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Engineering Centre of Excellence

ECoE - Doha, Qatar


Instrument training 16th July 2011

General Control valves.

Prepared by: Gavhane D.V.

General Control valves.

BY:-DNYANESHWAR GAVHANE

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General Control valves.


INTRODUCTION :Control valves also called final control element are a most
important element in the control system of a process plant.
It is the last device in control loop.
DEFINITION :A control valve is a variable orifice used to regulate the flow
of a process fluid in accordance with requirement of process.
FUNCTION :It absorbs the proper amount of pressure drop to maintain
system balance under all operating conditions.

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Features of Control valves.


THERE ARE FOUR FEATURES OF CONTROL VALVES :
Capacity
Rangeability
Characteristics
Pressure drop
CAPACITY : The capacity is normally measured as Cv
(Flow Coefficient) which is defined as :
The number of US gallons per minute of water at 60oF that
will flow through a valves with 1psi pressure drop .
RANGEABILITY : Rangeability of a Control Valve is the
ratio of the maximum to the minimum controllable flow.

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Control valves and Flow Characteristics.


The relationship between control valve capacity and valve stem
travel is known as the Flow Characteristic of the control valve.

The Curve shown are based on constant Pressure drop across


the valve and called Inherent flow characteristics.

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Linear Characteristics.
Flow Capacity increases linearly with valve (stem) travel. In
which the valve differential pressure drop is Constant over the
travel range.
Linear valve plug shall for liquid level control and control
application requiring constant gain.
LINEAR VALVE TRAVEL IS DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO
THE VALVE STROKE
FOR SLOW
FLUID
TRANSFER
PROCESS

General Control Valves.

MORE THAN
40%
OF SYTEM
PRESSURE
DROP
ACROSS
VALVE

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Equal Percentage Characteristics.


Flow Capacity increases exponentially with valve trim travel .Equal
increment of valve travel produce equal percentage change in
existing Cv.
Equal Percentage valve plug shall be used where only small
percentage of system drop is available in Control valve.
EQUAL INCREMENT OF VALVE TRAVEL PRODUCE AN
EQUAL PERCENT FLOW CHANGE
FOR FAST FLIUD
TRANSFER
PROCESS

General Control Valves.

HIGH
RANGEABILITY

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Quick Opening Characteristics.


Provides large changes in flow for very small changes in lift or in
which a maximum Cv is achieved with minimal closure member travel.
It has too high valve gain.
LARGE INCREASE IN FLOW WITH A SMALL CHANGE IN VALVE
STROKE
Quick opening valve are usually specified for ON-OFF Service such
as sequential operation in either batch or semi continuous process
and in self actuated control valve .
When maximum valve capacity must be obtain quickly.
Cage- A part of a valve that surrounds the
closure member & can provide Quick
opening flow characterization.

General Control Valves.

Prepared by: Gavhane D.V.

Cavitation.
Cavitation is condition that occurs in liquid flow where the internal
pressure of liquid at set point falls below vapour pressure and vapour
bubbles form and at downstream rises above vapour pressure again.
As this pressure recovers so that bubbles collapse and cavitation take
place.
It is possible to predict where cavitation will occur by looking pressure
condition and valve recovery factor.( sigma Method )
Cavitation sounds like stone passing through the valve.
P

PRESSURE PROFILE ACROSS


SINGLE SEATED CONTROL
VALVE
P
Pv

Bubble form

Bubble collapse
Vena Contracta

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Effect of Cavitation.

Erosion in rotary plug valve body induced by cavitation

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Flashing.
Flashing is condition that occurs with liquid flow where the Pressure fails
below it . There are then two phases flowing ( i.e. Liquid and vapour )
down stream.
Several damage can occur inside a valve due to erosion caused by the
impact of liquid droplet traveling at high speed.
P1

PRESSURE PROFILE ACROSS


SINGLE SEATED CONTROL
VALVE

Pv
Bubble form
P2

Bubble continue
down stream

Vena Contracta

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Effect of Flashing.

Typical trim erosion damage due to flashing

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Velocity Profile across Single seated Valve.


P1

PRESSURE PROFILE ACROSS


SINGLE SEATED CONTROL
VALVE

P2

V 1(Liquid)

Pv

V2
(Liquid)

Pressure Recovery:- At vena contracta,the velocity is greatest & substantially


decrease in pressure .Further down stream, as the fluid stream expands into
a large area, Velocity decreases and pressure increases. This phenomena is
called Pressure recovery.
As a general ,globe valves have Lower pressure recovery than Ball and
Butterfly Valves.

