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FIELD THEORY

Sub Code : EC44


Hrs/Week : 04
Total Hrs. : 52

IA Marks : 25
Exam Hrs. : 03
Exam Marks : 100

1. Electric Fields
a. Coulombs law and Electric field intensity
b. Electric flux density, Gauss law and divergence
c. Energy and potential
d. Conductors, dielectrics and capacitance
e. Poissons and Laplaces equations

18 hours

2. Magnetic fields
a. The steady magnetic field
b. Magnetic forces, materials and inductance

14 hours

3. Time varying fields and Maxwells equations

5 hours

4. Electromagnetic waves

15 hours

Text Books :
William H Hayt Jr and John A Buck, Engineering Electromagnetics, Tata McGraw-Hill,
6th Edition, 2001
Reference books :
John Krauss and Daniel A Fleisch, Electromagnetics with Application, McGraw-Hill,
5th
Edition, 1999
Guru and Hiziroglu, Electromagnetics Field theory fundamentals, Thomson Asia Pvt. Ltd
I
Edition, 2001
Joseph Edminster, Electromagnetics, Schaum Outline Series, McGraw-Hill
Edward C Jordan and Keith G Balmain, Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating Systems, PrenticeHall of India, II Edition, 1968, Reprint 2002.
David K Cheng, Field and Wave Electromagnetics, Pearson Education Ais II Edition, 1989, Indian
Repr-01

Introduction to Field Theory


The behavior of a physical device subjected to electric field can be studied either by Field approach
or by Circuit approach. The Circuit approach uses discrete circuit parameters like RLCM, voltage
and current sources. At higher frequencies (MHz or GHz) parameters would no longer be discrete.
They may become non linear also depending on material property and strength of v and i
associated. This makes circuit approach to be difficult and may not give very accurate results.
Thus at high frequencies, Field approach is necessary to get a better understanding of performance of
the device.
FIELD THEORY
The Vector approach provides better insight into the various aspects of Electromagnetic
phenomenon. Vector analysis is therefore an essential tool for the study of Field Theory.
The Vector Analysis comprises of Vector Algebra and Vector Calculus.
Any physical quantity may be Scalar quantity or Vector quantity. A Scalar quantity is specified
by magnitude only while for a Vector quantity requires both magnitude and direction to be
specified.
Examples :
Scalar quantity : Mass, Time, Charge, Density, Potential, Energy etc.,
Represented by alphabets A, B, q, t etc
Vector quantity : Electric field, force, velocity, acceleration, weight etc., represented by alphabets
with arrow on top.

A, B, E, B etc.,

Vector algebra : If A, B, C are vectors and m, n are scalars then

(1) Addition

A B B

A ( B C)

(A B) C

Commutative law
Associative law

(2) Subtraction

A - B A (- B)
(3) Multiplication by a scalar

mA Am

m (n A) n (m A)

(m n) A m A n A

m (A B) m A m B

Commutative law
Associative law
Distributive law
Distributive law

A vector is represented graphically by a directed line segment.

A Unit vector is a vector of unit magnitude and directed along that vector.

a A is a Unit vector along the direction of A .

Thus, the graphical representation of A and a A are

Vector A

Unit vector a A

Also a A A / A

or A a A A

Product of two or more vectors :


(1) Dot Product ( . )

A . B A ( B COS OR {

A COS } B , 0

A Cos

B Cos
A.B = B.A

(A Scalar quantity)

(2) CROSS PRODUCT (X)


C=AxB=
Ex.,

B SIN n

where ' ' is angle between A and B ( 0 )

and n is unit vector perpendicular to plane of A and B



directed such that A B C form a right handed system of vectors

A x B - B x A

A x ( B C) A x B A x C

CO-ORDINATE SYSTEMS :
For an explicit representation of a vector quantity, a co-ordinate system is essential.
Different systems used :
Sl.No.
1.
2.
3.

System
Rectangular
Cylindrical
Spherical

Co-ordinate variables
x, y, z
, , z
r, ,

Unit vectors
ax , ay , az
a , a , az
ar , a , a

These are ORTHOGONAL i.e., unit vectors in such system of co-ordinates are mutually
perpendicular in the right circular way.

i.e., x y z , z , r
RECTANGULAR CO-ORDINATE SYSTEM :
Z
x=0 plane
az
p
y=0
plane
ax
X

Y
ay
z=0 plane

ax . ay ay . az az . ax 0
ax x ay az
ay x az ax
az x ax ay
az is in direction of advance of a right circular screw as it is turned from a x to ay
Co-ordinate variable x is intersection of planes OYX and OXZ i.e, z = 0 & y = 0
Location of point P :
If the point P is at a distance of r from O, then
If the components of r along X, Y, Z are x, y, z then

r x ax y ay z az

r ar

Equation of Vector AB :

If OA A A x a x A y a y A z a z

and OB B Bx a x B y a y Bz a z then


A AB B or AB B - A

AB

where A s , A y & A z are components of A along X, Y and Z


and Bs , B y & Bz are components of B along X, Y and Z
Dot and Cross Products :


A . B (A x a x A y a y A z a z ) . (Bx a x B y a y Bz a z ) A x Bx A y B y A z C z

A x B (A x a x A y a y A z a z ) x (Bx a x B y a y Bz a z )
Taking ' Cross products' term by term and grouping, we get
ax

A x B Ax

ay

az

Ay

Az

Bx

By

Bz

Ax

A . (B x C ) Bx
Cx

Ay
By
Cy

Az
Bz
Cz

If A, B and C are non zero vectors,



(i) A . B 0 then Cos 0 i.e., 900 A and B are perpendicular

A x B 0 then Sin 0
0 A and B are parallel

(ii) A . ( B x C) represents the volume of a parallelopoid of sides A , B and C


Unit Vector along AB
a AB

AB
AB

where
Vector length AB AB

(AB . AB )

