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Disciplina

EnsinoEnsino-aprendizagem de lnguas
estrangeiras
Mediado por tecnologias digitais
Coordenador da Disciplina

Prof. Ronaldo Lima


3 Edio

Copyright 2010. Todos os direitos reservados desta edio ao Instituto UFC Virtual. Nenhuma parte deste material poder ser reproduzida, transmitida e
gravada por qualquer meio eletrnico, por fotocpia e outros, sem a prvia autorizao, por escrito, dos autores.
Crditos desta disciplina
Realizao

Autor
Prof. Vldia Maria Cabral Borges e Prof. Dr. Willis Poole

Sumrio
Class 01: An introduction to Call ............................................................................................................ 01
Topic 01: Introduction to the course ...................................................................................................... 01
Topic 02: What is CALL? ...................................................................................................................... 04
Topic 03: A brief history of CALL ........................................................................................................ 09
Topic 04: Reflections on your experiences learning with CALL .......................................................... 13
Class 02: Teaching Literacy Using Technology ..................................................................................... 14
Topic 01: What is literacy? .................................................................................................................... 14
Topic 02: Using technology to teach reading skills ............................................................................... 19
01: Automatic word recognition skills................................................................................................ 20
02: Vocabulary and Structural Knowledge ......................................................................................... 21
03: Formal Discourse Structure Knowledge ....................................................................................... 24
04: Content / World Background Knowledge .................................................................................... 25
05: Synthesis and Evaluation Skills .................................................................................................... 26
06: Metacognitive Knowledge and Skills ........................................................................................... 27
Topic 03: Using technology to teach writing skills................................................................................ 29
01: Form-focused Approach skills ...................................................................................................... 30
02: Process-focused Approach ............................................................................................................ 32
03: Content-based Approach .............................................................................................................. 34
04: Reader/audience-dominated Approach ......................................................................................... 36
Topic 04: Portfolio Activity ................................................................................................................... 39
Class 03: Teaching oral Communicative Skills using Technology ....................................................... 41
Topic 01: What are oral Communicative Skills? ................................................................................... 41
Topic 02: Using Technology To Teach Listening Skills ....................................................................... 46
Topic 03: Using technology to teach speaking skills ............................................................................. 50
Topic 04: Portfolio Activity ................................................................................................................... 55
Class 04: Evaluating CALL Material ..................................................................................................... 57
Topic 01: General principles for evaluation ........................................................................................... 57
Topic 02: Evaluating multimedia software ............................................................................................ 67
Topic 03: Evaluating websites ............................................................................................................... 71
Topic 04: Portfolio Activity ................................................................................................................... 73
Class 05: Teaching and Learning Languages at a Distance .................................................................. 75
Topic 01: Definition, history and types of distance learning ................................................................. 75
Topic 02: Roles of participants in distance learning .............................................................................. 81
Topic 03: Autonomy and distance learning ........................................................................................... 86
01: What is Autonomy? ...................................................................................................................... 88
02: Language Learning Strategies ...................................................................................................... 90
03: L2 Strategy Training ..................................................................................................................... 91
04: What is the relationship between Language Learning Strategies and Learning Languages .......
at a Distance? ...................................................................................................................................... 92
Topic 04: Portfolio Activity ................................................................................................................... 93

ENSINO-APRENDIZAGEM DE LNGUAS ESTRANGEIRAS


MEDIADO POR TECNOLOGIAS DIGITAIS
CLASS 01: AN INTRODUCTION TO CALL
TOPIC 01: INTRODUCTION TO THE COURSE

In

ENSINO-APRENDIZAGEM

DE

LNGUAS

ESTRANGEIRAS

MEDIADO POR TECNOLOGIAS DIGITAIS you will be studying how


computer technology can be used to teach and to learn English. The purpose
of the course is to familiarize you with the basics of Computer Assisted
Language Learning (CALL), beginning with a description of what CALL is all
about, its historical development and an overview of different types of
programs. Different approaches to using CALL software in the language
classroom are explored, from whole-class teaching to distance learning.

The course is organized into five units (Aulas). The units in this course
are organized as follows:
AULA 1: An Introduction To CALL
AULA 2: Teaching Literacy Using Technology
AULA 3: Teaching Oral Communication Skills Using Technology
AULA 4: Evaluating CALL Material
AULA 5: Teaching and Learning Languages at a Distance

Each unit consists of four lessons (Tpicos). In each lesson, there will
be forums and activities which will be checked automatically. The last lesson
consists of a task which will be posted in your portfolio and checked by your
tutor. You will also be assigned to go to external links for supplementary
readings and further practice.
Unit 1 (AN INTRODUCTION TO CALL) has four lessons:

TPICO 1: Introduction to the course


TPICO 2: What is CALL?
TPICO 3: A brief history of CALL
TPICO 4: Portfolio Activity

As an introduction to this course, you will be asked to reflect upon the


use of technology for teaching and learning and upon your own experience
learning English using technology.

FORUM 1: THE USE OF TECHNOLOGIES


Click on the links below and watch two short videos.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Z2VnWfe33M [1]
Tecnologia na Educao (O vdeo faz uma reflexo sobre a tecnologia
daqui a 15 anos. Ser que estamos preparados?)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ri__cUCVsX8&feature=related [2]
A importncia da Tecnologia na Educao (O vdeo fala sobre a
importncia da tecnologia na vida de professores e de alunos. )
After watching the videos, discuss the following questions with your
classmates
in Forum 1.
Whats the place of technology in your life?
Do you use technology in your work? In what ways?
How do you envision technology in the future?

Technology is becoming more and more part of our lives. And, as a


result, it can no longer be ignored by teachers, parents and students. As
teachers, we are faced with the challenge of incorporating technology into
our teaching. But how can that be done?

FORUM 2: THE USE OF TECHNOLOGY FOR LEARNING


Click on the links below and watch the videos.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xLRt0mvvpBk&feature=watchvrec [3]
Metodologia ou tecnologia? (A tecnologia faz mgica na educao?)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e_8ip7NMGvE&feature=related
[4]
O uso da tecnologia na educao bom ou ruim? (Fabiano Ormaneze e
Ceclia Pavani, coordenadores do projeto Correio Escola Multimdia de
Campinas, defendem que necessrio repensar a forma de educar,
inserindo as novas tecnologias na educao. No entanto, para eles, no
adianta as escolas usarem todo tipo de aparato tecnolgico, como os
tablets e a lousa digital, se seus professores no estiverem preparados para
lidar com essa nova forma de transmitir conhecimento. )
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rCCfKaifsjg [5]
Quais so os desafios para aliar tecnologia educao? (No vdeo
produzido pela equipe do jornal Estado de So Paulo, o educador Nilbo
Nogueira afirma que no basta ter tecnologia, necessrio inovar na
abordagem e na metodologia. )
In Forum 2, discuss the uses of technology in education. Use the
questions below as guidelines for the discussion.
2

Is technology a solution for all teaching and learning problems?


What has to be done so that technology helps teachers and students?
Based on your own experience of learning English in an online program,
what are the pros and cons of technology?

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Z2VnWfe33M
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ri__cUCVsX8&feature=related
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xLRt0mvvpBk&feature=watch-vrec
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e_8ip7NMGvE&feature=related
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rCCfKaifsjg

Responsvel: Prof. Ronaldo Lima


Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

ENSINO-APRENDIZAGEM DE LNGUAS ESTRANGEIRAS


MEDIADO POR TECNOLOGIAS DIGITAIS
CLASS 01: AN INTRODUCTION TO CALL
TOPIC 02: WHAT IS CALL?

The acronym CALL (COMPUTER ASSISTED LANGUAGE LEARNING)


appears to have been coined at the beginning of the 1980s. The first
occurrence we have found is in (Davies & Steel 1981). By 1982 it was in
widespread use in the UK, featured in the title of Issue No. 1 (July 1982) of
the newsletter CALLBOARD and in Davies & Higgins (1982). In the USA the
acronym CALI (COMPUTER ASSISTED LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION) was
initially preferred, appearing in the name of CALICO (founded in 1982), the
oldest professional association devoted to the promotion of the use of
computers in language learning and teaching. The term CALI then appears
to have fallen out of favor because of its association with programmed
learning, i.e. a teacher-centered rather than a learner-centered approach that
drew heavily on behaviorism, and CALL is now the dominant term.
Here are some definitions of CALL.
Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) was
the expression agreed upon at the 1983 TESOL
convention in a meeting of all interested participants.
This term is widely used to refer to the area of
technology and second language teaching and
learning despite the fact that revisions for the term
are suggested regularly.
Chapelle (2001, p. 3)

Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL)


may be defined as the search for and study of
applications of the computer in language teaching and
learning.
Levy (1997, p. 1)

Given the breadth of what may go on in


computer-assisted language learning (CALL), a
definition of CALL that accommodates its changing
nature is ANY PROCESS IN WHICH A LEARNER USES
A COMPUTER AND, AS A RESULT, IMPROVES HIS OR
HER LANGUAGE.

CALL has come to encompass issues of MATERIALS


DESIGN, TECHNOLOGIES, PEDAGOGICAL THEORIES
and MODES OF INSTRUCTION. Materials for CALL
4

can include those which are purpose-made for


language learning and those which adapt existing
computer-based materials, video and other
materials.
Beatty (2003,pp. 7-8).

An alternative term to CALL emerged in the 1980s, namely


Technology Enhanced Language Learning (TELL), which was felt to
provide a more accurate description of the activities which fall broadly within
the range of CALL. Brown (1988:6) writes:
TEXT ONLY

Learning a foreign language can enrich the education of every


pupil socially and intellectually and be vocationally relevant. The new
technology should form an integral part of a modern language
department's overall teaching strategy. By these means, to coin a
communicative-sounding acronym, TELL (Technology Enhanced
Language Learning) can help produce telling results in language
performance both in school and in the wider world.

During the 1990s TELL was adopted by the TELL Consortium (now
defunct), University of Hull, and it figured in the name of the journal of
CALL-Austria, TELL&CALL (now defunct).
Throughout the 1980s CALL moved away from its initial leanings
towards behaviorism and drill-and-practice, widening its scope to embrace
the communicative approach and a range of new technologies. CALL now
includes highly interactive and communicative support for listening,
speaking, reading and writing. Levy (1997:1) provides the following succinct
definition of CALL:
Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL)
may be defined as "the search for and study of
applications of the computer in language teaching
and learning".

This is a catch-all definition, which is endorsed by a growing number of


professional associations throughout the world.

CALL encompasses many different types of software applications. The


applications tend to fall into two distinct types:
Types of software applications
GENERIC SOFTWARE

Generic software applications are designed for general use but they are
extremely useful in language teaching when used in activities which seek to
apply aspects of the functionality of the software to language learning
situations. For example, the use of a word-processor to encourage drafting,
5

critical reflection and editing is an excellent use of generic software to


further a number of language learning objectives. Generic software
applications include:

WORD-PROCESSORS:
PRESENTATION SOFTWARE:
COMPUTER MEDIATED COMMUNICATION (CMC) APPLICATIONS:
WEB BROWSERS AND WEB 2.0 APPLICATIONS:

Authoring Systems
The term
Generic CALL describes
(Computer based systems that allow the creation of content for intelligent
tutoring systems ) designed to cover all aspects of CALL program authoring
and interaction, from simple gap-filling and multiple-choice exercises to
exercises incorporating interactive multimedia. To learn how to make
interactive
exercises,
please,
go
to
http://www2.nkfust.edu.tw/~emchen/CALL/web_CALL.htm [2]
CALL SOFTWARE APPLICATIONS

CALL software applications are designed to promote explicit or


implied language learning objectives and are usually based on the software
authors' beliefs about the ways in which students learn languages. They
offer support in the acquisition of knowledge about language and in the
application of that knowledge both in discrete and in mixed skill activities.
They usually include a substantial degree of interactivity. CALL software
can be
CONTENT-SPECIFICin that the teacher cannot change the
linguistic content or the format of the activities which seek to teach that
content. Commercial MULTIMEDIA SOFTWARE supplied on CD-ROM is
usually content-specific because it is normally impossible to make any
changes to it. CALL software applications can also be CONTENT-FREE in
that the teacher can provide the content which the software then uses as
data for the pre-programmed activities.
Many people expect far too much of CALL, perceiving it as a
replacement for the teacher. The following description of an imaginary
scenario was written as an illustration of how some business training
managers perceived CALL in the early 1990s:
TEXT ONLY

A business trainee is sitting at a computer following a language


course. Step-by-step, the computer presents the essential vocabulary
and structures. These are accompanied, where appropriate, by still and
animated graphic images, photographs and video recordings. As new
words and phrases are introduced, authentic male and female voices
pronounce them and the learner repeats them. The learner's voice is
recorded by the computer and played back. Any errors in
pronunciation are indicated graphically on screen. Offending syllables
are highlighted and additional practice is offered on sounds which the
learner finds difficult. At the end of each presentation sequence, the
computer tests the learner's grasp of the new vocabulary and
structures, marking and recording those words and phrases which
have been imperfectly recalled and offering feedback on points of
6

grammar that the learner appears to have misunderstood. The learner


has access at all times to an online dictionary, a reference grammar
and verb conjugation tables. At the end of the work session the
learner's progress is recorded by the computer, which enables the
thread to be picked up at the next session. In addition, the learner's
progress records - along with those of all the other trainees following
the same course - can be accessed at any time by the training manager.

To some people this is utopia, to others it is a nightmare. An integrated


system at this level of sophistication still does not exist, many years after the
above text was written. There are, however, many programs that will do
independently what is described above. Thankfully, human beings still have
a role to play in language teaching and learning, although some
administrators would like to dispense with them in order to save money.
Technology has to be treated as an AID and not as a panacea. It is no accident
that we talk about Computer ASSISTED Language Learning.

FURTHER READING
In order to become familiarized with some CALL related terminology,
go through A GLOSSARY OF TERMS RELATED TO CALL in Material de
Apoio.

PRACTICE
Complete the crossword puzzle below with terms related to CALL.

1.

2.

1.
3.
4.
6.

5.
7.

ACROSS
1 Hypertext markup language, that is, the software commands used to
create instructions read by Web navigation software. Html is easily leamed
by viewing and copying the source codes of pages on the Web. Online
lessons to leam html are also available.
7

4 Technology Enhanced Language Learning


5 a local area network, usually within one building, classroom, or
campus, that allows e-mail and transfer of other data within a confined
area; often used in writing programs as a means for students to
brainstorm and peer edit materials.
7

Combination

of

face-to

face

classroom

methods

with

computer-mediated activities
8 Multi-user, object-oriented site, similar to a conference call, where
users may interact with each other synchronously, that is, in real time,
and select various places to visit by typing commands or clicking on
choices or objects on the screen.
DOWN
1 Hypertext transmission protocol, which allows the Internet to read
and transmit media and text in an orderly fashion.
2 Any sort learning that happens with the use of mobile devices.
3 Computer Assisted Language Learning
6 A compact disc with read-only memory. Data is burned onto the
disc, which requires a special drive to access it
WORD BANK

TELL, MOO, M-LEARNING, LAN, HTTP, HTML, CD-ROM, CALL,


BLENDEDLEARNING
Submit

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer
2. http://www2.nkfust.edu.tw/~emchen/CALL/web_CALL.htm
3. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer
Responsvel: Prof. Ronaldo Lima
Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

ENSINO-APRENDIZAGEM DE LNGUAS ESTRANGEIRAS


MEDIADO POR TECNOLOGIAS DIGITAIS
CLASS 01: AN INTRODUCTION TO CALL
TOPIC 03: A BRIEF HISTORY OF CALL

Using computers in language learning is, contrary to popular opinion,


not a new phenomenon. It dates back to the early 1960s, although it was
confined in those days mainly to universities with prestigious computer
science departments. By the early 1980s, however, CALL was in evidence in a
large number of schools in the UK and the rest of Europe - and, of course, in
the USA and Canada.
Some researchers have attempted to interpret and analyze trends and
advances in the field the phases of CALL
PHASES OF CALL DEVELOPMENT
Researchers distinguish three phases or stages of CALL development.
Note, however, that the three phases or stages have not occurred in a rigid
sequence. As each new stage has emerged, previous stages continue.

PHASES OF CALL
1 - STRUCTURAL OR BEHAVIORISTIC CALL (1960S -1970S)
2 - COMMUNICATIVE OR COGNITIVE CALL (1980S -1990S)
3 - INTEGRATIVE / SOCIOCOGNITIVE / SOCIOCONSTRUCTIVE CALL (1990S -PRESENT)
1. STRUCTURAL OR BEHAVIORISTIC CALL
(1960S -1970S)

In the first phase, the computer is seen as a tutor, serving mainly as a


vehicle for delivering instructional materials to the learner.
View of Language: STRUCTURAL (a formal structural system)
English Teaching Paradigm: GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION & AUDIO-LINGUAL
Principal Use of Computers: DRILL AND PRACTICE
Principal Objective: ACCURACY
Characteristics:
1. Repeated exposure to the same material is believed to be beneficial or
even essential to learning.
2. A computer is ideal for carrying out repeated drills, since the machine
a) does not get bored with presenting the same material and b) it can provide
immediate non-judgmental feedback.
3. A computer is used as a tutor, presenting material and feedback on an
individualized basis, allowing students to proceed at their own pace and
freeing up class time for other activities.
2. COMMUNICATIVE OR COGNITIVE CALL
(1980S -1990S)

In this phase, the computer is used for skill practice, but in a non-drill
format and with a greater degree of student choice, control and interaction.
View of Language: COGNITIVE (a mentally constructed system through
interaction)
9

English Teaching Paradigm: COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING


Principal Use of Computers: COMMUNICATIVE EXERCISES (to practice
language use; non-drill format)
Principal Objective: FLUENCY
Characteristics:
1. Grammar is taught implicitly rather than explicitly.
2. Computers are used to stimulate discussion, writing or critical
thinking. Students are encouraged to generate original utterances rather
than just manipulate prefabricated language.
3. The programs avoid telling students that they are wrong and are
flexible to a variety of student responses.
4. Computers are used as a tool (e.g., word processors, spelling and
grammar checkers, and concordancers) and the target language is used
exclusively.
3. INTEGRATIVE / SOCIOCOGNITIVE / SOCIOCONSTRUCTIVE CALL (1990S
-PRESENT)

This phase is marked by the introduction of two important innovations:


(a) Multimedia
(b) The Internet
View of Language: SOCIOCOGNITIVE (developed in social interaction
through discourse communities)
English Teaching Paradigm: CONTENT-BASED & ESP/EAP
Principal Use of Computers: AUTHENTIC DISCOURSE (to perform real-life
tasks)
Principal Objective: AGENCY (*definition: "the satisfying power to take
meaningful action and see the results of our decisions and choices" Murray,
1997, p. 126)
Two types: Multimedia CALL (CD-ROMs) (The main advantage of
multimedia packages is that they enable reading, writing, speaking and
listening to be combined in a single activity, with the learner exercising a
high degree of control over the path that he/she follows through the learning
materials.) and Web-based CALL (on the Internet) (The Internet builds on
multimedia technology and in addition enables both asynchronous and
synchronous communication between learners and teachers. The advent of
the web has opened up a new range of tasks for learners, e.g. webquests, web
concordancing, and collaborative writing.)