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Piping Influence/Reynolds Number/Choked Flow.


Piping Influenence:- Capacity reduction due to the presence of Reducer Up &
Down stream of the valve. Correction factor will be available from
manufacturer .
Reynolds Number :- For Reynolds number application such as viscous or
small flow , the basic sizing equation can not be used without correction,
since the equation is based on turbulence flow . Correction factor will be
available from manufacturer .(The ratio of dynamic forces to viscous forces)
Usually the correction can be ignored when Reynolds number is greater than
4000,the correction will be 10% or less .
Choked Flow:- When the pressure at vena contracta drop below the vapor
pressure of the liquids, bubbles will form in the stream .The formation of
bubbles causes a crowding condition at vena contracta which tends to
restrict flow, and further increase in pressure drop will not produce increase
in flow.
In case of gas , choked flow means outlet velocity reaches sonic velocity.
The limiting Pressure difference Pt is called Maximum allowable differential
pressure for sizing.

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Contents of Control Valve: Data Sheet

PROJECT:-

GPS DOC NO:SUB CONTRACTOR


DOC NO:-

CONTRACT NO:-

DOCUMENT
NAME:-

SPECIFICATION AND DATASHEETS


FOR CONTROL VALVES

SHEET NO:-

1 OF 1

DATE:CLIENT DOC NO:REV NO:-

DATASHEET - CONTROL VALVES


1

TAG
GENE
2 RAL SERVICE
3 DATA LINE NO. / PID NO.

BLANKET FUEL GAS FROM OIL STORAGE TANK 0-T-3603

TANK VENT/FUEL GAS

FLUID

0-14"-FG-43 0017-AA3-H(E) / S2-01-YS207019-PID-P-5004 Sht 1 of 2


CRITICAL PRESS. Pc

UNIT

MAX FLOW

NORM FLOW

MIN FLOW

SHUT-OFF

FLOW RATE

m3/h

5166

1847

525.3

INLET PRESSURE

psi(g)

0.0568

0.093

0.0975

15 bar(g)

OUTLET PRESSURE

psi(g)

0.037

0.0087

0.00234

INLET TEMPERATURE

Degree C

50

50

50

SERVI
CE SPEC WT/DENSITY/ MOL WT
CONDI
11 TION VISCOSITY /SPEC HEAT RATIO
12
VAPOR PRESSURE
10

13

REQUIRED CV

14

TRAVEL

15

ALLOWABLE /PREDICTED SPL

16

SET POINT

100(Note 1)

- /kg/m3 /
kg/kmole

/-/1.378/40.30 /-/1.378 /40.30 /-/ 1.381/40.30

Cp /

0.00924/1.133 0.00924/1.133 0.00924/1.133

inH2O

NA

NA

NA

dBA

< 85/

< 85/

< 85/

inH2O(g)

2.75

2.75

2.75

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Contents of Control Valve: Data Sheet.


17

PIPE LINE SIZE &


LIN SCHEDULE
18 E
19

14" & SCH20

56

TYPE

OUT

14" & SCH20

57

MFR & MODEL

VTS

58

SIZE / EFF.AREA

VTS

59

ON/OFF

60

SPRING ACTION ON FAIL

PIPE LINE INSULATION

20

VALVE SIZING
SPE VALVE SEAT LEAKAGE
21
C.& CLASS
CO
22
DE
23 S
24
25
TYPE
26
SIZE
27

MAX PRESS./TEMP.

28

BODY/BONNET MATERIAL

29

LINER MATERIAL / ID

HEAT CONSERVATION
(ELECTRICAL TRACING)
ISA S75.01
IV AS PER FCI 70-2

69

MAX ALLOWABLE
PRESS.
MIN REQUIRED PRESS.
AVAILABLE AIR SUPPLY
PRESSURE
kPag
BENCH RANGE
ACTUATOR
ORIENTATION
HANDWHEEL
TYPE
AIR FAILURE LOCK
RELAY
AIR BOTTLE

FLANGED

70

FIRE SAFE

150# RF ASME B16.5


ASTM A105 carbon steel

71
72

61

BUTTERFLY
VTS
VTS
A105 or A216 WCB

END CONNECTION IN/ OUT


VAL
VE
BO
32 DY RATING & FLANGE FACE FINI.
33
END EXTENSION/MATERIAL
34

FLOW DIRECTION

YES

35

TYPE OF BONNET

BOLTED

36
37
38
39

LUB & ISO VALVE / LUBE


PACKING MATERIAL
PACKING TYPE
BONNET GASKET

40

MFR & MODEL

ACT
62 UAT
63 OR
64 (PNE
65 UMA
TIC)
66
67
68

30

31

SINGLE-ACTING FAIL SAFE


SPRING RETURN DIAPHRAGM
TYPE

IN

PTFE
VTS
VTS
VTS

General Control Valves.