Differential length, surface and volume elements in rectangular co-ordinate systems

r x a x y a y z a z

r
r
r
dr
dx
dy
dz
x
y
z

d r dx a x dy a y dz a z

Differential length d r [ dx 2 dy 2 dz 2 ]1/2

- - - - -1

Differential surface element, d s

1. r to z : dxdy a z
2. r to z : dxdy a z
3. r to z : dxdy a z

------ 2

Differential Volume element


dv = dx dy dz

------ 3
z
dx

p
p

dz
dy

r d r

x
Other Co-ordinate systems :Depending on the geometry of problem it is easier if we use the appropriate co-ordinate system than
to use the Cartesian co-ordinate system always. For problems having cylindrical symmetry
cylindrical co-ordinate system is to be used while for applications having spherical symmetry
spherical co-ordinate system is preferred.
Cylindrical Co-ordiante systems :z
P(, , z)
az

x 2 y2

0
ap

x = Cos
y = Sin
z=z

tan -1 y / x
zz


r x a x y a y z a z

r Cos a x Sin a y z a z

r
r
r
dr
d
d
dz
- - - - - -1

r
r
Cos a x Sin a y
a h a ; h

r
r

- Sin a x Cos a y
a a ; h

r
a z
hz
z

r
1

r
1
z

Thus unit vectors in (, , z) systems can be expressed in (x,y,z) system as


a Cos a x Sin a y

a x Cos a Sin a

a - Sin a x Cos a y

a y Sin a Cos a

az az

;
a , a and a z are orthogonal

Further , d r d a d a dz a z
2
and d r d 2 ( d ) 2 (dz) 2

------2

Differential areas :

ds a z (d ) ( d ) . a z
ds a (dz) ( d ) . a

-------3

ds a (d dz) a

Differential volume :
d (d ) ( d ) (dz)
or d d d dz

----- 4

Spherical Co-ordinate Systems :Z


z

X = r Sin Cos
Y = r Sin Sin
Z = r Cos

p
R

0
x

r
y

r Sin

R r Sin Cos a x r Sin Sin a y r Cos a z

R R
a r
/
Sin Cos a x Sin Sin a y Cos a z
r
r

R R
a
/
Cos Cos a x Cos Sin a y Sin a z

R R
a
/
- Sin a x Cos a y

R
R
R
dR
dr
d
d
r

dR dr a r r d a r Sin d a
d Sr r 2 Sin d d
d S r 2 Sin dr d
d S r dr d
d v r 2 Sin dr d d

General Orthogonal Curvilinear Co-ordinates :z


u1 a3

u3

a1
u2
a2
y

x
Co-ordinate Variables : (u1 , u2, u3) ;
Here
u1 is Intersection of surfaces u2 = C & u3 = C
u2 is Intersection of surfaces u1 = C & u3 = C
u3 is Intersection of surfaces u1 = C & u2 = C
a1 , a 2 , a 3 are ubnit vectors tangential to u1 , u 2 & u 3
System is Orthogonal if a1 . a 2 0 , a 2 . a 3 0 & a 3 . a1 0

If R x a x y a y z a z & x, y, z are functions of u1 , u 2 & u 3

R
R
R
then d R
du1
du 2
du 3
u1
u2
u3
h1 du1 a1 h 2 du 2 a 2 h 3 du 3 a 3
where h1 , h 2 , h 3 are scale factors ;

R
R
h1
, h2
u1
u2

R
, h3
u3

Co-ordinate Variables, unit Vectors and Scale factors in different systems


Systems

Co-ordinate Variables

Unit Vector

Scale factors

General

u1

u2

u3

a1

a2

a3

h1

h2

h3

Rectangular

ax

ay

az

Cylindrical

az

Spherical

ar

r sin

Transformation equations (x,y,z interms of cylindrical and spherical co-ordinate system


variables)
Cylindrical : x = Cos , y = Sin , z = z ;

0, 0 2 - < z <

Spherical
x = r Sin Cos , y = r Sin Cos , z = r Sin
r 0 , 0 , 0 2
V

. A

1 v
1 v
a 1
a
h1 u1
h 2 u2
1
h 1 h 2 h3

xA

1
h1h 2h


(h

u1

A1)

h 1 a 1 h 2 a 2

u1
u2
h1 A1 h 2 A2

1 v
a 3
h 3 u 3

(h 1 h
u2
h

A2)

(h 1 h
u3

A3)

u 3
h3 A3

where V V ( u 1 , u 2 , u 3 ) a Scalar field

& A A 1 a 1 A 2 a 2 A 3 a 3 is a Vector field where A1 A1 (u1 , u 2 , u 3 )


A 2 A 2 (u1 , u 2 , u 3 ) and A 3 A 3 (u1 , u 2 , u 3 )

Vector Transformation from Rectangular to Spherical :


Rectangular : A R A x a x A y a y A z a z

Spherical : AS ( A R a r ) a r (A R a ) a (A R . a ) a
A r a r A a A a
where A r , A , A are related to A x , A y , A z as
a x . a r
A r


A a x . a
a x . a
A

a y . a r
a y . a
a y . a

a z . a r

a z . a
a z . a

A x
A
y
A z

Field Theory
A field is a region where any object experiences a force. The study of performance in the presence

of Electric field (E) , Magnetic field () is the essence of EM Theory.