PRACTICE
Comparing Early CALL and Modern CALL
Compare the characteristics of early CALL and the ones of modern CALL
by filling out the gaps in the chart with the words below.
TASK-BASED,
COLLABORATIVE

WHOLE
10

BEHAVIORISTIC

CONTROL

PROGRAMMEDLEARNING

EARLY CALL

EXTRINSIC

MODERN CALL
- communicative and integrative

- individualized drills

activities

- providing alternatives to learners


- viewing
components

language

as

discrete

viewing

language

as

- emphasizing the importance of


- emphasizing the importance of
guidance
- giving
- giving both extrinsic and intrinsic

feedback

feedback
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

EARLY CALL

MODERN CALL

- BEHAVIORISTIC

communicative

integrative

- individualized drills

COLLABORATIVE
PROGRAMMED- activities
INSTRUCTION
- providing
learners
- viewing language
discrete components
emphasizing
importance of
CONTROL

and

TASK-BASED,

alternatives

to

as
- viewing language as WHOLE
the
- emphasizing the importance

of
EXTRINSIC
guidance

giving
feedback

- giving both extrinsic and


intrinsic
feedback

FURTHER READING

11

Click on the link below to read the text Technological Changes and
the Future of CALL, by Mark Warschauer (2004). The text can also be
found in Material de Apoio (future-of-CALL (Visite a aula online para
realizar download deste arquivo.))

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


Responsvel: Prof. Ronaldo Lima
Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

12

ENSINO-APRENDIZAGEM DE LNGUAS ESTRANGEIRAS


MEDIADO POR TECNOLOGIAS DIGITAIS
CLASS 01: AN INTRODUCTION TO CALL
TOPIC 04: REFLECTIONS ON YOUR EXPERIENCES LEARNING WITH CALL

PORTFOLIO ACTIVITY
TASK: Write an essay. (a piece of writing which is often written from
an author's personal point of view) The title of your essay will be My
experience learning with CALL. The essay should be at least 30 lineslong, and should consist of:
an introduction;
two or three development paragraphs;
and a conclusion.

Make sure to use the content studied in Unit 1 (Lessons 2 and 3) and
the text by Mark Warschauer (2004),Technological Changes and the
Future of CALL (Material de Apoio). Use the questions below to reflect
and write about your experience.
When you finish writing and revising your essay, save it as a word
document and post it in your portfolio.
INTRODUCTION (1ST PARAGRAPH)

- Whats the place of computer technology in your life? - What do you use
it for?
- What was your first contact with CALL?
- How did you feel when you first started learning using computer
technology?
DEVELOPMENT

- In which phase do you think the CALL used in this online program is?
Support your point of view using the information in the text by Warschauer
and the content of Topic 3. (2nd paragraph)
- What are the pros and the cons of learning with CALL? (3rd paragraph)
CONCLUSION

- How do you envision using computer technology in


your classes when you teach English

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


Responsvel: Prof. Ronaldo Lima
Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

13

ENSINO-APRENDIZAGEM DE LNGUAS ESTRANGEIRAS


MEDIADO POR TECNOLOGIAS DIGITAIS
CLASS 02: TEACHING LITERACY USING TECHNOLOGY
TOPIC 01: WHAT IS LITERACY?
TEXT ONLY

Unit 2 (TEACHING LITERACY USING TECHNOLOGY) has four


lessons:

TOPIC 1: What is literacy?


TOPIC 2: Using technology to teach reading skills
TOPIC 3: Using technology to teach writing skills
TOPIC 4: Portfolio Activity

Literacy is a complex set of abilities needed to understand and use the


dominant symbol systems of a culture alphabets, numbers, visual icons
for personal and community development. The nature of these abilities, and
the demand for them, vary from one context to another.
In a technological society, literacy extends beyond the functional skills
of reading, writing, speaking and listening to include multiple literacies such
as visual, media, and information literacy.
These NEW LITERACIES focus on the capacity of individuals to use and
make critical judgments about the information they encounter on a daily
basis. However a culture defines it, literacy touches every aspect of individual
and community life. It is an essential foundation for learning through life,
and must be valued as a human right.
The term LITERACY relates to both reading and writing and suggests the
simultaneous development and mutually reinforcing effects of these two
aspects of communication. Good literacy skills are necessary in all subjects
for:
finding meaning, and understanding texts that are read
writing to convey clear and accurate expression of meaning.

Good literacy skills underpin effective learning for all learners, whatever
they are studying. These skills support effective communication, and equip
learners for achievement and success within education, life in the wider
community and the world of work.

READING
The reading process involves the TEXT, the READER, and the
INTERACTION between the two. Theorists have proposed three basic models
of how reading occurs: BOTTOM-UP, TOP-DOWN, and INTERACTIVE.

THREE MODELS OF THE READING PROCESS


BOTTOM-UP MODELS (1960S 1970S)

14

- Reading is a DECODING process (focus on the TEXT).


- The PHONICS approach to teaching reading is used.
1) alphabet letters + sounds
2) words + grammar rules

words
sentences

3) sentences + discourse rules g paragraphs

longer discourse

TOP-DOWN MODELS (1980S)

- Reading is a

psycholinguistic guessing game (focus on the

reader).
- The "whole language" approach to teaching reading is used.
1) The reader receives input from the text,

makes predictions

(based on conceptual abilities, background knowledge, and language


processing skills), tests and confirms or revises those predictions.
2) Use a

holistic approach to reading and writing that advocates the

use of children's literature and authentic reading materials.


INTERACTIVE MODELS (1990S...)

- Reading is a process of CONSTRUCTING MEANING FROM TEXT


through the USE OF BOTH BOTTOM-UP AND TOP-DOWN PROCESSES,
strategies, and skills (focus on the INTERACTION).
- The BALANCED APPROACH to teaching reading is used.
1)

Both

bottom-up
and
top-down
processes
occur
SIMULTANEOUSLY for the reader to comprehend the meaning of the
text.
2) Two levels of interaction:
- the interaction between THE READER and THE TEXT.
- the interaction between two kinds of cognitive skills: IDENTIFICATION
and

INTERPRETATION.

Reading researchers also recognize the function of BACKGROUND


KNOWLEDGE in the reading process. According to SCHEMA THEORY, the
reader brings previously acquired background knowledge organized into
interrelated patterns, or schemata, to the reading process. Then the reader
creates meaning by relating the text to this background knowledge, including
knowledge of customs and beliefs from his or her own experiences. There are
three types of schemata that have an impact on READING
COMPREHENSION:

FORMAL SCHEMATA

Prior knowledge of rhetorical structures and conventions (e.g.


different types of expository organizational patterns: cause and effect,
comparison and contrast, problem and solution, and chronological order,
etc.)
CONTENT SCHEMATA

Background knowledge of the subject of the text, which is often


culture-bound.
15

LINGUISTIC SCHEMATA

Decoding knowledge used to recognize words and determine their


syntax in a sentence; that is, prior knowledge of a particular vocabulary
and grammar rules.
Effective reading is concerned with a search for meaning within an
increasingly challenging range of texts. Learners need to be aware that their
reading may serve a range of purposes, including for pleasure, information
and instruction. When reading for different purposes, fluent and effective
readers will develop and refine different strategies that allow them to:
read closely, as when absorbing information
read thoughtfully, as when considering an argument
read aloud for others and themselves
skim a text to gain an overall impression
scan to find a particular item of information
read imaginatively, as when visualizing or recreating things or
situations described
read responsively and actively, as when following or predicting the
course of a narrative or report
read critically, as when assessing the force of an opinion or argument
read analytically
read appreciatively, recognizing the writers skill in using ideas,
techniques and effects
read with an awareness of the writers viewpoint
realize that a text does not always mean what it says, understanding
the nature of irony and ambiguity as well as accepting the existence of
multiple levels of meaning in a text
make selections and read in order to elicit information from a number
of texts, identifying key points, collating information, making
comparisons and synthesizing material from different sources
evaluate what they read in terms of quality, effect and reliability.

WRITING
It has long been recognized that READING AND WRITING ARE
and in fact SHARE MANY OF THE SAME COGNITIVE
AND SOCIAL PROCESSES:
INTEGRALLY LINKED

- Readers and writers are both ACTIVE PARTICIPANTS in


INTERPRETING AND CONSTRUCTING meaning from text.
- Reading and writing both emphasize the importance of keeping
SCHEMATA in mind concerining the CONTENT and FORM of text.

16

- Reading and writing are both COMPLICATED, INTERACTIVE,


AND RECURSIVE PROCESSES.

Raimes (1991) identified four different focuses in second language


writing that emerged at different times and continue to have an impact on
today's writing instruction: FOCUS ON FORM, FOCUS ON THE WRITER,
FOCUS ON THE CONTENT, and FOCUS ON THE READER.

THE FOUR DIFFERENT ROLES OF WRITING


FOCUS ON FORM (1960S 1970S)
FOCUS ON THE WRITER AND THE WRITING PROCESS (1970S)
FOCUS ON THE CONTENT (1980S)
FOCUS ON THE READER (1990S...)
FOCUS ON FORM (1960S 1970S)

- Writing was viewed as A MEANS OF REINFORCING SPEECH PATTERNS


(1960s).
- Writing instruction focused on SENTENCE-LEVEL linguistic forms.
- Writing was viewed as a PRODUCT affected by L1 CULTURAL THOUGHT
PATTERNS and RHETORICAL FORMS (1970s).
FOCUS ON THE WRITER AND THE WRITING PROCESS (1970S)

- Writing was viewed as A PROCESS of CONSTRUCTING PERSONAL


MEANING.
- STUDENT EXPRESSION was viewed as more important than linguistic
correctness.
- Writing included a series of COGNITIVE ACTIVITIES, such as
brainstorming,
drafting, peer-reviewing, and revising.
FOCUS ON THE CONTENT (1980S)

- Writing was viewed as an important ACADEMIC SKILL.


- Developing writing skills for ACADEMIC PURPOSES was emphasized more.
- Attention was given to the CONTENT and the ACADEMIC EXPECTATIONS
placed on students.
FOCUS ON THE READER (1990S...)

- Writing was viewed as A TEXT UNDERSTOOD BY THE READER.


- Writers need to know who the reader is and how to MEET THE READER'S
EXPECTATION when they write.
- CONTENT and RHETORIC FORM (i.e. DISCOURSE STRUCTURE) used in
academic
writing are both emphasized.
Effective writing is concerned with expressing information, ideas,
thoughts and emotions with clarity, coherence and fluency in a wide range of
forms and styles. It is adapted to suit its audience and purpose, and is
accurate in terms of spelling, punctuation and grammar. When writing for
different purposes, fluent and effective writers will develop and refine
different strategies that allow them to:

17

write confidently and with control, showing flair and originality

adapt their writing to suit the audience and purpose of the piece,
making choices in formality of style and appropriate vocabulary
choose the appropriate form for the task, realizing that some writing
must be concise and that some need to be extended and sustained
experiment with language, form and structure to achieve a particular
effect
sustain an argument and offer convincing evidence to support their
opinion
analyze and evaluate their own and others writing
write coherent, grammatically accurate texts, using a wide range of
sentence structures to enhance the fluency, as well as using paragraphs
effectively to organize the content
use the full range of punctuation to clarify meaning and create effect
spell accurately
reflect on what they have written, drafting, editing and finding ways to
improve their writing
present writing in the way that best suits the task, using appropriate
features of layout and presentation including information and
communication technology (ICT).

FORUM 1: THINKING ABOUT HOW YOU READ AND WRITE


Please, reflect on how you read and write and discuss the following
questions with your classmates and tutor in Forum 1.
1. Recall a reading experience in English that caused you difficulty in
comprehending a particular text. Then discuss which schemata you think
plays the most important role.
2. Recall your own writing learning experiences in English. Which role(s)
of writing do you think your writing teachers gave more attention to?
Please give examples. Do you think all of your writing teachers used the
same teaching approaches? Which one(s) do you like better? Why?
3. What technological skills have you learned so far that helped you read
and write better?

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer
Responsvel: Prof. Ronaldo Lima
Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

18

ENSINO-APRENDIZAGEM DE LNGUAS ESTRANGEIRAS


MEDIADO POR TECNOLOGIAS DIGITAIS
CLASS 02: TEACHING LITERACY USING TECHNOLOGY
TOPIC 02: USING TECHNOLOGY TO TEACH READING SKILLS

Grabe (1991) identified six component skills and knowledge areas


essential for reading fluency:
1. AUTOMATIC WORD RECOGNITION SKILLS (CLICK TO READ)
2. VOCABULARY AND STRUCTURAL KNOWLEDGE (CLICK TO READ)
3. FORMAL DISCOURSE STRUCTURE KNOWLEDGE (CLICK TO READ)
4. CONTENT / WORLD BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE (CLICK TO READ)
5. SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATION SKILLS (CLICK TO READ)
6. METACOGNITIVE KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS (CLICK TO READ)

Lets see how technology can help us teach and learn these six
component skills and knowledge areas necessary to develop reading fluency.
Please, be sure to click on the links of the examples provided for each skill
and knowledge area.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


Responsvel: Prof. Ronaldo Lima
Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

19

ENSINO-APRENDIZAGEM DE LNGUAS ESTRANGEIRAS


MEDIADO POR TECNOLOGIAS DIGITAIS
CLASS 02: TEACHING LITERACY USING TECHNOLOGY
01. AUTOMATIC WORD RECOGNITION SKILLS

1. Automatic recognition skills allow readers to IDENTIFY LETTERS AND


Good
readers are able to read rapidly because they can recognize most words
automatically, and therefore process this information very efficiently. The
combination of RAPID AND PRECISE WORD RECOGNITION has proven to be
AN EFFECTIVE PREDICTOR OF READING ABILITY, particularly of young
readers.
WORDS WITHOUT BEING CONSCIOUSLY AWARE OF THE PROCESS.

2. Computers can facilitate the development of recognition skills.


Examples of using the PHONICS approach:

- Learn to Read at Starfall [1]


- BBC Words and Pictures [2]
Examples for SPEED READING:

- AceReader - download the AceReader Original Demo [3]


- Best Reader - download the trial version [4]

CLICK TO RETURN TO CLASS PAGE

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1.
2.
3.
4.

http://www.starfall.com/
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/wordsandpictures/index.shtml
http://www.acereader.com/personal/free-trial.html
http://www.readerssoft.com/

Responsvel: Prof. Ronaldo Lima


Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

20

ENSINO-APRENDIZAGEM DE LNGUAS ESTRANGEIRAS


MEDIADO POR TECNOLOGIAS DIGITAIS
CLASS 02: TEACHING LITERACY USING TECHNOLOGY
02. VOCABULARY AND STRUCTURAL KNOWLEDGE

1. The importance of vocabulary learning for reading comprehension:


a. Readers need to know a large percentage (approximately 95%) of the
words in any given text in order to comprehend the meaning of the
reading or to guess the meaning of words unfamiliar to them.
b. Vocabulary is not acquired in quick doses, but rather is a process of
incremental learning and constant reinforcement. Readers need to know
not just one meaning of a word in a particular context but also its
alternative meanings in different contexts and other aspects of the word
such as its grammatical properties.

2. Things needed to be included in vocabulary lessons (Zimmerman,


1997):
a. multiple exposure to words
b. exposure to words in meaningful contexts
c. rich and varied information about each word
d. establishment of ties between instructed words student
experience, and prior knowledge
e. active participation by students in the learning process

3. Computer technology can be used to facilitate vocabulary


development:

EXAMPLE
- Online dictionaries
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/ [1]
http://www.onelook.com/ [2]
http://dictionary.reference.com/ [3]
- Online concordancers
DEFINITION:

DEFINITION:
A CONCORDANCE is an alphabetical listing/index of the words in a
text, given together with the contexts in which they appear.
A CONCORDANCER is a computer program that allows users to
search a collection of authentic texts (i.e. a corpus) for multiple
examples of selected words or phrases.

21

A CORPUS is a collection of either written or spoken texts (The


plural is CORPORA). In fact, the World Wide Web itself is a huge corpus
that we can take advantage of to find sufficient occurrences of language
elements.

