Chapter 1
Review of Stage 4
This chapter reviews Stage 4 of the Mathematics syllabus and covers the outcomes of
Number, Patterns and Algebra, Data, Measurement, and Space and Geometry.
After completing this chapter you should be able to:
recognise the properties of special groups of
whole numbers and apply a range of strategies
to aid computation
Use a factor tree to write the following numbers as a product of prime factors.
a 54
b 84
c 144
Use the method of division by primes to write the following numbers as a product of
prime factors.
a 80
b 240
c 600
Find the HCF and LCM of the following pairs of numbers. Write the numbers as a
product of prime factors first.
a 84 and 56
b 100 and 75
c 175 and 200
Find:
a
10
16
121
169
125
216
b base 2
11
12
1331
a
b
c
d
e
Represent the following operations on a number line and hence find the answer.
a 2+3
b 2+43
c 627
Plot the following whole numbers on a number line, then write them in ascending order.
a 12, 5, 4, 10, 2
b 0, 3, 3, 4, 5
Plot the following numbers on a number line then write them in ascending order.
a 23 , 1 13 , 2 23 , 23 , 0
b 1.8, 1, 1.8, 2.3, 0
Using a number line to help you, insert > or < symbols to make the following statements true.
a 3 4
b 5 5
c 5 0
10
11
12
13
Simplify:
a 8 5
b 7 (4)
c 3 (2)
Simplify:
a 5 (5) 2
b (3) (5) 2
Simplify:
a 14 2
b 55 (5)
c (72) (12)
Simplify:
a 19 4 2
d 54 9 (3)
b 17 + 5 3
e (7) 6 (2)
c 19 + 2 8
f 45 (9) (2)
Convert
155
31
Complete  = 20
Simplify
Calculate
146
11
to a mixed number.
175
240
3
8
8
15
2
3
of 592 kg.
10
Liam earns $600 per week. He banks 15 , spends 23 on rent and food, and uses the remaining
money for personal use.
a How much does Liam bank each week?
b How much is spent weekly on rent and food?
c What fraction of Liams weekly wage is for personal use?
d How much is spent on personal use?
11
12
Express 8 +
13
14
15
Express
16
1
6
3
10
7
1000
as a decimal.
17
18
Simplify:
19
Simplify:
20
a Ahmed earns $4.60 per hour. How much does he earn if he works 10 12 hours?
b Sylvanna won $1 216 320 in a lottery. She decided to share it equally between eight
people. How much did each person receive?
21
22
23
24
25
26
Express
27
Convert each to percentages and arrange in ascending order: 45 , 70%, 0.65
28
Convert
29
30
31
32
Find 25% of 48 m.
33
34
35
36
What is a rate?
37
In a class of 28 students there are 13 boys. Write the ratio of boys to girls.
38
39
40
41
5
8
as a percentage.
27
100
to a percentage.
b 30 : 108
42
If Susan speaks to Clara for 18 m and 53 s, calculate the cost of the phone call if it is
49c/min or part thereof.
43
A car travels at a speed of 97 km/h for 3 14 hours. Calculate the distance travelled.
44
A map has a scale of 1 : 300. Convert the following scale distances to real distances.
a 11 cm
b 15.8 cm
45
The ratio of the size of a model to the size of the real building is 1 : 500. If the model has a
height of 25 mm, find the actual height of the building in metres.
25 mm
A hat contains 1 red, 1 blue, 1 yellow and 1 green ticket. One ticket is chosen.
a List the sample space.
b What is the probability of selecting the red ticket?
Ten cards with the numbers 1 to 10 written on them are shuffled and one card is chosen.
a List the sample space.
b What is the probability that the selected card has 7 written on it?
Percentage
0.7
b
c
Decimal
25%
5
8
A bag contains 4 green, 9 red and 7 blue marbles. One is chosen at random.
a How many marbles are in the bag?
b How many marbles are red?
c What is the probability of selecting a red marble?
A die with the numbers 16 is rolled once. Describe events that would be:
a certain
b impossible
c of even chance
A spinner has five equalsized sectors coloured green, yellow, orange, brown and white. It is
spun once.
a What is the probability of white?
b What is the probability of any colour except white?
c What is the probability of yellow or orange?
d What is the probability of any colour except yellow or orange?
If there are p marbles in each cup, write algebraic expressions for the total number of
marbles in each of the following diagrams.
a
Simplify:
a 6p
e 3mm
b gr
f 5a+3q
b y+y+y+y+y
c m5
d 5x 2
c z 1
d 8ab
e 6pq
d 3pq 1
If m = 3 and n = 4, evaluate:
a mn
b 5mn
c 7m 3n
d n2
e 4n 2
c rg
d 4w 7
e 3 2x
mn
e t
8
8
10
If p = 4 and q = 5, evaluate:
q
24
a b 5
p
5p
q
4q
d p
If p = 7 and q = 3, evaluate:
a 3(p + 1)
b 4(q 3)
d 5(q 4)
e pq(p 5)
If p = 12 and q = 5, evaluate:
p+9
q3
a b 3
2
5p
e 2q
c q(q + 1)
26
p+1
p+6
d q+1
3p + 3
e q+8
Using the rules given, find the first four terms of each sequence.
a Start with 3 and multiply by 2.
b Start with 3, multiply by 2 and then subtract 1.
1 2 3 4
b Write a sequence for the number of matches needed to make each shape.
c How many matches are needed for the 100th shape?
The algebraic rule for a pattern of shapes is p = 3 + 2k where k represents the number of
shapes and p represents the number of matches needed to build the shapes. Find the number
of matches needed to build:
a 5
b 10
c 50 shapes
The terms of a number sequence are given by the rule y = 2z + 3 where z represents the
position number of the term and y represents the term. Find the first five terms of the
sequence.
10
11
Simplify:
a 9x + 5x
b 7y y
c 3a 2 + 4a 2
d 9ac 3ca
Simplify:
a 5 12n
b 5 2a
c 8m 3
d 5p 7
Simplify:
a 10a 2
b 12m 3
Simplify:
a 4wx + 2y 5xw 5y
Simplify:
4a a
a  + 7 7
12m
d 3
b 6m + 2m 8m
a a
b  3 5
abc
a
q
 q
5
c 4p(3p + 2)
d 6p 2p
d 2p(4y 2w)
b 3x(y 4) + 4y (5x 2)
b pq aq
c 4p 12d
d 25f 15
b coefficient
d 3(Q p) + 7p 8Q
10
12
b L = 3N + 5
m+3
L
13
b
d
f
h
j
3x + 12
b  = 12
7
x + 9 = 6
9x = 63
5 4p = 47
18 + 7c = 32 3c
8(q 5) = 3(10 + 3q)
m
b  < 4
7
Plot these points on a number plane: A(0, 3), B(2, 3), C(3, 4), D(3, 2), E(2, 5)
Number of patterns 1
Number of matches
b Write a rule describing the number of matches required to make each pattern.
c Using x to represent the number of patterns and y to represent the number of matches,
write a set of points describing this information.
d Graph these points on the number plane.
e Mark in the next two points and write their coordinates.
4
10
20
Cost ($)
4.5
18 22.5 45
90
x 2 1 0
y
y
b Write the rule describing this straight line.
The rule is of the form y = x .
2
1
11
12
Draw a divided bar graph of length 15 cm to represent the results from a survey of 30
year 9 students.
Favourite snack
Number of students
Hot chips
15
Hamburger
Kebab
Chicken
Pie
c distance travelled
3
3
0
4
0
5
1
2
0
2
10
Draw a stemandleaf plot for the following information. Use stems of 12, 13, 14, 15, 16.
146
145
128
138
161
150
149
142
132
142
150
145
151
131
148
145
132
145
144
153
11
Drink
Frequency
Soft drink
18
Still water
10
Juice
Tea/coffee
Other
13
14
12
7.40
7.20
7.08
7.00
7.35
7.55
7.80
7.25
7.40
7.30
Would a census or sample be used to investigate the number of people who use a particular
brand of toothpaste? Why?
Describe the sample you would use if you wanted to gather support for improved skateboard
facilities at your local park.
For the scores 11, 14, 15, 19, 19, 21, find the:
a mean
b mode
c median
d range
Stem
Leaf
788
001234566
1244468
3578
23
The backtoback stemandleaf plot compares the marks gained by two classes, A and B, in
their half yearly Mathematics exam.
Class B
Class A
Leaf
Stem
Leaf
21
88
6421
0356
65310
02668
110
369
a Find the mean, mode, median and range for each class.
b Which class performed better? Explain.
Convert to millimetres:
a 0.27 m
b 0.004 km
Convert to centimetres:
a 0.34 m
b 0.07 km
Calculate the perimeter of a rectangle given a width of 11.9 cm and a length of 26.3 cm.
An octagon has a perimeter of 1012.16 cm. Calculate the length of each side.
25.3
15
16
10
11
12
13
In these triangles
15
14
16
17
b
44.2 cm
9.4 cm
x cm
21.3 cm
7.2 cm
18
x cm
Find the value of the pronumeral in each of the following, correct to 1 decimal place.
a
b
8 cm
12 cm
29.3 cm
10.8 cm
19
Calculate the length of the diagonal of a square with side length 36 cm, correct to 2 decimal
places.
20
21
22
Write down the formula for the circumference of a circle when given the diameter.
23
Calculate the circumference of a circle with a diameter of 11.4 cm, correct to 1 decimal place.
24
Write down the formula for the circumference of a circle when given the radius.
25
Calculate the circumference of a circle with a radius of 6.8 cm, correct to 2 decimal places.
108o
17
18
26
27
28
15.7 cm
a Construct a net of
the cube shown.
3.8 cm
b Use the net to calculate the total surface area of the cube.
3
15.2 cm
6.8 cm
5 cm
3 cm
Draw the crosssection of each prism if it is cut along the dotted line shown.
a
A=
83.4 cm2
41.6 cm
7.4 cm
15.3 cm
b
10.3 cm
38.7 cm
7.8 cm
5.8 cm
9.4 cm
23.5 cm
c 1 kL = ____ cm3
19
20
3
Calculate:
If Sergio caught the bus at 6.35 a.m., what time did he arrive at work if the bus trip took
42 min?
High tide is at 5.20 a.m. and low tide is at 9.08 a.m. Calculate the time difference between
high and low tide.
a 3 h 35 min + 5 h 48 min
b 3 h 21 min 1 h 42 min
Name the common solids that have been combined to make each of the following solids.
a
front
Sketch the crosssection when the shapes below are sliced as shown.
a
ii top
iii side
A solid was built from cubes. From the views given below, build the solid and sketch it on
isometric grid paper.
G
F
Draw an interval PQ, 4 cm long. Using P as the vertex and your protractor, draw angles of
the following sizes.
a 55
b 196
c 228
d 315
c 72
d 133
21
22
6
125
QRU
ii SRT
73
115
b
134
50
34
125
10
b
75
128
52
b
68
142
120
40
a Draw a rhombus.
b List the properties of a rhombus.
Show how these shapes can be divided into two congruent figures. Name the resulting figures.
a
23
24
3
Each pair of figures is similar. Find the scale factor and the value of the pronumeral.
a
b
9 cm
5 cm
24 cm
40 cm
7.5 cm
8 cm
N
14
7
M
L
The shadow cast by a flagpole is 9 m long. At the same time the shadow of a 30 cm ruler
is 40 cm. Calculate the height of the flagpole.
3m
10 m
Chapter 2
Indices and Scientic
Notation
This chapter deals with indices and scientific notation.
After completing this chapter you should be able to:
change numbers to index form and vice versa
use the terms base, power, index, exponent
use the index laws to simplify expressions
define and use zero and negative integral indices
define fractional indices for square and cube roots
express very large and very small numbers in scientific notation and vice versa
perform calculations with, and order, numbers expressed in scientific notation.
26
Diagnostic test
B 56
6
C 555555
2
A 44
B 4444
C 22
D 2222
10
C 625
D 1024
B 214
C 245
D 445
13
14
C 735
D 735
315 35 =
B 110
C 33
D 310
15
230 =
A 23
B 54
25 29 =
A 13
7
C 360 000
D 2.1 109
B 6.43 105
C 6.43 106
D 6.436
A 715
6
12
A 414
5
D 555555
A 45
4
11
B 1
C 0
D 2
16
D 75
A 7
B 7
C 3
B 0.000 032
C 3 200 000
D 320 000
B 3.36 1089
C 3.36 1019
D 3.36 1020
B 7.5 106
C 7.5 106
D 7.5 1018
A 0.000 003 2
1
2
D 3
If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
Section
13
9, 10
1113
1416
A. INDEX NOTATION
Index notation is a short way of writing the repeated product of numbers, for example
6 6 6 6 6 may be written 65.
This is read as 6 to the power 5 or 6 to the fifth (power).
The 6 is called the base. It is the number that is being repeated.
The 5 is called the power, index or exponent. It tells us how many times the base has been repeated.
Example 1
a Write 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 in index
form.
b Write the answer to part a in words.
c State which number is the
i base
ii index.
In index form
means using
index notation.
Exercise 2A
1
Exponent is
another word
for index.
ii index.
27
28
Example 2
For each of the following numbers:
i write down the base, i.e. the number that is being repeated
ii write down the index, i.e. the number of times the base is repeated
iii write the number in expanded form.
a 54
b 27
In expanded
a i
ii
iii
b i
ii
iii
form means as
a repeated
product.
e 58
Example 3
Use your calculator to evaluate 56.
Find the xy key on your calculator.
Enter the base, 5.
Press the xy key.
Enter the power, 6.
Press the
= key.
5 = 15 625
c 35
h 36
d 106
i 85
e 54
j 58
ii 34
a i 33
ii 3 3 3 3
6
b 3 because the 3 is repeated 6 times.
c Yes, because 2 + 4 = 6.
iii
32 34
333333
iii
Exercise 2B
1
ii 74
iii 73 74
ii 52
iii 54 52
ii 65
iii 63 65
Example 2
Write in index form:
a 57 54
b 38 310
When multiplying numbers with the same base, add the indices.
4
c 72 78
h 210 210
d 57 52
i 520 510
e 410 46
j 311 37
29
30
Example 3
a Write in expanded form
b Is 56 5 = 56 or 57 ?
ii 56 5
56
a i 56 = 5 5 5 5 5 5
ii 56 5 = 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
b From part ii, the 5 is repeated 7 times. Hence 56 5 = 57, i.e. 5 may be written as 51.
Hence 56 5 = 56 51
= 56 + 1
= 57
5
c 29 2
d 5 58
e 7 711
Example 4
a Write in expanded form
i 23 34
3
4
3+4
b Is 2 3 = 6
? Give a reason.
ii 67
a i 2223333
ii 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
b No, because the bases are different.
6
35 42
ii 127
53 25
ii 108
35 32
ii 97
23 25
ii 48
10
b 37 25 = 612
e 25 54 = 109
h 46 37 = 1213
c 37 35 = 912
f 25 24 = 49
i 46 47 = 1613
Example 5
Simplify by writing in index form.
11
a 23 25 24
b 35 36 33
a 23 25 24 = 23 + 5 + 4 = 212
b 35 36 33 = 35 + 6 + 3 = 314
c 53 57 54
d 46 43 4
e 53 54 5 52
(32)4
b (75)3
c (24)7
(32)4 = (3 3)4
or (32)4 = 32 32 32 32
= (3 3) (3 3) (3 3) (3 3)
= 32 + 2 + 2 + 2
=33333333
= 34 2
8
=3
= 38
b (75)3 = 75 75 75
= 75 + 5 + 5
= 73 5
= 715
c
(24)7 = 24 7
= 228
Exercise 2C
1
(32)3
b (53)2
c (23)4
d (35)3
(102)5
g (42)6
h (63)7
(38)3
e (74)5
j
(27)10
Example 2
Simplify:
a (32)4 37
a
b (72)3 (73)4
(32)4 37 = 38 37
= 315
Simplify:
a
(32)3 35
e 76 (72)5
i
(34)5 (32)4
b (23)4 25
f
(23)2 (24)3
(92)5 (93)4
c (54)3 52
d 34 (33)5
g (52)4 (53)2
h (74)2 (73)3
31
32
3
a 36 32 = 2
3
1
1
333333
= 31 31
b 34
c Yes because 6 2 = 4.
=3333
Exercise 2D
1
c Is 37 32 = 37 2 ?
c Is 75 73 = 75 3 ?
c Is 28 23 = 28 3 ?
Example 2
Simplify, writing your answer in index form.
a 210 27
b 38 37
When dividing numbers with the same base, subtract the indices.
4
d 49 45
i 47 46
n 104 10
e 1012 107
j 54 53
o 79 7
Example 3
Write true or false.
a 65 23 = 32
b 36 32 = 14
3
66666
a 65 23 = 21 21 21
=33366
32 = 3 3
3
2
65 2 3
The answer is false.
1
3 3 3333
b 36 32 = 31 31
= 34
2
36 3 1
b 67 24 = 33
f 26 22 = 14
c 59 53 = 16
g 39 33 = 33
d 410 42 = 45
h 107 53 = 24
Example 4
Simplify:
a 35 37 38
b (28)3 210
c 57 53 59
c 57 53 59 = 57 3 59
= 54 59
= 54 + 9
= 513
6
Simplify:
a 36 34 35
e (45)2 47
i 210 24 23
m 23 26 24 27
b
f
j
n
25 28 26
(33)5 37
512 52 54
(52)3 (54)2 511
c
g
k
o
710 78 716
58 53 54
(24)3 29
320 38 37
d
h
l
p
(56)3 510
36 33 34
310 38 35
725 (73)5
33
34
34
81
33
32
31
30
27
As we read the first row of numbers, we can see that the powers of the 3 are going down
by one. The missing numbers, in the second row, can be found by dividing the number
before it by 3.
35
34
33
32
31
30
243
(243 3 = )81
(81 3 = )27
(27 3 = )9
(9 3 = )3
(3 3 = )1
Exercise 2E
1
Complete the following table to find the value of 50. (Divide the second row of numbers by 5.)
55
54
53
3125
625
125
52
51
50
24
23
32
16
22
21
20
Example 2
a Use the index laws to simplify 74 74.
b By writing in expanded form, show that 74 74 = 1.
c Hence show that 70 = 1.
a
74 74 = 74 4
= 70
71 71 71 71
74 74 = 71 71 71 71
=1
e 31.70
5
(  )0
8
e 12.90
3
(  )0
4
F. NEGATIVE INDICES
Example 1
Complete the following table to find the meaning of 31, 32, 33.
35
34
33
243
81
27
32
31
30
31
32
33
The powers of the numbers in the first row are going down by 1. The numbers in the
second row can be found by multiplying the number before it by 13 .
35
34
33
32
31
30
31
243 (243 13 =)81 (81 13 =)27 (27 13 =)9 (9 13 =)3 (3 13 =)1 (1 13 =) 13From the table, we see that:
1
1
31 =  = 1
3 3
1
1
32 =  = 2
9 3
1
1
33 =  = 3
27 3
Multiplying a number
1
by  is the same as
3
dividing it by 3.
32
( 13
1
3
33
1
=) 19 ( 19 13 =) 27
35
36
Exercise 2F
1
1
2
24
23
32
16
22
21
20
21
22
104
103
100 000
10 000
1000
102
101
1
10
23
Example 2
a Use the index laws to simplify 34 36.
1
b By writing in expanded form, show that 34 36 = 2 .
3
1
c Hence show that 32 = 2 .
