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Corrosion In IC Engines

Corrosion in gasoline engines is generally believed to be due to sulphuric acid formed by the
combination of sulphur carried in low-grade fuels and oils with water that enters or is generated in the
engine. Much of this trouble occurs in winter and may be traced directly to the action of water that
condenses on the inside of the cylinders and crankcase when a cold engine is started. The water
destroys the oil-film and comes into direct contact with metal of the pistons, cylinders and other parts,
causing them to rust. If this occurs and the lubricating system does not supply more oil to the surfaces
immediately upon the restarting of the engine, scored cylinders and pistons are likely to result, or, if the
engine is stopped before it is warmed up, condensation and rusting will be rapid and will result in
excessive wear.
The only completely successful method of dealing with the condensation and rust problem is to provide
a lubricating system that will begin to function as soon as the engine is started. The splash system has
been found to meet this requirement best. If pressure-feed systems are used, it is recommended that
The oil-pump be located in the sump
No oil-screen finer than 30 mesh be used over the intake and it should have a bypass
Oil lines be as straight and as short as possible and not less than in. in diameter
Connecting-rods have a diametrical clearance of 0.0015 in. and a side clearance of 0.0060 to 0.0080 in.
for oil
Light oils be used in winter
Road-tests have not confirmed the common belief that use of thin or diluted oils results in rapid wear of
pistons and cylinders. A castor-oil film is more resistant to the action of water than a mineral-oil film
and it is suggested as an inside coating in engines that are stored during cold weather.
Corrosion in gasoline engines can be traced, in practically all cases, to condensation of the water vapor
in the gases of combustion and of moisture in the air upon the cold surfaces of the cylinders and
crankcase walls. It is found in the form of rust in crankcases and cylinders and is made evident by
etched wristpins, valve tappets, timing chains and other engine parts.
The most commonly accepted theory for the cause of corrosion is the action of sulphuric acid, which is
formed by the combination of sulphur in the fuel and lubricating oil with water entering or generated in
the engine. According to A. Ludlow Clayden, water collects in the engine at the rate of 80 cc. per hr. at
zero temperature. The rate at which the sulphur collects would, no doubt, depend largely upon the
sulphur content of the fuel and oil used. Sulphuric acid as a corrosive agent will not be dealt with in

this paper, which is concerned only with water, its sources and effects, and means of avoiding its
presence or of neutralizing its effect.

Water resulting from the fuel combustion, while meant to escape through the exhaust, can condense on
the cylinder walls, or travel past piston rings as part of the blow-by and enter the crankcase. This
typically occurs in cold weather or short distance driving because the engine and the lubricant are not
hot enough for water to be removed via evaporation. Water can initiate rust and, in the presence of the
acidic materials resulting from the lubricant oxidation and additive decomposition, can cause corrosion.

The by-products of the combustion of sulphur with air are sulphuric acid and sulphurous acid. These
are corrosive to the equipment and the surfaces inside the engine, the boiler furnace, or the exhaust
trunking. However, sulphur corrosion, also called low temperature corrosion, can be minimized by
maintaining the exhaust temperature above 120 degree Celsius, i.e. above the dew point when the water
in the exhaust gas is able to condense back to liquid.
An engine coolant is a heat transfer fluid designed to remove excess heat from an internal combustion
engine. It also serves to prevent freezing and most importantly protection from corrosion. An operating
engine typically converts only one third of the energy derived through the combustion of fuel into work
that moves the vehicle. The other two thirds is converted into heat, of which one third goes out with the
exhaust. This leaves the remaining third in the engine block, necessitating the need for a coolant to
adsorb this heat, transport it to the radiator and dissipate it into to the environment. Through the
removal of this heat by the coolant fluid, the engine is able to operate in an efficient manner. Therefore
engine coolant is a generic term used to describe fluids that remove heat from an engine, in effect
cooling the engine.