USES OF CONCORDANCERS FOR LANGUAGE LEARNING AND


TEACHING:
Users can use a concordancer to find examples of authentic usage
to demonstrate WORD COLLOCATIONS, WORD USAGE, or even THE
STRUCTURE OF A TEXT.
Teachers can GENERATE EXERCISES
AUTHENTIC, INTERESTING EXAMPLES

(e.g., cloze tests) based on


drawn from a variety of
corpora rather than made-up traditional grammar examples.

Students can WORK OUT RULES OF GRAMMAR OR USAGE and


LEXICAL FEATURES for themselves by searching for key words in
context. This helps them to raise their language awareness, particularly
in word collocations.

http://vlc.polyu.edu.hk/concordance/ [4]
http://www.webcorp.org.uk/live/ [5]
Word games:
http://www.manythings.org/wbg/ [6]
http://www.vocabulary.co.il/ [7]
http://www.englishclub.com/esl-games/ [8]
4. The importance of grammar learning for reading comprehension:
Grammatical structures provide readers significant information that allows
them to understand the meaning relationships among words and among
sentences in a reading text.
5. Computers can facilitate the development of structural skills:

EXAMPLE
Grammar Website Examples:
http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/index.htm [9]
http://www.eflnet.com/grammar/index.php [10]
http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/ [11]

CLICK TO RETURN TO CLASS PAGE

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

http://www.thefreedictionary.com/
http://www.onelook.com/
http://dictionary.reference.com/
http://vlc.polyu.edu.hk/concordance/
http://www.webcorp.org.uk/live/
http://www.manythings.org/wbg/
http://www.vocabulary.co.il/
http://www.englishclub.com/esl-games/
22

9. http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/index.htm
10. http://www.eflnet.com/grammar/index.php
11. http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/
Responsvel: Prof. Ronaldo Lima
Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

23

ENSINO-APRENDIZAGEM DE LNGUAS ESTRANGEIRAS


MEDIADO POR TECNOLOGIAS DIGITAIS
CLASS 02: TEACHING LITERACY USING TECHNOLOGY
03. FORMAL DISCOURSE STRUCTURE KNOWLEDGE

1. Knowledge of the STRUCTURE OF FORMAL DISCOURSE / RHETORICAL


ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERNS (i.e. FORMAL SCHEMATA) assists the learner
in understanding and remembering the text. Research indicated that explicit
teaching of rhetorical organization of text facilitated ESL students' reading
comprehension.
2. Computer technology can facilitate the development of discourse
structure knowledge:

EXAMPLE
http://www.writing.utoronto.ca/advice [1]
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/ [2]

CLICK TO RETURN TO CLASS PAGE

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://www.writing.utoronto.ca/advice
2. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/
Responsvel: Prof. Ronaldo Lima
Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

24

ENSINO-APRENDIZAGEM DE LNGUAS ESTRANGEIRAS


MEDIADO POR TECNOLOGIAS DIGITAIS
CLASS 02: TEACHING LITERACY USING TECHNOLOGY
04. CONTENT / WORLD BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE

1. Activating the reader's KNOWLEDGE OF THE SUBJECT MATTER and


of the text is a significant factor in both reading
comprehension and recall. Research shows that L2 learners can better recall
information from text on topics FAMILIAR to them than readings of
equivalent difficulty level on subjects with which they are less familiar.
CULTURAL CONTENT

Moreover, readers can more easily comprehend and recall texts of which the
content is BASED ON THEIR OWN CULTURE than texts based on unfamiliar
and more remote cultures.
2. Computers can facilitate the development of content/world
knowledge:

EXAMPLE
http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/index.shtml [1]
BBC Schools [2]
http://edition.cnn.com/ [3]

http://edition.cnn.com/search/?
query=CNN+Student+News&x=0&y=0&primaryType=mixed&sortBy=relevance&intl=tru
[4]
http://www.pbs.org/ [5]
http://pbskids.org/ [6]
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/ [7]

CLICK TO RETURN TO CLASS PAGE

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/index.shtml
2. http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/
3. http://edition.cnn.com/
4. http://edition.cnn.com/search/?
query=CNN+Student+News&x=0&y=0&primaryType=mixed&sortBy=relev
ance&intl=true
5. http://www.pbs.org/
6. http://pbskids.org/
7. http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/
Responsvel: Prof. Ronaldo Lima
Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

25

ENSINO-APRENDIZAGEM DE LNGUAS ESTRANGEIRAS


MEDIADO POR TECNOLOGIAS DIGITAIS
CLASS 02: TEACHING LITERACY USING TECHNOLOGY
05. SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATION SKILLS

1. Fluent readers are able not only to COMPREHEND the text, but to MAKE
JUDGMENTS about THE INFORMATION, THE AUTHOR'S PURPOSE, and
THE USEFULNESS OF THE TEXT. They usually use strategies like
PREDICTING to assist them in ANTICIPATING TEXT DEVELOPMENT and
EVALUATING THE AUTHOR'S PERSPECTIVE as they read.
2. Use computers to encourage students learning to synthesize and
evaluate reading text.

EXAMPLE
http://www.planetozkids.com/Ace_Detectives/ [1]
http://www.readwritethink.org/files/resources/interactives/storymap/
[2]

CLICK TO RETURN TO CLASS PAGE

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://www.planetozkids.com/Ace_Detectives/
2. http://www.readwritethink.org/files/resources/interactives/storymap/
Responsvel: Prof. Ronaldo Lima
Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

26

ENSINO-APRENDIZAGEM DE LNGUAS ESTRANGEIRAS


MEDIADO POR TECNOLOGIAS DIGITAIS
CLASS 02: TEACHING LITERACY USING TECHNOLOGY
06. METACOGNITIVE KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS

1. Metacognitive knowledge is knowledge about how learners THINK


their cognitive processes. It includes KNOWLEDGE
ABOUT LANGUAGE and ABILITY TO RECOGNIZE STRUCTURAL AND
RHETORICAL FEATURES of the text using suitable strategies for
accomplishing particular goals.
AND SELF-REGULATE

2. In the reading process, metacognitive skills include RECOGNIZING


MAIN IDEAS, adjusting reading rate for SKIMMING, SCANNING,
PARAPHRASING, and SUMMARIZING, GUESSING MEANING from word
formation rules, prefixes, and suffixes, and TAKING NOTES. The ability to
effectively apply metacognitive strategies to the reading process is a key
ingredient for skilled reading, especially for older readers.
3. Computers can be used to assist students in developing metacognitive
skills:

EXAMPLE
http://www.readingquest.org/strat/ [1]
http://hedc.otago.ac.nz/hedc/learning/ [2]

FURTHER READING
Take a look at some good reading material collection websites by clicking
on the links below.
- The Online Books Page [3]
- English Reading from E.L. Easton [4]
- English reading from EnlgishClub.com [5]
- Repeat after Us - Online Library and Language Lab [6]

PRACTICE
Answer the question below; then click on the link to check your answer.
Which of the following statements about using computer technologies to
teach reading is NOT true?
a) Online concordancers are good language learning tools that can
help learners to increase vocabulary and structural Knowledge.
b) Many news websites, like CNN International, can be used to
facilitate the development of content/world knowledge.
c) Most computer-based learning programs cannot help learners to
develop rapid and precise word recognition.
27

d) WebQuests can be used to develop synthesis and evaluation skills.


CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWER.

Letter C is not true. There are several computer based learning


programs that can help learners develop rapid and precise word
recognition. Check these ones:
http://www.acereader.com/personal/free-trial.html [7]
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/wordsandpictures/index.shtml
[8]

CLICK TO RETURN TO CLASS PAGE

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

http://www.readingquest.org/strat/
http://hedc.otago.ac.nz/hedc/learning/
http://digital.library.upenn.edu/books/
http://eleaston.com/reading.html
http://www.englishclub.com/reading/index.htm
http://www.repeatafterus.com/index.php
http://www.acereader.com/personal/free-trial.html
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/wordsandpictures/index.shtml

Responsvel: Prof. Ronaldo Lima


Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

28

ENSINO-APRENDIZAGEM DE LNGUAS ESTRANGEIRAS


MEDIADO POR TECNOLOGIAS DIGITAIS
CLASS 02: TEACHING LITERACY USING TECHNOLOGY
TOPIC 03: USING TECHNOLOGY TO TEACH WRITING SKILLS

According to the different focuses in second language writing, there are


four major approaches to L2 writing instruction:
1. FORM-FOCUSED APPROACH (CLICK TO READ)
2. PROCESS-FOCUSED APPROACH (CLICK TO READ)
3. CONTENT-BASED APPROACH (CLICK TO READ)
4. READER/AUDIENCE-DOMINATED APPROACH (CLICK TO READ)

Good writing instruction draws on each approach in varying degrees and


attends to the interaction among these different focuses.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


Responsvel: Prof. Ronaldo Lima
Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

29

ENSINO-APRENDIZAGEM DE LNGUAS ESTRANGEIRAS


MEDIADO POR TECNOLOGIAS DIGITAIS
CLASS 02: TEACHING LITERACY USING TECHNOLOGY
01. FORM-FOCUSED APPROACH SKILLS

In the 1960s, L2 writing instruction focused on SENTENCE-LEVEL


LINGUISTIC FORMS.

By the 1970s, writing instruction moved beyond the


sentence level to CONTROLLED DISCOURSE in the form of SENTENCE
COMBINING and CONTROLLED COMPOSITIONS. This was also a time when
attention was directed toward RHETORICAL FORMS and RHETORICAL
ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERNS.

The emphasis of this approach is on

ACCURACY.

Form-focused instruction includes two types: 1) grammar-based


instruction and 2) discourse structure-based instruction.

TYPES OF FORM-FOCUSED INSTRUCTION


GRAMMAR-BASED INSTRUCTION

GRAMMAR-BASED INSTRUCTION is found in different types of


programs ranging from simple DRILL AND PRACTICE activities that
feature a few points of grammar to comprehensive
INTERACTIVE
software that cover major grammatical structures from beginning to
advanced levels.
Many

comprehensive

interactive

programs

provide activities
INTEGRATED WITH OTHER LANGUAGE SKILLS. The use of an
INTEGRATED APPROACH attempts to address the long-standing concern
that students learning grammar in isolation of other skills were unable to
transfer that grammatical knowledge to their actual language use in reallife situations.
Website examples:
http://ww2.college-em.qc.ca/prof/epritchard/

[1]

http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/

[2]

http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/1/

[3]

DISCOURSE STRUCTURE-BASED INSTRUCTION

DISCOURSE STRUCTURE-BASED INSTRUCTION includes practices


in recognizing and using basic elements of well-written essays, such as
introductory and concluding paragraphs, topic sentences, supporting
details, and transitions. Attention is given to the organizational patterns
and forms of different types of written text, such as expository, descriptive,
and narrative.
Website Examples:
The site is designed to assist students to write creatively. Online
examples assist students in their abilities to write sentences, paragraphs,
and even essays.

30

http://www2.actden.com/writ_den/

[4]

http://writing2.richmond.edu/writing/wweb.html#structure
http://www.cws.illinois.edu/workshop/

[6]

CLICK TO RETURN TO CLASS PAGE

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

http://ww2.college-em.qc.ca/prof/epritchard/
http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/1/
http://www2.actden.com/writ_den/
http://writing2.richmond.edu/writing/wweb.html#structure
http://www.cws.illinois.edu/workshop/

Responsvel: Prof. Ronaldo Lima


Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

31

[5]

ENSINO-APRENDIZAGEM DE LNGUAS ESTRANGEIRAS


MEDIADO POR TECNOLOGIAS DIGITAIS
CLASS 02: TEACHING LITERACY USING TECHNOLOGY
02. PROCESS-FOCUSED APPROACH

PROCESS-FOCUSED instruction, which was largely a reaction against


form-dominated instruction, emphasizes LEARNER-CENTERED tasks in
which students assume greater control over WHAT they write, HOW they
write it, and the EVALUATION of their own writing.
Teachers allow time for PRE-WRITING ACTIVITIES, including
brainstorming and bridging to students' background knowledge (i.e.
schemata). Students are encouraged to write MULTIPLE DRAFTS,
COMMUNICATE WITH AUTHENTIC AUDIENCE, SHARE FEEDBACK WITH
PEERS, REVISE aND EDIT their writing, and then PUBLISH their writing.
CONTENT and STUDENT EXPRESSION are viewed as more important than
linguistic correctness.
Technology enhances this approach in terms of providing both
writing opportunities and INDIVIDUALIZED skill
development using computer-based programs. Butler-Pascoe and Wiburg
(2003) made a list showing how technology supports different stages of the
writing process:
COLLABORATIVE

THE
WRITING
PROCESS STAGES

INDIVIDUAL SKILL
DEVELOPMENT

COLLABORATIVE
GROUP
LEARNING
ACTIVITIES

1.
Prewriting
activities

- Prompted writing
Brainstorming
programs
- Outlining programs
- Research

- Accessing Web database


- Brainstorming
- List making
- Electronic bibliography
writers

2. Writing
draft

- Composing with the


word processor

- Collaborative web-based
writing projects

- Individual teacherstudent conferencing

Networked
peer
response groups
- Electronic prompted
peer review

- Word processing
- Thesaurus programs
Spelling
and
grammar checkers

Incorporating
suggestions

Teacher-student
interaction assessing
skills and assigning
software
- Self-correct

- Class critique of student


writing using an LCD
panel

Use
assigned
grammar software
- Web-based writing
labs and grammar
software

- Small group use of


prompted writing and
grammar software

the

3. Responding

4. Revising
editing

and

5. Evaluating

6.
skills

Developing

32

peer

- Display final copy of


student writing
- Desktop publishing
- Web publishing

7. Showcasing or
publishing work

- Desktop publishing
group products such as
school
magazines,
newspapers, brochures,
web pages, and other
publications

EXAMPLE
Examples of online programs to develop writing skills using a
process-based approach:
http://www.vantagelearning.com/products/my-access-schooledition/ [1]
(request a demo)
http://www.talkandwrite.com/ [2]

CLICK TO RETURN TO CLASS PAGE

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://www.vantagelearning.com/products/my-access-school-edition/
2. http://www.talkandwrite.com/
Responsvel: Prof. Ronaldo Lima
Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

33

ENSINO-APRENDIZAGEM DE LNGUAS ESTRANGEIRAS


MEDIADO POR TECNOLOGIAS DIGITAIS
CLASS 02: TEACHING LITERACY USING TECHNOLOGY
03. CONTENT-BASED APPROACH

The CONTENT-BASED APPROACH, which was largely a reaction to the


process-focused approach's excessive attention to the writer's making of
personal meaning, emphasizes the CONTENT OF THE WRITING and the
ACADEMIC EXPECTATIONS placed on students. This approach particularly
benefits college-level L2 students for DEVELOPING WRITING SKILLS FOR
ACADEMIC PURPOSES.

This approach also uses LITERATURE AS A MODEL FOR GOOD


because literature serves as RICH CONTENT for language
development and REFLECTS THE CULTURE of the target language.

WRITING

Content-based instruction can draw on subject matter software to


and DEVELOP CONTENT KNOWLEDGE.
Pascoe and Wiburg (2003) point out four characteristics that good content-

ENHANCE LANGUAGE SKILLS

based learning programs need to have:


a. Incorporate some combination of audio, video, and graphics to support
comprehension.
b. Stimulate critical thinking through problem-solving tasks.
c. Use easily identifiable icons for easy navigation of the program.
d. Are not heavily dependent on text.

EXAMPLE
THE WORLD WIDE WEB offers numerous resources for authentic
content materials and lesson plans. Examples:
Websites of world news agencies and magazines:
- http://edition.cnn.com/ [1]
- BBC News [2]
- World Headlines [3]
- National Geographic Magazine [4]
- Reader's Digest [5]
- Weekly Reader (designed for students) [6]
Online encyclopedias:
- Bartleby.com: Great Books Online http://www.bartleby.com/ [7]
(including encyclopedias, dictionaries, quotations, English
biographies, literary works, and many other reference books)
34

usage,

- Encyclopedia Britannica http://www.britannica.com/ [8] (offering


news, links, and access to abbreviated encyclopedia entries)
- Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page [9] (an open
content, community-built encyclopedia with thousands of articles on
various topics)
Online literature libraries (e-texts):
- Online Library of Literature [10]
-The Literature Network [11]
- Online Children's Stories [12]
Online lesson plans:
- Online lesson plans for [13]
- Online lesson plans for all grade levels and all subjects [14]

CLICK TO RETURN TO CLASS PAGE

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
all

http://edition.cnn.com/
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/
http://worldheadlines.com/#/videos
http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0411/index.html
http://www.rd.com/
http://www.weeklyreader.com/
http://www.bartleby.com/
http://www.britannica.com/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page
http://www.literature.org/
http://www.online-literature.com/
http://people.ucalgary.ca/~dkbrown/stories.html
http://www.webenglishteacher.com/esl.html
http://www2.nkfust.edu.tw/~emchen/CALL/web_teach.htm#lesson-

Responsvel: Prof. Ronaldo Lima


Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

35

ENSINO-APRENDIZAGEM DE LNGUAS ESTRANGEIRAS


MEDIADO POR TECNOLOGIAS DIGITAIS
CLASS 02: TEACHING LITERACY USING TECHNOLOGY
04. READER/AUDIENCE-DOMINATED APPROACH

The READER/AUDIENCE-DOMINATED APPROACH, paralleling and


complimenting the content-based approach, gives greater attention to THE
READER and READER EXPECTATIONS in the ACADEMIC COMMUNITY. The
reader is not just an individual, but the LARGER ACADEMIC DISCOURSE
COMMUNITY into which the writer will become SOCIALIZED.
In this approach, teachers typically develop THEME-BASED LESSONS
that practice various RHETORICAL FORMS and DISCOURSE STRUCTURES
and assist students in the development of academic writing skills in various
ESSAY GENRES such as compare and contrast, giving instructions,
case/problem analysis, persuasion, and cause and effect. FORM AND
CONTENT ARE BOTH EMPHASIZED.