P1 : Obtain the equation for the line between the points P(1,2,3) and Q (2,-2,1)

PQ a x - 4 a y - 2 a z
P2 : Obtain unit vector from the origin to G (2, -2, 1)

Problems on Vector Analysis


Examples :1. Obtain the vector equation for the line PQ between the points P (1,2,3)m and Q (2, -2, 1) m
Z

PQ

P (1,2,3)

Q(2,-2,-1)
0
Y

The vector PQ (x q - x p ) a x (y q - y p ) a y (z q - z p ) a z
(2 - 1) a x (-2 - 2) a y (-1 - 3) a z
(a x - 4 a y - 2 a z )
2. Obtain unit vector from origin to G (2,-2,-1)
G

G
0
The vector G (x g - 0) a x (y g - 0) a y (z g - 0) a z
(2 a x - 2 a y - a z )

G
The unit vector , a g
G

G 2 2 (-2)2 (-1)2 3
a g (0.667 a x - 0.667 a y - 0.333 a z )

3. Given
A 2 a x - 3 a y a z

B - 4 a x - 2 a y 5a z

find (1) A . B and (2) A x B


Solution :

(1) A . B (2 a x - 3 a y a z ) . (-4 a x - 2 a y 5 a z )
=-8+6+5= 3
Since ax . ax = ay . ay = az . az = 0 and ax ay = ay az = az ax = 0

ax

(2) A x B 2

ay

az

= (-13 ax -14 ay - 16 az)

4. Find the distance between A( 2, /6, 0) and B = ( 1, /2, 2)


Soln : The points are given in Cylindrical Co-ordinate (,, z). To find the distance between two
points, the co-ordinates are to be in Cartesian (rectangular). The corresponding rectangular coordinates are ( Cos, Sin, z)

A 2 Cos a x 2 Sin a y 1.73 a x a y


6
6

& B Cos a x Sin a y 2 a z a y 2 a z


6
2
AB (Bx - A x ) a x (B y - A y ) a y (Bz - A z ) a z
- 1.73 a x (1 - 1) a y (2 - 0) a z
- 1.73 a x 2 a z
(AB)

1.732 22 2.64

5. Find the distance between A( 1, /4, 0) and B = ( 1, 3/4, )


Soln : The specified co-ordinates (r, , ) are spherical. Writing in rectangular, they are (r Sin
Cos , r Sin Sin , r Cos ).
Therefore, A & B in rectangular co-ordinates,

A (1 Sin Cos 0 a x 1 Sin Sin 0 a y 1 Cos a z )


4
4
4
( 0.707 a x 0.707 a y )

3
3
3
B ( Sin
Cos a x Sin
Sin a y Cos
a z )
4
4
4
( 0.707 a x 0.707 a y )
AB (Bx - A x ) a x (B y - A y ) a y (Bz - A z ) a z
- 1.414 a x (- 0.707) a y (-0.707) a z
AB ( AB . AB )1/2
(2 0.5 0.5)1/2 1.732

6. Find a unit vector along AB in Problem 5 above.


a AB

AB

= [ - 1.414 ax + (-0.707) ay + (-0.707) az]

AB

1
1.732

= ( - 0.816 a x - 0.408 a y 0.408 a z )

7. Transform F (10 a x - 8 a y 6 a z ) into F in Cylindrical Co - ordinates.


Soln :

FCyl (F . a p ) a p (F . a ) a (F . a z ) a z

[(10 a x - 8 a y 6 a z ) . (Cos a x Sin a y )] a


[ (10 a x - 8 a y 6 a z ) . (- Sin a x Cos a y )] a
[ (10 a x - 8 a y 6 a z ) . (a x )] a x

(10 Cos - 8 Sin ) a (-10 Sin - 8 Cos ) a 6 a z

x Cos
y Sin

x 2 y 2 12.81
tan -1

y
- 38.660
x

FCyl [ 10 Cos (- 38.66) - 8 Sin ( - 38.66) ] a p [- 10 Sin (- 38.66) - 8 Cos (- 38.66)] a 6 a z


(12.8 a 6 a z )

8. Transform B y a x - x a y z a z into Cylindrical Co-ordinates.


x Cos , y Sin

B Sin a x - Cos a y z a z

BCyl (B. a ) a (B. a ) a (B . a z ) a z


[ ( Sin a x - Cos a y z a z ). (Cos a x Sin a y )] a
[ ( Sin a x - Cos a y z a z ). (- Sin a x Cos a y )] a z a z
[ Sin Cos - Sin Sin ] a [ - Sin 2 - Cos 2 ] a z a z
- a z a z

9. Transform 5 a x into Spherical Co-ordinates.


ASph (A. a r ) a r (A. a ) a (A. a ) a
[ 5 a x . (Sin Cos a x Sin Sin a y Cos a z )] a r
[ 5 a x . (Cos Cos a x Cos Sin a y - Sin a z ] a
[ 5 a x . (- Sin a x Cos a y )] a
5 Sin Cos a r 5 Cos Sin a 5 Sin a

10. Transform to Cylindrical Co-ordinates G (2 x y) a x - (y - 4x) a y at Q ( , , z)


Soln :
G Cyl (G. a ) a (G. a ) a (G. a z ) a z

G Cyl [ (2 x y) a x - (y - 4x) a y ] . [ Cos a x Sin a ] a


[ (2 x y) a x - (y - 4x) a y ] . [ - Sin a x Cos a y ] a 0
[ ( 2x y) Cos - (y - 4x) Sin ] a
[ - (2 x y) Sin - (y - 4x ) Cos ] a
x Cos , y Sin