Paper 1. Corrosion studies with a new laboratory-scale system simulating large-scale diesel engines
operating with residual fuels: Part I. Corrosion of Nimonic 80 A samples
Jussi Lyyrnena,
Jorma Jokiniemia, , ,
Esko I. Kauppinena,
Aulis Silvonenb
Original Article: Fuel Processing Technology, Volume 86, Issue 4, 25 January 2005, Pages 353-373
A new laboratory-scale depositioncorrosion apparatus (DCA) has been designed to study the corrosion
of Nimonic 80 A samples. The apparatus simulates conditions in a large-scale diesel engine operated
with high sulphur- and ash-content heavy fuel oils. The fuel composition and ash particle formation

were simulated with synthetic ash particles (SAP) generated by aerosol methods. The deteriorated
areas, i.e. the zones under the deposits, ranged from 0 m at 700 C with no synthetic ash particle feed
to 135 m at 750 C with synthetic ash particle and SO2(g) feeds. A zone of black islands (thickness
30 m), i.e. internal precipitates, rich in S, Cr and Ti indicating internal sulphidation of the base
material was observed at the bottom of the regions under the deposits. A comparison between a
Nimonic 80 A exhaust valve from a field endurance test and material studied with this laboratory
system indicated similar internal sulphidation mechanisms. Corrosion propagation for Nimonic 80 A is
also discussed.
BBL, bottom of bottom layer;
BM, base material;
BP, bottom of the pit;
Bottom layer, The reacted layer underneath the corrosion pit;
CFR, contaminant flux rate;
CG, carrier gas;
DB, deposit base;
DCA, depositioncorrosion apparatus;
HA-HFO, high ash-content heavy fuel oil;
IC, inlet cone;
LFR, laminar flow reactor;
SAP, synthetic ash particle(s);
SBL, surface of bottom layer;
Slpm, standard litres per minute at T=0 K and p=1 atm;
SP, surface of the pit;
TEOM, tapered element oscillating microbalance;
US-AG, ultrasonic aerosol generator
Large-scale diesel engine;
Laboratory-scale system;
Nimonic 80 A
Paper 2. Evaluation of NiCrAlYSi overlay coating on Ni3Al based alloy IC-6 after an engine test
X. Huoa, , ,
J.S. Zhanga,
B.L. Wangb,
F.J. Wua,
Y.F. Hanb
Original Article: Surface and Coatings Technology, Volume 114, Issues 23, 12 May 1999,
Pages 174-180

The second stage turbine vanes of a recently developed high performance jet aero-engine were cast
using a Ni3Al based alloy IC-6, and then coated with NiCrAlYSi by vacuum arc deposition. After a
379 h engine test, the morphology, microstructure, phase structure and chemical composition of the
coating were examined and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy with X-ray energy dispersion
spectrometer, X-ray diffraction and electron probe microanalysis techniques. The analytical emphasis
was placed on the effect of black spots which appeared on the coating surface after the test on the
coating and base alloy IC-6. In addition, the origin of black spots was intensely investigated.The results
indicated that the black spots were a kind of high-temperature hot corrosion caused by Na2SO4 melt
salt from the combusted gases of the engine, the existence of black spots accelerated the internal
oxidation of the coating, but had not impaired the base alloy after 379 h engine operation. It may be
summarized that NiCrAlYSi coating can provide an effective protection against oxidation and
corrosion of base alloy IC-6 at elevated temperature of the present test.
Ni3Al based alloy;
Black spots;
NiCrAlYSi coating
Paper 3. Corrosion studies with a new laboratory-scale system simulating large-scale diesel engines
operating with residual fuels: Part II. Particle and deposit characteristics
Jussi Lyyrnena,
Jorma Jokiniemia, , ,
Esko I. Kauppinena,
Aulis Silvonenb
Original Article: Fuel Processing Technology, Volume 86, Issue 4, 25 January 2005, Pages 329-352
Particle and deposit characteristics were studied with a new laboratory-scale depositioncorrosion
apparatus designed to simulate the particle formation and deposition in large-scale diesel engines.
Synthetic ash particles containing V, Ni, and Na are generated with an ultrasonic nebuliser. Total
particle mass concentrations varied from 463 to 1739 mg/N m3 and highest concentrations were
reached with SO2(g) feed and cold dilution. Mass size distributions at the size range of 0.0115 m
(aerodynamic size) were unimodal at 1.4 m. Particle morphology changed dramatically from 1 to 5
m sized solid particles without SO2(g) feed into flat wet pools with SO2(g) feed. It seemed that
condensing sulphuric acid had dissolved the particles. Small 7090 nm spherical particles were also
observed with SO2(g) feed. On the other hand, hardly any S was found in the deposits, which indicated
that S as SO2(g)/SO3(g) was transported through the deposit pile into the base material.
BLPI, Berner-type low-pressure impactor;
CG, carrier gas;
DCA, depositioncorrosion apparatus;
HA-HFO, high ash-content heavy fuel oil;

