intercepts and slopes would depend on

where the problem started and on how fast the rate is changing.

d

t

Velocity is the slope (derivative) of distance time graph

v

+v

v=0

v=

Acceleration:

a=

change in velocity

v

t

+a

d

d

t

+a

v

v

t

P=

I=

line. Its like a traffic jam on one road with no alternate routes. All the cars are

going the same speed on the entire road, so the amount of cars passing any

point in a certain time interval is the same everywhere.

Current adds in a parallel circuit. The electrons have multiple

pathways to choose from. If 100 C arrive at a fork in the circuit they must split

up. Due to conservation of charge, the amount of electrons in the parallel

paths must add up to the amount of electrons arriving at the fork.

emf:

Displacement is the area (integral) under the velocity graph.

B A cos

t

= Bv

*** Work is the area under the pV (pressure volume curve).

Isobaric Line W = pV

loop of wire must move through the field, or the loop must be getting larger, or

the loop must be rotating.

Loop moved thru

Bar moved, enlarging loop

Loop rotates

Isothermal Line =

U 0, so

=

Q W

Q

t

Current stays the same in a series circuit. All the resistors are in

W

t

Remember you can convert directly to work (or energy) from power if you solve

the problem using 1 second for time. (Example: 100 W, means 100 J in one

second). If you get information about time later in the problem, just multiply by

the amount of time to find the actual total work (or energy). Example: If the

proceeding 100 W was delivered for 1 minute, then 100 J were delivered each

second for 60 s. So 6000 J of work (energy) was done, used, or delivered.

d

t

Power:

B A cos

t

Force Overview

Force is a central concept that connects the various strands of physics. Drawing a free body diagram will aid in

problems that have an object with two or more different forces acting on it. If an object is in equilibrium, the

sum of the forces is zero (vertical components cancel with vertical components, horizontal with horizontal). If a

an object is accelerating (straight line or circular), then the sum of the forces will equal the objects mass times

acceleration.

Free body diagrams

Forces should be represented by an arrow extending from the

object (usually represented by a dot), and be clearly labeled to

identify the force.

Newtonian Mechanics

Ff = FN

FN

mm

F

=

mg

= G 122

g

d

Fk = kx

Ff

FTEN

Fengine

FN

Fg

Linear: F =

ma

v

4 r

Circular: F

= m = m 2

r

T

2

FBUOY = Vg

qq

Fq = k 1 22

d

=

FB BI sin

FE = Eq

=

FB qvB sin

down a road at a constant speed

The following are not forces and should never be on a free body

diagram: ma, F NET ,F, F C , g, a, v

- Sparkschart - ChemistryEnviado porweliveandbreathewords
- Physics Rules 5Enviado porChris_Barber09
- Physics Rules 4Enviado porChris_Barber09
- Physics Rules 3Enviado porChris_Barber09
- Quick Study Academic Physics 600dpiEnviado porSunshineK95
- Calculus Reference (SparkCharts)Enviado porwww_webb
- Physics Rules 2Enviado porChris_Barber09
- 107 Rules in PhysicsEnviado porChris_Barber09
- Reproductive System NotesEnviado porChris_Barber09
- Chemical Basis of LifeEnviado porChris_Barber09
- Physics Rules 1Enviado porChris_Barber09
- Digestive SystemEnviado porChris_Barber09
- Anatomy and PhysiologyEnviado porDelixae Phoinix
- Human Physiology MasterEnviado porDelixae Phoinix
- 227213407-Trigonometry-Spark-Charts.pdfEnviado porAaron
- VirusesEnviado porChris_Barber09
- MCAT Biology Notes 2.pdfEnviado porChris_Barber09
- DNA NotesEnviado porChris_Barber09
- Botany-QuickStudy.pdfEnviado porzembla23
- 33471063 SC Physics FormulasEnviado porhassan
- MCAT Biology Notes 3.pdfEnviado porChris_Barber09
- Protein Synthesis NotesEnviado porChris_Barber09
- Cell Biology IntroductionEnviado porChris_Barber09
- *Bio Cheat Sheet MasterEnviado porChris_Barber09
- Macro MoleculesEnviado porChris_Barber09
- MCAT O-Chem NotesEnviado porChris_Barber09
- Mitosis and MeiosisEnviado porChris_Barber09
- High Yield Topics MCATEnviado porkarijani
- Physics Quick-Study GuideEnviado porfrenchr2
- Bk Edctn SparkCharts Science ChemistryFormulasEnviado porEH