3
a 34 36 = 346
a 34 36 = 32
31 31 31 31
b 34 36 = 31 31 31 31 3 3
1
= 33
1
a 34 36 = 2
3
1
c From parts a and b, 32 = 2
3
3
101
102
103
Example 3
Write down the meaning of:
a 91
b 63
c 75
From questions 1 to 4,
1
a 91 = 1
9
1
b 63 = 3
6
1
c 75 = 5
7
c 25
h 61
m 105
d 82
i 73
n 510
e 54
j 36
o 415
Example 4
Write as a simplified fraction:
a 52
b 35
1
a 52 = 2
5
1
= 25
1
b 35 = 5
3
1
=  (using a calculator)
243
c 43
h 34
m 36
d 54
i 55 1
2
n 
5
Example 5
Write using a negative index:
1
a b
3
1
a 1 = 31
3
1
2
3
1
8
3
1
b 2 = 32
3
1
8 = 38
3
e 210
j 29 1
3
o 1 
4
37
38
1
5
1
10
3
1
8
2
1
h 3
4
1
m 5
7
c
1
g 2
7
1
l 6
1
d 5
2
1
i 4
3
1
n 9
4
1
e 3
2
1
j 6
5
1
o 10
G. FRACTIONAL INDICES
Example 1
1
2 2
1
2
( 5 )2 = 5
1
 2
2
1
2
b ( 5 )2 = 5
c Since ( 5 )2 = ( 5 )2
1
2
= 51
then 5 =
=5
Exercise 2G
1
1
2
b Find ( 3 )2.
1
2
1
2 2
b Find ( 7 )2.
1
2
Example 2
1
3
a ( 7 )3 = 7
1
 3
3
= 71
=7
b ( 3 7 )3 = 7
1
3
c Since ( 7 )3 = ( 3 7 )3
1
3
then 7 =
1
3 3
b Find ( 3 5 )3.
1
3
1
3
b Find ( 3 2 )3.
1
3
Example 3
Write down the meaning of:
a 24
1
2
b 167
1
3
a 24 =
1
3
b 167 =
24
167
69
1
3
b 29
1
3
g 31
1
2
c 13
1
2
h 47
1
3
d 13
1
2
1
2
195
Example 4
Evaluate:
a 81
1
2
1
2
a 81 =
=
81
9
64
64
1
3
1
3
=
=
64
4
Evaluate:
a 49
e 25
1
2
1
2
b
f
1
3
1000
c 100
1
3
1
2
d 27
1
3
e 27
1
3
1
3
278
1
2
39
40
Example 5
Write in index form:
6 = 6
b
1
2
7
7 = 7
1
3
10
12
H. SCIENTIFIC NOTATION
The distance of Mars from the sun is approximately 229 000 000 kilometres. The diameter of the hydrogen
atom is 0.000 000 000 025 4 metres.
Scientists invented a more convenient method of writing very large and very small numbers like the ones
above. It is called scientific notation or standard notation.
To write a number in scientific notation, it is written as the product of a number between 1 and 10 and a
power of 10.
Example 1
State whether or not the following numbers are written in scientific notation.
a 6.7 108
d 2.96 107
b 23 105
e 480 000
c 3.65 1000
a Yes, as the first number (6.7) is between 1 and 10 and it is multiplied by a power of
10 (108).
b No, because the first number (23) is not between 1 and 10.
c No, because the second number (1000) is not expressed as a power of 10.
d Yes, as the first number (2.96) is between 1 and 10 and it is multiplied by a power of
10 (107).
e No, as it is not written as a product.
Exercise 2H
1
State whether or not the following numbers are written in scientific notation.
a 5.9 106
b 34 108
c 8.97 10 000
d 5.03 109
15
4
e 28 000
f 7 10
g 0.85 10
h 4.2 100
68
i 163 000 000
j 2.006 10
101
10
102
104
1000
105
1 000 000
Example 2
Write the following numbers in scientific notation.
a 5 000 000
b 40 000
d 600 000
e 500
Example 3
Write the following numbers in scientific notation.
a 5300
b 284 000
d 2 180 000
e 760
41
42
Example 4
Write the following numbers as ordinary decimal numerals.
a 6 105
b 3.94 106
e 8 102
j 5.2 105
0.01
1
10
0.0001
1
1000
0.000 001
1
100 000
Example 5
Write the following numbers in scientific notation.
a 0.004
b 0.000 009
a 0.004 = 4 0.001
1
= 4  (from table in question 6)
1000
1
= 4 3 (from table in question 2)
10
= 4 103
d 0.000 02
e 0.09
Example 6
Write as an ordinary decimal numeral.
a 5 102
b 7 106
1
a 5 102 = 5 210
1
= 5 100
1
b 7 106 = 7 610
1
= 7 1 000 000
= 5 0.01
= 7 0.000 001
= 0.05
= 0.000 007
d 5 104
Example 7
Explain the difference between:
a 2 104 and 24
a 2 104 = 2 10 000
= 20 000
1
b 2 104 = 2 410
b 2 104 and 24
and
and
24 = 2 2 2 2
= 16
1
24 = 4
2
1
= 2 10 000
1
= 16
= 2 0.000 01
= 0.0625
= 0.000 02
c 2 103 and 23
e 9 106
43
44
Example 8
Write 246 000 in scientific notation.
Here is a quick method for writing numbers in scientific notation.
Step 1: Move the decimal point so that it is positioned between the first and second
digits of the number. This always produces a number between 1 and 10. In this case we
get 2.46000.
Step 2: Count the number of places back to the original position of the decimal point in
the number.
2.46000.
10
c 2 980 000
h 361 000 000
d 3400
i 8000
e 609 000
j 56 000 000
Example 9
Write 0.000 71 in scientific notation.
Step 1: Move the decimal point so that it is positioned between the first and second
digits of the number.
In this case we get 7.1.
Step 2: Count the number of places back to the original position of the decimal point in
the number.
0.0007.1
11
c 0.0061
g 0.004 39
d 0.000 002 96
h 0.000 002 8
Example 10
Write 6.48 106 as an ordinary number.
Reversing the process of example 8:
Since the power of 10 is +6, then the decimal point is moved back 6 places to the right,
i.e.
6.480000.
Hence 6.48 106 = 6 480 000
12
c 5.67 105
g 3.275 106
d 3.8 103
h 7 105
Example 11
Write 3.51 106 as an ordinary number.
Reversing the process of example 9:
Since the power of 10 is 6, then the decimal point is moved back 6 places to the left,
i.e.
0.000 003.51
Hence 3.51 106 = 0.000 003 51
13
c 7.09 105
g 6 104
d 8.8 103
h 3 106
14
15
45
46
(3 1015) (6 107)
b (8 104) ( 2 106)
b (8 104) (2 106)
c (5 107)3
= (8 2) (104 106)
= 4 104 6
= 4 1010
c (5 107)3 = 53 (107)3
= 125 1021
= (1.25 102) 1021
= 1.25 (102 1021)
= 1.25 1023
Exercise 2I
1
Use the index laws to calculate (leave the answer in scientific notation):
b (8 1012) (3 109)
a (3 108) (4 106)
15
7
c (7 10 ) (6 10 )
d (2 108) (3 107)
e (5 109) (4 1020)
f (9 1016) (3 106)
4
6
g (6 10 ) (2 10 )
h (8 104) ( 4 1016)
i (2 105)3
j (7 109)2
6 3
k (3 10 )
l (8 1010)2
Remember, one
digit before the
decimal point.
Example 2
Use your calculator to evaluate (leave the answer in scientific notation):
a (5.3 108) (7.2 1011)
c (3 107)4
a Press 5.3
EXP
8 7.2
EXP
11
24
( 5.76 10 )
or
3.816 1020
3.81620
This is the way the calculator displays 3.816 1020. (It does not mean 3.81620.)
So (5.3 108) (7.2 1011) = 3.816 1020
b Press 4.8
EXP
15 1.6
EXP
or
3 1022
322
EXP
xy 4 =
d Press
5.76
EXP
8.1 1029
So
24
18
( 6.25 10 )
19
( 2.7 10 )
( 1.369 10
n
p
( 1.25 10
23
13
2.4 1012
24
47
48
Example 3
Write the following numbers in order, from smallest to largest.
a 2.5 1016, 7.8 1014
if the powers of 10 are the same then compare the first numbers.
a Comparing the powers of 10, 14 < 16, hence 7.8 1014 < 2.5 1016
(Check: 7.8 1014 2.5 1016 = 2.422 1016 < 0
If the difference between two numbers is negative, the first number is smaller than
the second.)
b Comparing the powers of 10, 10 < 8, hence 4.3 1010 < 1.9 108
(Check: 4.3 1010 1.9 108 = 1.857 108 < 0)
c The powers of 10 are the same but 4.8 < 7.8, hence 4.8 106 < 7.8 106
(Check: 4.8 106 7.8 106 = 3 106 < 0)
6
The star Alpha Centauri is 4.1 1013 km from the Earth. The distance to Altair is
1.5 1014 km. Which star is closer to the Earth?
The diameter of the hydrogen atom is 2.54 109 cm. If one million hydrogen atoms could
be placed next to each other in a straight line, how long would the line be?
10
The average speed of the Earth around the Sun is approximately 105 km/h. How many days
would it take the Earth to travel 9.6 108 km?
11
Light travels at 3 105 km/s and sound travels at 330 m/s. A timekeeper stands at the
end of a straight 100 m running track. After the starter fires the starting gun, how long
does it take:
a the sight of the smoke to reach her
b the sound of the gun to reach her?
12
The area of Australia is approximately 7.7 1012 square metres. If the population of Australia
in 2010 is expected to be 22 million people, how much land will there be for each head of
population?
noncalculator activities
b 17 17 17 17 17 17 17
Evaluate:
a 25
b 58 54 = 14
b 3
1
2
c 10
1
3
b 36
1
2
c 8
1
3
10
11
12
13
e 2100 (25)4
Evaluate:
a 23
d 320 3
b 34
12
( 4 10 )
d 190
49
50
Language in Mathematics
Write in words:
a 35
b 82
c 23
Replace the vowels to make words that mean the same as power.
a __nd__x
b __xp__n__nt
Explain why 23 24 47
Explain why the following numbers are not written in scientific notation.
a 34 107
b 6.9 1 000 000
10
Write down the mathematical meaning and one other meaning of these words.
a product
b order
c base
d index
Glossary
base
compare
convenient
evaluate
exponent
expression
fractional
index
indices
integral
negative
notation
order
pattern
power
reverse
scientific
simplify
standard
51
B 312
B 924
520 510 =
A 110
B 12
3.70 =
A 3.7
B 1
26 is the same as
1
1
A 2
B 6
6
2
When written in index form 6 =
A
10
11
12
13
14
1
2
B 62
1
3
C 333
D 777 7776
D 33333
C 20 448
D 2401
C 332
D 932
C 946
D 946
C 510
D 52
C 0
D 37
C 12
D 26
1
C 6 2
1
D 6 2
1
B 3
C 36
6
Which of the following numbers is written in scientific notation?
A 53 1018
B 9.2 100 000
C 300 000
D 3.7 1045
D 2.3 109
C 2.15 10252
1
2
D 0.000 000 51
D 2.15 10253
52
15
16
C 8 1014
D 8 1015
When the numbers 2.9 107, 5.2 109, 3.8 109 are written in order from smallest to
largest, the answer is:
A 2.9 107, 3.8 109, 5.2 109
B 5.2 109, 3.8 109, 2.9 107
7
9
9
C 2.9 10 , 5.2 10 , 3.8 10
D 3.8 109, 5.2 109, 2.9 107
If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
Section
13
9, 10
1113
1416
REVIEW SET 2A
1
b 5555555
b 76
b 86 42 = 24
Evaluate:
a 53
b 4
1
2
d 75 7
c 15
c 27
e 56 57 59
1
3
1
3
d 190
10
11
12
Use your calculator to find the value of (leave answer in scientific notation):
a (3.4 104) (3.5 109)
b (5.6 1010) (1.4 105)
c (3 109)5
13
12
( 2.25 10 )
53
54
REVIEW SET 2B
1
b 9999999
b 73
e (25)4 210
b 57 53 = 14
1
Write down the meaning of:
2
5
a 7
b 6
Evaluate:
a 62
d 612 6
b 9
1
2
c 9
c 8
1
3
1
3
d 70
10
11
12
Use your calculator to find the value of (leave answer in scientific notation):
b (8 1010) (1.6 105)
a (3.9 1013) (4 105)
c (3 106)5
13
( 1.96 10
10
REVIEW SET 2C
1
b 10 10 10
b 57
e (28)2 (210)3
b 158 32 = 56
1
Write down the meaning of:
2
8
a 4
b 3
Evaluate:
a 43
d 69 6
b 4
1
2
c 2
1
3
c 64
1
3
d 40
10
11
12
Use your calculator to find the value of (leave answer in scientific notation):
a (3 108) (5.3 106)
b (4.5 109) (5 1016)
c (7.3 1015)2
13
( 1.25 10 )
55
56
REVIEW SET 2D
1
b 55555555
b 27
e 330 (35)3
b 76 74 = 12
1
Write down the meaning of:
2
a 65
b 34
Evaluate:
a 25
d 423 4
b 100
c 51
1
2
1
3
c 125
1
3
d 130
10
11
12
Use your calculator to find the value of (leave answer in scientific notation):
b (3.9 1015) (6 108)
a (4.5 106) (5 1030)
c (2 1018)4
13
11
( 3.43 10 )
Chapter 3
Data Representation
and Analysis
This chapter deals with grouping data to aid analysis, and constructing
frequency and cumulative frequency tables and graphs.
After completing this chapter you should be able to:
construct a cumulative frequency table for grouped and ungrouped data
construct cumulative frequency histograms and polygons
find the median using a cumulative frequency polygon
group data into class intervals
find the mean using the class centres
find the modal class.
58
Diagnostic Test
Use the table below to answer questions 14.
Score
10
Frequency
12
17
11
B 7.7
C 8
B 44.5
C 26
D 7.5
B 50
C 46
2
B 7.7
D 7.5
C 8
D 7.5
Frequency
1019
2029
3039
4049
5059
Class
Frequency
1019
120
2029
100
3039
10
4049
5059
A 40
5
C 8
B 7.7
B 17
C 8
D 23
Cumulative frequency
80
60
40
20
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Class boundaries
Frequency
Class
1019
1016
2029
1723
15
3039
2430
4049
3137
12
5059
3844
Class
Frequency
1019
2029
3039
10
4049
5059
Class centre
A 27
C 70
C 5
D 1044
B 10
C 8.6
B 42
11
12
A 32
fx
10
A 84
Frequency
D 35
B 1723
D 3137
If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
14
5, 6
912
Section
A. UNGROUPED DATA
This section reviews some important aspects of DS4.2 that are needed for this section.
Example 1
For the scores in this table, find the:
a mode
b mean
c median.
Score
10
11
12
13
14
15
Frequency
12
18
14
a The mode is 11 as this is the score with the highest frequency of 18.
b Add an fx column to find the mean.
59
60
Score (x)
Frequency (f)
fx
24
45
10
12
120
11
18
198
12
14
168
13
65
14
28
15
15
f = 60
fx = 663
means
sum of.
fx
Mean = f
663
= 60
= 11.05
c To find the median add a cumulative frequency cf column.
Score (x)
Frequency (f)
3+5=8
10
12
8 + 12 = 20
11
18
20 + 18 = 38
12
14
38 + 14 = 52
13
52 + 5 = 57
14
57 + 2 = 59
15
59 + 1 = 60
There are 60 scores so the middle scores are the 30th and 31st scores. These are
both 11. The median is 11.
Exercise 3A
1
Add an fx column and find the mean for each frequency distribution table.
a
17
11
40
18
41
15
19
11
42
17
20
43
21
44
10
22
45
46
47
48
Add a cumulative frequency column to each table in question 1 and find the median.
Use the statistics function of your calculator to find the mean from the tables in question 1.
The table shows the number of glasses of water drunk by 9 Orange in a day.
Number of glasses
Frequency
10
61
62
Here is a frequency histogram showing the number of days absent for the 28 students in
9 Blue over a term.
Absences
9
8
7
Frequency
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
Days absent
a
b
c
d
Here is a frequency histogram showing the number of days that the families of students in
Year 9 hired a video in a week.
Videos hired
10
Frequency
0
1
Number of days
a
b
c
d
Investigation 1
WM: Applying Strategies, Communicating
Here is a list of the number of hours of sleep on Friday night for each student in 9M3.
8, 8, 7, 6, 8, 10, 10, 9, 8, 6, 4, 5, 5, 8, 8, 8, 9, 7, 9, 5, 3, 4, 8, 6, 9, 8, 8, 5, 5, 3
a Select STAT from the main menu.
b Enter the data into list 1.
List 1 List 2 List 3 List 4
1
8
To clear old data press
2
F6 to next menu and
3
4
DELA the YES .
5
c Select GRPH using F1 . Use F6 to get back to this menu after deleting.
d Use SET F6 to give the menu to select the graph type to Hist. Press EXIT to return.
e Select GPH 1 F1 to next screen, ignore Set Interval, press DRAW F6 . The histogram
is drawn.
Set Interval
Start: 3
pitch: 0.778
F6 (DRAW)
DRAW
1 VAR
F4
1Variable
x
=
x
=
x2
=
xn
=
1
xn
=
n
=
6.9
207
1545
1.97230829
2.0060254
30
DRAW
g Note that the mean is 6.9. Scroll down to see the median is 8 and the mode is 8.
h Use EXIT to return.
i
2
Collect information on hours slept and use the graphics calculator to draw the histogram and
calculate the mean, mode and median. Discuss your results.
1Var
1Var
2Var
2Var
2Var
XList
Freq
XList
YList
Freq
:List1
:1
:List1
:List2
:1
63
Example 1
This table shows the height of Year 9 students in a particular school.
The information is shown in groups.
Class
Frequency
Cumulative
frequency
140146
147153
154160
12
161167
12
24
168174
30
175181
32
182188
34
Class boundaries
are used for
the columns.
Cumulative frequency
64
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
140 147 154 161 168 175 182 189
Class boundaries
Exercise 3B
1
For each of the following grouped frequency tables with cf columns, draw a cumulative
frequency histogram and ogive.
a
Class
Frequency
140146
147153
Cumulative
frequency
Class
Frequency
7078
7987
13
154160
11
8896
19
161167
15
26
97105
23
168174
11
37
106114
27
175181
44
115123
34
182188
52
124132
43
Class
Frequency
Cumulative
frequency
Class
Frequency
Cumulative
frequency
4049
16
16
2024
5059
13
29
2529
13
20
6069
15
44
3034
26
7079
12
56
3539
17
43
8089
21
77
4044
45
9099
82
4549
53
Cumulative
frequency
65
Example 2
Use this cumulative frequency polygon to complete the frequency distribution table.
Cumulative frequency
60
Class
Cumulative frequency
66
Frequency
50
Cumulative
frequency
1016
40
1723
30
2430
20
3137
10
0
10
3844
17
24
31
38
45
Score
First read the values from the graph and complete the cumulative frequency column.
Class
Frequency
Cumulative
frequency
1016
1723
21
2430
27
3137
34
3844
52
Frequency
Cumulative
frequency
1016
1723
12
21
2430
27
3137
34
3844
18
52
21 9 = 12
27 21 = 6
34 27 = 7
52 34 = 18
Use these cumulative frequency histograms to complete the frequency distribution tables.
a
Cumulative frequency
Class
Frequency
45
Cumulative
frequency
2024
40
2529
Cumulative frequency
35
3034
30
3539
25
4044
20
4549
15
10
5
0
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
Score
Cumulative frequency
Class
50
7078
45
7987
40
8896
Cumulative frequency
35
97105
30
106114
25
115123
20
15
10
5
0
70
79
88
97
Score
106
115
124
Frequency
Cumulative
frequency
67
Cumulative frequency
Class
Frequency
Cumulative
frequency
Frequency
Cumulative
frequency
45
4049
40
5059
Cumulative frequency
35
6069
30
7079
25
8089
20
9099
15
10
5
0
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Score
Cumulative frequency
Class
80
2024
70
Cumulative frequency
68
2529
60
3034
50
3539
40
4044
30
4549
20
10
0
20
25
30
35
Score
40
45
50
Investigation 2
WM: Communicating, Reflecting, Reasoning
Reading level
1
There are various reading level tests. Investigate some of these and how they are used.
69
Example 1
Find the median class and
estimate the median for the
data in this table.
Class
Frequency
Cumulative frequency
110
1120
19
27
2130
32
59
3140
16
75
4150
25
100
Usually halve
the number
of scores.