INPUT SIGNAL
TYPE
EXPLOSION
73
POSI PROTECTION
TION ON INCR SIGNAL
74
ER OUTPUT INCR/DECR
75
GAUGES
Yes
76
CAM CHARACTERISTIC
77
MFR & MODEL
78 SWIT TYPE
CHE
79
MFR & MODEL
S

MODULATING

YES

CLOSE
VTS
VTS
NOR MAX DESIGN
850
900
1000
VTS

MIN
400

VTS
YES
REQD.

VTS

SET AT

Note 5

REQD. WITH ACCESSORIES

YES

4-20 mA
ELECTRO-PNEUMATIC (HART)
EExd
FIELD REVERSIBLE
BYPASS

Yes
VTS

QTY

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Contents of Control Valve: Data Sheet .


TYPE

VTS

80

CONTACTS/RATING

81

ACTUATION POINTS

41
SIZE

RATED TRAVEL

VTS

VTS

42
CHARACTERISTIC

VTS

82

BALANCED/UNBALANCED

VTS

83

MATERIAL

84

FILTER SIZE

85

SET PRESSURE

43
DIE CAST ALUMINIUM

44
RATED

CV VTS

FL

VTS

XT

VTS

< or = 25 Micron

45 TRI
M
PLUG/BALL/DISC MATERIAL

F6

46
SEAT MATERIAL
47
CAGE/GUIDE MATERIAL

F6 SEAT HARD FACED WITH


STELLITE6.

AIR
INTEGRAL PRESS.
86 FILTE
GAUGE
R

50mm DIAL

VTS

87

CONNECTION

1/2"NPT

F6

88

MFR & MODEL

VTS

HYDRO PRESS.

YES

48
STEM MATERIAL
49
89
50
NEC CLASS GR. DIV.

90

51
SEAT LEAKAGE TEST
SPE IEC ZONE GR. TEMP. CLASS CLASS I, ZONE 2 , GROUP IIA & T3 91
52 CIAL
S/
TEST
ACC
92
CAPACITY TEST
S
53 ESS
ORI
ES
93
54

General Control Valves.


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94

YES
YES

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Globe Control Valve Construction. .

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General Control Valve Classification.


CONTROL VALVE

ROTARY
MOTION

LINEAR
MOTION

Diaphragm valve
Gate valve

GLOBE VALVE
Globe
Angle
Three way

General Control Valves.

Eccentric plug
Butterfly
Ball

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General Types of Control Valve.


CONTROL VALVE TYPES
VALVE TYPES BASED ON PLUG CONSTRUCTION ARE
GLOBE VALVE
Control:- Linear & equal %
Use:- Throttling Service,
Flow Regulation, Frequent
Operation
Application:- Liquid, Vapour,
Gases, Corrosive Substances
Slurries.
Advantage: Efficient throttling
Available in multiple ports.
Accurate Flow control.
Disadvantage: High pressure
Drop, more expensive.
ECENTRIC PLUG / CAMFLEX

BALL VALVE
Control:- Quick opening
And linear.
Uses:- Fully open / closed
limited-throttling
Application:- Most liquids
High temperature, slurries
Advantage:- High capacity
Low leakage and Maint.
Tight sealing with low torque
Disadvantage:- poor
Throttling characteristics
Prone to Cavitation
DIAPHRAGM KNIFE GATE

General Control Valves.

BUTTERFLY VALVE
Control:- Linear & equal %
Uses:- Fully open / closed or
Throttling services, Frequent
Operation, Minimal fluid
Trapping in line.
Application:-Liquids, gases,
Slurries, Liquids with
suspended Solids.
Advantage :- High Capacity
Good flow control, Low Press.
Drop, Low cost and Maint.
Disadvantage:- High torque
Required for control
Prone to cavitation at lower
Flows.
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Eccentric Plug / Camflex Valve Construction.

Side view of an eccentric plug valve


Shown in partially open..

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Eccentric Disk/Ball/Knife Valve Construction


Eccentric Disk Valve

V-Notch Ball Valve

General Control Valves.