G Cyl [ ( 2 Cos Sin ) Cos - ( Sin - 4 Cos ) Sin ] a


[ - ( 2 Cos Sin ) Sin - ( Sin - 4 Cos ) Cos ] a
[ 2 Cos 2 Sin Cos - Sin 2 4 Sin Cos ] a
[ - 2 Sin Cos - Sin 2 - Sin Cos 4 Cos 2 ] a
( 2 Cos 2 5 Sin Cos - Sin 2 ) a
( 4 Cos 2 Sin 2 - 3 Sin Cos ) a

11. Find a unit vector from ( 10, 3/4, /6) to (5, /4, )
Soln :
A(r, , ) expressed in rectangular co-ordinates
OA r Sin Cos a x r Sin Sin a y r Cos a z

3
A 10 Sin
Cos
a x 10 Sin
Sin
a y 10 Cos
a z
4
6
4
6
4

B 5 Sin Cos a x 5 Sin Sin a y 5 Cos a z


4
4
4

A 6.12 a x 3.53 a y - 7.07 a z B - 3.53 a x 3.53 a z



AB B - A - 9.65 a x - 3.53 a y 10.6 a z
AB 9.652 3.532 10.6 2 14.77

AB
a AB
(- 0.65 a x - 0.24 a y 0.72 a z )
AB

12. Transform F 10 a x - 8 a y 6 a z into F in Spherical Co-orindates.


a r Sin Cos a x Sin Sin a y Cos a z
a Cos Cos a x Cos Sin a y - Sin a z
a - Sin a x Cos a y

FSph (F . a r ) a r (F . a ) a (F . a ) a
(10 Sin Cos - 8 Sin Sin 6 Cos ) a r
(10 Cos Cos - 8 Cos Sin - 6 Sin ) a
(- 10 Sin - 8 Cos ) a
r 10 2 8 2 6 2 200 ; Cos -1

z
Cos -1
r

6
200

-8
- 38.66 0
10
Sin Sin 64.69 0.9 Sin Sin (-38.66) - 0.625
Cos Cos 64.69 0.42 Cos Cos (-38.66) 0.781

F (10 x 0.9 x 0.781 - 8 x 0.9 x (-0.625)) a r


( 10 x 0.42 x 0.781 - 8 x 0.42 x (0.625)) a

tan -1

(-10 x - 0.625 - 8 x 0.781) a

64.89 0

Line Integrals
In general orthogonal Curvilinear Co-ordinate system
dl h1 du1 a1 h 2 du 2 a 2 h 3 du 3 a 3

F F1 a1 F2 a 2 F3 a 3

F
. dl h1 F1 du1 h 2 F2 du 2 h 3 F3 du 3
C

Conservative Field A field is said to be conservative if it is such that . dl 0


C

. dl d

(b) - (a) (does not depend on the path !). If is electrostatic flux, then

E - represent the electric field intensity and


b

. dl represent the potential between b and a and is zero if it is taken around a closed contour.
a

i.e., . dl 0

Therefore ES flux field is Conservative.


EXAMPLES :
13. Evaluate

line

integral

I a . dl

along y 2 x from A (1,1) to B (4,2)

Soln : dl dx a x dy a y

a . dl (x y) dx (y - x ) dy

y 2 x or 2 dy dy dx
2
2

a . dl (y 2 y) 2y dy (y - y 2 ) dy
1

(2 y

2 y 2 y - y 2 ) dy

1
2

(2 y

y 2 y) dy

2 y 4
y3
y2

3
2 1
4 2

24
23
22
1
1
1
-

3
2
3
2
2
2
8
2
1
1

4
8
2 - 12
- 1 11
3
3
3
3

where

a (x y) a x (y - x) a y

14. Evaluate the Integral I E . ds where E x a x and S is hunisphere of radius a


S

Soln:
If S is hemisphere of radius a, then S is defined by
x 2 y2 z2 a 2 , z 0 ;
ds (a d ) (a Sin ) d a r
ds a 2 Sin d d a r

E (E . a r ) a r (E. a ) a (E. a ) a

E r x Sin Cos a r ; x a Sin Cos

E . ds E r . ds a ( Sin Cos ) 2 a r . a 2 Sin d d

E . ds a Sin 3 Cos 2 d d
0 / 2 , 0 2
/2
2

2
2 a3
3
3
2
3
E
.
ds

a
Sin

Cos

a
x
x

0
0
3
3

where r, r1 , r2 .. rm are the vector distances of q, q1 , qm from origin, 0.



r - rm is distance between charge qm and q.

a m is unit vector in the direction of line joining q m to q.


Electric field is the region or vicinity of a charged body where a test charge experiences a force.
It is expressed as a scalar function of co-ordinates variables. This can be illustrated by drawing
force lines and these may be termed as Electric Flux represented by and unit is coulomb
(C).

Electric Flux Density (D) is the measure of cluster of electric lines of force. It is the number
of lines of force per unit area of cross section.

c/m 2
or D n ds C where n is unit vector normal to surface
i.e., D
A
S

Electric Field Intensity (E) at any point is the electric force on a unit +ve charge at that point.

F
q1
i.e., E

a1 N / c
q
4 0 r12

1 q1
D

a
N
/
c

N
/
c
or
D

E
C in vacuum
1
0
0 4 r12
0
In any medium other than vacuum, the field Intensity at a point distant r m from + Q C is

Q
E
a r N / c ( or V / m)
4 0 r r 2

Q
and D 0 r E C or D
a r C
4 r2

Thus D is independent of medium, while E depends on the property of medium.

E
+QC
q = 1 C (Test Charge)
Source charge

r,m


Electric Field Intensity E for different charge configurations

1. E due to Array of Discrete charges

Let Q, Q1 , Q2 , Qn be +ve charges at P, P1 , P2 , .. Pn . It is required to find E at


P.