100
90
Cumulative frequency
70
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1
11
21
31
41
51
Exercise 3C
1
By drawing a line across at 50, find an estimate for the median of each of these distributions
with 100 scores.
a
b
Cumulative frequency
Cumulative frequency
120
Cumulative frequency
Cumulative frequency
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
1 11 21 31 41 51 61 71
100
80
60
40
20
0
3 10 17 24 31 38 45 52
Score
Score
Cumulative frequency
d
Cumulative frequency
120
Cumulative frequency
Cumulative frequency
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
5 14 23 32 41 50 59 68
100
80
60
40
20
0
30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Score
Score
These ogives are for distributions with 60 scores. The line to find the estimate for the median
is drawn across at 30. Find estimates for the median from these ogives.
a
Cumulative frequency
Cumulative frequency
70
70
Cumulative frequency
Cumulative frequency
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1 11 21 31 41 51 61
Score
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
5 11 17 23 29 35 41
Score
71
72
d
Cumulative frequency
Cumulative frequency
70
Cumulative frequency
Cumulative frequency
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
4 11 18 25 32 39 46
0
22 30 38 46 54 62 70
Score
Score
These ogives are for different numbers of scores. By halving the highest number, find an
estimate for the median.
a
b
Cumulative frequency
90
45
80
40
Cumulative frequency
Cumulative frequency
Cumulative frequency
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
3 12 21 30 39 48 57
0
1 11 21 31 41 51 61
Score
Score
Cumulative frequency
Cumulative frequency
Cumulative frequency
124
Cumulative frequency
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135
Score
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
9 18 27 36 45
Score
The results for 60 students in a geography test are given in the table.
Score
09
1019
2029
3039
4049
Frequency
15
31
Frequency
1120
2130
17
3140
27
4150
5160
Frequency
09
165
1019
112
2029
103
3039
129
4049
94
5059
85
6069
73
7079
22
8089
D. GROUPED DATA
In stage 4 stemandleaf plots were often used when there was a large spread of data. This section uses groups
to collect data into frequency distribution tables.
Example 1
a Organise this data into a grouped frequency distribution table. Use groups 2029,
3039 and 4049.
33
38
23
36
30
41
47
49
35
26
24
34
23
35
41
37
42
40
48
27
35
33
31
42
b Construct a frequency histogram for this data.
73
74
Group
Tally
Frequency
2029
3039
12
4049
7
Frequency histogram
15
Frequency
10
0
20
30
40
50
Class boundaries
Exercise 3D
1
Tally
Frequency
1019
2029
3039
4049
10
33
22
18
28
36
23
41
37
35
47
25
37
33
31
19
28
43
42
19
33
48
41
48
16
33
34
20
39
15
a Organise this data into a frequency distribution table using the classes 410, 1117,
1824, 2531, 3238.
17
5
15
6
6
12
21
19
19
15
15
12
23
23
28
18
34
25
17
15
36
24
15
22
25
33
38
23
11
31
23
31
18
7
37
33
38
19
36
37
a Organise the data from question 2 into a frequency distribution table using the classes
412, 1321, 2230, 3139.
b Draw a frequency histogram.
c Compare your histogram with that from question 2. Explain any differences.
Example 1
For the following
distribution, find:
a the mode
b the mean
The mode is
the score with
the highest
frequency.
Score
Frequency
19
20
21
22
23
24
5
4
8
11
2
6
a To find the mode look for the highest number in the frequency column, and the
mode is the score with that frequency. The highest frequency is 11, the
mode = 22.
b To find the mean you need to add an fx column to the frequency distribution table.
The fx column stands for frequency (f ) times score (x). This column groups all of
the scores of each value and finds the total value for each.
Score (x)
Frequency (f )
fx
19
20
21
22
23
24
5
4
8
11
2
6
19 5 = 95
20 4 = 80
21 8 = 168
22 11 = 242
23 2 = 46
24 6 = 144
Totals
f = 36
fx = 775
means
sum of. It is
the Greek letter
sigma.
75
76
fx
or 
f
sum of fx column
x = sum of the f column
775
x = 36
x = 21.527778
x = 21.5
(to 1 d.p.)
Example 2
Find the mean and mode for
this frequency distribution table.
35
36
37
38
39
We include an fx column.
x
fx
35
36
37
38
39
8
7
4
9
2
280
252
148
342
78
f = 30
fx = 1100
1100
mean = 30
36.7 (to 1 d.p.)
mode = 38 (since 38 has the highest
frequency of 9)
Exercise 3E
1
Copy the following tables, complete the fx column and find the mean.
a
b
c
x
f
x
f
x
8
9
10
11
12
1
6
5
10
3
121
122
123
124
125
4
11
11
3
1
85
86
87
88
89
f
1
10
8
4
16
Example 3
Find the mean of this data
using a scientific calculator.
Score
19
20
21
22
23
24
Frequency
11
Mode
1 .
mean RCL
4.
5 Press the appropriate keys to check that the correct number of scores have been
n
entered RCL
0 .
2ndF
or
Mode
SD
2ndF DEL
19 STO
M+
20 STO
M+
21 STO
M+
22 STO 11
M+
23 STO
M+
24 STO
M+
x
_
Using the keys for the mean RCL , 4 , x = 21.52778.
n
77
78
By following the correct calculator steps for your calculator, find the mean for these
frequency distribution tables.
a
b
c
d
x
f
x
f
x
f
x
f
63
64
65
66
67
68
4
10
2
5
7
3
10
20
30
40
50
8
6
12
8
11
35
40
45
50
55
11
7
5
8
12
840
850
860
870
880
890
900
11
3
7
2
5
4
7
Example 4
Find the class centre for the classes:
a 19
b 2029
c 2125
1+9
2
10
= 2
=5
Class centre is 5
20 + 29
2
49
= 2
= 24 12Class centre is 24 12
21 + 25
2
46
= 2
= 23
Class centre is 23
d 2130
i 1624
e 2630
j 1724
Example 5
The following information appears in a
grouped frequency distribution table.
Find:
a the mean
b the modal class
Class
Frequency
110
1120
2130
3140
4150
8
19
32
16
25
To find the mean use the class centres and the frequency. Enter these into the
calculator. The assumption is that the scores within a class are evenly distributed
throughout the class. You may use this method or the statistics function on your
calculator.
Class
Frequency (f )
fx
= 5.5
44.0
110
1 + 10
2
1120
11 + 20
2
= 15.5
19
294.5
2130
21 + 30
2
= 25.5
32
816.0
3140
31 + 40
2
= 35.5
16
568.0
4150
41 + 50
2
= 45.5
25
1137.5
f = 100
fx = 2860.0
Totals
fx 2860
a Mean =  =  = 28.6
100
f
b There is no single score as the mode,
but the class with the highest frequency
is the modal class. The modal class is 2130.
Class
Class centre
Frequency
610
1115
13
1620
18
16
2125
12
2630
3135
79
80
The management of a small business carried out the following survey on the production level
of its employees and came up with the following.
No. of items produced
Frequency
1120
2130
3140
4150
5160
18
26
A survey was carried out on the age structure of the population of a country town and the
following results were obtained. Find the mean age of the population.
Age last birthday
Frequency
09
170
1019
107
2029
111
3039
121
4049
104
5059
75
6069
63
7079
32
8089
The ages of a class completing the ICDL (International Computer Drivers Licence) are listed.
49, 18, 36, 21, 33, 42, 26, 25, 60, 19, 22, 20, 36, 43, 39, 21, 22, 57,
20, 34, 28, 18, 39, 55, 41, 21, 31, 31, 40, 63, 65, 30, 30, 34, 33
a Using class intervals 1625, 2635, 3645, 4655, 5665, construct a frequency
distribution table and draw a histogram to represent the data.
b Using class intervals 1620, 2125, 2630, 3135, 3640, 4145, 4650, 5155, 5660,
6165, construct a frequency distribution table and draw a histogram.
c Compare the two histograms and comment on their shapes.
d The next ICDL class has these ages.
17, 35, 43, 54, 18, 33, 38, 22, 26, 36, 28, 37, 39, 30, 31, 44, 41, 47,
51, 41, 55, 53, 37, 40, 62, 48, 56, 54, 58, 63, 47, 65, 38, 47, 53
i Sort these ages into frequency tables using the same classes as parts a and b.
ii Draw histograms.
iii Compare the two classes.
iv Comment on your displays.
e Calculate the mean in each of the four groupings. Comment on your answers.
f Calculate the modal class for each. Comment on the differences.
g Add a cumulative frequency column and find estimates for each of the four medians.
Comment on your answers.
Example 6
a The mean of 5 scores is 12.2. What is the sum of the scores?
b Find x if 10, 7, 3, 6 and x have a mean of 8.
a Let S = sum of scores
S
 = 12.2
5
S = 12.2 5
S = 61
x = 14
11
a
b
c
d
e
Example 7
A cricketer played 12 innings at an average of 38.5, and then scored 12 and 71 in the
next two innings. Find the cricketers new average.
There are 12 scores. Let S = sum of scores
S
 = 38.5
12
S = 462
462 + 12 + 71
new average = 14
545
= 14
38.9
12
a Lili played 14 games of netball and had an average of 16.5 goals per game. In the final
two games of the season Lili threw 21 goals and 24 goals. Find Lilis new average.
81
82
b A cricketer played 11 matches and had an average of 23 runs per game. In the last two
games she scored 41 and 35 runs. Find her new average.
c A tennis player averaged 8 aces per match in her first six matches. In the next three
matches she served 6, 11, 13 aces. Find her new average.
Extension:
13
A sample of 12 measurements has mean 16.5 and a sample of 15 measurements has mean
18.6. Find the mean of all 27 measurements.
14
15 of 31 measurements are below 10 cm and 12 measurements are above 11 cm. Find the
median if the other 4 measurements are 10.1 cm, 10.4 cm, 10.7 cm and 10.9 cm.
15
The mean and median of a set of nine measurements are both 12. If seven of the measurements are 7, 9, 11, 13, 14, 17 and 19, find the other two measurements.
Investigation 3
WM: Reasoning, Communicating, Reflecting
Grouping data
1
A drivethrough fast food outlet boasts that the time taken to fill an order is 4 minutes. To
support this claim, a survey was done on the times taken to fill the orders of 50 customers
on their busiest day. The following results were recorded in minutes.
3.1 2.5 2.9 4.6 5.2 1.9 2.3 6.4 4.1 3.8 3.8 6.2 5.4
1.5 3.4 4.2 2.2 4.4 5.3 1.4 6.7 2.2 1.9 2.4 1.8 3.7
5.5 5.7 6.4 3.4 4.9 3.3 2.9 4.5 5.2 7.3 5.5 3.1 2.2
8.6 4.4 4.9 2.8 5.1 3.9 4.1 6.5 2.6 2.2 4.6
a Put this information into a frequency distribution table using the classes 1.01.9,
2.02.9, 3.03.9, and so on.
b Calculate the mean time taken.
c Draw an ogive and estimate the median time taken.
d Find the modal class.
e Do these results support the drivethrough outlets claim?
f Which of these results is most useful when commenting on this claim?
Repeat question 1 using the classes 1.42.3, 2.43.3, 3.44.3, 4.45.3, and so on.
By analysing the answers to questions 1, 2 and 3, how do the class groupings affect:
a the mean
b the median
c the modal class?
noncalculator activities
17
Write  as a mixed numeral.
5
If 5 2 =
1
Write 7  as a mixed fraction.
8
341.786 10 =
10
C 0.9
D both A and C
11
12
13
The temperature at 6 p.m. in Jindabyne was 3C but it fell 2C each hour for the next 6 hours.
What was the temperature at midnight?
14
59.8
Estimate the value of  giving your answer as a whole number.
3.2 + 2.8
15
16
If John earns $150 for 10 hours work, how much will he receive for 4 hours work?
17
Erin knows that 342 76 = 25 992. Use this data to find the answer to Erins question
25 992 342 =
18
What is
19
20
81 + 4 2 ?
83
84
21
3 + 12 3 =
22
Katie solved the equation 7x 6 + 2x 1 and got the answer x = 1. Is Katie correct?
23
The product of two numbers is 48. If one number is 6, what is the other number?
24
What is the area of a triangle with a base of 6 cm and a perpendicular height of 8 cm?
25
Peter reverses the digits in the number 9564 and subtracts them from the original number.
What is the answer?
Language in Mathematics
Read the article about Hanna Neumann and answer the
questions. Write your answers in complete sentences.
a
b
c
d
d h__st__gr__m
Rearrange these words into sentences. The word with the capital letter starts the sentence.
a The the is mean average
b The the score median is middle
c The the calculate centre used mean class is to
d class class frequency modal highest with is the The the
e frequency name ogive cumulative The another for is polygon
f estimate data ogive grouped mean used is to the for The
Glossary
analyse
estimate
histogram
modal class
statistics
class centres
frequency
interpret
mode
class intervals
frequency table
mean
ogive
cumulative frequency
grouped data
median
polygon
10
11
12
13
Frequency
11
18
12
16
10
85
D 12.3
86
D 12
D 12.3
D 65
C 50
Cumulative frequency
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
7 14 21 28 35 42 49
Score
10
Class
Frequency
Class
1019
1019
2029
2029
3039
3039
4049
4049
5059
5059
Class
Frequency
1019
1019
2029
2029
3039
3039
10
4049
4049
5059
5059
Class
Class centre
Frequency
1018
1927
21
2836
13
3745
25
4654
11
D 35
C 13
D 1054
fx
12
13
B 2836
Frequency
C 70
Frequency
87
C 3745
D 4654
If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the section
listed in the table.
Question
14
57
1013
Section
88
REVIEW SET 3A
1
a Find the mean, mode and median for the scores in this table.
Score
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
Frequency
15
18
11
The table below shows the number of times the students of 9 Red ate takeaway for dinner
over 39 days.
Number of days
Frequency
04
12
59
1014
1519
2024
2529
3034
3539
REVIEW SET 3B
1
a Find the mean, mode and median for the scores in this table.
Score
10
11
12
13
14
15
Frequency
23
16
12
a Use this cumulative frequency histogram to complete the frequency distribution table.
Cumulative frequency
Class
Cumulative frequency
70
Frequency
2025
60
2631
50
3237
40
30
20
10
0
20 26 32 38 44 50 56 62
Score
b
c
d
e
f
REVIEW SET 3C
1
a Find the mean, mode and median for the scores in this table.
Score
Frequency
12
18
23
11
190199
89
REVIEW SET 3D
1
a Find the mean, mode and median for the scores in this table.
Score
20
21
22
23
24
25
Frequency
14
The histogram shows the number of videos hired in a week by families of a class.
a Complete this frequency distribution table.
Videos hired
Score
10
Frequency
90
8
6
0
0
No. of videos
b
c
d
e
f
g
4
5
Frequency
Chapter 4
Algebraic Techniques
This chapter deals with operations involving algebraic terms
including indices.
After completing this chapter you should be able to:
add, subtract, multiply and divide algebraic fractions
apply the index laws to simplify algebraic expressions
establish the meaning of the zero index
define indices for square root and cube root
establish the meaning of negative indices
simplify expressions involving fractional and negative indices
remove grouping symbols and simplify by collecting like terms
factorise by determining common factors.
92
Diagnostic Test
6
B ab
3b
D 2a
5xy 3x
  =
8
2
5y
A 12
2
15x y
C 16
12
B 5y
16
D 2
15x y
Which of the following does not simplify
to t20?
A t4 t5
B t 30 t 10
C (t 4)5
D t16 t 4
3 4
10
11
12
(a )
 =
4
2
a a
A a2
B a4
A 8a7b 9
B 8a12b 20
C 8ab16
D 8(ab)16
(2m 5)3 =
2m 8 B 8m 8
B 3
17
1
2
1
2
D 9
B ( 4y ) C 2y
The meaning of y
1
3
1
2
D 4y2
is:
1
D 3y
Which of the following is equivalent
1
to 3 ?
1
a
3
1
A 3a
B C a
D a 3
3a
A
16
C 5
15
C 2m15 D 8m15
3k0 + 2 =
A 2
14
D 16
4a 3b 5 2a 4b 4 =
A
13
C a6
1
3
B 3y
3m 2 is equivalent to:
1
3
A 6m B 2 C 29m
m
1
D 3m
93
18
8y 5 2y
1
4
A
19
21
1
4
C 4y
D 4y
B 3y
C 6y
D 12
2p 2(5p 2 + 3pq) =
A 10p 2 6pq
B 10p 2 6p 3q
C 10p4 + 6p 3q
D 10p4 6p 3q
22
20
B 5m + 2
C 5m 6
D 5m + 4
If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
18
9, 10
11, 12
13
Section
14, 15 16, 17
E
18
19, 20 21, 22
A. ALGEBRAIC FRACTIONS
Example 1
Complete the following equivalent fractions.
2
a  = 3 15
3n
b  = 7
14
2ab
 = 5
20
2 5 10
a   = 3 5 15
3n 2 6n
b   = 7
2 14
2ab 4 8ab
  = 5
4
20
Exercise 4A
1
2y
4m
a  = b  = c  = 4
20
5
15
3
6
3t
5a
e  = 2
12
Example 2
Reduce to its simplest form:
15
a 20
c
7a
9a
8t
b 12
6ab
d 9a
94
15
15
 = 420
20
3
= 4
8t
8 t
 = 312
12
2t
= 3
2 1
7a 7a
 = 19a 9a
7
= 9
6ab
6 a b
 = 3 1
9a
9 a
2b
= 3
5t
20
8x
h 12x
10y
d 15
8ab
i 4a
9b
e 12
12pq
j 9q
Example 3
Simplify:
7
4
a  + 15 15
5x
4x
b  + 11 11
7
4
7+4
a  +  = 15 15
15
11
= 15
5x
4x
5x + 4x
b  +  = 11 11
11
9x
= 11
Simplify:
3x
4x
a  + 10 10
9m 6m
d  10
10
7b 8b
b  + 11
11
11k 3k
e  12
12
c
c
7a 2a
 10 10
7a 2a 7a 2a
  = 10 10
10
5a
= 10
a
= 2
2a 3a
 + 15
15
Example 4
Simplify:
3 2
a  + 4 3
5n 2n
b  + 6
3
3 2
3 3 2 4
a  +  =   +  4 3
4 3 3 4
9
8
=  + 12 12
17
= 12
7m m
 8
3
5n 2n
5n 2n
2
b  +  =  +  6
3
6
3
2
5n 4n
=  + 6
6
9n
= 6
3n
= 2
5
= 1 12
7m m 7m 3 m 8
  =    8
3
8
3
3
8
21m 8m
=  24
24
13m
= 24
Simplify:
2x
a  +
3
3t
f  +
10
x
4
2t
9
5k 3k
b  + 6
4
4w
w
g  3
12
7b b
 8
4
3v 4v
h  + 2
3
c
3a
a
d  + 5
10
11e 3e
i  10
5
4z 2z
e  5
3
5x 3x
j  6
8
Example 5
Simplify:
2 5
a  3 9
2a b
b  3
9
2 5 25
a   = 3 9 39
10
= 27
2a b 2a b
b   = 3
9
39
2ab
= 27
Simplify:
m n
a  3
4
k m
b  5
3
2p q
 3
5
c
c
3h
4
 7
5m
3h
4
3h 4
  = 7
5m 7 5m
12h
= 35m
3a
4
d  5
7b
2b 5d
e  3c 7e
95
96
Example 6
Simplify:
8 15
a  9 16
8a
15
b  9
16b
1
8 15
8
15
a   = 3 29 16
9
16
5
= 6
4 1
12ab 10
 5
3a
8a
15
8 a
15
 b   = 3
2
9
16b
16 b
9
5a
= 6b
2
12ab 10
12 a b
10
  =  1
1 1
5
3a
3 a
5
8b
= 1
= 8b
Simplify:
3m 10n
a  5
7
5y
9
f  3
2y
2k 6n
b  9
5
7
3z
g  2z 14
4w 9z
 3
8
2ab
6
h  3
2b
c
8a
d 
5
8mn
i 9
15b
16
15
3m
3t 10
e  5
9u
6pq 25
j  5
3q
Example 7
Simplify:
2 5
a  3 8
a 5
b  4 b
5
b
b The reciprocal of  is  , hence
b
5
a 5 a b
  =  4 b 4 5
ab
= 20
1
= 1 15
Simplify:
a b
a  5 7
w z
b  6 2
p 5
 4 q
3
n
d  m 8
a c
e  b d
Example 8
Simplify:
2a 6b
a  3
7
b
1
2a 6b
2 a
7
a   =  3
3
7
3
6 b
7a
= 9b
8
Simplify:
2x 8y
a  3
5
16
8
e  9w 3w
4xy 2x
i  3
5
3a 6b
b  2
7
6k 7k
f  5
2
9
6
j  10km 5m
5pq 3p
 8
2
1
5p 10q
 3
9
4m 2m
g  3
5
c
5pq 3p 5p q
2
  =  14
8
2
3p
8
5q
= 12
7
3
d  5v 10v
7
m
h  2m
8
97
98
Example 1
Show by writing in expanded form that:
a m4 m3 = m7
b m5 m2 = m3
a m4 m3 = (m m m m) (m m m)
=mmmmmmm
= m7
c (m4)3 = m12
1
c (m4)3 = (m m m m) (m m m m) (m m m m)
=mmmmmmmmmmmm
= m12
Exercise 4B
1
(m 2)4 = m8
Example 2
a Use a calculator to evaluate the following expressions when a = 3.
i a4 a3
ii a7
b Does the value of a4 a3 = the value of a7?
a i
a4 a3 = 34 33
= 81 27
m m mmm
b m5 m2 = 1
1
m m
mmm
= 1
3
=m
ii a7 = 37
= 2187
= 2187
b Yes
2
Example 3
Use the index laws to simplify:
a y7 y3
b y 18 y 17
a y7 y3 = y7 + 3
b y 18 y 17 = y 18
= y 10
c
17
(b5)3
c (b5)3 = b5 x 3
= y1
= b15
=y
c t 10 t 9
d b15 b b 4
e v v5 v7
c w8 w2
d b6 b 5
e z 20 z 19
c (k 8)2
d (z10)6
e (n 2)4
c (b4)6
h (y 5)5
d m 3 m6 m4
i t10 t20 t
e (v 7)10
j a12 a6
Example 4
Explain why the index laws cannot be used to simplify:
a p3 q4
b m6 n4
a p3 q4 = p p p q q q q
= p 3q 4
Since the bases are not the same we cannot simplify further.
mmmmmm
b m6 n4 = nnnn
6
m
= 4n
Again, since the bases are different we cannot simplify further.