EXAMPLE
Examples of learning rhetorical forms and discourse structures:
Please see website examples in the above discourse structure-based
instruction.
http://www2.actden.com/writ_den/ [1]
http://writing2.richmond.edu/writing/wweb.html#structure [2]
http://www.cws.illinois.edu/workshop/ [3]
Computer technology allows students access to an academic audience
that is worldwide. COMPUTER-MEDIATED COMMUNICATION (CMC),
such as ONLINE DISCUSSION FORUMS and EMAIL EXCHANGE
PROJECTS, makes it possible for students to engage in the target language
of a common discipline as they discuss issues in their field of interest.
Examples of online learning English discussion forums:
Dave's ESL Cafe:
1) Student Discussion Forums [4]
2) Teacher Discussion Forums [5]
Examples of email exchange projects:
Please see examples in Web Resources (III): CMC Activities and Projects
(http://www2.nkfust.edu.tw/~emchen/CALL/web_CMC.htm [6] )

FURTHER READING
Please read the text "The Impact of Electronic Communication on
Writing" by Abdullah, from ERIC Digest. This digest summarizes some
insights gained from research on writing behavior and performance

36

affected by electronic communication. You can find the text in Material de


Apoio.

PRACTICE
Answer the questions below; then click on the link to check your answers.
1. If a web-based writing program claims that it can encourage students to
write multiple drafts and that it helps students writing process by
providing writing tools, such as a grammar checker, a spell checker, a
thesaurus and etc, then which approach does the program follow?
a) Form-focused approach
b) Process-focused approach
c) Content-based approach
d) Audience-dominated approach
2. Which of the following descriptions is a form-focused approach that a
teacher uses with the computer?
a) A teacher uses the computer to provide interactive grammar
activities for students, such as sentence combining.
b) A teacher uses a computer-based writing program which has
Artificial Intelligence (AI) to grade students writings.
c) Teachers and students can have easy access to authentic content
materials through the use of the World Wide Web.
d) None of the above
3. Which one describes the way a teacher uses the computer to teach
writing with a content-based approach?
a) A teacher uses the computer to provide interactive grammar
activities for students, such as sentence combining.
b) A teacher uses a computer-based writing program which has
Artificial Intelligence (AI) to grade students writings.
c) Teachers and students can have easy access to authentic content
materials through the use of the World Wide Web.
d) None of the above
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

1. If a web-based writing program claims that it can encourage


students to write multiple drafts and that it helps students writing
process by providing writing tools, such as a grammar checker, a
spell checker, a thesaurus and etc, then which approach does the
program follow?
B)

PROCESS-FOCUSED APPROACH

37

2. Which of the following descriptions is a form-focused approach


that a teacher uses with the computer?
A)

A TEACHER USES THE COMPUTER TO PROVIDE

INTERACTIVE GRAMMAR ACTIVITIES FOR STUDENTS, SUCH AS


SENTENCE COMBINING.

3. Which one describes the way a teacher uses the computer to teach
writing with a content-based approach?
C)

TEACHERS AND STUDENTS CAN HAVE EASY ACCESS TO

AUTHENTIC CONTENT MATERIALS THROUGH THE USE OF THE

WORLD WIDE WEB.

CLICK TO RETURN TO CLASS PAGE

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

http://www2.actden.com/writ_den/
http://writing2.richmond.edu/writing/wweb.html#structure
http://www.cws.illinois.edu/workshop/
http://forums.eslcafe.com/student/
http://forums.eslcafe.com/teacher/
http://www2.nkfust.edu.tw/~emchen/CALL/web_CMC.htm

Responsvel: Prof. Ronaldo Lima


Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

38

ENSINO-APRENDIZAGEM DE LNGUAS ESTRANGEIRAS


MEDIADO POR TECNOLOGIAS DIGITAIS
CLASS 02: TEACHING LITERACY USING TECHNOLOGY
TOPIC 04: PORTFOLIO ACTIVITY

PORTFOLIO ACTIVITY
TASK: You will write two lesson plans one for a short reading class
and another for a short writing class. Follow the guidelines below. When
you finish writing both plans, save them and post them in your portfolio.

GUIDELINES FOR PLANNING THE READING CLASS


Think of a group of students (grade level/level of language proficiency
and age) that you have to teach a reading lesson to. Pick one skill or one
knowledge area that you want to develop in this lesson (Tpico 2, Aula 2).
Use the websites given as examples of how computer technology can help
develop this skill/knowledge area. Plan a lesson that uses computer tools
and/or materials.
Use the template below for your lesson plan.
SCHOOL: Name of the school (you
can invent one)

TEACHER: Your name

GRADE:
school?

Middle

AGE: teenagers (age range)?;


young adults (age range)?

LESSON: Name the skill or the


knowledge area, from Tpico 2,
you will work on

DURATION: How long will the


lesson last?

TEXT: Pick a text from one of the


websites given in Further Reading,
in Tpico 2

REFERENCE: copy the url address


where you picked the text from.

ACTIVITY/ACTIVITIES:
Choose
one or several activities given as
examples for developing the skill or
the knowledge area you have
picked. Reference where you got
the activities from.

EVALUATION: How will you check


if students have grasped the skill or
the knowledge area.

high

school?

GUIDELINES FOR PLANNING THE WRITING CLASS


Think of a group of students (grade level/level of language proficiency
and age) that you have to teach a writing lesson to. Pick the approach you
will follow for the lesson and the writing skill(s) you will be working on with
the students. (Tpico 3, Aula 2). Use the websites given as examples of how
computer technology can help develop writing skills. Plan a class that uses
computer tools and/or materials.
Use the template below for your plan.
TEACHER: Your name
39

SCHOOL: Name of the school (you


can invent one)

Middle

AGE: teenagers (age range)?;


young adults (age range)?

LESSON: Name the skill you will


work on and the writing approach
you will follow for the class

DURATION: How long will the


lesson last?

WRITING TASK: Describe the task.

REFERENCE: copy the url address


where you picked the task from.

ACTIVITY/ACTIVITIES:
Choose
one or several activities given as
examples for developing the
writing skill in the approach you
decided to follow. Reference where
you got the activities from.

EVALUATION: How will you


correct your students writing?

GRADE:
school?

high

school?

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


Responsvel: Prof. Ronaldo Lima
Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

40

ENSINO-APRENDIZAGEM DE LNGUAS ESTRANGEIRAS


MEDIADO POR TECNOLOGIAS DIGITAIS
CLASS 03: TEACHING ORAL COMMUNICATIVE SKILLS USING TECHNOLOGY
TOPIC 01: WHAT ARE ORAL COMMUNICATIVE SKILLS?
TEXT ONLY

Unit 3 (TEACHING ORAL COMMUNICATIVE SKILLS USING


TECHNOLOGY) has four lessons:

TOPIC 1: What are oral communicative skills?


TOPIC 2: Using technology to teach listening skills
TOPIC 3: Using technology to teach speaking skills
TOPIC 4: Portfolio Activity

The two most basic communicative language skills, listening and


speaking, sound exactly alike when we describe them as oral and aural skills.
Aural language, of course, refers to language we hear. Oral language is
what we say.
These two words are homophones words spelled differently that
Fonte [2]

sound alike. There is no good reason why they should be homophones, but
they are. Perhaps that accident of spelling can serve as a reminder that, while
these two skills cannot be separated, they need to be developed in different
ways.
According to a hoary adage:
TEXT ONLY

We are given two ears and one mouth so we can listen twice as
much as we talk.

This is a maxim to remember when we plan our lessons especially


when we are dealing with a classroom of new learners.
Logically, listening should be the first skill you teach. In practice,
however, most teachers get their students talking on the first day of class,
and many make speech the major focus of their lessons. They tend to
downplay the skill of listening, as do most foreign language textbooks. Yet
listening is probably the most important skill involved in foreign language
learning, as it certainly is in the acquisition of ones native tongue.

LISTENING
Listening was first recognized as a major component of language
learning and teaching in the late 1970s. At that time, research suggested that
language instruction should focus on the learner's listening comprehension
in the early stages of acquisition, while delaying oral production until the
learner was more familiar with the new language. This school of thought
manifested itself in the form of the comprehension approach which
proposed the following:
41

a) COMPREHENSION ABILITIES PRECEDE PRODUCTIVE


SKILLS in language learning.
b) THE TEACHING OF SPEAKING SHOULD BE DELAYED
until comprehension skills are established.
c) SKILLS ACQUIRED THROUGH LISTENING TRANSFER TO
OTHER SKILLS.
d) Teaching should EMPHASIZE MEANING rather than form.
e) Teaching should MINIMIZE learner stress.

Two approaches for the teaching of listening skills, the NATURAL


APPROACH and the TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE (TPR), are grouped
within the broader COMPREHENSION APPROACH umbrella.
Two types of processes BOTTOM-UP and TOP-DOWN have been
identified as central for listening comprehension.
BOTTOM-UP PROCESSING

1. It focuses on INDIVIDUAL LINGUISTIC COMPONENTS of discourse.


2. Comprehension is viewed as a process of DECODING MESSAGES
proceeding from phonemes to words, to phrases and clauses and other
grammatical elements, to sentences.
TOP-DOWN PROCESSING

1. It focuses on
MACRO-FEATURES of discourse such as the
SPEAKER'S PURPOSE and the DISCOURSE TOPIC.
2. Comprehension is viewed as a process of
ACTIVATING THE
LISTENER'S BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE AND SCHEMATA (i.e.
prior knowledge about the context and the topic) for a GLOBAL
UNDERSTANDING of the message.
Listening skills can be used for a variety of purposes. According to
Brown and Yule (1983), language communicative functions can be divided
into two types: INTERACTIONAL and TRANSACTIONAL functions. Both
language functions are needed for effective classroom participation.
Students use INTERACTIONAL language to SOCIALLY INTERACT with each
other and their teacher and engage in TRANSACTIONAL uses to DEVELOP
NEW SKILLS AND CONSTRUCT NEW KNOWLEDGE.
INTERACTIONAL PURPOSES

1. The focus is on HARMONIOUS COMMUNICATION in social contexts.


2. Interactional uses of language typically include greetings and small
talk that center on NONCONTROVERSIAL TOPICS that ELICIT
AGREEMENT among the participants.
3. Interactional uses of language do NOT require careful attention to
details and facts.
TRANSACTIONAL PURPOSES

1.

The focus is on CONVEYING INFORMATION and language use is

MESSAGE ORIENTED.

42

2. Transactional uses of language include listening to lectures, taking


notes, and practicing dictations and cloze exercises that REQUIRE
UNDERSTANDING OF DETAILS.
3. Transactional language is EXPLICIT, CLEAR, and COHERENT in order
for the listener to comprehend the meaning of the message.

SPEAKING
Speaking is viewed in the larger context of communication with the
focus on the speaker's ability to:
1) take in messages
2) negotiate meaning
3) produce comprehensible output

This view recognizes the interactive nature of listening and the crucial
role of negotiating meaning in order to produce comprehensible speech.
SWAIN (1985) argued for THE IMPORTANCE OF COMPREHENSIBLE
OUTPUT that requires the learners to NEGOTIATE MEANING and
about the STRUCTURES AND
FUNCTIONS of the language they produce. In this way, when non-native
speakers RECEIVE FEEDBACK from their interlocutors that their message is
not clear, they REVISE THEIR SPEECH TO CLARIFY THEIR MEANING.
FORMULATE AND TEST HYPOTHESES

Through this process of ADJUSTING their language output in order to make


their messages more comprehensible to native speakers, language learners
IMPROVE THE ACCURACY OF THEIR LANGUAGE PRODUCTION.
There are two basic TYPES OF ORAL INTERACTIONS, according to Bygate
(1987):

Bygate's INFORMATION and INTERACTION routines (1987) correspond


respectively to the TRANSACTIONAL and INTERACTIONAL functions of
language proposed by Brown and Yule (1983).

43

Speaking proficiency involves fluency (refers to <em>fluid</em>


language use, as opposed to slow, halting use; fluency is measured by the
number of words spoken in a minute. ) and accuracy (refers to the correct
use of language forms.) Developing speaking skills involves, therefore,
improving pronunciation as part of developing speaking accuracy.
The role of pronunciation in second language acquisition has changed
with time.
A historical view of the role of pronunciation in SLA:
1940S - 1960S

1970S - 1980S

- the teaching of
was
pronunciation
GREATLY STRESSED.
-

BEHAVIORISTIC
LINGUAL
AUDIOMETHODS:
used

drills,
imitation
pattern practice, and
dialog memorization.

- the teaching of
pronunciation
was
LARGELY IGNORED.
COMMUNICATIVE
APPROACHES: focused
more on FLUENCY
than form.

LATE 1980S
PRESENT

- pronunciation was
a KEY INGREDIENT
to the development
communicative
of
competence.
- a more BALANCED
that
APPROACH
valued

both

ACCURACY
FLUENCY.

AND

There are three main approaches for pronunciation instruction:


INTUITIVE-IMITATIVE APPROACH

The learner listens to and imitates the sound and rhythms of the target
language without the assistance of explicit instruction. Technologies, such
as audiotapes, videos, and computer-based programs and websites, can
offer rich resources of native speech as good models.
ANALYTIC-LINGUISTIC APPROACH

The learner is provided with explicit, structured teaching of speech


features utilizing articulatory descriptions and charts of speech apparatus,
phonetic alphabet and vowel charts, and a variety of interactive speech
analysis software and websites.
CURRENT INTEGRATIVE APPROACH

- Pronunciation is viewed as an
INTEGRAL COMPONENT OF
COMMUNICATION, rather than an isolated drill and practice sub-skill.
- Pronunciation is practiced
WITHIN MEANINGFUL TASK-BASED
ACTIVITIES.

- Use PRONUNCIATION-FOCUSED LISTENING ACTIVITIES to facilitate


the learning of pronunciation.
- There is more focus on the SUPRASEGMENTALS OF STRESS, RHYTHM,
AND INTONATION

as practiced in extended discourse beyond the phoneme

and word level.


- Pronunciation is taught to
NEEDS.

STOP AND CHECK


44

MEET THE LEARNERS' PARTICULAR

Remember that the primary goal of pronunciation teaching is to


develop intelligible speech and to be able to effectively communicate in the
target language (Miller, 2000).

FURTHER READING
Read the texts DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA TO IMPROVE THE
SKILLS
OF
SECOND
LANGUAGE
LEARNERS
and

SPEAKING

ENHANCING THE SPEAKING SKILL OF SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNERS


USING MODERN TECHNOLOGIES. The texts are in Material de Apoio.

FORUM: THINKING ABOUT LISTENING AND SPEAKING


After reading the texts, discuss the following questions with your
classmates and tutor in the forum.
1. Based on your English learning experience, what type of listening
processes do you use more often, bottom-up or top-down? In your
opinion, what type of knowledge can CALL programs better help learners
to develop, linguistic or background knowledge? Why? Please give
examples.
2. Based on your foreign language learning experience, which type of
oral interactions is more difficult to learn and why? How do you think the
use of technology can help you improve your oral communication skills in
the target language? Please give specific reasons and examples.
3. Based on your learning experience, which pronunciation goal or
goals do you think is/are more difficult to achieve? How do you think the
use of technology can help you achieve your pronunciation goal(s)? Please
give specific reasons and examples.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer
2. http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-OOl34jF3J8Q/URUc2RIsyhI/AAAAAAAABL
s/L_dO2vR1cAE/s1600/bouche+%C3%A0+oreille.jpeg
3. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer
Responsvel: Prof. Ronaldo Lima
Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

45

ENSINO-APRENDIZAGEM DE LNGUAS ESTRANGEIRAS


MEDIADO POR TECNOLOGIAS DIGITAIS
CLASS 03: TEACHING ORAL COMMUNICATIVE SKILLS USING TECHNOLOGY
TOPIC 02: USING TECHNOLOGY TO TEACH LISTENING SKILLS

Technology can be of great help to TEACH and LEARN listening skills.


Computers allow TEACHERS to add multisensory elements, text, sound,
pictures, video, and animation, which provide meaningful contexts to
facilitate comprehension. Computers allow LEARNERS to hear the available
input as many times as needed until they feel they understand it.
There are many ADVANTAGES for using computer technology to teach and
learn a second language:
Multimedia programs can be designed to present material at
DIFFERENT DIFFICULTY LEVELS with adjustments in speed of delivery
according to INDIVIDUAL LEARNER NEEDS.
Computers allow learners to develop their AUTONOMY to review and
practice materials as many times as they wish. Computers can provide
IMMEDIATE, NONJUDGMENTAL FEEDBACK

and additional assistance to


learners. They correct learners' errors in a non-threatening way.

EXAMPLES
- Randall's ESL Cyber Listening Lab [1]
- John's ESL Community - Listening Activities [2]
- English Listening Lesson Library Online ELLLO [3]
Computer Technology can be used in teaching listening skills for TWO
TYPES OF PURPOSES:

TEACHING FOR INTERACTIONAL PURPOSES

EXAMPLE
- Learning Oral English Online

[4]

This website offers interactional speaking practice through dialogues


centered on topics such as making friends, going to a party, and dating.
Students can practice different aspects of social conversation. This site also
practices another type of interactional listening that focuses on simple
service-oriented tasks such as ordering lunch and shopping in America.
TEACHING FOR TRANSACTIONAL PURPOSES

EXAMPLE
- BBC Learning English Episodes
- Learning English no YouTube

[5]

[6]

Computer technology can develop listening bottom-up processing and


top-down processing skills:
BOTTOM-UP ACTIVITIES
46

1. Identify sounds or lexical items according to their linguistic function.


2. Use phonological cues to distinguish between positive and negative
sentences or statements and questions.
3. These activities are designed to help learners develop their
phonological, lexical, and grammatical knowledge.
4. These activities are often used for learning phonics and
pronunciation practice.
EXAMPLE
- American English Pronunciation Practice
- Emily's Pronunciation Class

[7]

[8]

TOP-DOWN ACTIVITIES

1. Identify the speaker's communicative purpose or the main idea of


discourse.
2. Use schemata to infer the contextual information from the heard
speech or conversation.
3. These activities are designed to help learners develop their pragmatic
and discourse knowledge.
4. These activities are often used for improving communicative skills
focusing on meaning rather than form.
EXAMPLE
- John's ESL Community - Listening Activities

[9]

- VOA (Voice of America) News Learning English

[10]

PRACTICE
Answer the questions below. You may need to refer back to Topic 1 in
order to answer some of the questions.
1. According to the comprehension approach, the teaching of speaking
should be delayed until comprehension skills are established.
1.
2.