P1

r2

Q2

1
4 0

E1

E2

rn

Pr

r1

P2
Qn

Er

En

r1

Q1

Qm
r - rm

a m V / m

2. E due to continuous volume charge distribution

a R

P
v C / m 3

The charge is uniformly distributed within in a closed surface with a volume charge density of v
dQ
and V
C / m3 i.e, Q V dv
dv
V

Er

V V
Q
a R
a R
2
4 0 R
4 0 R 2

V (r1 )
1 4 0 (r - r1 ) 2 a R N / C
V

a R is unit vector directed from source to filed point.

3. Electric field intensity E due to a line charge of infinite length with a line charge density
of l C / m
a R

dl

l C / m
L

l dl


4. E due to a surface charge with density of S C / m2

ds

a R
P (Field point)

(Source charge)

Ep

1
4 0

S ds
a R N / C
R2

Electrical Potential (V) The work done in moving a unit +ve charge from Infinity to that is
called the Electric Potential at that point. Its unit is volt (V).
Electric Potential Difference (V12) is the work done in moving a unit +ve charge from one point
to (1) another (2) in an electric field.

Relation between E and V


If the electric potential at a point is expressed as a Scalar function of co-ordinate variables (say
x,y,z) then V = V(x,y,z)

f
dV - dl - E . dl
- - - - - - - - (1)
q
V
V
V
Also, dV
dx
dy
dz
x
y
z

dV V . dl

- - - - - - - - - (2)

From (1) and (2) E - V

Determination of electric potential V at a point P due to a point charge of + Q C

a l

R dR

0
+Q

At point P, E

Q
a R N / C
4 0 R 2

a R

f 1 x Ep

Q
a R N
4 0 R 2
The work done in moving a unit charge over a distance dl in the electric field is

dV - f . dl - E . dl
R

Vp VP

Q dl
4 0 R 2 (a R . a l ) -

Q
Volt
4 0 R 2

R2

dR

(a scalar field)

Electric Potential Difference between two points P & Q distant R p and Rq from 0 is

Vpq (Vp - Vq )

1
1

volt
R p R q

Q
4 0

Electric Potential at a point due to different charge configurations.


1. Discrete charges
. Q1
.
Q2
Qm

P
Rm

V1P

1
4 0

V2P

1
4 0

1
4 0

V4P

1
4 0

Qm

2. Line charge
xP

ll

dl V

l C / m
3. Surface charge

V3P

xP
s C / m

S ds
V
R

4. Volume charge
xP
v C/ m3

5. Combination of above V5P = V1P + V2P + V3P + V4P

V dv
V
R
V

Equipotential Surface : All the points in space at which the potential has same value lie on a
surface called as Equipotential Surface.
Thus for a point change Q at origin the spherical surface with the centre of sphere at the
origin, is the equipotential surface.
Sphere of
Radius , R
R
P
0
+Q
equipotential surfaces

Q
V

Potential at every point on the spherical surface is

VR

Q
volt
4 0 R

VPQ is difference of potential two equipotential surface potential

Gausss law : The surface integral of normal component of D emerging from a closed surface is
equal to the charge contained in the space bounded by the surface.

i.e., D . n ds Q C

(1)

where S is called the Gaussian Surface.


By Divergence Theorem,

D
.
n
ds

.
D
dv
----------- (2)

Also, Q V dv

---------- (3)

From 1, 2 & 3,

----------- (4) is point form (or differential form) of Gausss law while
.D
equation (1) is Integral form of Gauss law.
Poissons equation and Laplace equation

In equation 4, D 0 E

. E / 0 or . (- V) / 0
2 V -

Poisson equation
0

If 0, 2 V 0 Laplace equation

Till now, we have discussed (1) Colulombs law (2) Gauss law and (3) Laplace equation. The

determination of E and V can be carried out by using any one of the above relations. However,
the method of Coulombs law is fundamental in approach while the other two use the physical
concepts involved in the problem.

(1) Coulombs law : Here E is found as force f per unit charge. Thus for the simple case of
point charge of Q C,

1
Q
E

V/ M
4 0 R 2

V E dl Volt
l

(2) Gausss law : An appropriate Gaussian surface S is chosen. The charge enclosed is
determined. Then

D
n ds Qenc
S

Then D and hence E are determined

Also V E dl volt
l

(3) Laplace equation : The Laplace equation 2 V 0

boundary conditions to get V. Then, E - V

is solved subjecting to different

Solutions to Problems on Electrostatics :1. Data : Q1 = 12 C , Q2 = 2 C , Q3 = 3 C at the corners of equilateral triangle d m.

To find : F on Q3
Solution :

Let Q1 , Q 2 and Q3 lie at P1 , P2 and P3 the corners of equilateral triangle of side d meter.
If P1 , P2 and P3 lie in YZ plane, with P1
at origin then
P1 (0,0,0) m

Z
P3

P2 (0, d, 0) m
P3 (0, 0.5 d, 0.866 d) m

r1 0

r2 d a y

r3 0.5 d a y 0.866 a z

The force F3 is F3 F13 F23

Q3 Q1
Q

F3
a13 22 a 23
2

4 0 d
d


0.5 d a y 0.866 d a z
r - r
a13 3 1
r3 - r1
d

r - r
a 23 3 2 - 0.5 a y 0.866 a z
r3 - r2
Substituting,

d
d

P1

Y
P2

0.5 a y 0.866 a z

12 x 10-6
F3 (3 x 10- 6 ) 9 x 109
( 0.5 a y 0.866 a z )
2
d

-3
27 x 10 5 a y 12.12 a z

13.11
2
2
d2
5

12.12

F3 0.354 a F N where a F (0.38 a y 0.924 a z )