Knife Gate Valve

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Butterfly/Angle/Three Way Valve Construction

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Diaphrgm Type Valve Construction.

Seal over a seat ( Straight type)

Weir type ( Saddle type)

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General Types of Actuators .


Actuator is the part of the valve that responds to the applied signal and
causes modification of the fluid flow through stem & plug.
TYPES OF ACTUATORS:
1) Diaphragm Actuator
Direct Acting
Reverse Acting
Size depends on output thrust required and supply air pressure
available.
2) Piston Actuator
Use of high pressure air to 150 psig., eliminating the need of
pressure
regulator.
Used where High & Fast Stroking Speed is required.
3) Electro hydraulic Actuator:
Electro-hydraulic Actuator is single unit contains Hydraulic Pump
and Reservoir & Electric Motor.
Ideal for isolated locations
4) Manual Actuator
Used where no auto control is required
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General Control Valves.

Direct Acting Actuators .

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Actuators Fail-Safe Requirements.


Fail Safe is the action of the actuator by which the valve CLOSES (FC)
or OPENS (FO) fully in case of air supply failure.

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General Types of Bonnet & Accessories .


Bonnet Bonnet is a part of the valve body assembly through which the valve
plug stem or rotary shaft moves.
Types Of Bonnets
Plain or Std Bonnet :-Operating Temp below 2000 c.
Finned Bonnet :- Operating Temp above 2000 c or Equal.
Extension Bonnet :- Operating Temp below 00 c or Equal.
Extension Bonnet :- Operating Temp above 4500 c.
Bellow Seal Bonnet :- where no stem leakage is tolerated For Toxic,
Expensive Fluids.

General Control Valve - Accessories


Positioners
Limit Switches
Solenoid Valves
Position
Transmitters
Volume Boosters

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General Construction of Bonnet .


Forged Valve
Bonnet

Finned
Bonnet

Extension
Bonnet

Bellow Seal
Bonnet ( Enviro Seal)

Std./ plain
Bonnet

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Control valves Characteristics.


PROCESS

APPLICATION

INHERANT
CHARACTERISTICS

PRESSURE

LIQUIDS
GAS (LOW FLOWS )
GAS (LARGE FLOWS)
Pmax/pmin < 5
Pmax/pmin > 5

EQUAL %
EQUAL %

Temperature

Liquids & Gases

EQUAL %

Flow

Load Changes
Set point change

EQUAL %
LINEAR

Level

Pmax/pmin < 5
Pmax/pmin > 5

LINEAR
EQUAL %

General Control Valves.

LINEAR
EQUAL %

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Control valves :- Interface


PROCESS INTERFACE
Process to provide process data to Instrument for specifying the
valve
Instrument to provide slected valve size to Process for
incorporating in P&IDs
Instrument to provide instrument air consumption figures for the
valves to Process to decide air line & header sizes.

PIPING INTERFACE
Instrument to provide Face to Face Dimensions, End Connection
Size & Rating, Actuator Height & Orientation, Envelope
Dimensions (for 3-D Model), Weight, etc.
Piping to provide location of control valves to Instrument for
deciding instrument air manifolds.
Piping to provide Pipe Material Specification to Instrument for
specifying the valves.

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Control valves Body Material.


Frequently Used Valve Body Cast Materials Are:
CARBON STEEL (ASTM A216 GR WCC) up to 4270 C
CHROME MOLY STEEL (ASTM A217 GR WC9) up to 5930 C
CARBON MOLY STEEL (ASTM A217 GR C5) up to 5930 C
304L STAINLESS STEEL (ASTM A351 GR CF3) up to 8160 C
316 STAINLESS STEEL (ASTM A351 GR CF8M) up to 8160 C
CAST IRON (ASTM A126) up to 2320 C
Special Materials Used Depending On The Process Requirements
HASTEALLOY B
HASTEALLOY C
MONEL ALLOY

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Control valves Trim Material.


Frequently Used Valve Trim Materials Are:
302 SS
: ASTM A 276 TYPE 302
304 SS
: ASTM A 276 TYPE 304
316 SS
: ASTM A 276 TYPE 316
316 L SS : ASTM A 276 TYPE 316L
410 SS
: ASTM A 276 TYPE 410
17-4 pH SS : ASTM A 461 GR 630
[High Tensile Strength, High Yield point, Hardened Material]
HASTEALLOY ``B : ASTM A 335
HASTEALLOY ``C : ASTM A 336

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Control valves Codes and Standards.