99
100
10
b m 5 m 2 = m10
c p 4 p 5 = p 20
d e 6 e10 = e16
e a4 b 5 = ab 9
z10 z 2 = z 8
6
4
p
p
2 = q
q
g p12 p 3 = p4
h t8 t7 = t
k (b7)2 = b14
w15 w 3 = w 5
(n10)3 = n13
5 4
(a )
b 3
2
a a
p p
a 8
p
5 4
54
(a )
a
b =
3
2
3+2
a
a a
5+6
p p
p
a = 8
8
p
p
11
20
p
= 8
p
= p11 8
a
= 5
a
= a20 5
= p3
= a15
Exercise 4C
1
Simplify:
5
x x
a 6
x
7
a a
e 8
2
a a
k
16
5
k k
11
y y
10
8
y y
(m ) m
30
10
w w
b 8
w
2 3
16
k k
d 8
5
k k
10
16
x
h 3
4
x x
14
z z
g 10
7
z z
4 5
3 4
k (a ) (a )
4
10
a a a
n 12
8
a a a
5 5
y )
m (20
y
m m
10
m
20
30
b b b
o 4 5
(b )
Example 2
Simplify:
4
a 5m 3m
2k 4k 3k
5 6
(t )
10
t
5m 3m
= 53m m
= 15 m
= 15m
2k 4k 3k
7
= 243k k k
4+6
= 24 k
10
= 24k
7+3+5
15
Simplify:
5
a 4m 3m
d 10a
12
7a
b
4
g 3z 4z 2z
3t 6t
10
5b 6b b
d 6d 3d
5p 2p
e 4w 6w
3
h 2q 5q 8q
4
8
Example 3
Simplify:
8
10
12m
a 6
3m
b
8
10
12m
6
3m
20a
4
16a
12 m
= 6
3m
20 a
= 4
16 a
10
20 a
=  16 a 4
10
12 m
=  63 m
= 4m
= 4m
20a
4
16a
6
5
=  a
4
5a
= 4
Simplify:
7
6m
a 23m
10
9e
66e
12
10a
b 7
5a
8
2m
g 36m
10
12w
8
4w
12
8z
d 86z
15
6a
h 10
12a
16k
e 312k
13
9t
612t
11
15b
6
20b
101
102
Example 4
3 5
Simplify ( 2a )
3 5
( 2a )
3
= 2a 2a 2a 2a 2a
3
= 22222a a a a a
3 5
= 2 (a )
= 32a
15
Simplify:
4 3
b ( 2m )
3 2 5
g (m n )
a ( 3a )
(x y )
3 6
c ( 7p )
5 2
4 6 3
h (p q )
2 4
d ( 10k )
7 3 4
4 10 2
(a b )
Example 5
Simplify:
2 4
10 8
5 8
a 5m n 3m n
2 4
10 8
5 8
5m n 3m n
2
7 12
= 15m n
12
10
y
12 x
=  6 28
x
y
= 53m m n n
= 15 m n
12x y
6 2
8x y
= 5m n 3m n
2
12x y
6 2
8x y
3
2
x4 y6
4 6
3x y
= 2
11 3
e ( 5t )
j
5 2 3
( 2x y )
Simplify:
3 2
5 3
b 5m n 2m n
5 8
6 7
d 10x y 3x y
a 4a b 2a b
c 3p q 4p q
10 12
e 2w z
4 5
6w z
10 9
4 3
5 6
6a b
3 2
4a b
7
15x y
g 6 2
5x y
Remember to add
indices when multiplying
and subtract them
when dividing.
12
2k m
h 3 6
10k m
11 6
6 7
7 8
9a b
8
12a b
12m n
6 8
15m n
Exercise 4D
1
103
104
Example 2
Evaluate:
a x0
b (3x)0
c 3x 0
a x0 = 1
b (3x)0 = 1
c 3x 0 = 3 x 0
=31
=3
Evaluate:
a y0
f (6z)0
k 3m0 + 1
b (3y)0
g (10m)0
l 9e0 3
c 3y 0
h 10m0
m 6p0 + 7
d 4k 0
i 8b0
n 3a0 + 2b0
e 9t 0
j (7q)0
o 6x 0 4y 0
a Show that ( 6 ) = 6.
1
2 2
6 = 6 .
1
2
1
 2
2
66
= 61
36
=6
( 6 )2 = 6
=6
1
2
1
2
6 =6 .
Exercise 4E
1
1
2
a Show that ( 5 )2 = 5.
5 =5 .
1
2
a Show that ( a )2 = a.
c Hence show that
a =a .
Example 2
Write in index form:
a
23
23 = 23
1
2
t =t
1
2
7t
d 7 t
7t = ( 7t )
1
2
d 7 t =7
=7 t
= 7t
12
b
f 5 k
x
c
g 6 y
1
2
1
2
m
6y
d
h
Example 3
Write down the meaning of:
a 5
1
2
b ( 7z )
1
2
a 5 =
1
2
1
2
b ( 7z ) =
7z
7z
7z
1
2
1
2
=7 z
=7
1
2
=7 z
1
2
e ( 3z )
b 13
1
2
1
2
( 2m )
c p
1
2
1
2
g 5k
d q
1
2
1
2
h 4t
1
2
Example 4
3
a Show that ( 3 5 ) = 5.
1
3
1
3
5 =5 .
105
106
1
 3
3
555
= 51
125
=5
1
3
a (3 5) =
b ( 5 )3 = 5
=5
1
3
1
3
5 =5 .
1
3
a Show that ( 3 6 ) = 6.
c Hence show that
6 =6 .
1
3
a Show that ( 3 a ) = a.
c Hence show that
a =a .
Example 5
Write in index form:
a
=7
1
3
=e
4z
4z
1
3
d 43 z
d 43 z = 4
= ( 4z )
1
3
=4 z
= 4z
z
1
3
1
3
5y
53 y
9m
h 93 m
Example 6
Write down the meaning of:
a 8
1
3
b n
1
3
( 5x )
1
3
d 5x
1
3
a 8
1
3
b n
1
3
c
n
( 5x )
=
1
3
d 5x
1
3
=5x
=5
5x
1
3
= 53 x
1
3
b 35
e ( 6m )
9
c k
1
3
6m
47
e 5 x
63 x
1
3
g ( 7v )
d d
1
3
1
3
h 7v
1
3
10
1
3
1
3
d 83 p
h 33 r
g 4 x
1
3
b 6
( 5p )
1
2
1
2
( 6r )
c x
1
3
1
3
g ( 5xy )
d t
1
2
h ( 4pq )
F. NEGATIVE INDICES
Example 1
4
a
a Use the index laws to simplify 5 .
a
1
1
c Hence show that a =  .
a
4
= a1
4
a
b Expand and simplify 5 .
a
a
a a a a
b 5 = 1
1
1
1
a a a a a
a
1
= a
a
a 5 = a4 5
a
a
a
1
1
c Since 5 = a1 and 5 =  then a1 =  .
a
a
a
a
1
2
1
3
107
108
Exercise 4F
3
a
a Use the index laws to simplify 4 .
a
1
c Hence show that a1 =  .
a
3
a
a Use the index laws to simplify 5 .
a
1
2
c Hence show that a = 2 .
a
2
a
a Use the index laws to simplify 5 .
a
1
3
c Hence show that a = 3 .
a
2
a
a Use the index laws to simplify 6 .
a
1
c Hence show that a4 = 4 .
a
a
a Use the index laws to simplify 6 .
a
1
c Hence show that a5 = 5 .
a
a
b Expand and simplify 4 .
a
3
a
b Expand and simplify 5 .
a
2
a
b Expand and simplify 5 .
a
2
a
b Expand and simplify 6 .
a
a
b Expand and simplify 6 .
a
Example 2
Write down the meaning of:
a k9
b m15
1
a k9 = 9k
1
b m15 = 15
m
c m3
Example 3
Write with a negative index:
1
a 5a
1
b 7y
1
a 5 = a5
a
1
b 7 = y 7
y
d x 6
e t 10
1
11
x
1
d 14
n
1
e 20
z
Example 4
Write down the meaning of:
a 3m2
b (3m)2
a 3m2 = 3 m2
1
b (3m)2 = 2
( 3m )
1
= 29m
3
1
=  21 m
3
= 2m
2y 5
(3t)4
c
f
1
2
1
2
1
2
a 3y 2y
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
b 10 n 5 n
1
2
a 3y 2y = 3 y 2 y
1
2
=32 y y
=6 y
1 1
 + 2 2
= 6 y1
= 6y
1
2
1
2
1
3
10n
b 10 n 5 n = 1
5n
3
1
3
10 n
=  1
5
3
n
=2 n
1 1
 3 3
= 2 n0
=21
=2
109
110
Exercise 4G
1
a 2z 6z
d 12 a
1
3
1
2
1
2
b 8p 2p
4a
1
3
1
2
1
3
1
3
2m 3m 4m
1
3
k
e 1
1
2
k k
2
Example 2
Use the index laws to simplify:
a m6 m2
b q2 q7
c (x 3)5
a m6 m2 = m6 + 2
b q2 q 7 = q2 (7)
c (x 3)5 = x 3 5
= m4
2
= q5
2 4
(y )
w w
(t )
= x 15
c e e
g z
d n n
h k
5 4
Example 3
Simplify:
a 5m3 6m7
b 4y 7 5y 2
a 5m3 6m7 = 5 6 m3 m7
= 30 m3 + 7
= 30 m4
= 30m4
c (5y 2)3 = 5y 2 5y 2 5y 2
= 5 5 5 y 2 y 2 y 2
3
2 3
= 5 (y )
= 125y 6
c (5y 2)3
7
4y
b 4y 7 5y 2 = 2
5y
7
4
y
=  5 y 2
4
=  y 7(2)
5
4
=  y 9
5
9
4
4y
=  y 9 or 5
5
Simplify:
a 10a 5 9a 3
e 6p4 2p 2
i (3w 6)2
b 6b5 3b2
f 3k 4 8k 2
j 4n3 3n4 6n5
c 3v 6 2v 2
g (5z 4)3
d 8y 5 2y 1
h (2m3)5
Example 4
State whether the following are true or false.
a m3 m5 = m2
b 3y 0 = 1
1
d 2p3 = 32p
c 6k4 2k4 = 3
a m3 m5 = m3 5
b 3y 0 = 3 y 0
=31
= m2
Statement is false.
=3
Statement is false.
6 k
c 6k 4 2k 4 =  42 k
= 3 k4 4
d 2p3= 2 p3
1
= 2 3p
2
= 3p
Statement is false.
= 3 k0
=31
=3
Statement is true.
b a4 a7 = a 3
8t 9 2t 9 = 4
1
d 3c 2 = 23c
6
g 5x x 6 = 5x
e 4k 0 = 4
b b6 = b5
4
h 4y 3 = 3
y
8
(2p 1)3 = 3p
Example 5
By substituting a = 5, show that a2 2a.
111
112
1
a2 = 2a
1
= 2
5
1
= 25
2a = 2 5
= 10
Hence a2 2a
5
b a3 3a
e a2 a a2 + a
h 5a2 3a 5a2 + 3a
c
f
a2 2a
a2 + a2 a4
b 4(3y 2z)
a 3(x + 5) = (x + 5) + (x + 5) + (x + 5)
=x+x+x+5+5+5
=3x+35
= 3x + 15
b 4(3y 2z) = (3y 2z) + (3y 2z) + (3y 2z) + (3y 2z)
= 3y + 3y + 3y + 3y 2z 2z 2z 2z
= 4 3y 4 2z
= 12y 8z
Example 2
Use the distributive law to expand:
a 5(2y + 3)
b 7(3y 4w)
a 5(2y + 3) = 5 2y + 5 3
b 7(3y 4w) = 7 3y 7 4w
= 10y + 15
= 21y 28w
Exercise 4H
1
c 5(4a + 3b)
g 4(m 2 + n 2)
d 2(4x 3y)
h 2(m 3 3mn)
Example 3
Expand:
a 3w(2y + 4z)
b 2a(3a 4b)
a 3w(2y + 4z) = 3w 2y + 3w 4z
c 4m2(m3 + 2m5)
b 2a(3a 4b)= 2a 3a 2a 4b
= 6a2 8ab
= 6wy + 12wz
c 4m 2(m 3 + 2m5) = 4m 2 m3 + 4m 2 2m5
= 4m5 + 8m7
Expand:
a 3a(2b + 4c)
e y2(y3 4)
i 2p5(p2 + 3p3)
b 4x(3x 2y)
f 6x(2y 5x2)
j 5x2(2x3 3xy)
c 10k(6k 4m)
g 3k2(2k2 + 5)
d m(m2 + 2)
h a3(5a2 2)
Example 4
Expand:
a 3(2w + 5)
b 2(4a 3b)
c (4m + 3n)
113
114
a 3(2w + 5) = 3 2w + 3 5
b 2(4a 3b) = 2 4a 2 3b
= 6w + 15
= 8a 6b
= 6w 15
= 8a + 6b
c (4m + 3n) = 1 4m + 1 3n
= 4m + 3n
= 4m 3n
Expand:
a 2(y + 3)
e (t + 3)
i (7w + 3)
b 5(a + 2)
f (b + 6)
j (4x 1)
c 3(w + 4)
g 3(2k + 5)
d 4(m 7)
h 2(4m 5)
Example 5
Expand:
a 3a(5a2 + 2ab)
b n3(2n4 5n2p)
Expand:
a 2a(3a 2 + 2ab)
d y3(4y2 3xy)
= 15a3 + 6a2b
= 2n7 5n5p
= 15a3 6a2b
= 2n7 + 5n5p
b 4x(2x 2 3xy)
e 3m4(2m 2 + 5mn)
Example 6
Expand and simplify by collecting like terms.
a 3(a + 2) + 7
b 3 + 2(3n 5)
a 3(a + 2) + 7 = 3a + 6 + 7
= 3a + 13
Remember to
multiply before
adding!
b 3 + 2(3n 5) = 3 + 6n 10
= 7 + 6n or 6n 7
3p 2(3p 2 + 4pq)
b 2(3b 12) + 12
f 10 + 2(4x + 3)
j 16 + 5(4e 6)
c 3(4w + 2) 7
g 12 + 2(3b 5)
d 5(2y 3) 2
h 13 + 4(y + 5)
Example 7
Expand and simplify 5 2(4y 3).
5 2(4y 3) = 5 8y + 6
= 11 8y or 8y + 11
6
b 8 3(y 2)
f 2 5(3t 4)
j 3 10(1 2w)
c 9 4(b + 3)
g 4 3(5x + 2)
d 7 2(v 6)
h 10 2(3k 1)
Example 8
Expand and simplify 4(2m 3) + 3(m 2).
4(2m 3) + 3(m 2) = 8m 12 + 3m 6
= 11m 18
7
b
d
f
h
j
2(6m + 7) + 3(m 1)
3(3a + 2) + 4(a 3)
3(4y 2) + (2y + 7)
4(3x + 2y) + 2(5x 3y)
3a(2a + 6) + 4a(3a 5)
Example 9
Expand and simplify:
a 2(3p + 4q) 4(2p 3q)
b 3(4m 1) (m + 4)
115
116
b
d
f
h
j
5(w + 4) 3(w 2)
3(5z 1) (2z + 5)
5(d 3) 3(2d + 1)
3(2a 3b) (2a + 3b)
4z(3z + 2) (z 1)
I. FACTORISING
Use the distributive property to expand 2(3a + 5) = 2 3a + 2 5
= 6a + 10
Reversing the process, 6a + 10 = 2 3a + 2 5
= 2 (3a + 5)
= 2(3a + 5)
The reverse process to expanding is called factorising.
Example 1
Factorise:
a 3y + 12
b 20k 8
3y + 12 = 3 y + 3 4
20k 8 = 4 5k 4 2
= 3 (y + 4)
= 4 (5k 2)
= 3(y + 4)
= 4(5k 2)
Note that as 2 is a common factor of
20k and 8,
20k 8 = 2 10k 2 4
= 2(10k 8)
While this is a correct equivalent expression
for 20k 8, it has not been fully factorised.
20k 8 = 4(5k 2).
Exercise 4I
1
Factorise:
a 8a + 10
e 4w 12
i 24k 18n
b 6x 4
f 16m 8
j 16x 2 + 24y2
c 3a + 6b
g 12ab + 8
d 5x + 10y
h 10m 20n
Example 2
Factorise:
a 3u + 12v + 9w
b 12a 8b + 20c
Factorise:
a 5x + 15y + 10z
d 12m 6n 18r
b 3p 6q + 9r
e 20xy + 50z + 30
4a + 12b 8c
Example 3
Complete the following factorisations and check by expanding.
a y 2 + 2y = y (__ + __)
a Since y 2 + 2y = y y + y 2, then
y 2 + 2y = y(y + 2)
Check: y(y + 2) = y y + y 2
= y 2 + 2y
117
118
g 6m 2 3m = 3m (__ __)
i 16pq 12p 2 = 4p (__ __)
Example 4
Complete the following factorisations and check by expanding.
a y2 + 7y = __ (y + 7)
b 2m2 8m = __ (m 4)
y2 + 7y = y(y + 7)
2m2 8m = 2m(m 4)
Check: y(y + 7) = y y + y 7
Check: 2m(m 4) = 2m m 2m 4
= y2 + 7y
= 2m2 8m
Example 5
Explain why the following factorisation is incorrect.
18x2y + 12xy2 = 6xy(3x + 2)
6xy (3x + 2) = 6xy 3x + 6xy 2
= 18x2y + 12xy
18x2y + 12xy2
Example 6
Factorise:
a w 2 + 5w
b 3y 2 6y
c 4a 2 + 8ab
b The HCF of 3y 2 and 6y is 3y, hence
w 2 + 5w = w w + w 5
3y 2 6y = 3y y 3y 2
= w(w + 5)
= 3y(y 2)
Factorise:
a x 2 + 4x
e 2k 2 + 4k
i 12pq 18p 2
b y 2 7y
f 3y 2 12y
j 16km + 24k 2
c a 2 + ab
g 10b 2 + 5ab
d m 2 5mn
h 9w 2 6w
Example 7
Factorise 18ab 3a + 9a2.