2 x 10-6

(
0.5
a

0.866
a
)
y
z

d2

2. Data : At the point P, the potential is Vp (x 2 y 2 z 2 ) V


To find :

(1) E p (2) VPQ given P(1,0.2) and Q (1,1,2) (3) VPQ by using general expression for V
Solution :

Vp
Vp
Vp
(1) E p - Vp -
a x
a y
a z
y
z
x
- [ 2 x a x 2 y a y 3z 2 a z ] V /m

P
(2) VPQ - E p . dl
Q

2x dx
1

0 y
VQ - VP - 1 V

2 0

(3) VPQ

2y dy
1

3z

dz

0 -1 V

3. Data : Q = 64.4 nC at A (-4, 2, -3) m

To find : E at 0 (0,0,0) m
Solution :

E0

E0
0

Q
a AO N / C
4 0 (AO)2
64.4 x 10- 9
[ a AO ] N/ C
10- 9
2
4 x
(AO)
36

AO (0 4) a x (0 - 2) a y (0 3) a z 4a x - 2 a y 3 a z
a AO

AO
AO

1
(AO) (0.743 a x - 0.37 a y 0.56 a z )
29

64.4 x 9
E0
a AO 20 a AO N / C
29

4. Q1 = 100 C at P1 (0.03 , 0.08 , - 0.02) m


Q2 = 0.12 C at P2 (- 0.03 , 0.01 , 0.04) m
F12 = Force on Q2 due to Q1 = ?
Solution :

Q1 Q 2
F12
a12
2
4 0 R 12

R 12 R 2 - R 1 (-0.03 a x 0.01 a y 0.04 a z ) - (0.03 a x 0.08 a y - 0.02a z )
( - 0.06 a x - 0.07 a y 0.06 a z ) ; R 12 0.11 m
a12 ( - 0.545 a x - 0.636 a y 0.545 a z )

100 x 10- 6 x 0.121 x 10- 6


F12
x 9 x 109 a12
0.112

F12 9 a12 N

5. Q1 = 2 x 10-9 C , Q2 = - 0.5 x 10-9 C C

(1) R12 = 4 x 10-2 m , F12 ?

(2) Q1 & Q2 are brought in contact and separated by R12 = 4 x 10-2 m F12` ?

Solution :

F12

(1)

2 x 10-9 x - 0.5 x 10-9


10-9
4 x
x ( 4 x 10- 2 ) 2
36

a12

-9
x 10-5 a12 5.63 N (attractive)
16
1
(Q1 Q 2 ) 1.5 x 10-9 C
2
1.52

x 9 x 10-18 13 a12 12.66 N a12


16

(2) When brought into contact Q1` Q`2

F12`
F12`

6.

( 1.5 x 10-9 ) 2
10-9
4 x
x ( 4 x 10- 2 ) 2
36
12.66 N (repulsive)

a12

Y
x

P3
x

P2
x

P1
0

Q1 = Q2 = Q3 = Q4 = 20 C
QP = 200 C at P(0,0,3) m
P1 = (0, 0 , 0) m P2 = (4, 0, 0) m
P3 = (4, 4, 0) m P4 = (0, 4, 0) m
FP = ?
Solution :

Fp F1p F2p F3p F4p

R 1p 3 a z R 1p 3 m a1p a z

R 2p - 4 a x 3 a z ; R 2p 5 m a 2p - 0.8 a x 0.6 a z

R 3p - 4 a x - 4 a y 3 a z ; R 3p 6.4 m ; a 3p - 0.625 a x - 0.625 a y 0.47 a z

R 4p - 4 a y 3 a z ; R 4p 5 m ; a 4p - 0.8 a y 0.6 a z

Fp

Qp
4

10- 9
36

Q1

Q2
Q3
Q4
2 a1p 2 a 2p 3 a 3p 2 a 4p
R 2p
R 3p
R 4p

R 1p

1
1
1

a z 2 ( - 0.8 a x 0.6 a z )
(-0.625 a x - 0.625 a y 0.47 a z )
2
2

3
5
6.4
200 x 10- 6 x 9 x 109
20 x 10- 6
1
( - 0.8 a 0.6 a )

y
z
52

100
100
100

a z
(- 0.8 a x 0.6 a z )
(-0.625 a x - 0.625 a y 0.47 a z )

9
25
40.96
200x10 - 6 x9x10 9 x109 x10 - 6 x 10- 2

100 ( - 0.8 a 0.6 a )

y
z
25

0.36 (3.2 1.526) a x


(-1.526 - 3.2) a y (11.11 2.4 1.15 2.4) a z )
2
6.4

(- 1.7 a x - 1.7 a y 17 a z ) N 17.23 a p N

7. Data : Q1 , Q2 & Q3 at the corners of equilateral triangle of side 1 m.


Q1 = - 1C, Q2 = -2 C , Q3 = - 3 C

To find : E at the bisecting point between Q2 & Q3 .