ANSI B 16.34 :
Covers Pressure, Temperature rating, Dimensions, Materials, NDT
Requirements
ANSI B 16.5 :
Covers design of flanges and flanged fittings
MSS SP 67 :
Covers design and test performance requirements of Butterfly valves
and
divides in to three leak classes.
ANSI B 16.10:
Face to Face dimensions
ANSI B 16.37:
Hydrostatic testing
LEAKAGE RATES AS PER ANSI/FCI 70-2
Formerly (ANSI B 16.104) for seat leak classes and testing procedures
- FCI

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Vendor Design Documents- Sizing & Selection


Step # 1:- Define the system
Example :- The system is pumping water from one tank to another through a
piping system total pressure drop is 150psi.The fluid is water at 700F.Design
(maximum) flow of 150 gpm,operating flow rate of 110 gpm,and minimum flow rate
of 25gpm. Pipe diameter is 3 inches. At 700F, water has has a specific gravity of1.0
Key Variables:- Total pressure drop , design flow ,operating flow, minimum flow
diameter, specific gravity.

Step # 2:- Define Max. Allowable Pressure Drop For The Valve
When defining the allowable pressure drop across the valve, you should first
investigate the pump.What is its maximum available head? Remember that the
system pressure drop is limited by the pump. Essentially the Net Positive Suction
Head Available (NPSHA) minus the Net Positive Suction Head Required (NPSHR)
is the maximum available pressure drop for the valve to use and this must not be
exceeded or another pump will be needed. The usual rule of thumb is that a valve
should be designed to use 10-15% of the total pressure drop or 10 psi, whichever
is greater.
For above example step#1 system, 10% of the total pressure drop is 15 psi which
is what we'll use as our allowable pressure drop when the valve is wide open (the
pump is our system is easily capable of the additional pressure drop).

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STEP #3: Calculate the valve characteristic

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Step#4:-Preliminary Valve Selection


The Cv value should be used as a guide in the valve selection, not a hard
and fast rule. Some other considerations are:
a. Never use a valve that is less than half the pipe size
b. Avoid using the lower 10% and upper 20% of the valve stroke. The
valve is much easier to control in the 10-80% stroke range.
Before a valve can be selected, we have to decide what type of valve will
be used . For our case, we'll assume we're using an equal percentage,
globe valve . The valve chart for this type of valve is shown below. This
is a typical chart that will be supplied by the manufacturer.
For our case, it appears the 2 inch valve will work well for our Cv value at
about 80-85% of the stroke range. Notice that we're not trying to squeeze
our Cv into the 1 1/2 valve which would need to be at 100% stroke to
handle our maximum flow.

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Typical Chart Supplied by Manufacturer.

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Step# 5:-Check Cv & Stroke % at Min. Flow


If the stroke percentage falls below 10% at our minimum flow, a smaller
valve may have to be used in some cases.
Judgments plays role in many cases. For example, is your system more
likely to operate closer to the maximum flowrates more often than the
minimum flowrates?
Or is it more likely to operate near the minimum flow rate for extended
periods of time. It's difficult to find the perfect valve, but you should find
one that operates well most of the time. Let's check the valve we've
selected for our system:

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Step#6:Check Gain across Applicable Flow Rates

Gain is defined as:

Now, at our three flowrates:


Qmin = 25 gpm
Qop = 110 gpm
Qdes = 150 gpm
we have corresponding Cv values of 6.5, 28, and 39. The corresponding
stroke percentages are 35%, 73%, and 85% respectively. Now we construct
the following table:
Flow (gpm)

Stroke (%)

25

35

110

73

150

85

Change in (gpm)

Change in Stroke (%)

110-25=85

73-35=38

150-110=40

85-73=12

Gain #1 = 85/38 = 2.2


Gain #2 = 40/12 = 3.3

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General Control valve Gain.


The difference between these values should be less than 50% of the
higher value.
0.5 (3.3) = 1.65
and 3.3 - 1.65 = 1.65. Since 2.2 is closer than 50%, there should be
problem with controlling the valve. Also note that the gain should never
be less than 0.50.
Turndown :- It is ratio of the calculated Cv at maximum condition to the
calculated Cv minimum.
Rangeability :- It is ratio of Cv of the valve fully open to the minimum Cv
at which it can control.
The rangebility of the selected valve must exceed the turndown
requirements of the application.

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General Control valves.

Any Question ?

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