- AAMC 11 Essay 2Enviado porChris_Barber09
- Reproductive System NotesEnviado porChris_Barber09
- Protein Synthesis NotesEnviado porChris_Barber09
- Macro MoleculesEnviado porChris_Barber09
- AAMC 11 Essay 1Enviado porChris_Barber09
- Aromatic Notes 1Enviado porChris_Barber09
- DNA NotesEnviado porChris_Barber09
- Heart NotesEnviado porChris_Barber09
- Leaving GroupsEnviado porChris_Barber09
- Digestive SystemEnviado porChris_Barber09
- Cardiovasculary System.pdfEnviado porChris_Barber09
- Rate Law GraphsEnviado porChris_Barber09
- BacteriaEnviado porChris_Barber09
- Notes RNA and DNAEnviado porChris_Barber09
- Extra Chirality ProblemsEnviado porChris_Barber09
- Physics Rules 1Enviado porChris_Barber09
- Notes CarbohydratesEnviado porChris_Barber09
- Notes Carbohydrates CopyEnviado porChris_Barber09
- Physics Rules 2Enviado porChris_Barber09
- MCAT O-Chem NotesEnviado porChris_Barber09
- CARBSEnviado porGulus Cf
- 107 Rules in PhysicsEnviado porChris_Barber09
- Aromatic Notes 2.PDFEnviado porChris_Barber09
- Amino Acid NotesEnviado porChris_Barber09
- Physics Equation SheetEnviado porChris_Barber09
- MCAT Physics Equation SheetEnviado porChris_Barber09

- doc-11-pdf-a1f23410070639510b576ad9a7e39760-original.pdfEnviado porMEKTILIA MAPUNDA
- Water Tank Level Controller332Enviado porAbhijit Pattnaik
- E_BLOCK.PDFEnviado porKJ KJ
- Trane 12.5 to 25 TonsEnviado porReinerio Praxedes Castillo Cespedes
- Marelli Generators Pafford AssociatesEnviado portjiang
- Aetheric Battery - Copy #1Enviado porKeresztúri Ferenc
- Modern Power Station Practice,VolumeC,chapter6 (the generator)Enviado porkarekokareko
- MV7 AlternatorEnviado porjosch90210
- Souhil MOUASSA Int Conf On Electrical Engineering ICEE'12 USTHB .pdfEnviado porSouhil MOUASSA
- 608A11_HEnviado pordpshepherd
- ee215-lab2Enviado porÁo Đen
- SumitomoEnviado porXavier Jesus
- Taylor 1950Enviado porHarold Barnes
- Mantto y ProbledddmrasEnviado porSandra Arista
- Pre-Commissioning check list of GeneratorEnviado porvikivarma147
- microstrip patch antenna -basics.pptEnviado porujwala_512
- 2BV5110Enviado portutuli1990
- Electrical-Engineering-portal.com-Electrical Thumb Rules You MUST Follow Part 3Enviado porshaikhsajid242
- Tan-Delta and Capacitance test set for HT Generator/Motor testingEnviado pormustafa1805
- Power System Stability Vol. I KimbarkEnviado porSaul Sanchez
- Week-7Enviado porVangala Porus
- motion graphEnviado porchekgu_2007
- ExpansionEnviado porJA K
- AdvancedElectromagnetism-Part5Enviado porSaikat Ch Bakshi
- Geometry_Formulas_2D_3D_Perimeter_Area_Volume.pdfEnviado porZaldy Muslims
- Line-3(4)- Bay-403(401)-400KV- #.xlsxEnviado por1453h
- Power SupplyEnviado porRajbir Saini Singh
- 4. Pentaksiran Teori-Assignment dmc 3113Enviado porsharifahsalmah50
- Specific Heat CapacityEnviado porRay Noel Medina Delda
- Converter MPPTEnviado porArvind Nayaka

## Muito mais do que documentos

Descubra tudo o que o Scribd tem a oferecer, incluindo livros e audiolivros de grandes editoras.

Cancele quando quiser.