True
False

2. Which of the following descriptions about the comprehension


approach is NOT true?
1. Skills acquired through listening transfer to other skills.
2. Productive language skills should come before comprehension skills
in language learning.
3. Teaching should emphasize meaning rather than form.
4. Teaching should minimize learner stress.
3. Which of the following descriptions about the natural approach is
NOT true?
1. Reading and listening skills should be acquired before writing and
speaking skills.
2. This approach concentrates on comprehensible input and optimum
affective state of learner.
3. Language teachers who adopt the natural approach are encouraged
to establish a low-anxiety learning environment conducive to students
learning.
4. None of the above.
47

4. Which one is NOT a top-down activity?


1. Identify the speaker's communicative purpose or the main idea of
discourse.
2. Use phonological cues to distinguish between positive and negative
sentences.
3. Use schemata to infer the contextual information from the heard
speech or conversation.
4. Focus on the understanding of meaning rather than form.
5. According to Brown and Yule (1983), language communicative
functions can be divided into two types: interactional and transactional
functions. Which of the following descriptions is NOT true about the two
listening purposes?
1. Interactional purposes focus on harmonious communication in social
contexts.
2. The focus of transactional is on conveying information and language
use is message oriented.
3. Interactional uses of language typically include greetings and small
talk that center on noncontroversial topics that elicit agreement among the
participants.
4. Daily gossip involves transactional purpose only.
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS

1. According to the comprehension approach, the teaching of


speaking should be delayed until comprehension skills are
established.
1. True
2. Which of the following descriptions about the comprehension
approach is NOT true?
2. Productive language skills should come before
comprehension skills in language learning.
3. Which of the following descriptions about the natural approach
is NOT true?
2. Language teachers who adopt natural approach are
encouraged
to
establish
a
low-anxiety
learning
environment conducive to students learning.
4. Which one is NOT a top-down activity?
2. Use phonological cues to distinguish between positive
and negative sentences.
5. According to Brown and Yule (1983), language communicative
functions can be divided into two types: interactional and
transactional functions. Which of the following descriptions is NOT
true about the two listening purposes?
4. Daily gossip involves transactional

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1.
2.
3.
4.

http://www.esl-lab.com
http://www.johnsesl.com/templates/quizzes/LQ.php
http://www.elllo.org
http://www.rong-chang.com/book/
48

5. http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/flatmates/archivee
pisode.shtml
6. http://www.youtube.com/user/VOALearningEnglish
7. http://www.manythings.org/pp/
8. http://www2.nkfust.edu.tw/~emchen/Pron/
9. http://www.johnsesl.com/templates/quizzes/LQ.php
10. http://voaspecialenglish.com
Responsvel: Prof. Ronaldo Lima
Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

49

ENSINO-APRENDIZAGEM DE LNGUAS ESTRANGEIRAS


MEDIADO POR TECNOLOGIAS DIGITAIS
CLASS 03: TEACHING ORAL COMMUNICATIVE SKILLS USING TECHNOLOGY
TOPIC 03: USING TECHNOLOGY TO TEACH SPEAKING SKILLS
TEXT ONLY

Speaking is "the process of building and sharing meaning


through the use of verbal and non-verbal symbols, in a variety of
contexts" (Chaney, 1998, p. 13). Speaking is a crucial part of second
language learning and teaching. Despite its importance, for many
years, teaching speaking has been undervalued and English language
teachers have continued to teach speaking just as a repetition of drills
or memorization of dialogues. However, today's world requires that
the goal of teaching speaking should improve students' communicative
skills, because, only in that way, students can express themselves and
learn how to follow the social and cultural rules appropriate in each
communicative circumstance.

What is meant by "teaching speaking" is to teach ESL learners to:


Produce the English speech sounds and sound patterns
Use word and sentence stress, intonation patterns and the rhythm of
the second language.
Select appropriate words and sentences according to the proper social
setting, audience, situation and subject matter.
Organize their thoughts in a meaningful and logical sequence.
Use language as a means of expressing values and judgments.
Use the language quickly and confidently with few unnatural pauses,
which is called fluency. (Nunan, 2003).

Now many linguists and ESL teachers agree that students learn to speak
in the second language by "interacting". Communicative language teaching
and collaborative learning are best for this purpose. Communicative
language teaching is based on real-life situations that require
communication. By using this method in ESL classes, students will have the
opportunity of communicating with each other in the target language. In
brief, ESL teachers should create a classroom environment where students
have real-life communication, authentic activities, and meaningful tasks that
promote oral language. This can occur when students collaborate in groups
to achieve a goal or to complete a task.
We use the computer technology to create an environment that
and PROVIDES INCREASED AND MORE
VARIED COMMUNICATIVE OPPORTUNITIES for students to utilize their oral
skills.
ENCOURAGES COMMUNICATION

50

In teaching SPEAKING SKILLS, the computer can be used as a TUTOR,


an INSTRUCTIONAL TOOL, or a COMMUNICATION MEDIUM. Click on each
one below to see examples of each.
A TUTOR (HUMAN-TO-MACHINE INTERACTION)

Example
My English Tutor

[2]

When the page opens, click on What is MyET to get information about
the program, and then on Try it now. Click on MyET-MyCT Demo to
download the demo of the program. Check the features of the program, the
type of activities it has and how feedback is provided for the learner.
AN INSTRUCTIONAL TOOL (HUMAN-TO-HUMAN INTERACTION VIA THE COMPUTER
IN THE CLASSROOM)

EXAMPLES
- Focus English: Everyday English in Conversation

[3]) Look at the

themes (left column) and pick at least one to explore the dialogues and
activities.
- Conversation Questions for the ESL & EFL Classroom

[4] Pick the

topic, click on it, and take a look at all the questions you can use to talk
about that topic.
A COMMUNICATION MEDIUM (HUMAN-TO-HUMAN INTERACTION VIA THE
COMPUTER OUTSIDE THE CLASSROOM)

- Using

MOOS (Multi-user domains, Object Oriented) and

CHAT

ROOMS (or IRC-Internet Rely Chat) for "live" real-time communication


(i.e. synchronous communication)
EXAMPLES
- schMOOze University [5]
Students have opportunities for one-on-one and group conversations as
well as access to language games such as Scrabble and Boggle, an on-line
dictionary, a virtual library and a grammar maze. Although schMOOze U.
was founded with ESL/EFL students in mind, it welcomes all people
interested in cross-cultural communication.
- ESL Cafe's Chat Central

[6] You can choose to join a student chat or a

teacher chat
- Chat Room in Englishbaby.com
people from around the world!

[7] Join in (its free) and chat with

In teaching pronunciation skills, computer-based activities/programs


of pronunciation instruction include the following:
a. Articulatory charts
b. Sample words utilizing the targeted sound
c. Minimal pairs/comparison words
d. Listening discrimination of minimal pairs within a sentence
e. Sample sentences with several words utilizing the targeted sound
51

f. Dictations
g. Cloze exercises
h. Suprasegmental exercises (including intonation, rhythm, stress, and
timing)

EXAMPLES
- American English Pronunciation Practice [8]
- Sounds of English [9]
- Phonetics: English Sound Library (University of Iowa) [10]
- English Pronunciation/Listening (Okanagan University College,
Canada) [11]

PRACTICE
Answer the questions below. You may need to refer back to Topic 1 in
order to answer some of the questions.
1. According to Bygate's model of oral interactions (1987), which one is
NOT classified as Interaction Routine?
1.
2.
3.
4.

Description
Dinner party
Making reservation
Job interview

2. Which of the following descriptions about current integrative


approach of teaching pronunciation is NOT true?
1. Pronunciation is practiced within meaningful task-based activities
2. Pronunciation is taught to meet the learners' particular needs.
3. Pronunciation is viewed as an integral component of communication,
rather than an isolated drill and practice sub-skill.
4. There is less focus on the suprasegmentals of stress, rhythm, and
intonation.
3. Which one is NOT the primary goal of teaching pronunciation?
1. to develop speech monitoring ability and speech modification
strategies
2. to effectively communicate in the target language
3. to develop intelligible speech
4. to speak with a native-like pronunciation
4. Which of the following descriptions about the analytic-linguistic
approach of teaching pronunciation is true?
1. Learners imitate the sound from audiotapes without explicit
instruction or analysis on the sound.
2. Pronunciation is practiced within meaningful task-based activities.
3. Learners are provided with explicit instruction to learn
pronunciation, and learners can draw on a variety of interactive speech
analysis software to improve pronunciation.
4. None of the above.
52

5. According to Bygate's model of oral interactions (1987), which one is


NOT classified as Information Routine?
1.
2.
3.
4.

Description
Instruction
Explanation
Coffee break

6. Comparing Bygates model (1987) to Brown and Yules (1983), we may


infer that information and interaction routines correspond respectively to
the transactional and interactional functions of language proposed by
Brown and Yule.
1.
2.

True
False

7. According to Swain (1985), comprehensible output is important


because it requires the learners to negotiate meaning and formulate and
test hypotheses about the structures and functions of the language they
produce.
1.
2.

False
True

8. Which one is NOT the purpose of using computer technologies to


teach speaking skills?
1. to provide more varied communicative opportunities for students to
utilize their oral skills
2. to create an environment that encourages communication
3. to learn from authentic speeches provided by the Web or CD-ROMs
4. to train learners to communicate with the computer
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS

1. According to Bygate's model of oral interactions (1987), which one


is NOT classified as Interaction Routine?
1. DESCRIPTION
2. Which of the following descriptions about current integrative
approach of teaching pronunciation is NOT true?
4. THERE IS LESS FOCUS ON THE SUPRASEGMENTALS OF
STRESS, RHYTHM, AND INTONATION.
3. Which one is NOT the primary goal of teaching pronunciation?
4. TO SPEAK WITH A NATIVE-LIKE PRONUNCIATION
4. Which of the following descriptions about the analytic-linguistic
approach of teaching pronunciation is true?
3. LEARNERS ARE PROVIDED WITH EXPLICIT INSTRUCTION
TO LEARN PRONUNCIATION, AND LEARNERS CAN DRAW ON A
VARIETY OF INTERACTIVE SPEECH ANALYSIS SOFTWARE TO
IMPROVE PRONUNCIATION.

5. According to Bygate's model of oral interactions (1987), which


one is NOT classified as Information Routine?
4. COFFEE BREAK

53

6. Comparing Bygates model (1987) to Brown and Yules (1983), we


may infer that information and interaction routines correspond
respectively to the transactional and interactional functions of
language proposed by Brown and Yule.
1. TRUE
7. According to Swain (1985), comprehensible output is important
because it requires the learners to negotiate meaning and formulate
and test hypotheses about the structures and functions of the
language they produce.
2. TRUE
8. Which one is NOT the purpose of using computer technologies to
teach speaking skills?
4. TO TRAIN LEARNERS TO COMMUNICATE WITH THE
COMPUTER

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer
http://www.myet.com/en/index.htm
http://www.focusenglish.com/dialogues/conversation.html
http://iteslj.org/questions/
http://schmooze.hunter.cuny.edu/
http://host8.123flashchat.com/eslcafe/
http://www.englishbaby.com/
http://www.manythings.org/pp/
http://www.soundsofenglish.org/pronunciation/index.htm
http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/
http://international.ouc.bc.ca/pronunciation/

Responsvel: Prof. Ronaldo Lima


Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

54

ENSINO-APRENDIZAGEM DE LNGUAS ESTRANGEIRAS


MEDIADO POR TECNOLOGIAS DIGITAIS
CLASS 03: TEACHING ORAL COMMUNICATIVE SKILLS USING TECHNOLOGY
TOPIC 04: PORTFOLIO ACTIVITY

PORTFOLIO ACTIVITY
TASK: You will write two lesson plans one for a short listening class
and another for a short speaking class. Follow the guidelines below. When
you finish writing both plans, save them and post them in your portfolio.

GUIDELINES FOR PLANNING THE LISTENING CLASS


Think of a group of students (grade level/level of language proficiency
and age) that you have to teach a listening lesson to. Decide if you are going
to teach listening for interactional or transactional purpose (Tpico 2, Aula
2). Use the websites given as examples of how computer technology can help
develop this skill and prepare either top-down or bottom-up activities. Plan a
lesson that uses computer tools and/or materials. Use the template below for
your lesson plan.
SCHOOL: Name of the school (you
can invent one)

TEACHER: Your name

GRADE:
school?

Middle

AGE: teenagers (age range)?;


young adults (age range)?

LESSON: Decide on the purpose of


the class.

DURATION: How long will the


lesson last?

MATERIAL: Select some listening


(See
the
websites
material
presented as examples)

REFERENCE: copy the url address


where you picked the listening
material from.

ACTIVITY/ACTIVITIES:
Prepare
one or several top-down or bottomup activities. Reference where you
got the activities from.

EVALUATION: How will you check


if students have understood the
listening material?

high

school?

GUIDELINES FOR PLANNING THE SPEAKING CLASS


Think of a group of students (grade level/level of language proficiency
and age) that you have to teach a speaking lesson to. Decide if for your class
the computer will be a tutor, an instructional tool or a communication
medium (Tpico 3, Aula 3). Also, decide on the type of oral interaction you
want the students to practice (Tpico 1, Aula 3) Prepare activities to practice
the selected type of oral interaction. Within the speaking class, pick a sound,
or pair of sounds, to focus on pronunciation. Decide on the approach you will
follow: intuitive-imitative, analytic-linguistic, or current-integrative (Tpico
1, Aula 3). Plan activities for speaking and pronunciation practice. Use the
websites given as examples of how computer technology can help speaking
skills. Use the template below for your plan.

55

SCHOOL: Name of the school (you


can invent one)

TEACHER: Your name

GRADE:
school?

Middle

AGE: teenagers (age range)?;


young adults (age range)?

LESSON: Name the lesson (topic of


the class and the sound you will
work on)

DURATION: How long will the


lesson last?

SPEAKING TASK: Describe the


type of oral interaction students
are supposed to perform.

REFERENCE: copy the url address


where you picked the activity from.

ACTIVITY/ACTIVITIES:
Choose
one or several activities given as
examples for developing speaking
and pronunciation skill in the
approach you decided to follow.
Reference where you got the
activities from.

EVALUATION: How will you


correct your students speaking
performance?

high

school?

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


Responsvel: Prof. Ronaldo Lima
Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

56

ENSINO-APRENDIZAGEM DE LNGUAS ESTRANGEIRAS


MEDIADO POR TECNOLOGIAS DIGITAIS
CLASS 04: EVALUATING CALL MATERIAL
TOPIC 01: GENERAL PRINCIPLES FOR EVALUATION
TEXT ONLY

Unit 4 (EVALUATING CALL MATERIAL) has four lessons:

TOPIC 1: General principles for evaluation


TOPIC 2: Evaluating multimedia software
TOPIC 3: Evaluating websites
TOPIC 4: Portfolio Activity

Evaluating software and websites for teaching and learning foreign


languages is not a straightforward job. Its quite different from evaluating
printed materials. A good deal of the contents of a software package or
website will not be immediately visible and will only appear if the user
follows a particular route. In addition, there are factors such as screen
design, user-friendliness and nature of the interaction to take into account.
The general principles for evaluating CALL material are mainly related to
general pedagogical issues and stylistic issues and include concerns about:
(click on each box below)

1.THE LEARNER
i. The learner needs clear instructions on how to start the program.
The energy of the learner should be devoted to the content of the
materials and not to understanding how to use them.
ii. The learner should be able to navigate the program efficiently. A
well-designed program will make the answers to the following questions
available to the learner throughout his/her work session:

What is in this program?

Where am I now?

Where can I go and how do I get there?

Where have I been already?

iii. It is important to achieve consistency in commands and keywords


that are used in instructions and explanations, so that the learner's

57

attention is directed to the task itself rather than to an understanding of


the terminology.
iv. The learner may need to access dictionaries and help on the
contents of the program and on using the system.
v. The learner may need to make use of a notepad as an extension
activity - which should be available via a mouse click.
vi. The program should include a brief statement of objectives,
preferably numbered or bulleted points laid out clearly on screen.
vii. The level of difficulty of the program should be clear to the
learner: e.g. Beginner, Elementary, Intermediate, Advanced.
viii. Where appropriate, a pre-test should be provided to enable the
learner to determine that the material in the program is at his/her right
level.
ix. The program should have an inbuilt default route, but the learner
should be able to override the default route if he/she wishes. The
learner should be able escape from the program at any point.
x. If the learner quits the program before completing it should be
possible to re-enter at the point where he/she gave up.

2. THE TEACHER
i. The teacher needs a reference manual containing:
information on the required minimum hardware configuration and
system software
step-by-step instructions on installing the software (an installation
program should be provided)

detailed information on the contents of the software

a troubleshooting guide

contact names, postal & email addresses, telephone & fax numbers,
website URL - in case the software fails to work.
ii. Information should be provided on how the content relates to
existing national or international examinations and curricula.
iii. It is helpful to indicate how many hours of study the program
contains.
iv. Options should be offered that enable the teacher to set up the
program for a particular group of learners. This may include specifying
the route the learners take, recording and outputting results (tracking),
or allowing the teacher to amend the data contained in the program and
input new material.