IC, inlet cone;

LFR, laminar flow reactor;
PRD, porous tube diluter;
SAP, synthetic ash particle(s);
Slpm, standard litres per minute at T=0 K and p=1 atm;
TEOM, tapered element oscillating microbalance;
US-AG, ultrasonic aerosol generator
Large-scale diesel engine;
Particle deposition;
Laboratory-scale system

Paper 4. Pyrolysis liquids and gases as alternative fuels in internal combustion engines A review
A.K. Hossain,
P.A. Davies
Original Article: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 21, May 2013, Pages 165-189
Liquids and gases produced through biomass pyrolysis have potential as renewable fuels to replace
fossil fuels in conventional internal combustion engines. This review compares the properties of
pyrolysis fuels, produced from a variety of feedstocks and using different pyrolysis techniques, against
those of fossil fuels. High acidity, the presence of solid particles, high water content, high viscosity,
storage and thermal instability, and low energy content are typical characteristics of pyrolysis liquids. A
survey of combustion, performance and exhaust emission results from the use of pyrolysis liquids (both
crude and up-graded) in compression ignition engines is presented. With only a few exceptions, most
authors have reported difficulties associated with the adverse properties of pyrolysis liquids, including:
corrosion and clogging of the injectors, long ignition delay and short combustion duration, difficulty in
engine start-up, unstable operation, coking of the piston and cylinders and subsequent engine seizure.
Pyrolysis gas can be used more readily, either in spark ignition or compression ignition engines;
however, NOx reduction techniques are desirable. Various approaches to improve the properties of
pyrolysis liquids are discussed and a comparison of the properties of up-graded vs. crude pyrolysis
liquid is included. Further developments in up-gradation techniques, such as hydrocracking and biorefinery approaches, could lead to the production of green diesel and green gasoline. Modifications
required to engines for use with pyrolysis liquids, for example in the fuel supply and injection systems,
are discussed. Storage stability and economic issues are also reviewed. Our study presents recent
progress and important R&D areas for successful future use of pyrolysis fuels in internal combustion
BHP, brake horse power;
BSEC, brake specific energy consumption;

BSFC, brake specific fuel consumption;

CA, Crank angle;
CCHP, combined cooling, heating and power;
CHP, combined heat and power;
CI, compression ignition;
DI, direct injection;
FT, Fisher Tropsch;
GHG, greenhouse gas;
HC, hydrocarbon;
HHV, higher heating value;
IC, internal combustion;
ID, ignition delay;
IDI, indirect injection;
IEA, international energy agency;
IGCC, integrated gasification combined cycle;
IMEP, indicated mean effective pressure;
IOP, injector opening pressure;
LHV, lower heating value;
LtL, liquid to liquid;
NG, natural gas;
PG, pyrolysis gas;
PL, pyrolysis liquid;
SI, spark ignition;
SMD, sauter mean diameter
Paper 5. Corrosion behavior of biodiesel from seed oils of Indian origin on diesel engine parts
Savita Kaul,
R.C. Saxena,
Ajay Kumar,
M.S. Negi,
A.K. Bhatnagar, ,
H.B. Goyal,
A.K. Gupta
Original Article: Fuel Processing Technology, Volume 88, Issue 3, March 2007, Pages 303-307
Environmental factors and depleting reserves of crude oil are becoming the main driving force in the
quest for cleaner and alternate fuels. In India, adoption of Euro III and Euro IV equivalent emission
norms are under consideration. The Euro III emission norms have already been implemented in 7 mega
cities and would be implemented in the rest of the country by the year 2010. This will lead to drastic
reduction in sulphur content and increase in cetane number, which in turn will adversely affect the
lubricity characteristics of the diesel fuel. However, the use of biodiesel will improve the lubricity and
cetane number requirements particularly for ultra low sulphur diesel. Studies for the synthesis and
characterization of biodiesel from non-edible oils like Jatropha curcas, Pongamia glabra (Karanja),