The HCF of 18ab, 3a and 9a 2 is 3a, hence
18ab 3a + 9a 2 = 3a 6b 3a 1 + 3a 3a
= 3a(6b 1 + 3a)
Factorise:
a 2ab + 4a + 4a 2
d 5xy 10x 5x 2
b 6x 2 + 3x + 9xy
e 8k 2 6k 10km
2m 6m 2 + 4mn
119
120
Language in Mathematics
Three of the words in the following list have been spelt incorrectly. Find these words and
write the correct spelling.
reduse, simplify, subistute, aply, numerator, equivalent
Complete the following words used in this chapter by replacing the vowels:
a f __ ct __ r
b z __ r __
c __ nd __ x
d __ lg __ br __ __ c
e f __ ct __ r __ s __
Write in words:
x3
x2
{}
A go backwards
b expand
B the same as
c reverse
d evaluate
e pronumeral
How many words of three or more letters can you make from the word
DISTRIBUTIVE. (No proper names or plurals allowed.)
Glossary
algebraic
apply
base
cancel
check
common
cube root
denominator
distributive law
equivalent
evaluate
expand
expression
factor
factorise
grouping symbols
index
indices
negative
numerator
power
reciprocal
reduce
reverse
simplify
square root
substitute
value
zero
121
5a
C 81
45a
D 9
11x
B 15
11x
C 8
3x
D 15
45a
B 21b
28ab
C 15
20ab
D 21
xy
C 6y
x
D 6
5x
B 3y
5y
C 3x
xy
D 15
14a
B 15
35ab
C 54
x y
  =
5 3
7ab 5b
  =
9
6
54
D 235ab
10
5a
B 18
5 3xy
When simplified   =
9y 10
15xy
15x
A B 90
90
15
A 14a
9
3xy
D 2x
4a 5
  =
3 7b
3x
A 5y
8
3y
C 2
2x x
 +  =
5 3
20a
A 21b
6
3x
6x
D  = 5
8
4a a
 +  =
9 9
3x
A 8
5
3x
15x
C  = 5
25
9xy
When reduced to its simplest form  =
6x
9y
A B 3y
6
5a
A 9
4
3x
6x
B  = 5
10
B k
10
C k
30
3 5
D (k )
b b
=
2 4
(b )
A b55
B b2
C b8
D 18
122
9 8
11
12x y
=
6 2
8x y
3 6
A 4x3y6
12
17
18
1
2
20
21
22
D 9m7
B 20
C 3
D 8
B ( 9a )
1
2
C 3a
1
2
2a
C 3
B 23 a
2a
1
Which of the following is equivalent to 2 ?
m
1
A B m2
2m
2
C m
B 4c
1
C 22c
3xy
2
B 3m2
1
C  m2
3
D 9a
D 2a
D m
6m 3 2m5 =
A 3m2
19
C 3m7
1
3
A
16
B 9m10
15
5y 0 + 3 =
A 4
14
3x y
C 2
(3m5)2 =
A 3m10
13
3 4
3x y
B 2
3k(2k 2 4km) =
1
2
1
D 24c
1
D  m2
3
A 6k 2 + 12km
6k 2 12km
C 6k 3 + 12k 2 m
D 6k 3 + 12k 2 m
C p
C x(4x 6)
D 7w2 15
D 2pq
D 2x(2x 3)
If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
18
9, 10
11, 12
13
Section
14, 15 16, 17
E
18
G
19, 20 21, 22
H
REVIEW SET 4A
Simplify:
4a 7a
a  + 13 13
2m 5m
b  + 3
8
Simplify:
a y 10 y 7
e (5m4 )3
b k 11 k 5
f 3a 5 b 3 2ab 6
c (p7 )2
t t
d 3
4
t t
Evaluate:
a v0
b 5v 0
c (5v)0
d 2v 0 + 1
10
11
12
4w 2w
 5
3
5x y
d  6 3
7
3mn
 = 4
20
Complete:
2x
 = 9
18
1
2
b 3x
1
2
c ( 3x )
b 2z 3
Simplify:
a y 3 y5
d 6b2 3b7
b e6 e2
e 4k5 2k3
1
2
b 3(3a b) (2a b)
Factorise:
a 8w + 20
b x2 + 9x
d x
1
3
c (2z)3
(n4 )5
6m5 3m5 = 2m
3(4x + 5)
4pq 12q2
e 2x
1
3
123
124
REVIEW SET 4B
3x
a  = 7
21
Complete:
Simplify:
2a 7a
a  + 9
9
3y 2y
b  + 4
3
Simplify:
a m14 m6
e (2m7 )4
b t25 t5
f 4p3 q7 5p4q
c (z6 )4
(b )
d 7
4
b b
Evaluate:
a s0
b 4s 0
c (4s)0
d 4s 0 1
10
11
12
3k 2m
 5
3
3w 2w
d  5
3
5 6
2ab
 = 3
18
1
2
b 2c
1
2
c ( 2c )
b 3e4
Simplify:
a k 6 k2
d 5n3 4n8
b m4 m1
e 2a5 4a8
1
2
b 2a(2a 5) (3a + 1)
Factorise:
a 12x 18
b 2y2 7y
d c
1
3
c (3e)4
(n3)5
a7 a7 = a
a(2a 5)
4a2 3ab + 2a
e ( 2c )
1
3
REVIEW SET 4C
Simplify:
2d 6d
a  + 7
7
7b 3b
b  8
4
Simplify:
a p6 p8
e (3v7 )3
b y16 y 8
f 3x8 y9 6x2y5
c (t5 )6
c c
d 4 5
(c )
Evaluate:
a a0
b 7a0
c (7a)0
d 7a0 + 5
10
11
12
6x 10y
 5
9
3w 2w
d  4
5
12
4xy
 = 3
12
Complete:
3h
 = 5
20
1
2
b 4q
1
2
c ( 4q )
1
2
d q
b 3b 5
c (3b)5
Simplify:
a d 5 d 3
e 6m3 9m4
b n 2 n3
c (k 2)3
Factorise:
a 15n 20
b 4b2 + 6b
1
3
1
2p5 6p5 =  p
3
(4s 7)
12m2 + 14mn
e 4q
1
3
d 5a6 3a3
125
126
REVIEW SET 4D
Simplify:
10k 5k
a  11 11
2w w
b  9 6
Simplify:
a y8 y5
e (9h5 )2
b k16 k10
f 6a7 b8 a6b 3
c (p5 )10
c c
d 4 2
(c )
Evaluate:
a w0
b 8w 0
c (8w) 0
d 8w 0 9
10
3a 4b
 2
5
9x 4x
d  10 3
3
13
7pq
 = 2
10
Complete:
5b
 = 8
24
1
2
b 6m
1
2
c ( 6m )
b 2x 2
Simplify:
a y 2 y 5
d 5z4 3z7
b n6 n8
e 6m4 9m7
1
2
11
12
Factorise:
a 24x + 18
b h2 8h
d m
1
3
c (2x)2
(p3)5
2p6 10p6 = 2
2(5 2a)
3y2 + 6y 9
e ( 6m )
1
3
Chapter 5
Rational Numbers
This chapter deals with rounding numbers to a specified number
of significant figures, expressing recurring decimals as fractions
and converting rates from one set of units to another.
After completing this chapter you should be able to:
identify significant figures
round numbers to a specified number of significant figures
use the language of estimation appropriately
use symbols for approximation
determine the effect of truncating or rounding during calculations on the accuracy of results
write recurring decimals as fractions
convert rates from one set of units to another.
128
Diagnostic Test
10
11
A 80
2
B 8
8
10
8
100
B 4
C 7
D 2
13
14
To convert 0. 5 7 to a fraction:
Step 1: Let n = 0.575757
Step 2: then 100n = 57.575757
Step 3:
19
 = Step 4 : Hence n = 57
99
33
The missing Step 3 is:
A 19n = 57
B 33n = 57
C 99n = 57
D 90n = 57
15
16
If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
Section
16
710
11
1214
15, 16
A. APPROXIMATIONS
Consider these situations.
1 $1600 is to be shared between seven people and each share deposited in a bank account.
Now, $1600 7 = $228.571 428
However it is not possible to deposit this exact amount in a bank account. Since the smallest unit of money
we can deposit is a cent, and each share is closer to $228.57 than to $228.58, then we would deposit
$228.57 into each persons account.
2 A piece of timber 2600 mm long has to be cut into three equal lengths.
Now, 2600 mm 3 = 866.666 6 mm
However it is not possible to cut a piece of timber
exactly this long. Since the smallest unit of
measurement we are likely to have on a tape
measure is a millimetre, and this length is closer
to 867 mm than 866 mm, then we could measure
and cut each piece of timber to be 867 mm.
In both of these examples we have approximated the
result of a calculation to make the answer meaningful.
This process of
approximating
numbers is also
called rounding off.
129
130
Example 1
Write down the value of the digit 7 in each of the following numbers.
a 273.6
b 1407.2
86.457
d 2764
a 7 tens or 7 10 (= 70)
b 7 units or 7 1 (= 7)
1
7
c 7 thousandths or 7  (=  )
1000
1000
Exercise 5A
1
Write down the value of the digit 6 in each of the following numbers.
a 465.9
b 2346.1
c 3698
e 16 382 000
f 12.836
g 5.698
i 20 600
j 0.0006
d 6284
h 30.562
Example 2
Round off to the nearest thousand:
a 7390
b 24 830
c 46 500
a Round off 7390 to the nearest thousand means: is 7390 closer to 7000 or 8000?
6000
7000
8000
7390
By drawing part of a number line showing thousands and using the digit in the
hundreds column (3) to find the approximate position of 7390, we can see that it
is closer to 7000, that is 7390 7000, to the nearest thousand.
Note that the digit to the right of the thousands column (3) determines to which
number it is closer.
b Round off 24 830 to the nearest thousand means: is 24 830 closer to 24 000 or
25 000?
23 000
24 000
25 000
24 830
By drawing part of a number line showing thousands and using the digit in the
hundreds column (8) to find the approximate position of 24 830, we can see that it
is closer to 25 000, that is 24 830 25 000, to the nearest thousand.
Note that the digit to the right of the thousands column (8) determines to which
number it is closer.
46 000
By convention means
everyone agrees to do
it this way.
47 000
46 500
By drawing part of a number line showing thousands and
using the digit in the hundreds column (5) to find the
position of 46 500, we know that it is exactly in the middle
of 46 000 and 47 000. By convention, we round off to 47 000,
that is 46 500 47 000, to the nearest thousand.
To round off a number to the nearest thousand, locate the digit in the thousands column.
If the digit to the right of the thousands column is smaller than 5, retain the thousands digit and
replace the digits to the right of it by zeros.
If the digit to the right of the thousands column is bigger than 5, increase the thousands digit by one
and replace the digits to the right of it by zeros. This is called rounding up.
By convention, if the digit to the right of the thousands column is equal to 5, round up.
Example 3
b 23 741
2520
131
132
c 524 100
h 6287
d 8299
i 2999
e 18 560
j 400 721
Example 4
Round off:
a 2380 to the nearest hundred
c 28.5 to the nearest whole number
c 20 421
h 9628
d 849
i 450
e 369
j 147
c 825
h 20 056
d 1056
i 409
e 73
j 1251
d 236.67
i 300.7
e 583.1
j 55.5
iv 1
d 8462.3
Example 5
Round off to the nearest 1000:
a 39 600
99 798
a Locate the digit in the thousands column (9). The digit to the right of it is 6, which
is bigger than 5. Hence we increase the thousands digit by one (increasing 39 to
40) and replace all the digits to the right by zeros.
39 600 40 000 to the nearest 1000
b Locate the digit in the thousands column (9). The digit to the right of it is 7, which
is bigger than 5. Hence we increase the thousands digit by one (increasing 99 to
100) and replace all the digits to the right by zeros.
99 698 100 000 to the nearest 1000
c 179 500
d 199 870
e 799 500
c 23 950
d 79 980
e 19 965
c 32 599
d 99
e 6999
1 decimal
place can be
abbreviated to
1 d.p.
Example 6
Round off 12.3815 to:
a 1 decimal place
c 3 decimal places
b 2 decimal places
133
134
10
11
c 3 d.p.
i 1 d.p.
c 0.8625
h 5.0437
ii 2 d.p.
iii 3 d.p.
d 0.1864
i 7.0069
e 18.5555
j 3.0002
Example 7
Round off:
a 2.497 correct to 2 decimal places
b 19.96 correct to 1 decimal place
a Locate the digit in the second column after the decimal point (9).
The digit to the right of it is 7, which is bigger than 5. Hence we
increase the 9 by one (increasing 49 to 50) and delete any digits
to the right of it.
2.497 2.50 to 2 d.p.
b Locate the digit in the first column after the decimal point (9). The digit to the
right of it is 6, which is bigger than 5. Hence we increase the 9 by one (increasing
199 to 200) and delete any digits to the right of it.
19.96 20.0 to 1 d.p.
12
Round off:
a 3.598 to 2 d.p.
e 0.996 to 2 d.p.
b 49.96 to 1 d.p.
f 4.8997 to 3 d.p.
c
g
2.6895 to 3 d.p.
99.98 to 1 d.p.
d 12.997 to 2 d.p.
h 69.995 to 2 d.p.
Example 8
When a number was rounded off to the nearest 10, the answer was 60.
a What is the smallest the number could have been?
b What is the largest the number could have been? Discuss.
c Write a mathematical statement that shows the range of possible numbers.
a 55 is halfway between 50 and 60 but by convention is rounded up to 60. This is the
smallest the number could have been.
b We cannot specify the largest number but we do know that it has to be less than 65
(because 65 would be rounded up to 70).
c The number could be equal to 55 or between 55 and 65. Mathematicians write this as:
55 number < 65.
13
When a number was rounded off to the nearest 10, the answer was 80.
a What is the smallest the number could have been?
b What is the largest the number could have been?
c Write a mathematical statement that shows the range of possible numbers.
14
When a number was rounded off to the nearest 100, the answer was 400.
a What is the smallest the number could have been?
b What is the largest the number could have been?
c Write a mathematical statement that shows the range of possible numbers.
15
16
Emily was measured to be 163 cm tall, to the nearest centimetre. Within what range of values
does her actual height lie?
17
The weight of a can of fruit was measured as 420 g, to the nearest 10 g. Within what range
does the actual weight of the can lie?
18
The time taken for Ken to complete the 100 m sprint at the athletics carnival was 12.4 s, to
the nearest tenth of a second. Within what range does his actual time lie?
B. SIGNIFICANT FIGURES
A method that combines the rounding off techniques of section A of this chapter involves the use of significant
figures.
The first significant figure in a number is the first digit that is not a zero (reading from left to right).
Example 1
Write down the first significant figure in each of the following numbers.
a 3790
b 4.0625
0.002 86
135
136
Exercise 5B
1
Write down the first significant figure in each of the following numbers.
a 2876
b 5 069 836
c 1.0035
d 0.0791
e 0.000 802
Significant figures
may be abbreviated
to s.f.
Example 2
Round off 63.75091 correct to:
a 1
d 4
b 2
c 3
e 5 significant figures.
d 4
d 0.5273
h 0.005 072
Example 3
Write correct to 3 significant figures:
a 249 700
b 629.51
0.001 896
d 6.998
a The third significant figure is the 9 in the 1000s column. We need to round off to
the nearest 1000.
249 700 250 000 to 3 s.f.
b The third significant figure is in the units column. We need to round off to the
nearest whole number.
629.51 630 to 3 s.f.
c The third significant figure is in the fifth place after the decimal point. We need to
round off to 5 decimal places.
0.001 896 0.001 90 to 3 s.f.
d The third significant figure is in the second place after the decimal point. We need
to round off to 2 decimal places.
6.998 7.00 to 3 s.f.
c 0.005 798
h 0.299 9
d 8.997
i 0.001 999
e 299 700
j 999 900
Example 4
When a number was rounded off to 2 significant figures, the answer was
a 430
b 3.7
i What is the smallest the number could have been?
ii What is the largest the number could have been?
iii Write a mathematical statement that shows the range of possible numbers.
a The second significant figure is in the tens column, hence the number has been
rounded off to the nearest 10.
i 425 is halfway between 420 and 430 but by convention is rounded up to 430.
This is the smallest the number could have been.
ii We cannot specify the largest number but we do know that it has to be less
than 435 (because 435 would be rounded up to 440).
iii The number could be equal to 425 or between 425 and 435. Mathematicians
write this as:
425 number < 435
137
138
b The second significant figure is in the first column after the decimal point, hence
the number has been rounded off to 1 decimal place.
i 3.65 is halfway between 3.6 and 3.7 but by convention is rounded up to 3.7.
This is the smallest the number could have been.
ii We cannot specify the largest number but we do know that it has to be less
than 3.75 (because 3.75 would be rounded up to 3.8).
iii The number could be equal to 3.65 or between 3.65 and 3.75. Mathematicians
write this as:
3.65 number < 3.75
When a number was rounded off to 2 significant figures the answer was:
a 560
b 8.2
c 48
d 0.72
e 37 000
f 0.084
i What is the smallest the number could have been?
ii What is the largest the number could have been?
iii Write a mathematical statement that shows the range of possible numbers.
When a number was rounded off to 3 significant figures the answer was:
a 483
b 3.86
c 14 500
d 0.128
e 56.9
f 3210
Write a mathematical statement that shows the range of possible numbers in each case.
For each of the following write a mathematical statement that shows the range of possible
numbers, given that when rounded to:
a 2 s.f. the answer is 300
b 2 s.f. the answer is 3000
c 3 s.f. the answer is 6000
d 3 s.f. the answer is 24 000
e 3 s.f. the answer is 500 000
f 2 s.f. the answer is 0.80
g 3 s.f. the answer is 0.400
Example 5
How many significant figures are there in each of the following numbers?
a 294
b 0.3
4.20
d 0.0017
e 56 000
a 3
b 1
c 3
d 2
e We are unable to tell precisely. 56 300 rounded to the nearest thousand 56 000;
55 970 rounded to the nearest hundred 56 000; 56 003 rounded to the nearest
ten 56 000; 55 999.6 rounded to the nearest whole number 56 000. So there
could be 2, 3, 4 or 5 s.f.
How many significant figures are there in each of the following numbers?
a 38
b 0.49
c 2896
d 0.075
f 1.800
g 0.0053
h 0.060
i 400
k 23 000
l 8 000 000
e 0.40
j 7000
The number of
significant figures
indicates the level of
accuracy of the
measurement.
Example 6
10
Working in groups, discuss the level of accuracy of the numbers in the following statements.
(You could consider the number of significant figures and how the numbers may have been
rounded.)
a There were 42 000 people at the concert.
b The profit made by the bank was $600 million.
c The radius of the Earth is 6400 km.
d The distance of Mars from the Sun is 229 000 000 km.
e Light travels at 300 000 km/h.
f The length of the influenza virus is 0.000 26 mm.
139
140
a
b
c
d
a
b
c
d
10
It should be clear from the above questions that rounding numbers during a calculation often affects the
accuracy of the result. So never round off before the last step of a calculation.
11
The value of is 3.141 592 65 correct to 9 significant figures. Calculate and comment on the
accuracy of the following approximations for , i.e. to how many significant figures is the
approximation accurate?
22
 to 1, 2, 3, s.f. and compare with the value
a (Round off the value of 22
7
7
of to 1, 2, 3, s.f.)
355
b 113
553 2
c 
312
31
9.87
Example 1
Five metres of rope have to be cut into three equal lengths. Calculate the length
of each piece, rounding off to a reasonable level of accuracy.
5 m 3 = 1.6666 m
A reasonable level of accuracy for the result of this calculation could be correct to
4 significant figures or correct to 3 decimal places, as this would be equivalent to
correct to the nearest millimetre, i.e. 5 m 3 1.667 m.
Note that if our tape measure only showed centimetres, then rounding off to
3 significant figures or 2 decimal places (i.e. to the nearest centimetre) would
be more appropriate, i.e. 5 m 3 1.67 m.