Solution :
Z
P1 : (0, 0.5, 0.866) m
P1 Q1
P2 : (0, 0, 0) m
P3 : (0, 1, 0) m
P : (0, 0.5, 0) m
Q2
P E1P
Q3
Y
P2
E2P
E3P
P3

E P E1P E 2P E 3P
Q1

1
Q2
Q
a 2P 3 2 a 3P
2 a1P
2
4 0 R 1P
R 2P
R 3P

- 0.866 a z
R 1P 0.866
a1P - a z

R 1P

R 2P 0.5 a y

R 2P 0.5

a 2P a y

R 3P - 0.5 a y

R 3P 0.5

a 3P - a y

- 1 x 10- 6

1
- 2 x 10- 6
- 3 x 10- 6

(
a
)

(
a
)

(
a
)
z
y
y

-9
10
0.866 2
0.52
0.52

4
36
9 x 103 1.33 a z - 8 a y 12 a y

EP

9 x 103

4 a

1.33 a z 36 a y 12 a z 03 V / m 37.9 180 k V/m


Z
E1P

EP

( EP ) = 37.9 k V / m
Y

8. Data Pl = 25 n C /m on (-3, y, 4) line in free space and P : (2,15,3) m


To find : EP
Solution :
Z
l = 25 n C / m
A

(2, 15, 3) m
P

X
The line charge is parallel to Y axis. Therefore E PY = 0

R AP (2 - (-3)) a x (3 - 4) a z (5 a x - a z ) ; R 5.1 m

R
a R
(0.834 a x - 0.167 a z )
R

l
25 x
EP
a R
a R
10- 9
2 0 R
2
x 5.1
36

E P 88.23 a R V / m

9. Data : P1 (2, 2, 0) m ; P2 (0, 1, 2) m ; P3 (1, 0, 2) m


Q2 = 10 C ; Q3 = - 10 C
To find : E1 , V1
Solution :

1 Q2
Q3
E1 E 21 E 21
a
2 a 21
2 31
4 0 R 21
R 31

R 21 (2 a x a y - 2 a z )
R 21 3 a 21 0.67 a x 0.33 a y - 0.67 a z

R 31 a x 2 a y 2 a z
R 31 3 a 31 0.33 a x 0.67 a y 0.67 a z

10- 6

10- 6
E1 9 x 109
(0.67 a x 0.33 a y - 0.67 a z )
(0.33 a x 0.67 a y 0.67 a z )
9
9

3
10 [ a x a y ] 14.14 (0.707 a x 0.707 a y ) V / m
V1

-6
1 Q2
Q3
10- 6
9 10

9
x
10

3000 V
4 0 R 21 R 31
3
3

E1 14.14 V / m

V1 3000 V

10. Data : Q1 = 10 C at P1 (0, 1, 2) m ; Q2 = - 5 C at P2 (-1, 1, 3) m


P3 (0, 2, 0) m

To find : (1) E 3 (2) Q at (0, 0, 0) for E 3x 0


Solution :

1 Q1
Q2
(1) E 3
a 23
2 a13
2
4 0 R 13
R 23

R 13 (2 - 1) a y (0 - 2) a z a y - 2 a z
R 13 5

R 23 (0 1) a x (2 - 1) a y (0 - 3) a z a x a y - 3 a z
R 23 11

R
a13 13 ( 0.447 a y - 0.894 a z )
R 13

R
a 23 23 0.3 a x 0.3 a y - 0.9 a z
R 23

10 x 10- 6

- 5 x 10- 6

E 3 9 x 109
(0.447
a
0.894
a
)

(0.3 a x 0.3 a y - 0.9 a z )


y
z
2
2
( 11)
( 5)

(8 a y - 16 a z ) (-1.23 a x - 1.23 a y 3.68 a z )

- 1.23 a

6.77 a y - 12.32 a z 103 V / m

Q

Q
Q

(2) E 3 9 x 109 12 a13 22 a 23


a
; R 03 2 a y
03
2
R
R
R
23
03
13

E 3x - 1.23 a x

E 3x cannot be zero
11. Data : Q2 = 121 x 10-9 C at P2 (-0.02, 0.01, 0.04) m
Q1 = 110 x 10-9 C at P1 (0.03, 0.08, 0.02) m
P3 (0, 2, 0) m

To find : F12
Solution :

Q1 Q 2
F12
a12 N ; R 12 - 0.05 a x - 0.07 a y 0.02 a z
2
4 0 R 12

121 x 10- 9 x 110 x 10- 9


F12
[a12 ]
R 12 0.088
10- 9
-3
4
x 7.8 x 10
36

F12 0.015 a 12 N

12. Given V = (50 x2yz + 20y2) volt in free space

Find VP , E P and a np at P (1, 2, - 3) m


Solution :

VP 50 (1) 2 (2) (-3) 20 (2) 2 - 220 V

E - V V a x V a y V a z
x
y
z

E - 100 x y z a x - 50 x 2 z a y - 50 x 2 y a z

E P - 100 (2) (-3) a x - 50 (-3) a y - 50 (2) a z


600 a x 150 a y - 100 a z
62 6.5 a P V / m ; a P 0.957 a x 0.234 a y - 0.16 a z

Additional Problems

A1. Find the electric field intensity E at P (0, -h, 0) due to an infinite line charge of density
l C / m along Z axis.
+
Z

A dz

R AP

z
dEPy

Y
dEPz

d EP

a P

X
-

Solution :
Source : Line charge l C / m. Field point : P (0, -h, 0)

dQ
l dz
a R
a R V / m ; R AP - z a z - h a y
2
2
4 0 R
4 0 R

R AP z 2 h 2

R
1

- h a y - z a z
R
R

dE P

a R

z
h

- R a y - R a z d E Py a y d E Pz a z

l dz h
l dz z
a y dE Pz a z
2
4 0 R R
4 0 R 2 R

dE P
dE Py

l dz
4 0 R 2

Expressing all distances in terms of fixed distance h,


h = R Cos or R = h Sec ; z = h tan , dz = h sec2 d

dE Py

l h Sec 2 d
x Cos
4 0 h 2 Sec 2

E Py -

l
Cos d
4 0 h

l
l
l
[ Sin ]- / /22 x2 a y
4 0 h
4 0 h
2 0 h
l h Sec 2 d
h tan
x
4 0 h 2 Sec 2
h Sec

dE Pz
E Pz

l
[ Cos ]- / /22 0
4 0 h

l
Sin d
4 0 h

An alternate approach uses cylindrical co-ordinate system since this yields a more general insight
into the problem.
Z +
A dz

P ( , / 2, 0)
Y

P
/2

AP
X
-

dQ l dz is the elemental change at Z.