3. Writing for the screen


Writing for the screen is quite different from writing for a book.
Jakob Nielsen (1997) writes:
Reading from computer screens is about 25% slower than reading
from paper. Even users who don't know this human factors research
58

usually say that they feel unpleasant when reading online text. As a
result, people don't want to read a lot of text from computer screens:
you should write 50% less text and not just 25% less since it's not only
a matter of reading speed but also a matter of feeling good. We also
know that users don't like to scroll: one more reason to keep pages
short.
More recent research by Nielsen (2010), in which the IPAD and
KINDLE were examined, showed that:
The iPad measured at 6.2% lower reading speed than the printed book,
whereas the Kindle measured at 10.7% slower than print. However,
the difference between the two devices was not statistically significant
because of the data's fairly high variability. Thus, the only fair
conclusion is that we can't say for sure which device offers the fastest
reading speed. In any case, the difference would be so small that it
wouldn't be a reason to buy one over the other. But we can say that
tablets still haven't beaten the printed book.
It is important, therefore, to make reading of explanations and
instructions in computer programs as easy as possible. Brevity is
important. Concise text compensates for decreased reading speed.
i. As a general rule it is advisable to use:

short paragraphs

lots of white space - more than on the printed page

bullets and tables to make reading easier

graphics to convey meaning

animation to convey meaning

sound to convey meaning

ii. The learner should not be expected to remember parts of


explanations or instructions from a previous screen. Cognitive overload
is common in extensive hypertext systems, which require the learner to
carry over unnecessary information from one screen to another.
iii. As a general rule it is advisable to limit the number of different
letter fonts that appear on screen. The two commonest - and perfectly
acceptable fonts - are: Times New Roman and Arial. It is inadvisable to
use exotic or unusual fonts. They can be hard to read and may not be
available on the user's system. The acceptable minimum font size for
screen text in a serif font is 12-point.
iv. Color needs to be used with caution! Overuse of color makes
information more difficult to process because the user slows down to
think about what the color means.

4. Programming issues
i. The software should run on standard hardware and should not
require non-standard soundcards, unusual graphics cards, special
drivers, etc.
ii. All on-screen text, commands and keywords should be held in text
files outside the program wherever possible. This also applies to image
files, sound files and video files.
59

iii. The content of the program must be checked for possible breaches
of copyright. Copyright clearance is required for all authentic texts,
pictures, sound recordings, video sequences, software code, etc. There
are no automatic special concessions for educational users as far as the
dissemination of copyright material is concerned, regardless of whether
it is distributed free of charge or sold on a commercial basis.

5. Deciding on courseware features


Once we know the content requirements, language level and
learning needs of our target group, we must decide what the general
courseware features aim to be. We may be looking for materials for
AUTONOMOUS LEARNERS, in which case we will include as many tools
as possible in order to support self-access learning, e.g. by providing
reference materials such as grammar notes, explanations of the
functions of language, cultural context of the target language, a soundenhanced dictionary or glossary, self-assessment tests, notepad, etc. Or
we may be looking for a TUTOR-GUIDED PACKAGE in which, in
addition to the tools mentioned above, we will include tools that
support the teacher, such as a teacher's guide, detailed student
assessment reports, tracking devices, etc.

6. Log-on, menus and hierarchy


First, we must consider what the functions of the entry screens are
going to be. For example, we may wish to include:
a log-on system that enables language tutors to identify their students in
order to assess their work at a later stage during the program;
different support languages that can be selected on entering the
program;
an online registration system that will allow the learners to communicate
with their tutors via email.

The log-on screens will lead to a main menu screen, which will
indicate the way in which the program contents have been organized, as
well as being the gateway for the learner to choose the route s/he is
going to follow. It is important to offer a DEFAULT ROUTE to guide
learners through the program, but without forgetting that one of the
advantages of multimedia courseware is precisely its non-linear access
to the materials.
The modern approach stresses the importance of GUIDANCE rather
than CONTROL, offering the student a default route through the
program as an alternative to browsing, and building in intrinsic rather
than extrinsic feedback, so that the learner has a chance to identify
his/her own mistakes.

7. Reference materials

60

It is always advisable to allow access to all the reference materials


at any point in the program. Among the more common items that are
included, we might find:
grammar explanations, use of language or language functions,
notes describing the cultural context of the target language,
a sound-enhanced dictionary or glossary, which can be monolingual,
bilingual or multilingual according to the needs of our target audience.

8. UTILITIES
The utilities provided in the program must also be consistent
throughout. There are, of course, a large number of items that prove
useful to learners. These can be presented either by means of icons
discretely located on the screen or as a pull-down menu such as the
ones found in any Windows-based program. Among the more useful
ones are:
HELP/INSTRUCTIONS: We must distinguish between INSTRUCTIONS what the basic program features are and how they operate, i.e. HELP in the
sense of giving a set of instructions to carry out an activity/exercise - and
HELP in the sense of providing LEARNING SUPPORT and EXPLANATIONS
referring to the target language. It is advisable for the latter two to appear as
an additional item within the activity screen.
NOTEPAD to allow learners to take notes during their study process.
PRINTER to enable learners to print a selection of text, such as grammar
explanations, video/audio scripts, and instructions.
SUBTITLES ON/OFF to turn the script of a particular audio/video
passage on or off. This utility enables us to create activities with two different
levels of difficulty, i.e. an easier version of the exercise will be provided when
subtitles are visible. We therefore recommend the default mode to appear
with the subtitles turned off.
SOUND ON/OFF to enable or disable all additional sounds which are not
strictly necessary to complete an activity, e.g. audio instructions,
positive/negative feedback.
PROGRESS REPORTS/STUDENT ASSESSMENT REPORTS to allow
learners and/or tutors to check on the learner's performance in each exercise
or session.
RECORDING DEVICE to allow learners to record their own voice and
compare it with a native speaker model.

9. Student recordings, audio and video


It is always beneficial to provide some sort of RECORDING DEVICE
that will allow learners to record their own utterances and compare
them with pre-recorded models or provide graphical representations of
their language input. Some of the more entertaining activities are those
where students can insert their own recorded versions of a dialogue, for
example, and listen back to their own version in an attempt to simulate
real life communication.
Interactive exercises can be based on audio fragments,
accompanied by illustrations or pictures, or complete video sequences.
They can focus on pronunciation practice at word, sentence or
discourse level. Creating exercises based on dialogues and requesting
students to play the role of one of the characters is one way of
simulating authentic communication in a CALL program. These
61

exercises are also very appropriate for PAIR WORK or COLLABORATIVE


LEARNING - e.g. we can request two students to record themselves and
recreate a given dialogue completely. Simulations between more than
two or three characters are inadvisable to avoid interference on
language retention.
A RECORDING DEVICE in a CALL package should include such
functions as:
PLAY: to play current audio/video sequence.
PAUSE: to pause current audio/video sequence.
INSTANT REPLAY: to instantly play current audio/video sequence from
the beginning.
FAST FORWARD: to play current audio/video passage fast forward and
enable search.
RECORD: to record learner's voice.
REPLAY RECORDING: to replay learner's last recording or sequence of
recordings.
COMPARE: to compare learner's recording with pre-recorded model.
SUBTITLES/SCRIPT: to show subtitles or full script of current
audio/video passage.

CD-ROMs and DVDs allow the storage of large amounts of audio,


so there can be as much sound as possible in a courseware. It is highly
beneficial to expose learners to authentic language. Audio can be
included in innumerable ways, with or without text reinforcement, to
present instructions, feedback, glossaries etc., and will enhance the
program features considerably.
An important factor concerning audio is the quality of the sound
recordings.

10. Feedback
One of the advantages of multimedia technology is the computer's
immediate response to a touch of a key or a mouse click, which is very
useful when dealing with feedback in reaction to the learner's
performance in completing an activity or exercise. Learners tend to find
it encouraging to read or hear immediate positive feedback when they
have completed an exercise successfully. A considerable variety of text,
audio or text and audio messages can appear/be heard at random and
graded according to learner achievements.
In a number of exercises feedback can be programmed depending
on the number of attempts and a specific score given to each of these.
There can be appropriate feedback for a "correct answer", a "partially
correct answer", an "incorrect answer", or even exercise-specific
feedback when a combination of options is required in order to
complete an exercise successfully. An adequate way of offering positive
feedback, for example, could be to have the audio file of a particular
exercise play when a correct answer is given.
Feedback, of course, has to be meaningful - and, if possible,
intrinsic feedback (implicit/intrinsic feedback, a natural consequence of
actions) rather than extrinsic feedback. (explicit/extrinsic feedback
62

happens as an external comment on natural actions) If extrinsic


feedback is used it should always be clear what kind of mistake has been
made, and the feedback should provide not only awareness as to where
the mistake lies, but also how to improve the learner's performance.
Wherever possible, one should avoid abrupt statements such as "No",
"Incorrect, try again", but instead provide constructive criticism and try
to anticipate and predict our learners' behavior when completing an
activity. This may be achieved by carrying out - prior to the design stage
- an error analysis based, for instance, on L1 interference.
Simple activity-based progress reports, or more elaborate student
assessment reports, are of great value for both autonomous learners as
well as for tutors intending to supervise their students' work. A simple
scoring device indicating the number of correct answers out of a total
can become a challenge that some students find motivating. In addition
to the scoring device, the program may include a chain of scoredependent comments also aiming to encourage the learner to progress
further.
A progress report should summarize:
the number of times the learner has logged on to the program,
the amount of activities carried out per session,
total time spent using program,
date and time of first session,
date and time of last session,
statistics showing average percentage of correct and incorrect answers
per session.

It can also indicate for every session:


the names of the activities carried out,
the section they belong to (grammar, vocabulary, etc.),
the type of activity (passive or active,)
the date,
the time,
the total number of performances required by the learner to complete the
activity,
the number of correct answers in relation to the total number of
attempts,

the percentage of correct performance,


the time spent on the activity.

11. EXERCISES
When designing exercises for a CALL program, variety, coherence,
and consistency must be ensured. Materials must be based on sound
pedagogical principles and firmly grounded on the methodology/ies
chosen. An attractive graphical user interface will enhance these
qualities. Simply transforming typically textbook-type exercises onto a
screen should be avoided at all costs. Because technology moves so fast
it is essential to look ahead towards the future and try to envisage what
the new trends might bring about in computer assisted language
learning.

63

One thing to bear in mind when analyzing exercises is that many of


the more traditional activities such as multiple-choice and gap-filling
exercises can be designed to function according to several modalities.
For instance, a GAP-FILLING EXERCISE ( click here to see an example:
[2])
Could also be designed as a multiple-choice exercise (click here to
see an example: [3]) if the learner has to fill in a blank from a list of
given options, or as a DRAG-AND-DROP EXERCISE (click here to see an
example: [4]) if the learner has to select an item from a given list and
drag it into a blank space. It is therefore advisable to combine as many
different modalities of a sole exercise type in order to avoid repetitions
that could perhaps result in our learners' boredom. To put it
schematically and focusing only on how an activity operates, a simple
gap-filling exercise at word level in a given sentence, for example, could
appear on screen in any one of the following ways:
i. Audio feedback: Learner types a whole word in a blank space.
Learner hits enter key to check answer. If correct, audio recording is
heard (positive feedback). If incorrect, appropriate negative feedback.
ii. Learner types a whole word in a blank space, choosing from a given
list. If correct, audio recording is heard (positive feedback). If incorrect,
space goes to blank again - Negative feedback.
iii. Out of a number of options, learner drags and drops choice into
blank space. If correct, audio recording is heard (positive feedback). If
incorrect, space goes to blank again. Negative feedback.
iv. Multiple choice: learner clicks on appropriate word from a given
list. If correct, word appears in sentence and audio is heard (positive
feedback). If incorrect, negative feedback.
v. Learner clicks on blank space and a window displays a number of
options. Learner moves pointer to select option. Selected word fills
blank space. If correct, audio is heard (positive feedback). If incorrect,
negative feedback.
In OPEN INPUT exercises where learners are requested to type in
text (i & ii above) rather than choosing from a number of options - (iii),
(iv) & (v) above - it is acceptable to allow learners to make mistakes as
long as appropriate feedback is provided and a further attempt is
encouraged.
Although the above modalities belong to a sole exercise type filling in a blank - the learner is under the impression that the exercises
are completely different. Using a combination of these therefore
contributes towards variety and diversity in the materials. The choice of
one or another modality will, of course, depend on the primary
objective of the activity itself. We should always ask ourselves what the
learner will gain in terms of language acquisition. If we cannot find a
suitable answer to this question, then the activity must be reconsidered.
Consider, for example, modality (i) above. This type would be
appropriate if it followed an "observation activity" - a passive activity in
the sense that we may request the learner to observe, for instance, a
64

grammatical structure (e.g. the differences in use of the present, the


past, and the perfect tenses in English), and then ask him/her to
participate more actively, to further explore the use and meaning of
language, and to write the appropriate verb tense, providing perhaps a
hint but with no options to choose from. Here we are asking the learner
to actually write, allowing him/her to make mistakes, and to put some
effort into memorizing all possible uses of verb tenses. If the learner has
to write the word in response to an audio stimulus, s/he will
additionally have to listen, interpret and then react by writing the
correct verb tense. This modality is better suited for more advanced
language practice.
In examples (ii) to (v) above, there is no initial audio stimulus.
Instead the audio sequence becomes the positive feedback when the
correct answer has been given. This does not mean that there is no
stimulus for the learner to react to. The program could obviously
include sound or illustrations to prompt the learner. The difference,
however, between modality (ii) and modalities (iii), (iv) and (v) lies in
the fact that in the former the learner again has to write (and there is
therefore more at stake), whereas in the other three a mere choice of
option is requested. These modalities are better suited to lower level
language practice.
The many combinations of elements available in multimedia - text,
audio, graphics and video - allow writers to create appropriate
exercises/activities that suit a particular learning need. Computer
assisted language learning is particularly suited to a communicative
approach to language acquisition. Language can be presented both in
terms of its structures (grammar, vocabulary, etc.) as well as in terms of
its communicative functions: thus, our students will be able to learn
linguistic structures, establishing relationships between structural and
communicative functions in order to develop communication strategies
in the target language. The functional and structural content of the
courseware can be designed to encourage a range of communicative
skills, bearing in mind that these are carried out within a specific social
and cultural context.

FORUM: EVALUATION IN PRACTICE


Discuss the following questions with your classmates and tutor in the
forum.
1. Think of the units and lessons in the English courses you have taken so
far in Letras: Ingls. Name a course you really liked (not necessarily
thought it was easy) because of the way it was designed. Talk about this
course with your classmates and tutor; be sure to point out what you liked
about:
a) the way it was planned and organized;
b) the types of activities it presented;
c) the resources it had (audio, video, animation, etc).
2. After talking about what you liked about the courses, reflect on:
65

- how learners needs and interests were taken into consideration in these
courses;
- how the writing and programming of the courses made information
attractive, relevant and meaningful for the learners.
3. Finally, point out what you think could be done to make the courses in
Letras: Ingls better.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1.
2.
3.
4.

http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer
http://esl.about.com/od/vocabularyquizzes/a/Gap-Fill-Shopping.htm
http://a4esl.org/q/j/lk/mc-verbs.html
http://www.reviseict.co.uk/advancedict/dragndrop/soldier.swf

Responsvel: Prof. Ronaldo Lima


Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

66

ENSINO-APRENDIZAGEM DE LNGUAS ESTRANGEIRAS


MEDIADO POR TECNOLOGIAS DIGITAIS
CLASS 04: EVALUATING CALL MATERIAL
TOPIC 02: EVALUATING MULTIMEDIA SOFTWARE

In recent years there has been a great deal of interest in using computers
for language teaching and learning. With the advent of multimedia
computing and the Internet, the role of computers in language instruction
has become an important issue confronting large numbers of language
teachers and researchers throughout the world.
During the four decades of CALL development, materials have gone
from an emphasis on basic textual gap-filling tasks and simple programming
exercises to interactive multimedia presentations with sound, animation and
full-motion video. But this progress has not been purely linear and, in terms
of pedagogy, the new and improved have not always replaced the old and
tired. Although evaluating and critiquing CALL software programs can take
different forms, there is an important point that cannot be forgotten: the
basic tenet of software evaluation is that pedagogy must drive
technology (Burston, 2003, p. 35). This principle means identifying
curricular needs first, then looking for software that meets these needs.
Therefore, it seems useful to identify meaningful ways of analyzing
Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) material so that the
characteristics associated with high quality interactive CALL material can be
identified, articulated, and refined. For this purpose, we must consider a set
of criteria to be taken into consideration in the analysis.
What are the criteria for software evaluation?
The criteria for analyzing software for language learning can be based
on:
(a) the technological features associated with interactive CALL;
(b) the pedagogical features associated with second language learning.