Hence, several answers are possible, depending on the accuracy of our measuring
instrument.
141
142
12
Perform each of the following calculations, rounding off the answer to a reasonable level of
accuracy.
a 100 mm of cotton has to be cut into three equal pieces. Find the length of each piece.
b 100 cm of string has to be cut into three equal pieces. Find the length of each piece.
c 100 m of rope has to be cut into three equal pieces. Find the length of each piece.
d 2 m of rope has to be cut into three equal pieces. Find the length of each piece.
e A running track is 11 m wide. If the track is to be divided into 8 lanes, how wide should
each lane be?
f There are 2100 families in a country town and the total number of children is 4897. Find
the average number of children per family.
g A bank announced that its annual profit was $170 million. Calculate its average monthly
profit.
D. RECURRING DECIMALS
As a decimal
3
8
= 0.375 and
1
3
= 0.333 33
3
8
When converted to
a decimal, all
fractions either
terminate or recur.
0.3333 is written 0. 3
The dot above the 3 indicates that this digit recurs.
Example 1
Write the following recurring decimals using the dot notation.
a 0.4444
d 0.415 415 415
0. 4
b 0.4 1
b 0.411 11
e 0.415 341 534 153
0. 4 1
0. 4 1 5
0.414 141
e 0. 4 15 3
Exercise 5D
1
Example 2
Use your calculator to convert:
5
2
a b  to a decimal.
8
3
a By calculating 5 8 or using the fraction key
5
8
= 0.625.
b By calculating 2 3 or using the fraction key, the display could show 0.666666666
or 0.666666667, depending on the calculator used.
Both are approximations for the recurring decimal 0. 6 . In the first case the answer
has been truncated (because of the limitations of the calculator display) and, in the
second case, the calculator has automatically rounded up to the last decimal place,
2
i.e.  = 0. 6 .
3
7
8
5
9
1
6
2
11
5
e 1 12
1 23
11
18
22
33
1 13
22
11
24
Example 3
Convert the following decimals to fractions:
a 0.8
b 0.63
8
4
a 0.8 =  = 10
5
63
0.63 = 100
0.148
148
37
c 0.148 =  = 1000 250
d 0.08
e 0.256
143
144
Example 4
Convert 0. 4 to a fraction.
Let n = 0. 4
n = 0.4444
10n = 4.4444
9n = 4
then
by subtraction
4
n = 9
hence
4
0. 4 = 9
i.e.
Multiplying by 10
moves the decimal
point one place to
the right.
0. 2
0. 3
0. 5
0. 8
0. 7
0. 9 8
Example 5
Convert 0. 5 7 to a fraction.
then
by subtraction
hence
i.e.
Multiplying by 100
makes the decimal
parts the same.
n = 0.575757
100n = 57.575757
99n = 57
57 19
n =  = 99 33
19
0. 5 7 = 33
0. 6 3
0. 6 1 5
Example 6
Convert 0.3 5 to a fraction.
Let n = 0.3 5
then
and
by subtraction
hence
i.e.
n
10n
100n
90n
=
=
=
=
0.35555
3.5555
35.5555
32
32 16
n =  = 90 45
16
0.3 5 = 45
We need to make
the decimal parts
the same before
we subtract.
d 0.1 6
0.0 9
0.04 9
Example 7
Convert 0.51 2 to a fraction.
Let n = 0.51 2
then
and
by subtraction
hence
i.e.
n
100n
1000n
900n
=
=
=
=
0.512222
51.2222
512.2222
461
461
n = 900
461
0.51 2 = 900
0.90 5
E. RATES
A rate is a comparison between different kinds of quantities. For instance, we could compare
distance travelled with the time taken to travel this distance (this well known rate is called
speed), mass of fertiliser with the area to be fertilised, cost of washing powder with the mass
bought, and so on.
145
146
Example 1
Farmer White spread 1500 kg of fertiliser over 1200 m2 of a field. Write the rate
of application of fertiliser in simplified form.
We are required to find the amount of fertiliser per (one) square metre of area.
1500 kg
1500 kg per 1200 m2 =  21200 m
kg
kg
 is usually written
2
= 1.25 2m
2
m
kg/m .
2
= 1.25 kg/m
Exercise 5E
1
a
b
c
d
e
Julie paid $8.60 for a 2.5 kg packet of washing powder. Find the cost per kilogram.
Ben was paid $100.48 for 8 hours of work. Calculate his rate of pay (per hour).
Kylie typed 660 words in 12 min. How many words per minute can she type?
On a journey of 882 km a car used 84 L of petrol. Express the petrol consumption in km/L.
A truck travelled 585 km in 6 12 h. Calculate the average speed of the truck.
Example 2
Convert a rate of:
a 83 cents/metre to cents/centimetre
b $8.70/hour to
i cents/hour
a 83 c/m
83 c
=  1 m
83 c
=  100 cm
c
= 0.83 cm
or 0.83 cents/centimetre
ii cents/minute
b i $8.70/h = $ 8.70
1h
870 c
=   or 870 cents/hour
1 h
870 c
ii
=  60 min
c
= 14.5  or 14.5 cents/minute
min
Example 3
Convert 12 tonnes/hectare to grams/square metre.
Write the rate as a
fraction then convert.
12 t
12 t/ha = 1 ha
12 1000 1000 g
=  210000
m
= 1200 g/m2
2
Convert:
a 91 cents/m to cents/cm
c 84 L/h to L/min
e 9% p.a. to % per quarter
g $50.40/h to cents/min
i 6.5 t/ha to g/m2
k $36/L to c/mL
b
d
f
h
j
l
Convert 72 km/h to
km/min
ii m/min
iii m/s
km/min
ii m/min
iii m/s
Convert 60 km/h to
km/min
ii m/min
iii m/s
A 600 litre fish tank was filled in 2 hours. Calculate the rate of flow of water into the tank in:
i L/h
ii L/min
iii mL/s
Example 4
Convert:
a 5 m/s to km/h
b 12 g/m2 to kg/ha
a 5 m/s = 5 60 m/min
= 5 60 60 m/h
5 60 60
=  km/h
1000
= 120 kg/ha
= 18 km/h
Convert:
a 8 m/s to km/h
d 15 g/m2 to kg/ha
g 0.5 c/g to $/kg
j 0.8 g/mL to kg/L
b 20 m/s to km/h
e 8 g/m2 to kg/ha
h 12 c/min to $/h
c
f
I
35 m/s to km/h
25 g/m2 to kg/ha
2 mL/s to L/h
147
148
A car uses 125 L of petrol to travel a distance of 1000 km. Calculate the rate of petrol
consumption in:
i L/km
ii L/100 km
iii mL/km
10
11
12
13
14
15
A telecommunications company quotes its rate for mobile phone calls as 15c/call plus
8.5c/30 s (or part thereof).
1 gram = 1000
a Convert the time rate to c/min.
milligrams
b What is the total cost of a 3minute phone call?
c Use the answer to part b to calculate the average cost per minute
of a 3minute phone call.
d How much would it cost to make a call lasting 5 min and 10 s?
e JooMee decides that when she rings her friends she cannot
afford to spend more than $1 per phone call. What is the
maximum time she can spend talking to a friend?
16
Slopon UV protection cream contains 72 g/L of the chemical titanide. Express this
concentration in:
i g/mL
ii mg/mL
iii mg/10 mL
noncalculator activities
Round off:
a 34 671 to the nearest thousand
c 15.187 to the nearest whole number
e 7.6351 to 3 significant figures
How many significant figures are there in each of the following numbers?
a 2.34
b 0.0087
c 40 000
Convert 0. 3 7 to a fraction.
Convert:
a 36 km/h to m/s
c 0.566 66
3
8
d 0.576 666
4
9
Language in Mathematics
1
D 7 hundredths
Explain the difference between the measurements 9 seconds and 9.0 seconds.
Write in your own words the meanings of: recurring, convert, retain, truncate, convention.
149
150
Three of the words in the following list are spelt incorrectly. Find these words and write the
correct spelling:
significent, repeating, deleet, figgers, accuracy.
How many words of three or more letters can you make from the word APPROXIMATION.
(No proper names or plurals allowed.)
Glossary
accuracy
affect
approximate
calculation
convention
convert
decimal
delete
digit
effect
equivalent
figure
fraction
identify
product
rate
recurring
repeating
retain
round off
significant
sum
terminate
truncate
3
C 10
C 23 000
notation
3
D 100
D 24 000
D 8000
Which of the following numbers are not equal to 36.5, when rounded off correct to
1 decimal place?
A 36.48
B 36.54
C 36.55
D 36.50
When a number is rounded off to the nearest 10 the answer is 70. The smallest the number
could be is:
A 69.99
B 69
C 65.01
D 65
The mass of a soup can was given as 380 g to the nearest 10 g. The actual mass of the can
lies in the range:
A 370 mass < 390 g
B 370 < mass < 390 g
C 375 mass < 385 g
D 375 < mass < 385 g
D 4
Which of the following numbers are not equal to 4600 when rounded off to 2 significant
figures?
A 4639
B 4608
C 4550
D 4650
10
C 4.59
12
13
14
16
B 11n = 63
D 0.034
C 0.064 44
C 1.8
D 1. 7
C 99n = 63
D 90n = 63
C 13 kg/m2
D 130 kg/m2
To convert 0. 6 3 to a fraction:
Step 1
Let
n = 0.636363
Step 2
then
100n = 63.636363
Step 3
63
7
Step 4
hence
n =  = 99 11
The missing Step 3 is:
A 7n = 63
15
D 4.60
11
D 180 km/h
If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
Section
151
16
710
11
1214
15, 16
152
REVIEW SET 5A
1
Write down the value of the digit 5 in each of the following numbers.
a 253.6
b 1405.2
c 86.457
d 2564
Round off:
a 2470 to the nearest hundred
b 2 decimal places
c 3 decimal places
Round off:
When a number was rounded off to the nearest 10, the answer was 40.
a What is the smallest the number could have been?
b What is the largest the number could have been? Discuss.
c Write a mathematical statement that shows the range of possible numbers.
Write down the first significant figure in each of the following numbers.
a 3790
10
b 2
c 3
d 4
b 0.6
c 8.20
0.0032
b 0.422 22
11
12
13
e 5 significant figures
How many significant figures are there in each of the following numbers?
a 795
c 0.002 86
b 4.0625
Convert to a fraction:
0.73
a 0. 4
c 0.424 242
3
8
c 0.138
b 0. 4 1
b 1 23
e 28 000
14
15
REVIEW SET 5B
1
Write down the value of the digit 6 in each of the following numbers.
a
253.6
1607.2
83.456
2564
Round off:
a
b 2 decimal places
c 3 decimal places
Round off:
Susan was measured to be 164 cm tall, to the nearest centimetre. Within what range of values
does her actual height lie?
Write down the first significant figure in each of the following numbers.
a 24 560
b 15.0715
10
11
0.005 09
b 539.53
c 0.002 397
d 1.998
How many significant figures are there in each of the following numbers?
a 37
b 1.3
c 17.90
0.0008
e 4000
0.3333
b 0.366 66
c 0.282 828
3
16
b 1 79
153
154
12
0.3
13
Convert to a fraction: a 0. 8
14
15
0.81
c 0.267
b
km/min
0. 4 9
ii m/min
iii m/s
REVIEW SET 5C
1
Write down the value of the digit 8 in each of the following numbers.
a
318.6
b 36.8
c 23.487
Round off:
a 13 827 to the nearest hundred
b 2 decimal places
c 3 decimal places
Round off:
Write down the first significant figure in each of the following numbers.
a
3790
b 4.0625
c 0.002 86
8567
b 2
c 3
d 4
e 5 significant figures
When a number was rounded off to 2 significant figures the answer was 430.
a What is the smallest the number could have been?
b What is the largest the number could have been? Discuss.
c Write a mathematical statement that shows the range of possible numbers.
How many significant figures are there in each of the following numbers?
a 795
b 0.6
8.20
d 0.0032
28 000
9
10
b 0.377 77
c 0.929 292
e 0.423 333
11
12
13
Convert to a fraction:
14
15
0.2
0. 8
11
40
b 1 11
12
0.58
0.125
b 0. 6 3 5
REVIEW SET 5D
1
Write down the value of the digit 3 in each of the following numbers.
a 12.03
b 3568
c 93.257
d 530.8
Round off:
a 78 463 to the nearest hundred
b 2 decimal places
Round off:
The weight of a can of tomatoes was measured as 240 g, to the nearest 10 g. Within what
range does the actual weight of the can lie?
Write down the first significant figure in each of the following numbers.
a 135 700
c 3 decimal places
b 0.0063
c 5.0084
67.835
c 0.050 67
d 2.995
155
156
How many significant figures are there in each of the following numbers?
a
9
10
462
0.5
3.60
d 0.000 93
600
b 0.455 55
0.858 585
d 0.726 666
17
80
12
0.8
13
Convert to a fraction:
a 0. 6
14
15
km/min
5
b 1 12
b 0.96
b 0.3 9
ii m/min
iii m/s
c 0.545
Chapter 6
Perimeter and Area
This chapter deals with the use of formulas to find the area of
quadrilaterals, and the perimeter and area of composite figures.
At the end of this chapter you should be able to:
develop and use formulas to find the area of quadrilaterals
calculate the area and perimeter of composite figures including quadrants and semicircles
calculate the perimeter and area of sectors and composite figures involving sectors.
158
Diagnostic Test
The formula A =
1
2
B trapezium
C rhombus
D all of these
A 30.38 cm2
B 15.19 cm2
C 11.1 cm2
D 22.2 cm2
5.3 cm
9.8 cm
6 cm
20 cm
>
A
AC = 20 cm
2.2 cm
4 cm
>
6
A 16.61 cm
B 33.22 cm2
C 57.134 cm2
D 114.268 cm2
A 480 cm2
B 200 cm2
C 300 cm2
D 100 cm2
3.8 cm
A 9.3 m
B 21.5 m
C 13.4 m
D 4.08 m
8.5 cm
B 24.6 cm
D 16.15 cm2
A 32.3 cm
C 12.3 cm
4
7.1 m
1.8 m
4.9 cm
6.2 cm
A 19.2 m
B 20.6 m
C 23.5 m
D 12.78 m
B 7.96 m
C 12.5 m
D 157 m
10
13
A 3.76 cm
B 7.5 cm
B 23.7 cm
C 15 cm
D 30 cm
C 440 cm
55
D 25.8 cm
8 cm
8.2 cm
14
5.8 cm
3.4 cm
C 59.6 cm2
11
A 161.7 cm2
B 59.12 cm2
C 36 cm2
D 34.8 cm2
75
D 1350 cm2
18 cm
10.1 m
4.8 cm
3m
2
A 248.1 m
B 62 m
D 46.8 m2
C 88.2 m
12
25o
1.2 m
15 m
15
16
28 m
A 2.6 t
B 1.2 t
C 250 kg
D 966 kg
B 9.1 m
C 12.7 m
D 9.7 m
B 4.25 m2
C 1.96 m2
D 10.36 m2
If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
Section
15
69
10, 11
12
1316
159
160
Linear conversions
1 km = 1000 m
1 m = 100 cm
1 cm = 10 mm
Example 1
Convert:
a 50 mm to cm
b 8.6 km to m
50 mm
50
=  cm
10
= 5 cm
8.6 km
8.6 1000 m
= 8600 m
Area conversions
When converting area units, which are square units, the linear conversion must be squared.
Since 10 mm = 1 cm
then 102 mm2 = 12 cm2
Example 2
Convert:
a 25 cm2 to mm2
a
b 2000 cm2 to m2
1 cm = 10 mm
1 cm2 = 102 mm2
1 cm2 = 100 mm2
25 cm2 = 2500 mm2
2
100 cm = 1 m
1002 cm2 = 12 m2
10 000 cm2 = 1 m2
2000 cm2 = 0.2 m2
(dividing both sides by 5)
Exercise 6A
1
Convert:
a 21 cm to m
d 4 cm to mm
g 200 mm to cm
j 8.3 cm to mm
m 0.05 km to cm
b
e
h
k
n
180 mm to cm
2.3 m to cm
280 cm to m
6.3 km to m
3.2 m to mm
c
f
i
l
o
3500 m to km
1.8 km to m
5.2 m to cm
0.03 m to cm
83 000 cm to km
Convert:
a 4 cm2 to mm2
d 32 km2 to m2
g 5 ha to m2
b 31 m2 to cm2
e 40 000 cm2 to m2
h 7.3 ha to m2
c
f
i
5.3 m2 to mm2
7 000 000 mm2 to m2
42 000 m2 to ha
When converting
square units,
square the
conversion first.
Convert:
a 15 cm2 to mm2
c 32 000 cm2 to m2
e 235 m2 to cm2
g 7.82 m2 to ha
i 23 km2 to ha
k 5.2 m2 to cm2
b
d
f
h
j
l
15 ha to m2
3280 mm2 to cm2
36.5 ha to m2
3 654 200 cm2 to ha
0.004 2 ha to cm2
0.002 m2 to mm2
161
162
Example 3
The perimeter of a
circle is called the
circumference.
8.2 cm
Radius is
half the
diameter.
0.4 km
5.1 cm
d
12.6 cm
48 cm
Example 4
Find the area of this rectangle.
A = lb
= 3.4 6.8 cm2
= 23.12 cm2
3.4 cm
6.8 cm
12 m
16 cm
8 cm
12 m
15 m
4 cm
5 cm
Example 5
Find the area of each triangle.
a
b
3m
8m
5m
2.5 cm
6 cm
12 m
a A = 12 bh
b A = 12 bh
c A = 12 bh
1
2
12 5 m2
= 30 m2
8 3 m2
1
2
= 12 m2
1
2
2.5 6 cm2
= 7.5 cm2
7m
4 cm
4m
40 m
8 cm
2 cm
9 cm
32 m
Example 6
Find the area of the parallelogram.
A = bh
= 10 5 cm2
= 50 cm2
5 cm
10 cm
163
164
c
6 cm
3 cm
10 cm
6 cm
12 cm
8 cm
Example 7
Find the area of these circles correct to 1 decimal place.
a
b
12 cm
5 cm
a Area
= r2
= 5 5 cm2
= 25 cm2
78.5 cm2
b Area
= r2
= 6 6 m2
= 36 m2
113.1 m2
2
6.
cm
8.5 cm
15.3 m
1.26
km
Investigation 1
WM: Applying Strategies
Rhombus
Use this diagram to find an expression for the area of a rhombus with diagonals x and y units
in length.
y
y
2
y
2
Kite
The formula for the area of a kite is the same as that of a rhombus. Compare this derivation
with yours from question 1.
1
2
y cm
x cm
Area =
1
2
1
4
1
2
( 12
y) x +
1
2
( 12
y) x
1
2
y cm
xy + xy
B. AREAx cmOF SPECIAL =QUADRILATERALS
1
4
= xy
Rhombus
Trapezium
3
Use these diagrams to find an expression for the area of a trapezium.
a
cu
165
166
Rhombus
y
Area =
1
2
1
2
Kite
y cm
Area
A=
1
2
xy
x cm
Trapezium
a
A = 12 ah + 12 bh
A = 12 h (a + b)
height
a+b
or A =  h
2
b
Note the height is the perpendicular distance between the two parallel sides. Sometimes it is a side but usually
it is not.
Example 1
Find the area of the rhombus with diagonals of length 5 cm and 7 cm.
Area = 12 xy
=
1
2
5 7 cm2
= 17.5 cm2
Exercise 6B
1
c
4.3 cm
6.3 m
4 mm
12 mm
7.2 cm
9.5 m
Example 2
Find the area of this kite.
Area = 12 xy
=
1
2
5 cm
58
8 cm
= 20 cm2
4.8 m
6 cm
15 cm
9 cm
11.6 m
4.3 cm
Example 3
Find the area of this trapezium.
First identify the height then use the formula.
Area = 12 h(a + b)
=
1
2
4(11 + 16)
= 54 m2
11 m
4m
16 m
167
168
The height is
perpendicular
to the parallel
sides.
6m
4m
6 cm
3 cm
7 cm
10 m
16 cm
7 cm
35 mm
50 mm
12 m
28 mm
Example 4
Find the area of this quadrilateral.