Madhuca indica (Mahua) and Salvadora oleoides (Pilu) have already been carried out in our laborotary.
Corrosion characteristics of biodiesel are important for long term durability of engine parts, and very
little information is available on this aspect. The studies were therefore taken up to assess the corrosion
of synthesized biodiesel from the above mentioned non-edible oils.
Using long duration static immersion test method corrosion studies on engine parts like piston metal
and piston liner were carried out with neat diesel procured from one of the Indian refinery and biodiesel
synthesised from these non-edible oils. Biodiesel from Salvadora showed marked corrosion on both
metal parts of diesel engine whereas biodiesel from other oils showed little or/no corrosion as
compared to neat diesel.
Paper 6: Hot corrosion in gas turbine components
N. Eliaz1, a, , ,
G. Shemeshb,
R.M. Latanisiona
Original Article: Engineering Failure Analysis Volume 9, Issue 1, February 2002, Pages 3143
The macroscopic and microscopic characteristics as well as the proposed mechanisms of Type I (hightemperature) and Type II (low-temperature) hot corrosion are reviewed. Two case histories of gas
turbine blade failures are presented. Different practical approaches to minimize hot corrosion are
Turbine blade failures;
Failure analysis;
Fatigue failure
Paper 7: Identification of hot corrosion resistant MCrAlY based bond coatings for gas turbine engine
I. Gurrappa,
Original Article: Surface and Coatings Technology Volume 139, Issues 23, 15 May 2001,
Pages 272283
In the current paper, an attempt has been made to identify hot corrosion resistant coatings which can

produce a thermodynamically stable and inert oxide scale during exposure to a hot corrosion
environment and thereby enhance the coating life significantly. The results obtained from hot corrosion
tests of a variety of MCrAlY-type coatings with different alloying elements and traces of silicon and
hafnium in the presence of sodium chloride and vanadium containing environments revealed that a
NiCoCrAlY coating exhibits maximum life time among the coatings studied. The results also revealed
that presence of trace elements in the coating reduces coating life significantly. Based on the results, a
novel electrochemical mechanism has been proposed. It has been shown that the hot corrosion of
protective coatings is an electrochemical phenomena and hence the electrochemical techniques appear
to be quite useful in evaluating coatings for hot corrosion resistance.
MCrAlY coatings;
Hot corrosion;
Gas turbines;
Electrochemical mechanism
Paper 8: Corrosion of magnesium (Mg) alloys in engine coolants
G.-L. Song
D.H. StJohn
Original Article: Corrosion of Magnesium Alloys
A volume in Woodhead Publishing Series in Metals and Surface Engineering
2011, Pages 426454
The corrosion of engine blocks by engine coolant is a critical issue for the automotive industry. In this
chapter, after a summary of some fundamental aspects of the corrosion of pure magnesium in ethylene
glycol solutions, a review of the corrosion performance of magnesium alloys in ethylene glycol
solutions is presented. Based on the knowledge gained, the corrosion behaviour of AZ91D and some
recently developed magnesium engine block alloys in several selected commercial coolants is assessed
by means of immersion testing, hydrogen evolution measurement, galvanic current monitoring and the
well-accepted ASTM D1384 standard test. Finally, a corrosion inhibition strategy is presented and
inhibitors suitable for magnesium alloys in coolants are identified.
Key words
magnesium alloys;

Forum: See engines are completely sealed systems with the levels of sealing (bolts, gaskets, sealant
or adhesive) so that nothing either comes in or goes out.
What really corrodes the engines is the fuel. If you use bad quality of fuel, it will damage the engine.
By bad quality I mean fuel (gasoline/diesel) mixed with any low grade fuel(kerosene).
Also use of LPG/CNG in an engine originally made to run on gasoline also corrodes the engine.
Make sure the engine is overhauled at the destined time or when required, whichever is earlier. What
happens is, with the usuage the, the piston rings wear out and then the lub oil gets burnt inside the
engine which leaves the carbon residue. This residue sticks to the cylinder walls and on being used
damage the engine.
Also if you continuously use an engine which is having incomplete combustion similar thing will
Use good fuel, as prescribed by the car manufacturer. See which octane rating fuel is required for a
specific engine. Generally companies like fiat require their customer to use high octane fuel which
comes by the name of xtra premium or speed. Check that.
Get your vehicle serviced properly as demanded. This ensued the quality of vehicle. Also, it reduced
running and maintenance costs.