TECHNOLOGICAL FEATURES

Although the quality of learning around computers is related to the


social climate of the classroom and the opportunities created for
interaction and exploratory talk between participants in the learning
process, the interface between learners and the technology is highly
correlated with how well users enjoy using a specific program. No matter
how pedagogically appropriate a program might be, if students do not feel
motivated to use it, it has very little chance to facilitate learning. Therefore,
the analysis of software should start with an evaluation of the user
interface. Criteria for the evaluation of specific technological features
include:
- Ease of use - The perceived facility with which a user interacts with a
multimedia program. The meaning of icons and symbols should be easy
67

to understand and remember. Options, choices, and menus have to be


easily found. Instructions should be helpful.
- Navigation - Ability to move through the contents of an interactive
program in an intentional manner. An important aspect of navigation is
orientation, i.e., the degree to which a user feels that he/she knows
where he/she is in the program and how to go to another part of it. A
good approach to navigation is the WIMP (window-icons -mousepointing) interface.
- Screen design - The quality and design of: text, icons, graphics, color,
and other visual aspects of interactive programs.
- Media integration - How well an interactive program combines
different media to produce an effective whole. It also deals with
whether or not the various media components are necessary to the
function of the program.
PEDAGOGICAL FEATURES

An analysis of the language learning approach adopted by the


programs is the most critical parameter of software evaluation, for it
determines the pedagogical soundness and appropriateness of the
program. This analysis primarily involves looking at the theoretical
underpinnings of activities, judging how well they conform to the
principles of Communicative Language Teaching, and determining how
closely they are aligned with the programs objectives. The following
criteria used for this type of analysis are based on the principles of
Communicative Language Teaching.

- Theory of Language and of Learning: language is a system for the


expression of meaning; its primary function is interaction and
communication, and it is learned through tasks that are meaningful to
the learner; the target linguistic system is learned best through the
process of struggling to communicate; linguistic variation is a central
concept in materials and methodology.
- Objectives: include functional skills (such as instrumental,
interactional, and personal) as well as linguistic objectives (grammar
and vocabulary for example); reflect the interest and needs of the
learner; are made very clear to teachers and students.
- Syllabus: includes structures, functions, notions, themes, and tasks;
ordering is guided by learners needs and interests; sequencing is
determined by consideration of content, function, or meaning.
- Activities: engage learners in communication, and involve processes
such as information sharing, negotiation of meaning and interaction;
allow unplanned and unpredictable responses; involve real
communication; and develop communicative competence (i.e. the
ability to use the linguistic system effectively).

STOP AND CHECK


Criteria for the evaluation of specific technological features include:
ease of use, navigation, screen design, and media integration. Examine the
criteria for the analysis of the technological features and the questions that
you can use as a guide for evaluating software.
68

Now examine the criteria for the evaluation of the features of the
pedagogical features of ESL/EFL software programs and the questions that
you can use as a guide for evaluating software.

69

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer
2. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer
Responsvel: Prof. Ronaldo Lima
Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

70

ENSINO-APRENDIZAGEM DE LNGUAS ESTRANGEIRAS


MEDIADO POR TECNOLOGIAS DIGITAIS
CLASS 04: EVALUATING CALL MATERIAL
TOPIC 03: EVALUATING WEBSITES

Evaluating websites is not very different from evaluating software for


teaching and learning foreign languages.
The criteria for analysis of both software and websites are basically the
same since analyzing websites should also include examining their
pedagogical and technological features.
However, the Internet is totally unregulated and although this means
that there are huge amounts of good materials, it also means that materials
of poor and dubious quality also appear on websites. Before using materials
with students, it is important to determine certain facts about the site. For
example: (Click on each item on the left column.)
1. AUTHORSHIP

Who created the site? What is their background? What credentials do


they have? For example, you locate what appears to be a great website, but
on closer examination you find it's been created by a 14-year-old schoolboy
as a Web design project. Remember that anyone can publish anything on
the Web and that, unlike books and articles in printed format, Web
materials are less likely to be subjected to editorial scrutiny. Accuracy
cannot always be guaranteed.
2. AIMS AND TARGET AUDIENCE

Who is the site aimed at? The site may sound like it's aimed at
schoolchildren but on closer examination it may prove to be suitable only
for adult learners.
3. REVISION DATE

When were the contents written and how regularly is the site updated?
Look for evidence of the most recent update.
4. CONTACT NAME AND ADDRESS

Is there a contact name or contact address at the site? Be careful with


spam as it makes our email address less obvious to spambots, i.e. programs
designed to collect email addresses from the Internet in order to build
mailing lists for sending spam.
5. EASE AND SPEED OF ACCESS

Is the site easy to access and quick to download? Is the server on


which the site is located up to the job of delivering its content at any time?
Some servers slow down when lots of people are trying to access the site at
peak times, e.g. between 9am and 5pm. Some servers shut down at
weekends and during holiday periods.
6. DO YOU NEED PLUG-INS?

71

A PLUG-IN is an extra piece of software that a Web browser needs to


run certain elements of a Web page, e.g. animated sequences and audio or
video clips. You will find that when you click on an icon that signifies the
availability of streaming audio or video material, your browser will link
with a plug-in. If the plug-in is not already installed on your computer then
you will be able to download it free of charge. Web pages incorporating
multimedia often need plug-ins such as Flash Player, QuickTime,
Shockwave Player or RealPlayer. If you have problems running animated
sequences or video clips check that the relevant plug-in has been
downloaded and installed on the computer that you are using.
7. COPYRIGHT

You must check where you stand regarding copyright on materials


contained at the site. Most sites contain a TERMS OF USE link at the
bottom of their homepage - which you should always check before
downloading and reproducing their materials.
8. AUDIO MATERIALS

If audio materials are offered, are they of adequate quality? Can you
play audio materials easily? Do you need a plug-in to play audio materials?
9. VIDEO MATERIALS

If video materials are offered, are they of adequate quality? Can you
play video materials easily? Do you need a plug-in to play video materials?
10. INTERACTIVE EXERCISES AND FEEDBACK

If INTERACTIVE EXERCISES are offered, do they do the job better


than paper-based exercises? Consider especially the kind of FEEDBACK
that they incorporate. Feedback should go beyond the standard "Well
done!" and "Sorry, wrong!" types of messages. Feedback should mimic a
good teacher offering helpful advice and encouragement.
11. RECORDING ONE'S OWN VOICE

All language learners, especially in the early stages of learning a


language, need to know what they sound like. If interactive exercises are
offered, do they allow the learner to record and play back his/her own
voice? This is not an unreasonable request, as teachers and learners have
been making use of listen / respond / playback facilities ever since the
advent of the tape recorder. Most multimedia CD-ROMs offer the
possibility of recording one's own voice and some incorporate AUTOMATIC
SPEECH RECOGNITION (ASR). Very few websites offer this facility and
when they do it doesn't work very well.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


Responsvel: Prof. Ronaldo Lima
Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

72

ENSINO-APRENDIZAGEM DE LNGUAS ESTRANGEIRAS


MEDIADO POR TECNOLOGIAS DIGITAIS
CLASS 04: EVALUATING CALL MATERIAL
TOPIC 04: PORTFOLIO ACTIVITY

PORTFOLIO ACTIVITY
Now you are going to put into practice what you have learned about
evaluating CALL material. For this purpose, you are asked to evaluate an
ESL/EFL website.
STEPS:
1. Go to http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/general/
[1]. Choose ONE of the options from the General & Business English
session (left column of the page). See below.

2. Go through ALL the lessons/modules in the session. (For example,


in the General & Business English session, you can choose the 6 Minute
English. See below.)

73

3. When you finish analyzing the lessons/modules, go through the


GRAMMAR, VOCABULARY & PRONUNCIATION (in the left column of the
main page). See below.

4. After that, use the ESL/EFL Website Evaluation Instrument in


Material de Apoio to evaluate the material in the website. Save your
evaluation of the material in the website in your portfolio.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/general/
Responsvel: Prof. Ronaldo Lima
Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

74

ENSINO-APRENDIZAGEM DE LNGUAS ESTRANGEIRAS


MEDIADO POR TECNOLOGIAS DIGITAIS
CLASS 05: TEACHING AND LEARNING LANGUAGES AT A DISTANCE
TOPIC 01: DEFINITION, HISTORY AND TYPES OF DISTANCE LEARNING
TEXT ONLY

Unit 5 (TEACHING AND LEARNING LANGUAGES AT A


DISTANCE) has four lessons:
TOPIC1: Definition, history and types of distance learning
TOPIC 2: Roles of participants in distance learning
TOPIC 3: Autonomy and distance learning
TOPIC 4: Portfolio Activity

The last decade has seen a dramatic expansion of distance education


with new language learning opportunities being made available to new
audiences throughout the world. Many language learners, teachers and
researchers have sensed the convenience and potential of new language
learning environments in distance education and in related fields such as
online learning, distributed learning and blended learning. Within the
distance language literature questions of concept and definition invariably
draw on classic definitions within the wider distance education field,
focusing almost entirely on organizational or technological concerns rather
than pedagogical or human perspectives.

SO, WHAT IS DISTANCE LEARNING?


Distance learning refers to situations where learners are physically
separated from the educational provider, communicating in writing, (using
letter mail, email, fax, or computer conferencing); verbally (by telephone,
audio conferencing, video conferencing); or in face-to-face tutorial sessions.

AND, WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF DISTANCE LEARNING?


TEXT ONLY

DISTANCE LEARNING allows learners to study when and where


suits them best. They continue learning while fulfilling commitments
to work, family or community. Those living in remote areas or with
limited transport can study courses that would otherwise be
inaccessible to them. DISTANCE LEARNING can provide a variety of
study opportunities, (academic, technical/vocational, personal and
professional development, basic education) to a range of learners
(young adults, adults returning to learning, people preparing to enter
trades or professions, people acquiring new work-related skills,
established professionals in health and education working towards
further accreditation).
75

A BRIEF HISTORY OF DISTANCE LEARNING


Distance education dates to at least as early as 1728, when "an
advertisement in the Boston Gazette... [named] 'Caleb Phillips, Teacher of
the new method of Short Hand" was seeking students for lessons to be sent
weekly.
Modern distance education initially relied on the development of postal
services in the 19th century and has been practiced at least since Isaac
Pitman taught shorthand in Great Britain via correspondence in the 1840.
The University of London claims to be the first university to offer
distance learning degrees, establishing its External Program in 1858. This
program is now known as the University of London International Programs
and includes Graduate, Undergraduate and Diploma degrees created by
colleges such as the London School of Economics, Royal Holloway and
Goldsmiths.
In the United States, William Rainey Harper, first president
of the University of Chicago, developed the concept of extended
education, whereby the research university had satellite colleges
of education in the wider community, and in 1892 he also
encouraged the concept of correspondence school courses to
further promote education, an idea that was put into practice by
Columbia University.

In Australia, the University of Queensland established its Department of


Correspondence Studies in 1911.

More recently, Charles Wedemeyer of the University of Wisconsin


Madison is considered significant in promoting methods other than the
postal service to deliver distance education in America. From 1964 to 1968,
the Carnegie Foundation funded Wedemeyer's Articulated Instructional
Media Project (AIM) which brought in a variety of communications
technologies aimed at providing learning to an off-campus population.
According to Moore's recounting, AIM impressed the UK which
imported these ideas when establishing in 1969 The Open University, which
initially relied on radio and television broadcasts for much of its delivery.
Athabasca University, Canada's Open University, was created in 1970
and followed a similar, though independently developed, pattern. Germany's
FernUniversitt in Hagen followed in 1974 and there are now many similar
institutions around the world, often with the name "Open University" (in
English or in the local language). All "open universities" use distance
education technologies as delivery methodologies and some have grown to
become 'mega-universities', a term coined to denote institutions with more
than 100,000 students.

76

In 1976, Bernard Luskin launched Coastline Community College as a


college beyond walls, combining computer assisted instruction with
telecourses proceed by KOCE TV, the Coast Community College District
public television station. Coastline has been a landmark strategic success
in helping to establish online distance learning using modern technology
for learning.
The development of computers and the internet have made distance
learning distribution easier and faster and have given rise to the 'virtual
university, the entire educational offerings which are online. In 1996 Jones
International University was launched and claims to be the first fully online
university accredited by a regional accrediting association in the US.
TEXT ONLY

A study published in 2011 by the U.S. Department of Education


found that "From 2000 to 2008, the percentage of undergraduates
enrolled in at least one distance education class expanded from 8
percent to 20 percent, and the percentage enrolled in a distance
education degree program increased from 2 percent to 4 percent."

Today, there are many private, public, non-profit and for-profit


institutions worldwide offering distance education courses from the most
basic instruction to the highest levels of degree and doctoral programs.
Levels of accreditation vary: some of the institutions receive little outside
oversight, and some may be fraudulent diploma mills, although in many
jurisdictions, an institution may not use terms such as "university" without
accreditation and authorization, often overseen by the national government
for example, the Quality Assurance Agency in the UK. In the US, the
Distance Education and Training Council (DETC) specializes in the
accreditation of distance education institutions.

TIP
What about in Brazil? How has distance
learning evolved?
Have you ever heard about Instituto Universal
Brasileiro ?
Click here to read about it:
http://www.institutouniversal.com.br/ [4]
What about UAB? Click here to read about it:
http://portal.mec.gov.br/index.php?
Itemid=510&id=12265&option=com_cont
ent&view=article

TYPES OF DISTANCE LEARNING


77

Approaches to distance learning may be characterized by the type of


learning resources and nature of interaction, or in terms of generations
(Bates, 1995), but it is important to remember that all generations are still
part of current practice and that some models include characteristics of more

than one generation. Bates definitions of three generations of distance


learning are given here:
The three generations of distance leaning
FIRST GENERATION

Learners study alone, with limited contact from the educational


provider. This model was typically used for correspondence study and is
still used to provide learners with resources they can study independently
to prepare for examinations offered by an accrediting body, such as a
professional organization or a university.
SECOND GENERATION

Distance education provides learning resources in one or more media


and consistent communication between the learner and the tutor and,
sometimes, additional learning support from the educational provider.
This approach is used in many situations in which distance learners study
alone, rather than in groups.
THIRD GENERATION

Distance learning provides learning resources in one or more media


and interaction among learners as well as between the tutor and learner.
Interaction may be via conferencing technologies (audio, video, computer),
email or face-to-face meetings and is used when group learning is
combined with individual learning.
Other terms related to distance learning
ELECTRONIC-LEARNING includes all forms of electronically
supported learning and teaching, including educational technology. The
information and communication systems, whether networked learning or
not, serve as specific media to implement the learning process.
This often involves both out-of-classroom and in-classroom educational
experiences via technology, even as advances continue in regard to devices
and curriculum. Abbreviations like CBT ( Computer-Based Training),
IBT ( Internet-Based Training) or WBT ( Web-Based Training) have
been used as synonyms to e-learning.
BLENDED LEARNING is education that combines face-to-face
classroom methods with computer-mediated activities. According to its
proponents, the strategy creates a more integrated approach for both
instructors and students.
The terms "blended," "hybrid," "technology-mediated instruction," "webenhanced instruction," and "mixed-mode instruction" are often used
interchangeably in current research literature. However, recent researchers
in the United States tend to use the term "blended learning" with more
regularity.

78

The term
M-LEARNING, or "mobile learning", has different
meanings for different communities. Although related to e-learning,
Edtech and distance education, it is distinct in its focus on learning across
contexts and learning with mobile devices. One definition of mobile
learning is:
Any sort of learning that happens when the learner is not at a
fixed, predetermined location, or learning that happens when the
learner takes advantage of the learning opportunities offered by
mobile technologies.
In other words, with the use of mobile devices, learners can learn from
various locations. The objective of M-learning is to provide the learner the
ability to assimilate learning anywhere and at any time.
For some, UBIQUITOUS LEARNING (or u-learning, ULearning) is
equivalent to some form of simple mobile learning, e.g. that learning
environments can be accessed in various contexts and situations. The
ubiquitous learning environment (ULE) may detect more context data than
e-learning. Besides the domains of e-Learning, u-Learning may use more
context awareness to provide most adaptive contents for learners.
A ubiquitous learning environment is any setting in which students
can become totally immersed in the learning process. So, a ubiquitous
learning environment is a situation or setting of pervasive
or
omnipresent education or learning. Education is happening all around
the student but the student may not even be conscious of the learning
process.
Ubiquitous Learning Materials is defined as learning materials that
may be transferred to mobile devices via cable or wirelessly and be
operated in these mobile devices. These materials can be:
videos,
audios,
PowerPoint presentations,
notes,
or any kind of learning materials that can be transferred to and worked
on mobile devices.

FORUM 1: DISTANCE LEARNING


Click on the links to watch a series of programs in Jornal Nacional
about Distance Learning. After watching the videos, discuss the questions
below with your classmates and tutor in the forum.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mq7MOLx70w&playnext=1&list=PLE95AFC582949525A&feature=results_main
[5]
79

http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=D3fWz_yPCM0&list=PLE95AFC582949525A [6]
http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=Ht12QJKuNuw&list=PLE95AFC582949525A [7]
http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=6llq4jj7J-Q&list=PLE95AFC582949525A [8]
http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=6llq4jj7J-Q&list=PLE95AFC582949525A [9]
http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=OcZZ1qOIrxc&list=PLE95AFC582949525A [10]
Discuss the following questions in the forum:
1. In which of the three generations of distance learning would you
classify UAB-UFC? Support your answer pointing out what characterizes
UAB-UFC in this generation.
2. In the lesson, the benefits of distance learning were pointed out.
Now, think about the disadvantages and/or difficulties of studying at a
distance.
3. The series of videos from Jornal Nacional show the growth of
distance learning in Brazil and the challenges still to be met so that this
type of education can reach its full potential. What challenges are these?

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer
2. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer
3. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer
4. http://www.institutouniversal.com.br/
5. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mq7MOLx70w&playnext=1&list=PLE95AFC582949525A&feature=results_main
6. http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=D3fWz_yPCM0&list=PLE95AFC582949525A
7. http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=Ht12QJKuNuw&list=PLE95AFC582949525A
8. http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=6llq4jj7J-Q&list=PLE95AFC582949525A
9. http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=6llq4jj7J-Q&list=PLE95AFC582949525A
10. http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=OcZZ1qOIrxc&list=PLE95AFC582949525A
Responsvel: Prof. Ronaldo Lima
Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

80

ENSINO-APRENDIZAGEM DE LNGUAS ESTRANGEIRAS


MEDIADO POR TECNOLOGIAS DIGITAIS
CLASS 05: TEACHING AND LEARNING LANGUAGES AT A DISTANCE
TOPIC 02: ROLES OF PARTICIPANTS IN DISTANCE LEARNING

Before establishing the roles of participants in distance learning, we


have to define who these participants are.