Q
3 cm
1
2
14 3 +
1
2
14 5
5 cm
14 cm
B
= 56 cm2
P
4 cm
P
4 cm
PQ = 8 cm
RS = 13 m
11 m
8 cm
8 mm
12 cm
8m
6m
15 mm
7m
TU = 28 m
Q
1 cm
5 cm
3 km
11.3 m
18 m
15 km
7.5 m
8 km
8.5 m
4.1 m
Example 1
Find the perimeter of these figures.
a
b
6 cm
40 m
a Perimeter
Divide by 2
because it is a
= (2r 2) + 6
semicircle.
=3+6
= 3 + 6
15.4 cm (1 d.p.)
b Perimeter
= circumference of circle + 2(length of straight side)
= 40 + 2 40
= 40 + 80
205.7 m
Two semicircles
make a circle.
169
170
Exercise 6C
1
20 m
20 m
20 m
18 m
Example 2
A quarter of
a circle, so
divide by 4.
8 cm
Perimeter
= (2r 4) + 2 8
= (2 8 4) + 2 8
= 28.6 (1 d.p.)
12 m
Perimeter
= (2r 4) + 4 12
= (2 12 4) + 4 12
= 66.8 (1 d.p.)
d
20 cm
18 mm
10 cm
6 cm
10 m
Find the perimeter of the following (giving your answer correct to 4 significant figures).
a
b
c
4 cm
6 cm
4m
B
8m
Find the perimeter correct to 2 decimal places (all measurements are in cm).
a
b
c
10
11
15
5
10 cm
20 cm
15 cm
8
2m
4m
3m
171
172
Example 3
Izat ran around a circular track. He ran 500 m. Find the radius of the track.
C = 2r
r
500
2r
 = 2
2
500
r = (2 )
= 79.6 cm (to 1 d.p.)
10
A circular plate has circumference 50 cm. Find the radius correct to 1 d.p.
11
Georgette wants a circular track with a circumference of 200 m. Find the radius of the track
correct to 1 d.p.
12
13
A bicycle wheel has diameter of 0.6 m. Through how many complete revolutions must the
wheel turn during a 100 km trip?
14
15
24 cm
10 cm
16
12 cm 3 cm
10 cm
D. COMPOSITE AREAS
Figures that cannot have their areas calculated using one formula are called composite areas.
The area of a composite figure can be calculated by dividing it into identifiable shapes, then adding or
subtracting the area of these shapes to find the total area.
Example 1
Find the shaded area.
The area is found by adding the area
of the rectangle and the triangle.
Total area = area of triangle + area of rectangle
1
=  14 3 + 8 14
2
= 133 cm2
11 cm
8 cm
14 cm
Example 2
Find the area of this shape.
18 cm
7 cm
8 cm
15 cm
8 cm
18 cm
7 cm
8 cm
15 cm
173
174
Exercise 6D
1
Find the area of each shape (correct to 2 d.p. where necessary). All angles are
right angles.
a
3 cm
c
2 cm
5 cm
15 cm
8 cm
8 cm
4 cm
16 cm
7 cm
5 cm
9 cm
6 cm
10 cm
f
7 cm
3 cm
10 cm
11 cm
9m
15 cm
13 cm
12 m
Example 3
Find the shaded area.
5 cm
2 cm
c
1m
3m
4 cm
10 m
8 cm
2m
4m
5m
17 m
7 cm
23 cm
27 cm
18 cm
8 cm 6 cm
10 cm
7 cm
11 cm
10 cm
PR = 5 cm, SQ = 7 cm
1 cm
4 cm
3 cm
100 m
5 cm
5 cm
9 cm
f
8 cm
8 cm
3 cm
11 cm
5 cm
17 cm
8 cm 8 cm
E. AREA APPLICATIONS
This section involves practical problems using area.
Exercise 6E
1
Calculate the cost of carpeting a rectangular room 4.8 m long and 7.3 m wide, if carpet costs
$72.95 a square metre.
175
176
8m
4.2 m
7.6 m
ro
3
10
ad
ain
Hobby
farm
850 m
620 m
1 ha = 10 000 m2
4m
2m
400 m
200 m
Example 1
A circle has the same area as a square with sides 10 cm. Find its radius.
r cm
10 cm
10 cm
A rectangle is 12 cm by 8 cm.
a Find the area of the rectangle.
b If the length of the rectangle is increased by 3 cm, find the width if the area remains the
same.
10
A rectangle is 12 cm by 8 cm. If the length of the rectangle is increased by 4 cm, how must
the breadth be varied so that the area remains the same?
11
A 10 cm by 16 cm rectangle has the same perimeter as a square. Which figure has the greater
area? By how much?
12
177
178
Example 1
Calculate the perimeter of this sector.
30
The sector is  of a circle.
360
30
The curved length =  2 r
360
30
=  2 8
360
= 4.189 cm
Perimeter = 4.189 + 8 + 8
= 20.2 cm (to 1 d.p.)
30
8 cm
Always divide
the angle by
360.
Exercise 6F
1
4 cm
5 cm
12 cm
120
60
20
Calculate the curved length and hence the perimeter of the sectors in question 1.
Example 2
Calculate the area of this sector.
50
The sector is  of a circle.
360
50
Area =  r2
360
50
=  (12.3)2
360
= 66.0 cm2 (to 1 d.p.)
50
12.3 cm
b
5m
320
100
200
57 m
115 m
10
15.7 m
Example 3
Calculate the perimeter of this figure.
4m
70
Curved length =  2 4
360
= 4.887 m
70
1.5 m
b
8m
5m
40
50
5.29 m
5.1 m
1.8 m
8.4 m
d
53 cm
3.7 cm
70
18 cm
50 cm
37
0.65 m
179
180
Example 4
Calculate the area of this figure.
55
Area =  r2 + lb
360
55
Area =  (135)2 + 81 135
360
55
81 cm
135 cm
24 cm
30
3m
50
50
8m
40
Language in Mathematics
a
b
c
d
e
f
181
182
e k __ t __
g tr __ p __ z __ __ m
f s __ ct __ r
h tr __ __ ngl __
Glossary
area
diameter
perimeter
rhombus
triangle
circle
formula
quadrant
sector
circumference
kite
quadrilateral
semicircle
B trapezium
C rhombus
composite figure
parallelogram
radius
trapezium
5.1 cm
3.8 cm
2.9 cm
0.9 m
1.3 m
D all of these
8.7 cm
12.3 cm
5
10 m
4m
4m
20 m
7
1.6 m
2.8 m
Tiarne has 35 m of garden edging. The radius of the circular garden she can enclose with
this edging is:
A 11.1 m
B 5.6 m
C 220 m
D 3848 m
The perimeter of a rhombus with diagonals 5.2 cm and 8.6 cm is closest to:
A 3.4 cm
B 22.36 cm
C 5 cm
D 20.1 cm
10
11
4.8 cm
183
1.5 cm
1.4 m
184
12
35 m
50 m
13
105
12 cm
14
57
3.9 cm
16
4.2 m
38
1.8 m
If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
Section
15
69
10, 11
12
1316
REVIEW SET 6A
1
b 15 000 m2 = ___ ha
3.5 km = ___ m
d
8 cm
4 cm
3m
4 cm
3 cm
10 cm
18 m
7m
a A rectangular field 110 m by 75 m is to be fenced. Find the total length of fencing required.
b Find the perimeter of a rightangled triangle with hypotenuse length 26 cm and one other
side length 10 cm.
8 cm
5 cm
24 cm
5 cm
A satellite has a circular orbit 700 km above the surface of the Earth. If the radius of the
Earth is 6400 km, how far does the satellite travel in one orbit?
10 m
14 cm
5m
7 cm
5 cm
15 cm
6m
40
8 cm
8 cm
3.2 m
4.8 m
10 cm
15 cm
185
186
REVIEW SET 6B
1
4300 cm = ___ m
d
25 m
5 cm
7 cm
10 cm
15 m
12 cm
12 cm
12 m
12 cm
6 cm
15 cm
A machine makes circular plates with circumference 60 cm. Find the diameter of the plate
correct to 1 decimal place.
7.3 cm
22.4 cm
80
4.2 cm
5.3 m
6.5 cm
18.3 cm
15 m
b
12 cm
5 cm
REVIEW SET 6C
1
7 cm
11 cm
15 cm
8 cm
5 cm
trapezium
17 cm
3 cm
18 cm
7 cm
6 cm
25 cm
9 cm
Farmer Smith has a rectangular paddock that is 408 m wide and 673 m in length.
Calculate the cost of fencing the paddock if fencing costs $8.53 per m.
1.2 m
64 cm
52 cm
2.3 m
4.3 m
8.2 m
6m
187
188
REVIEW SET 6D
1
12 cm
15 cm
10 cm
24 cm
6 cm
12 cm
c parallelogram
29 cm
16 cm
17 cm
35 cm
33 cm
Crystal walks around her block three times each morning. If the block is 450 m by 384 m,
calculate the distance that she walks each morning. Express your answer in kilometres.
3.4 m
2.3 m
2.7 m
1.6 m
b
2.1 m
8.3 m
2.1 m
7.2 cm
4.5 m
Chapter 7
Coordinate Geometry
This chapter deals with operations on the number plane.
After completing this chapter you should be able to:
determine the midpoint of an interval from a diagram
use Pythagoras rule to find the length of a line interval drawn between two points
find the gradient of an interval using a diagram
determine whether a line has positive or negative slope
find the gradient of a line using a rightangled triangle
draw graphs of horizontal and vertical lines
graph a variety of linear relationships
graph simple nonlinear relationships.
194
Diagnostic Test
1
B (6, 3)
C (7, 3)
D (6, 6)
B (3, 6)
C (6, 3)
D (3, 3)
6
A 7
7
B 6
6
C 7
7
D 6
(4 12
B (7, 4)
D (3 12 , 2)
, 2)
10
11
B (2, 4)
C (6, 6)
D (6, 3)
4 y
89
181
39
13
3
2
1
0
5 4 3 2 1 0 1
1
2
63
225
21
5
6
7
8
B 3
4
C 7
7
D 4
x
4 5
A +3
2 3
A +2
M
B 2
1
C + 2
1
D 2
12
B
y
4 y
3
5
4
1
0
5 4 3 2 1 0 1
13
2 3
A y=3
B x=3
C y = 3x
D x = 3y
x
4 5
1
0
4 3 2 1 0 1
1
2
x
4
2 3
4
5
6
y
C
A
6
5
7
6
5
4
3
1
0
4 3 2 1 0 1
1
2
2
1
0
4 3 2 1 0 1
1
2
2 3
x
4
2 3
x
4
3
4
5
6
7
8
D
y
1
0
4 3 2 1 0 1
1
2
3
2 3
x
4
195
196
14
15
B y = 3x 3
C y = 4x + 14
D y = 4x 11
3
16
y
9 y
8
7
y
9
8
6
5
7
6
5
3
2
1
0
4 3 2 1 0 1
1
2
2 3
x
4
1
0
4 3 2 1 0 1
1
x
2 3 4
A y = 3x
B y = 2x
C y = x2
D y = x2 + 1
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
A y = 3x 1
B y = 3x + 1
C y = 4x 1
D y = 4x 1
If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
Section
14
5, 6
7, 8
911
12
1315
16
A. MIDPOINT
The midpoint of an interval is the point halfway
between the end points of the interval.
L
Midpoint
M
B
A
Example 1
Plot each pair of points, join them with a straight line and find the coordinates of
the midpoint.
a (3, 2) and (9, 2)
a
Midpoint
(3, 2)
(9, 2)
(5, 9)
b
Midpoint
(5, 1)
Exercise 7A
1
Plot the following pairs of points, join them with a horizontal line and find the coordinates of
the midpoint.
a (1, 4) and (9, 4)
b (2, 3) and (12, 3)
c (3, 6) and (7, 6)
Plot the following pairs of points, join them with a vertical line and find the coordinates of the
midpoint.
a (2, 1) and (2, 11)
b (5, 3) and (5, 7)
c (3, 4) and (3, 8)
197
198
Example 2
Plot each pair of points, join them and find the midpoint.
a (5, 2) and (8, 2)
a
5
4
3
5 + 6 12 = 1 12
2
1
0
5 4 3 2 1 0 1
1
2
(5, 2)
3
x
2 3
5 6
7 8
(8, 2)
4
5
y
7
(1, 7)
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3
1
2
x
4
5 + 6 = 1
or 7 6 = 1
the midpoint is (1, 1)
3
4
5
(1, 5)
Plot the following pairs of points and find the coordinates of the midpoint of these horizontal
and vertical line intervals.
a (1, 2) and (1, 4)
b (2, 1) and (2, 5)
c (3, 1) and (3, 3)
d (5, 1) and (3, 1)
e (5, 2) and (3, 2)
f (4, 3) and (4, 5)
g (0, 0) and (0, 9)
h (0, 0) and (3, 0)
i (7, 14) and (3, 14)
Example 3
Plot the following pairs of points and find the coordinates
of these oblique lines.
b (2, 5) and (3, 1)
An oblique line
is neither
vertical nor
horizontal.
y
9
(5, 9)
8
7
6
5
4
3
(1, 4)
(5, 4)
2
1
1
2 3
4 5 6
y
9
(5, 9)
8
7
(5, 6 12 )
6
5
4
x
1
2 3
6 7
y1
2 1
1
2 3 4
(3, 1)
(3, 3)
3
4
(2, 5)
5
6
( 1 , 5) (3, 5)
2
199
200
Plot the following pairs of points and find the coordinates of the midpoint of these oblique
lines.
a (5, 2) and (1, 4)
b (2, 0) and (0, 8)
c (3, 1) and (1, 5)
d (2, 5) and (2, 5)
e (2, 1) and (1, 3)
f (5, 7) and (3, 1)
g (2, 3) and (5, 1)
h (4, 4) and (1, 1)
i (2, 3) and (2, 3)
Example 4
Find the midpoint of the line segment joining A(5, 2) and B(7, 3).
Since the midpoint M is halfway
between A and B, then the
xcoordinate of M will be halfway
between the xcoordinates of A and B:
y
4
3
A(5, 2)
Midpoint
5+7
i.e. xcoordinate of M =  = 1
2
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
x
2
2
3
4
B(7, 3)
Find the midpoint of the line segment joining the following pairs of points.
a (5, 8) and (3, 3)
b (2, 2) and (6, 3)
c (0, 6) and (6, 0)
d (15, 27) and (17, 3)
e (51, 12) and (36, 11)
f (0, 0) and (7, 11)
Example 1
Plot the points (1, 4) and (8, 6) on the number plane. Find the distance between
the two points.
First draw in a rightangled triangle.
Find the length of each side:
the vertical side = 6 4 = 2 units
the horizontal side = 8 1 = 7 units
Use Pythagoras rule:
c2 = a2 + b2
= 22 + 72
c 2 = 53
c = 53
= 7.28 units (to 2 d.p.)
8 y
7
6
5
4
3
(8, 6)
(1, 4)
2
1
0
x
0 1
2 3
4 5
6 7 8
201
Exercise 7B
1
Plot the following pairs of points and find the distance between them.
a (2, 3) and (5, 7)
b (5, 3) and (8, 6)
c (8, 7) and (3, 3)
d (1, 9) and (7, 2)
e (2, 8) and (7, 5)
f (0, 0) and (5, 7)
Example 2
Find the distance between the points (5, 8) and (4, 2).
i
(8, 6)
8 y
7
6
5
4
3 (1, 4)
2
1
0
6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1
1
2
9
3
(5 + 4 = 9)
x
2 3
4 5
C. SLOPE (GRADIENT)
We use the words slope or gradient when talking about the degree of steepness of a line or a line segment.
Horizontal lines have no slope.
This line is very steep. It must therefore have a large slope.
horizontal run
202
Escalator
2m
8m
56 m
4m
10 m
slope =
=
4m
4
slope = 
2
8
1
4
slope = 56
4
10
2
5
= 14
Example 1
Find the slope of AB.
2
5
2
5
Exercise 7C
1
c
10 m
150
4m
3m
4m
1000 m
an uphill road
6m
a barn roof
a slipperydip
In each of the diagrams, draw a rightangled triangle and find the gradient using
vertical rise
gradient =  .
horizontal run
a
b
B
A
A
Example 2
Find the gradient of the line passing through C(4, 2) and D(3, 2).
Plot the points and draw the rightangled
triangle showing side lengths.
rise
gradient = run
=
4
7
Find the gradient of the line passing through each pair of points.
a C(5, 2) and D(4, 5)
b A(3, 1) and B(5, 2)
c C(5, 3) and P(7, 7)
d M(1, 5) and N(2, 6)
203
204
Investigation 1
WM: Communicating, Reflecting
1
N
Line
segment
xrun
yrise
Slope
AB
CD
H
F
M
I
K
GH
IJ
E
C
A
EF
KL
MN
Line 2
Line 3
Example 1
Determine the slope of AB
and CD in the following.
B
C
6
A
4
2 D
Determine
positive or
negative slope
first.
205
206
Exercise 7D
1
Find the gradient of each line. Determine positive or negative slope first.
a
T
C
X
Y
D
f
V
M
2
F
E
C
B
O
P
R
U
S
Q
R
Imagine you are walking across the countryside from O to W (i.e. from left to right).
a When are you going uphill?
b When are you going downhill?
c Where is the steepest positive slope? d Where is the steepest negative slope?
e Where is the slope 0?
f When is the slope not zero but least?
Example 2
a Plot the points A(3, 5) and B(7, 2).
b Find the gradient of the lines though A and B.
a
B
(7, 2)
10
Find the side lengths of the triangle. The slope is negative as it is downhill.
rise
Gradient = run
3
= 10
207
208
Plot the following pairs of points and determine the gradient of the line passing through the
two points.
a A(4, 6) and B(7, 2)
b C(4, 1) and D(5, 3)
c P(1, 3) and Q(4, 1)
d R(0, 0) and S(5, 3)
e M(5, 3) and N(5, 2)
f S(3, 2) and T(4, 6)
Example 3
Find the gradient of this line.
y
4
3
2
1
x
2 1
2 3
2
3
First choose any two points on the line and draw in a rightangled triangle.
The slope is positive uphill.
rise
Gradient = run
6
= + 5
By choosing two points on each line, find the gradient of these straight lines.
a
b
Example 4
Find the gradient of the given line.
b
3
209
210
Find the slope of each of these graphs. Be careful as the scales are not the same.
a
Investigation 2
WM: Reasoning, Communicating
Line segment
xrun
yrise
yrise
xrun
BC
1
2
DE
AC
BE
AE
AF
2
State, in sentence form, any conclusions drawn from the graph and table.
Investigation 3
WM: Reflecting, Communicating
Form a rightangled triangle and write the lengths of the horizontal and vertical lines.
Calculate the angle equal to the slope of the line with the xaxis.
10
Calculate the angle for the gradient of the join of the points in Exercise 12D Question 5.
11
211
212
Example 1
Graph these lines:
a x=3
a x=3
b y = 2
b y = 2
Exercise 7E
Graph these horizontal and vertical lines.
a y=3
b x=1
e x=5
f y=8
c x = 2
g y = 3
d y = 4
h x=7
213
214
In fact, if we imagine ordered pairs where the xvalues are the complete set of real numbers, we would obtain
the complete line as in Figure 3.
Example 1
Draw the graph of the lines with these equations.
a y=x+2
b y = 2x
c y= x1
When you choose values for the table you can choose any x value you like.
a y=x+2
x
b y = 2x
x
c y=
1
2
x1
2 12
1 12
12
1
2
Note: When graphing the lines shown above, the line is extended past the plotted points with an arrow on each
end to show that it continues in both directions. Write the equation on the line.
Exercise 7F
In each of the following, copy and complete the table of ordered pairs.
a y=x
x
b y=x2
1
y
d y=5x
c y = x
x
e y = 2x + 1
x
f
1
y = 12 x
x
g y = 8 2x
x
h y = 1 3x
1
Copy and complete the following tables using the rule provided.
ii Plot each set of ordered pairs on separate axes and draw the straight line
through the points.