Cold Corrosion and a Systemic Approach to Preventing It

By Shivananda Prabhu, September 5, 2014
Takeaway: Systematic preventive maintenance and monitoring procedures can alleviate equipment
damages due to cold corrosion in IC engines as well as boiler plants.
Cold Corrosion and a Systemic Approach to Preventing It
Source: Paul Victor Marian/Dreamstime.com
Cold corrosion is an electrochemical reaction that occurs on a metallic surface that is at a lower
temperature compared to the dew point of the corrosive gas mixture to which it is exposed. Equipment
such as aeronautical engines, vehicular engines, engines used in ships, air pre-heaters and boiler
economizers are particularly susceptible to cold corrosion. Induced draft blower fans used in boiler
plants face this problem occasionally. The deposit of cold corrosion products on the surfaces of
component parts can cause deterioration of equipment productivity. For example, cold corrosion can
reduce boiler productivity and efficiency, reduce engine power and also adversely affect heat transfer
system capability. Cold corrosion is a serious problem in most cases, and one that requires a systematic
approach for early detection and preventive care. This article examines the cold corrosion problems of
IC engines and boiler plant air pre-heaters.
Cold Corrosion Internal Combustion Engines
In the case of internal combustion engines, cold corrosion affects engine parts during very light duty

operation and during idle or shutdown conditions and cold starting in winter season. The prevalence of
cold corrosion depends on:
The age of the engine components
Weather condition
Geographic location
Frequency of use and duty cycle
Fluctuations in load and temperatures
Among aircraft engines, those that are idle for 30 days and longer are susceptible to severe cold
corrosion. Engines that are used regularly are less susceptible.
The Economics of Cold Corrosion
The economics of cold corrosion may be understood by citing a practical case. If an engine overhaul is
due after 2,000 hours of operation at a cost of $60,000, it works out to $30 per hour. Unfortunately, if
an overhaul is needed every 500 hours due to cold corrosion damage, then cost per hour would be four
times higher, at $ 120 per hour. More overhauls also creates additional costs in the form of more
downtime and lower reliability as well as higher insurance costs.
Preventing Engine Cold Corrosion: Condition Monitoring
A planned condition monitoring program using scrape-down oils for wear debris analysis can give early
warning of corrosion damage. Large fleet owners use ferrography and spectrometric oil analysis to
monitor engine wear and incipient failure modes on metallic surfaces. Lube oil suppliers often provide
corrosion and wear monitoring services by testing total base number (TBN) and metallic wear particle
size distribution in the engine lube oil. When the scrape down oil sample indicates a significant rise in
corrosion products such as iron salts, the onset of cold corrosion is confirmed. Some oil companies
offer proprietary oils and additives to minimize the impact of cold corrosion damage. Gadgets are also
available that can monitor abnormal wear particle count and oil condition.
Engine designers also suggest that each aero engine must operate at least once a week in order to
minimize cold corrosion. Otherwise, engine storage procedures recommended by the manufacturers
may be followed for corrosion protection. Most warranty conditions of aero engines stipulate that an
engine must be used for at least 20 hours each month.
In order to expel the condensed moisture in the oil, engine oils should be maintained around 180F
(82C) during operation. Lube oil changes based on TBN (alkaline additive remaining), emulsified oil,
moisture content and oxidation products in oil are also recommended by some engine oil experts.
Emulsion of oxidized oil accelerates the corrosion of piston rings and cylinders. As a golden rule, an oil
change should be done once every six months, or after 50 hours of engine operation. It may be wiser to
invest in timely oil changes than to allow the engine to get damaged.
Preventing Engine Cold Corrosion: Fuel Dilution
Fuel dilution of lube oil leads to engine corrosion and wear and tear by abruptly reducing the viscosity
of lube oil. In order to reduce this form of damage, the fuel injectors must be checked regularly and the
control system must be fine tuned. Excessive sudden acceleration of the engine often causes unburned
fuel oil to remain in the combustion zone, which will migrate to the lube oil sump, thus causing oil to
thin down. Thinner oil can increase the wear rate and corrosion rate very aggressively.