WHO ARE THE PARTICIPANTS IN DISTANCE LEARNING?

If we are to define who the participants in distance learning are, we first


have to define what learning approach the distance learning program or
course is based on.
If we choose a computer-based learning system of the B-learning type,
like in UAB case, then we can say that there are six main components: THE
COORDINATOR OF THE PROGRAM, THE ELABORATOR OF THE COURSE,
THE PEDAGOGICAL AND TECHNICAL TEAMS, THE COORDINATOR OF
TUTORS, THE ONLINE AND THE SITE TUTORS, AND THE LEARNER.

At UFC-UAB, the learning system combines face-to-face classroom


methods with computer-mediated material. The computer-mediated
material is based on the communicative approach to language learning.
Together the learning system and the approach to language learning
determine the roles of the participants and how they interact with one
another.
Roles of the participants
THE COORDINATOR OF THE PROGRAM
81

The coordinator of the program has to know the educational policies


and the norms adopted by the institution as well as the technical features
that can be implemented in the platform. Based on this knowledge, s/he
designs the curriculum of the program: its goals, courses and their
sequence, evaluation system, etc. The coordinator is also responsible for:
1) choosing the learning model to be adopted by the program;
2) contacting teachers to elaborate the courses;
3) being the link between students, teachers, and the administration of
the institution.

THE ELABORATOR/COORDINATOR OF THE COURSE

The elaborator of course material also has to know the technical


features that can be implemented in the platform and the learning model
chosen to be followed. Based on this knowledge, s/he has to plan the
syllabus of the course, design the activities, and give the tutors the
guidelines for assisting and evaluating the students. It is also part of
her/his task to update the course material every time it goes online.
THE PEDAGOGICAL AND THE TECHNICAL TEAMS

These two teams work along the coordinator of the program and the
elaborator of the course.
The pedagogical team is responsible for analyzing the elaborated
material in order to suggest possible ways of interactively implementing it
in the platform.
The technical team implements the material by changing it into html
and applying programs (flash, java, etc) to make material interactive.
THE COORDINATOR OF TUTORS

The coordinator of tutors, besides assisting the coordinator of the


program, makes sure that all tutors (online and at-site) are fulfilling their
roles and doing their jobs to the best interest of the learners. This involves
assigning tutors to courses and constantly checking if tutors are
communicating with learners, as well as training tutors.
THE ONLINE AND THE AT-SITE TUTORS

Ongoing contact between tutors and learners plays an important role


in sustaining learners in many senses of the word sustain: to continue, to
support, to nourish. Consistent contact helps learners to feel that they are
in a safe learning environment in which they can ask questions, reveal their
uncertainties, and explore new dimensions of their studies.
The main areas of at-site tutors sustaining responsibilities are in:
initiating and maintaining supportive contact with learners;
facilitating learning on an as-needed basis;
serving as a link between learners and the educational institution.
82

Online tutors can sustain learners by:


keeping in touch
being available to help
answering questions
helping solve problems that impede learning
identifying when learners need additional help.

THE LEARNER

Adult distance learners have some common characteristics Each of


these characteristics has implications for their learning process.

HOW DO THESE PARTICIPANTS INTERACT?


The main participants of the distance learning system must interact with
each other in a harmonic manner in order to achieve the learning goals and
accomplish the required tasks. Their interaction can be described as follows:

83

Basically, the learning model, in our case the B-learning model, contains
all characteristics, specifications and features that are offered by the system
(the platform SOLAR). It also describes the logical as well as presentation
structures. So, the courseware designer (the coordinator of the program and
the technical team) and courseware author (the elaborator of the course and
the pedagogical team) have to work together and cooperate in order to
construct the courseware (the online material) based on the specified
learning model.

PRACTICE
This activity will help you define tutors responsibilities in your
context. This is important because, since you are taking an English
Teaching Certificate Program, you may become a tutor yourself. The table
below identifies and describes some of the academic, administrative and
support responsibilities of distance learning tutors. Place a check mark in
the right-hand column to indicate the responsibilities that apply to tutors
in your context. If tutors in your context have any additional
responsibilities, add them at the bottom of the table.
ACTIVITY

ROLE

RESPONSIBILITY

Academic
advising

Advising learners about course


choice, options for continuing or
completing a study program.
Advising learners about courses
for specific qualifications or
career choices

Academic
instruction and
coaching

Responding to questions from


learners
Clarifying course materials when
necessary
Developing additional resources
or tutorial materials
Helping learners develop specific
skills

Academic
facilitation

Setting assignments for learner


assessment
Clarifying assignment tasks and
options to learners
Assessing, grading and providing
feedback to learners on their
assignments
Setting examinations
Marking examinations

84

APPLIES

Maintaining
supportive
communication
with learners

Initiating contact with learners


at the start of the course

Maintaining regular contact with


learners for the duration of the
course
Helping learners address issues
that may impede their progress
in the course

Administrative
record keeping
and
communication
with
administrative
staff

Verifying student records at the


beginning of the course
Maintaining accurate records of
each learners work, including
assignments and exams, and
submitting these records to the
appropriate department
Learning about administrative
procedures and deadlines that
affect
learners,
such
as
procedures and deadlines for
changing or withdrawing from a
course

Other

FORUM 2: ROLES OF A TUTOR


In Forum 2, youre going to compare your answers from the exercise
above with other classmates and tutors so that you can clarify and
understand the possible roles of a tutor in distance learning.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


Responsvel: Prof. Ronaldo Lima
Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

85

ENSINO-APRENDIZAGEM DE LNGUAS ESTRANGEIRAS


MEDIADO POR TECNOLOGIAS DIGITAIS
CLASS 05: TEACHING AND LEARNING LANGUAGES AT A DISTANCE
TOPIC 03: AUTONOMY AND DISTANCE LEARNING

According to research findings on the roles of the students in distance


education, successful distance students should be:
TEXT ONLY

1. self-responsible on task;
2. able to learn by themselves;
3. interact with tutors and other students;
4. evaluate and judge self-performance;
5. autonomous learners.

Therefore, one of the main characteristics of distance online learning is


related to learning autonomy. As a result, the role of the student as an active
learner as well as the concept of learning as an activity that requires action
are not only acknowledged but also stimulated since they are key to learning
at a distance.
Over the last two decades, the concepts of learner autonomy and
independence have gained momentum, the former becoming a 'buzz-word'
within the context of language learning (Little, 1991).
It is a truism that one of the most important spin-offs of more
communicatively oriented language learning and teaching has been the
premium placed on the role of the learner in the language learning process.
It goes without saying, of course, that this shift of responsibility from
teachers to learners does not exist in a vacuum, but is the result of a
concatenation of changes to the curriculum itself towards a more learnercentered kind of learning. What is more, this reshaping of teacher and
learner roles has been conducive to a radical change in the age-old
distribution of power and authority that used to plague the traditional
classroom.
Cast in a new perspective and regarded as having the 'capacity for
detachment, critical reflection, decision-making, and independent
action' (Little, 1991), autonomous learners are expected to assume greater
responsibility for, and take charge of, their own learning.
1. WHAT IS AUTONOMY? (CLICK TO READ)
2. LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES (CLICK TO READ)
3. L2 STRATEGY TRAINING (CLICK TO READ)
4. WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES AND
LEARNING LANGUAGES AT A DISTANCE? (CLICK TO READ)

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PRACTICE
If the use of language learning strategies empowers students, then it
also helps them become more autonomous learners. Are you an
autonomous learner? What learning strategies have you been using to
learn English while taking Letras: Ingls at UFC-UAB?
Click on http://www.wtuc.edu.tw/dcc/SILL.htm [2] to assess the
learning strategies you have been using by answering the Strategy
Inventory
for
Language
Learning
(SILL)
and
then
on
http://www.wtuc.edu.tw/dcc/SILL_1.htm [3] for the answer sheet. When
you finish answering, be sure to scroll down the page to see your profile of
results on the SILL.
You will use the results on the SILL for the task in the Portfolio.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


1. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer
2. http://www.wtuc.edu.tw/dcc/SILL.htm
3. http://www.wtuc.edu.tw/dcc/SILL_1.htm
Responsvel: Prof. Ronaldo Lima
Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

87

ENSINO-APRENDIZAGEM DE LNGUAS ESTRANGEIRAS


MEDIADO POR TECNOLOGIAS DIGITAIS
CLASS 05: TEACHING AND LEARNING LANGUAGES AT A DISTANCE
01. WHAT IS AUTONOMY?

For a definition of autonomy, we might quote Holec (1981), who


describes it as 'the ability to take charge of one's learning'.
On a general note, the term autonomy has come to be used in at least
five ways (Benson & Voller, 1997):
for situations in which learners study entirely on their own;
for a set of skills which can be learned and applied in self-directed
learning;
for an inborn capacity which is suppressed by institutional education;
for the exercise of learners' responsibility for their own learning;
for the right of learners to determine the direction of their own learning.

In David Little's terms, learner autonomy is (Little, 1991):

essentially a matter of the learner's psychological relation to the process and


content of learning--a capacity for detachment, critical reflection, decision-

making, and independent action

It is not something done to learners; therefore, it is far from being


another teaching method (ibid.). In the same vein, Leni Dam (1990), drawing
upon Holec (1983), defines autonomy in terms of the learner's willingness
and capacity to control or oversee her own learning. More specifically, she,
like Holec, holds that someone qualifies as an autonomous learner when he
independently chooses aims and purposes and sets goals; chooses materials,
methods and tasks; exercises choice and purpose in organizing and carrying
out the chosen tasks; and chooses criteria for evaluation.
It should be reiterated that autonomy is not an article of faith, a
product ready made for use or merely a personal quality or trait. Rather, it
should be clarified that autonomous learning is achieved when certain
conditions obtain: cognitive and metacognitive strategies on the part of the
learner, motivation, attitudes, and knowledge about language learning, i.e.,
a kind of metalanguage.
To acknowledge, however, that learners have to follow certain paths to
attain autonomy is tantamount to asserting that there has to be a teacher on
whom it will be incumbent to show the way. In other words, autonomous

88

learning is by no means "teacherless learning." As Sheerin (1997) succinctly


puts it,

teachers have a crucial role to play in launching learners into self-access and in
lending them a regular helping hand to stay afloat.

VERSO TEXTUAL

At any rate, learner-control-which is ancillary to autonomy-'is not


a single, unitary concept, but rather a continuum along which various
instructional situations may be placed' (Candy, 1991).

It is to these 'instructional situations' that we will turn in next. It is of


utmost importance to gain insights into the strategies learners use in

grappling with the object of enquiry, i.e., the target language, as well as their
motivation and attitude towards language learning in general.

CLICK TO RETURN TO CLASS PAGE

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1. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer
Responsvel: Prof. Ronaldo Lima
Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

89

ENSINO-APRENDIZAGEM DE LNGUAS ESTRANGEIRAS


MEDIADO POR TECNOLOGIAS DIGITAIS
CLASS 05: TEACHING AND LEARNING LANGUAGES AT A DISTANCE
02. LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES
VERSO TEXTUAL

Foreign or second language (L2) learning strategies are specific


actions, behaviors, steps, or techniques students use -- often
consciously -- to improve their progress
internalizing, and using the L2 (Oxford, 1990).

in

apprehending,

Strategies are the tools for active, self-directed involvement needed for
developing L2 communicative ability (O'Malley & Chamot, 1990). Research
has repeatedly shown that the conscious, tailored use of such strategies is
related to language achievement and proficiency.
Research supports the effectiveness of using L2 learning strategies and
has shown that successful language learners often use strategies in an
orchestrated fashion. Some findings are listed below:
Use of appropriate language learning strategies often results in
improved proficiency or achievement overall or in specific skill areas
(Oxford et al., 1993; Thompson & Rubin, 1993).
Successful language learners tend to select strategies that work well
together in a highly orchestrated way, tailored to the requirements of the
language task (Chamot & Kupper, 1989). These learners can easily
explain the strategies they use and why they employ them (O'Malley &
Chamot, 1990).
Cognitive (e.g., translating, analyzing) and metacognitive (e.g.,
planning, organizing) strategies are often used together, supporting each
other (O'Malley & Chamot, 1990). Well tailored combinations of
strategies often have more impact than single strategies.
Certain strategies or clusters of strategies are linked to particular
language skills or tasks. For example, L2 writing, like L1 writing, benefits
from the learning strategies of planning, self-monitoring, deduction, and
substitution. L2 speaking demands strategies such as risk-taking,
paraphrasing, circumlocution, self-monitoring, and self-evaluation. L2
listening comprehension gains from strategies of elaboration,
inferencing, selective attention, and self-monitoring, while reading
comprehension uses strategies like reading aloud, guessing, deduction,
and summarizing (Chamot & Kupper, 1989).
The powerful social and affective strategies are found less often in L2
research. This is, perhaps, because these behaviors are not studied
frequently by L2 researchers, and because learners are not familiar with
paying attention to their own feelings and social relationships as part of
the L2 learning process (Oxford, 1990).

CLICK TO RETURN TO CLASS PAGE

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90

ENSINO-APRENDIZAGEM DE LNGUAS ESTRANGEIRAS


MEDIADO POR TECNOLOGIAS DIGITAIS
CLASS 05: TEACHING AND LEARNING LANGUAGES AT A DISTANCE
03. L2 STRATEGY TRAINING

Considerable research has been conducted on how to improve L2


students' learning strategies. In many investigations, attempts to teach
students to use learning strategies (called strategy training or learner
training) have produced good results (Thompson & Rubin, 1993).
Based on L2 strategy training research, the following principles have
been tentatively suggested, subject to further investigation:
L2 strategy training should be based clearly on students' attitudes,
beliefs, and stated needs.
Strategies should be chosen so that they mesh with and support each
other and so that they fit the requirements of the language task, the
learners' goals, and the learners' style of learning.
Training should, if possible, be integrated into regular L2 activities over
a long period of time rather than taught as a separate, short intervention.
Students should have plenty of opportunities for strategy training
during language classes.
Strategy training should include explanations, handouts, activities,
brainstorming, and materials for reference and home study.
Affective issues such as anxiety, motivation, beliefs, and interests -- all
of which influence strategy choice -- should be directly addressed by L2
strategy training.
Strategy training should be explicit, overt, and relevant and should
provide plenty of practice with varied L2 tasks involving authentic
materials.
Strategy training should not be solely tied to the class at hand; it should
provide strategies that are transferable to future language tasks beyond a
given class.
Strategy training should be somewhat individualized, as different
students prefer or need certain strategies for particular tasks.
Strategy training should provide students with a mechanism to evaluate
their own progress and to evaluate the success of the training and the
value of the strategies in multiple tasks.

CLICK TO RETURN TO CLASS PAGE

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Responsvel: Prof. Ronaldo Lima
Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

91

ENSINO-APRENDIZAGEM DE LNGUAS ESTRANGEIRAS


MEDIADO POR TECNOLOGIAS DIGITAIS
CLASS 05: TEACHING AND LEARNING LANGUAGES AT A DISTANCE
04. WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES AND LEARNING LANGUAGES AT
DISTANCE?
VERSO TEXTUAL

Distance language learners require new kinds of skills, motivation


and commitment to work effectively in a learning setting that is largely
new and unfamiliar to them, and which is likely to have a direct impact
on their development and use of learning strategies (Oxford & BurryStock, 1995; White, 2004).

The distinctive differences in the distance environment reinforce the


need to assist students in succeeding in the distance environment. Distance
language learning programs and courses should empower students to learn.
One such way to empower students is to focus on learning strategies.

CLICK TO RETURN TO CLASS PAGE

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Responsvel: Prof. Ronaldo Lima
Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

92

ENSINO-APRENDIZAGEM DE LNGUAS ESTRANGEIRAS


MEDIADO POR TECNOLOGIAS DIGITAIS
CLASS 05: TEACHING AND LEARNING LANGUAGES AT A DISTANCE
TOPIC 04: PORTFOLIO ACTIVITY

REFLECTIONS ON YOUR EXPERIENCE LEARNING ENGLISH AT A


DISTANCE

PORTFOLIO ACTIVITY
TASK: Write an essay. The title of your essay will be MY
EXPERIENCE LEARNING ENGLISH AT A DISTANCE. The essay should be
at least 30 lines-long and should consist of:
- an introduction;
- three development paragraphs;
- and a conclusion.
Make sure to use the content studied in Unit 1 (Lessons 2 and 3) and
the results you got on the SILL. Use the questions below to reflect and
write about your experience.
When you finish writing and revising your essay, save it as a word
document and post it in your portfolio.
1. INTRODUCTION (1ST PARAGRAPH)

- What type of distance program have you been taking? (Point out its
characteristics)
- What are the advantages and disadvantages of this type of program?
- What challenges have you faced?
2. DEVELOPMENT (2ND PARAGRAPH)

- How has tutoring helped you face challenges and difficulties?


- What would you suggest tutors do to so that they could be more present
and helpful?
3. DEVELOPMENT (3RD PARAGRAPH)

- What have you been doing to effectively learn the language?


- Which language learning strategies have you been using and which do
you think you should start using?
4. CONCLUSION (LAST PARAGRAPH)

- How has your experience of learning English at a distance been in the


overall?
- What else could you do to be a more successful English learner?
- How could the elaborator/coordinator of the course do to help you learn
more effectively?

FONTES DAS IMAGENS


Responsvel: Prof. Ronaldo Lima
Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

93