The field intensity dE P due to dQ is
dE P

dQ

2 a R V / m
4 0 R

where R a - z a z

and a R

1
( a - z a z )
R

dQ l dz C
z

R a - R a z dE P a dE P z a z

l
l
(i) dE P
dz ; (ii) dE P z z dz
2
4 0 R
4 0 R 2
Taking OPA as integration variable, and expressing all distances in terms of and
dE P

l dz
4 0 R 2

z tan , dz Sec 2 d
(i) dE P

and R

Sec
Cos

l x x Sec 2
l

d
Cos d
3
3
4 0 Sec
4 0

E P

l
l
l
[ Sin ]- / /22
x 2
4 0
4 0
2 0

(ii) dE P z

l x tan x Sec 2
l
d
(- Sin ) d
3
3
4 0 Sec
4 0

l
[ Cos ]- / /22 0
4 0

l
EP
a V / m
2 0

Thus, E is radial in direction


EP z


A2. Find the electric field intensity E at (0, -h, 0) due to a line charge of finite length along Z
axis between A (0, 0, z1) and B(0, 0, z2)
Z
B (0, 0, z2)

dz
2 A(0, 0, z1)
1

Y
X
Solution :

dE P

l dz
4 0 R 2

z2

EP d EP -

2
l
l
Cos d a y
4 0 h 1
4 0 h

z1

EP

z
h
R a y - R a z

Sin d a

l
l
(- Sin )12 a y
( Cos )12 a z
4 0 h
4 0 h

l
(Sin1 - Sin 2 ) a y (Cos 1 - Cos 2 ) a z V / m
4 0 h

If the line is extending from - to ,

2
, 1 2
2

EP

- l
a y V / m
2 0 h

A3. Two wires AB and CD each 1 m length carry a total charge of 0.2 C and are disposed as

shown. Given BC = 1 m, find E at P, midpoint of BC.

P
.

1m
1m

D
Solution :
(1)
1 = 1800 2 = 1800
A

1m

E PAB

l
- (Sin 2 - Sin 1 ) a y Cos 2 - Cos 1 a z
4 0 h

0
(Indeterminate)
0

az
(2)

Pay
C
1

1 = - tan-1
2 = 0

1
= - 63.430
0 .5

E PCD

l
4 0 h

- (Sin

- Sin 1 ) a y (Cos 2 - Cos 1 ) a z

0.2 x 10- 6

- (Sin (-63.43)) a y (Cos 0 - Cos 63.43) a z


10-9
4
0.5
36

E PCD 3.6 x 103 - 0.894 a y (1 - 0.447) a z (-3218 a y 1989.75 a z )

Since E AB is indeterminate, an alternate method is to be used as under :


Z
dEPz
d
dy
y

A
L

dE P

l dy
a R V / m
4 0 R 2

1
R (L d - y) a R ; a R (-a y )
R
l a y
dE Py
dy
4 0 (L d - y)2
1
Ld
1
y L;t
d

Let L d - y - t ; - dy - dt ; y 0 , t

dE P

- l
dt
4 0 t 2

l
EP
4 0

EP

t 1

Ld

l
4 0

1
1
d - L d

l 1
1
V/m

4 0 d L d

dEPy


0.2 x 10 -6 1
1
E PAB
a y
-9
10 0.5 1.5
4
36

E PAB 1800 [ 2 - 0.67] a y 2400 a y V/ m

E P E PAB E PCD

2400 a y - 3218 a y 1990 a z


(-820 a y 1990 a z )

2152 a P V / m
where a P (- 0.381 a y 0.925 a z )

A4. Develop an expression for E due to a charge uniformly distributed over an infinite plane
with a surface charge density of S C / m2.

Solution :
Let the plane be perpendicular to Z axis and we shall use Cylindrical Co-ordinates. The source
charge is an infinite plane charge with S C / m2 .
dEP Z

AP R

Y
d

AP AO OP - OA OP

R ( - a z a z )
a R

1
( - a z a z )
R

The field intensity dE P due to dQ = S ds = S (d d) is along AP and given by


d d
S
dE P S
a R
( - a z a z ) d d
2
4 0 R
4 0 R 3
Since radial components cancel because of symmetry, only z components exist

dE P

EP

S z
d d
4 0 R 3

S dE P 4 S0

z d

0 d 0 R 3 4 S0 x 2

z is fixed height of above plane and let OPA be integration variable. All distances are

= z tan , d = z Sec2 d ; R = z Sec ; = 0, = 0 ; = , = / 2

EP S
2 0

z z tan

2
0 z3 Sec3 z Sec d 2 S 0

/2

Sin d

S
[- Cos ]0 / 2 a z
2 0

S
a z (normal to plane)
2 0

A5. Find the force on a point charge of 50 C at P (0, 0, 5) m due to a charge of 500 C that is
uniformly distributed over the circular disc of radius 5 m.
Z
P
h =5 m

X
Solution :
Given : = 5 m, h = 5 m and Q = 500 C
To find : fp & qp = 50 C

f P E P x q P where E P S a z
2 0
Q
A a z
2 0

f P 1131 x 103 a z x 50 x 10- 6

f P 56.55 a z N

500 x 10- 6
a z
10-9
2
2 ( 5 ) x
36
500

x 36 x 103 a z
2 x 25
1131 x 103 a z N / C