215
216
a y=x+1
x
y=x+3
c y = x 1
x
y=4x
d
2
y
e y = 2x 2
x
y = 3 2x
f
1
Example 2
By using this table of values draw graphs of:
x
x+y=7
When x = 3
3 + y = 7
y =7+3
y = 10
x+y=7
xy=3
10
When x = 0
0+y=7
y =7
When x = 3
3+y=7
y =73
=4
b xy=3
When x = 3
3 y = 3
y = 3 + 3
y = 6
y = 6
When x = 0
xy =3
0y =3
y = 3
When x = 3
xy =3
3y=3
y = 0
y =0
y
a y=x4
b y=x+4
e y = 12 x
f
j
xy=8
m 3y 2x = 12
c y = 2x
d y=1x
2x + 3
y = 4
g x + y = 3
h x+y=1
xy=6
k y = 4 + x
3x
n y =  2
2
o 2x 3y = 6
p 5x + 3y = 30
x+y=8
Example 3
Does the point (2, 2) lie on the line y = 2x 1?
Draw a table of values for y = 2x 1.
x
Using the graphs you drew in question 4, answer the following questions.
a Does the point (1, 3) lie on the line y = x 4?
b Does the point (1, 2) lie on the line y = x + 4?
c Does the point (0, 2) lie on the line y = 2x?
217
218
When making up a table of values from rules, I unfortunately mix them up. Can you sort out
which graph belongs to which table of values?
a
A y = 2x
x
4
2
0
2
4
y
b
x
B y = x
c
C y=
1
2
d
D y=x+2
e
E y=2x
Example 4
You can check if a point lies on a line without drawing it. By substituting the
x value of the point (13, 25) and finding the corresponding y value, decide if
the point in brackets lies on the line y = 2x 1.
The x value is 13.
As y = 2x  1
y = 2 (13)  1
y = 25
Since the y values are equal the point lies on the line.
219
By substituting the xvalue of the point given in brackets and finding the corresponding
yvalue, decide if the point in brackets lies on the given line.
a y=4x
(2, 2)
b y=x+4
(1, 5)
c y = 2x
(3, 8)
d y=1x
(5, 4)
e y = 12 x
(3, 6)
f y = 2x + 3
(2, 1)
g y = 2x 3
(4, 11)
h y = 3 2x
(5, 4)
i y = 3x 2
(10, 28)
c 3x 2y = 6
Investigation 4
WM: Applying Strategies, Communicating
Graphics calculator
1
press
F3
a Draw these graphs on the same screen. (Use different colours if you can.)
y = 2x +1, y = 2x 1 and y = 2x + 3
b What observation can you make?
a Graph: y = 3x 1, y = 3x and y = 3x + 2.
b Comment on these graphs.
a Graph: y = x + 2, y = x and y = x 5.
b Comment on these graphs.
a Graph: y = 3x 1, y = 2x 1 and y = 4x 1.
b What comment can be made?
220
G. NONLINEAR RELATIONSHIPS
Straight lines are one type of relationship that can be graphed. There are many relationships that, when graphed,
are not straight lines. This section examines some of these.
Note that graphics calculators are an excellent tool in this section.
The parabola is the name given to the graph relating y to x 2. The simplest parabola is y = x 2.
The exponential graph has x as a power. An example is y = 2x.
Exercise 7G
1
12
1
2
By using a table with the same values as question 1, or a graphics calculator, graph on the
same number plane:
a y = x2, y = 2x2, y =
1 2
 x
2
1 2
 x
4
c y = x2, y = x2 + 1, y = x2 + 2, y = x2 1
3
Write some observations about each of the four groups of parabolas in question 2.
Example 1
Complete this table and sketch y = 3x.
x
y
0.04
0.1
0.3
27
a By using the table, or a graphics calculator, graph on the same number plane:
y = 2x, y = 3x and y = 4x.
x
y
b What do you notice about all three graphs?
Language in Mathematics
Pierre de Fermat
(16011665)
221
222
In 1631 Fermat received his degree in law, was later awarded the status of a minor nobleman, and
in 1648 became Kings Councillor,
Fermat was a man of great integrity who worked hard. He remained aloof from matters outside his
own jurisdiction, and pursued his great interest in mathematics. He worked with Pascal on the
theory of probability and the principles of permutations and combinations. He worked on a variety
of equations and curves and the Archimedean spiral. In 1657 he wrote Concerning the Comparison
of Curved and Straight Lines which was published during his lifetime.
Fermat died in 1665. He was acknowledged master of mathematics in France at the time, but his
fame would have been greater if he had published more of his work while he was alive. He became
known as the founder of the modem theory of numbers.
In mid1993, one of the most famous unsolved problems in mathematics, Fermats Last Theorem
was solved by Andrew Wiles of Princeton University (USA). Wiles made the final breakthrough after
350 years of searching by many famous mathematicians (both amateur and professional). Wiles is
a former student and collaborator of Australian Mathematician John Coates.
Fermats Last Theorem is a simple assertion which he wrote in the margin of a mathematics book,
but which he never proved, although he claimed he could. The theorem is:
The equation xn + yn = zn, when the exponent n is greater than 2, has no solutions in
positive integers.
Wiles work establishes a whole new mathematical theory, proposed and developed over the last
60 years by the finest mathematical minds of the 20th century.
1
Read the article about Pierre de Fermat and answer the questions.
a How many years was Fermat alive?
b List four of Fermats achievements
c How many publications did Fermat have in his lifetime?
d Why was Fermat not as famous as he could have been?
e What was the only article published by Fermat in his lifetime?
gr__d__ __nt
d d__st__nc__
__bl__q__ __
l__n__ __r
sl__p__
AWIERNGHCUJOIKOOPRLKDNGISENRTAASTXCEVFGBGENHOMJM
NHEWETRTRGFYDCAESNEDIFGNJKTOPELKRJHVNBAGFLCDJESO
WAISDNFGSHJTKMWNBOVCPASODFIGHNBGTVFSCDADENDSDSEH
WSAQASASLASEADNFGGHJTKLHIFADFMGBIHJDKMPDEOSCIFJN
MTYAAXINKEDSJSMWLZFOGHPJKE
Glossary
coordinates
horizontal
negative
positive
triangle
decimal place
interval
nonlinear
Pythagoras
vertex
endpoint
length
number plane
relationships
vertical
gradient
linear
oblique
rightangled triangle
halfway
midpoint
operations
slope
223
C (6, 10)
D (6, 0)
C (0, 6)
D (4, 6)
C (8, 4)
D (4, 2)
C ( 12 , 2)
D (5 12 , 5)
The distance between the points (5, 3) and (0, 10) is:
A
12
B 144
C
24
74
170
224
10
B 7
7
C 10
10
11
12
7
D 10
C 4
D 4
13
225
y
A
14
A y = 3x 1
B y = 3x + 1
C y = 4x 1
D y = 4x 1
15
By completing this table of values for each equation, the equation of this graph is:
C y = 4x + 14
D y = 4x 11
226
16
If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
14
5, 6
7, 8
911
12
1315
16
Section
REVIEW SET 7A
1
By drawing a diagram and plotting the points, find the midpoint of the join of:
a (4, 3) and (10, 3)
b (2, 5) and (2, 9)
c (4, 1) and (8, 6)
d (4, 3) and (10, 1)
Using Pythagoras theorem, find the distance between these pairs of points:
a (4, 3) and (10, 7)
b (2, 5) and (2, 3)
In this diagram draw a rightangled triangle and find the gradient of the line.
Find the gradient of the line passing through these pairs of points.
a (5, 2) and (6, 3)
b (3, 6) and (7, 1)
b y = 4
e x+y=5
c y=x+3
d y = 4 3x
xy=2
Does the point (4, 3) lie on the line y = 2x 11? Explain your answer.
REVIEW SET 7B
1
227
228
Complete this table for each relation and draw a sketch of each of the lines.
a y=x+4
b y = 2 3x
x
3
0
3
c x + y = 8
d xy=0
y
Does the point (1, 3) lie on the line x y = 4? Explain your answer.
REVIEW SET 7C
1
By drawing a diagram and plotting the points, find the midpoint of the join of:
a (5, 3) and (11, 3)
b (2, 1) and (2, 9)
c (3, 1) and (8, 4)
d (5, 3) and (10, 4)
Using Pythagoras theorem, find the distance between these pairs of points:
a (4, 3) and (9, 8)
b (2, 7) and (3, 3)
Find the gradient of the line passing through these pairs of points:
a (7, 2) and (6, 3)
b (3, 6) and (8, 3)
b x=2
d y = 5 4x
f x + y = 1
Does the point (2, 5) lie on the line y = 3x 1? Explain your answer.
REVIEW SET 7D
1
229
230
Complete this table for each relation and draw a sketch of each of the lines.
x
y
a y=3x
c x + y = 1
b y = 2x 3
d xy=6
Does the point (1, 5) lie on the line x + y = 4? Explain your answer.
x
y
Chapter 8
Polygons
This chapter deals with the development and application related to
the angle sum of interior and exterior angles for convex polygons.
After completing this chapter you should be able to:
find the interior angle sum of polygons
establish the result for the sum of the exterior angles of a polygon
apply angle sum results to find unknown angles.
232
Diagnostic Test
B octagon
C decagon
D hexagon
B 162
C 3600
D 18
B 450
C 112.5
D 90
B 156
C 360
D 2340
A 25
A 26
B 27
C 36
D 37
B 65
C 205
120
85
D 115
x
130
If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
Section
15
6, 7
Example 1
Find the sum of the interior angles of a heptagon.
A heptagon is a polygon with seven
sides. Choose one vertex and draw
all the diagonals from that vertex.
There are five triangles in the
heptagon. The angle sum of each
triangle is 180.
interior angle sum = 5 180
= 900
3
2
Exercise 8A
1
a Draw any pentagon (5sided polygon) and label one of its vertices A.
b Draw in the diagonals from A.
c Find the interior angle sum of the pentagon.
Polygon
Number
of sides
Number of
triangles
Angle sum of
polygon
quadrilateral
2 180 = 360
pentagon
hexagon
heptagon
octagon
5 180 = 900
nonagon
decagon
ngon
3
233
234
Example 2
A regular polygon
has all sides and
interior angles
equal.
Example 3
Find x giving a reason.
110
120
100
130
c
100
70
115
160
150
130
140
140
100
108
100
x
iii
120
138
150
150
147
x
97
130
160
155
170
110
118
130
x
110
Example 4
Find x, giving brief reasons.
132
c
x
140
120
x
130
125
100
160
80
70
f
2x 2x
150
110
2x
2x
120
120
2x
x
x
235
236
h
x
3x
6x 3x
2x
10
i
x
60
2x
3x
A pentagon has three right angles and two other equal angles. Find the size of each of the
two equal angles.
A hexagon has two right angles and all other angles equal. Find the size of each of the equal
angles.
Investigation 1
WM: Applying Strategies, Communicating
a Draw a hexagon.
c Find the sum of the exterior angles.
a Draw an octagon.
c Find the sum of the exterior angles.
6
j
d
i
f
c h
g
b
Example 1
a Find the size of each exterior angle of a regular decagon.
b Hence, find the size of each interior angle.
c Find the angle sum of a decagon.
A decagon
has 10 sides.
Exercise 8B
1
237
238
Example 2
a A regular polygon has exterior angles measuring 12. Find the number of sides.
b An irregular polygon has one exterior angle of 80 and all the others are 7.
How many sides in this polygon?
360
a Exterior angle = where n is the number of sides
n
360
n = angle size
360
= 12
= 30
The polygon has 30 sides.
b Since one angle is 80 the others add to
360 80 = 280
280
Then  = 40
7
The polygon has 41 sides.
Why not
40 sides?
A regular polygon has each exterior angle measuring 15. Find the number of sides of the
polygon.
Find the number of sides in regular polygons with exterior angles of:
a 10
b 18
c 24
d 90
An irregular polygon has one exterior angle 100 and all others 13. How many sides?
An irregular polygon has two exterior angles twice the size of the rest. If the other exterior
angles are 15, find the number of sides.
An irregular polygon has two exterior angles twice the size of the rest. If the other exterior
angles are 20, find the number of sides.
Investigation 2
WM: Applying Strategies, Investigating, Communicating
Tessellation
A tessellation is a pattern of shapes that fit exactly together. A regular tessellation is made up
of regular polygons of one type and size only.
You will need: square grid paper, triangular grid paper.
1
The size of the interior angles of a regular pentagon is 108. Explain why a regular pentagon
will not tessellate.
Regular
polygon
Number
or sides
Triangle
Square
Pentagon
Hexagon
Heptagon
Octagon
Nonagon
Decagon
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Angle sum
= 180(n 2)
540
720
108
120
a On a sheet of triangular grid paper draw a tessellation of equilateral triangles with side
length 2 units.
b Using a different colour show that this is a tessellation of regular hexagons.
c What other plane shapes can be seen in the tessellation?
239
240
Investigation 3
WM: Applying Strategies, Investigating
Archimedes
Archimedes used polygons inside and outside a circle of given radius to give an approximation for .
C
Given that C = d, then =  .
D
This software investigation uses Archimedes theory to find an estimate for by drawing a regular
polygon inside a circle of constant radius (inscribed) and another polygon with the same number of
sides outside, but touching, the circle (circumscribed).
The estimate of is found by dividing the perimeters of the polygons by the radius of the circle.
perimeter of inscribed polygon
perimeter of circumscribed polygon
 radius
radius
Investigation 4
WM: Reasoning
At each of the 36 points around the starter circle, as centre, draw a circle of radius 2 cm.
There are various ways in which you can colour your doughnut. Experiment with different
colour patterns. Three different ones are shown here.
Language in Mathematics
Glossary
angle sum
exterior
nonagon
regular
concave
heptagon
pentagon
tessellate
convex
hexagon
polygon
tessellation
decagon
interior
quadrilateral
241
242
C 900
C decagon
140
165
D 1080
D hexagon
D 180
A heptagon has three right angles and the other angles are all equal. The size of the equal
angles is:
A 900
B 112.5
C 157.5
D 247.5
D 5040
An irregular polygon has one exterior angle of 100 and all others 13. The number of sides
of this polygon is:
A 20
B 21
C 30
D 113
If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
Section
15
6, 7
REVIEW SET 8A
1
a Draw a hexagon.
c Find the angle sum of a hexagon.
120
100
150
x
130
130
x
100
130
243
244
REVIEW SET 8B
1
135
140
148
100
x
x
150
100
x
A ninesided figure has three right angles and all other angles equal. What is the measure
of each of these equal angles?
REVIEW SET 8C
1
b
3x
120
115
2x
150
168
x
x
135
2x
A regular pentagon has two right angles and all other angles equal. Find the size of the equal
angles.
245
246
REVIEW SET 8D
1
a Draw a pentagon.
c What is the angle sum of a pentagon?
b
x
130
150
155
130
x
120
100
170
A hexagon has three right angles and all other angles equal. Find the size of the equal angles.
Chapter 9
Probability
This chapter deals with relative frequencies and theoretical probabilities.
After completing this chapter you should be able to:
conduct experiments to determine the relative frequency of an event
estimate the probability of an event from experimental data
express the probability of an event using the probability definition
calculate probabilities for simple events
simulate events using random number generators.
248
Diagnostic Test
Use this table for questions 1 and 2. A tennis racquet is spun 100 times. It has rough on one side
and smooth on the other. The table shows the results.
Outcome
Frequency
Rough
81
Smooth
19
Relative frequency
Percentage
If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
Section
1, 2
37
Investigation 1
WM: Communicating, Applying Strategies, Reasoning
Probability experiments
A normal coin has two sides, heads and tails. The theoretical probability of each event is 12 .
This experiment examines the probability of heads and tails.
1
Tally
Frequency
Fraction of total
Heads
Tails
b
c
d
e
Chircop tossed a coin 100 times: heads came up 53 times and tails came up 47 times.
47
 . Is she correct? Comment.
a Chircop concluded that the probability of tails is 100
b Should Chircop expect the same results if she repeats her experiment of tossing the coin
100 times? Explain.
c If Chircop tossed the coin 1 000 000 times, how many tails would she expect? Explain.
249
250
120
Rachel rolled a normal sixsided die twelve times. She did not throw a 6. Rachel concluded
that the probability of obtaining a 6 was 0. Why is she wrong? How many 6s would be
expected in twelve throws of the die?
Research Assignment
WM: Communicating, Reasoning
Chance statements
1
Example 1
A cylindrical can is tossed 200 times. The number of times it landed on its side
and on an end were recorded in this table.
Outcome
Frequency
Top end
Bottom end
Side
Relative frequency
Percentage
36
38
126
Outcome
Frequency
Top end
36
Bottom end
38
Side
126
Relative frequency
36
200
38
200
126
200
Percentage
18%
19%
63%
Exercise 9A
1
A tennis racquet is spun 200 times. It has rough on one side and smooth on the other.
The table shows the results.
Outcome
Rough
Smooth
Frequency
86
114
Relative frequency
Percentage
Four hundred car salespeople were randomly selected and asked the country in which their
car was manufactured. The results are shown in the table.
Country
Australia
Japan
Korea
Germany
Other
Frequency
146
128
56
48
22
Relative frequency
Percentage
251
252
At a state wide teachers conference the colour of each teachers car was recorded; the
results appear in the table. There were 200 teachers cars.
Colour
White
Number
53
Red
48
Blue
27
Green
25
Yellow
21
Black
12
Silver
Other
Relative frequency
53
200
48
200
Percentage
26.5%
a Copy the table and complete the relative frequency and percentage columns.
b Using these results, how many red teachers cars would you expect in a school with
50 teachers? Explain.
c Complete a similar table for the teachers in your school. How do your schools results
compare? Explain any differences.
4
In a year, a restaurant served 4754 bottles of wine. Of these 86 were returned because the
wine was faulty. Based on this information, estimate the probability that a bottle of wine from
this restaurant is faulty when opened.
In a survey of 5000 marriages it was found that 1285 ended in divorce. Matt and Diane are
getting married. Based on this information, what is the approximate probability that their
marriage will end in divorce?
B. THEORETICAL PROBABILITY
In stage 4 we had the definition of the probability of an event A occurring. It was:
number of favourable outcomes
P(A) = n
where n is the total number in the sample space.
In stage 4 the following probability properties were developed:
The probability of an event occurring is between 0 and 1.
If P(A) = 0 then the event A is impossible.
If P(A) = 1 then the event A is a certainty.
P(the event A does not occur) = 1 P(A).
Example 1
A spinner is made from a regular pentagon with equal sections
containing the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
a
b
c
d
2
3
5
4
Exercise 9B
1
A square spinner has the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 in equal sections. For one spin, determine the
probability of getting a:
a 1
b 3
c 5
d number less than 5
e number other than 1
A spinner in the shape of a regular hexagon has equal sections marked 1 to 6. For one spin,
determine the probability of getting a:
a 6
b 4
c 3
d odd number less than 6
e even number less than 7
f number less than 7
g 8
h number other than 4
A spinner is made from a regular decagon with 10 equal sections containing the numbers
1 to 10.
a List the sample space.
b Find the probability of spinning a 5.
c Find the probability of spinning an even number.
d Find the probability of spinning an odd number.
e Find the probability of not spinning a 10.
f Find the probability of spinning an 11.
253
254
A bag contains 3 red, 4 white and 5 blue tickets. A ticket is selected at random from the bag.
Determine the probability that the ticket is:
a red
b white
c blue
d green
e not red
f not white
g red or blue
h not red or white
i red, white or blue
Adam has spread out a pack of playing cards. He picks a card at random.
Hearts and diamonds are red.
Clubs and spades are black.
Picture cards are King, Queen, Jack.
P(spade)
means the
probability of
selecting a
spade.
Find:
a P(spade)
d P(a black 10)
g P(a 5 or a 6)
b P(4 of hearts)
e P(ace)
h P(green card)
c
f
i
P(club)
P(picture card)
P(not a picture card)
10
A regular pentagonal (5sided) spinner has the numbers 1 to 5 marked on its partitions.
Determine the probability that after a spin the result will be:
a an even number
b a prime
c a factor of 6
11
A bag contains 3 red and 7 blue buttons, and one is randomly selected from the bag.
Determine the probability that the button is:
a red
b blue
c red or blue
d green
12
The $2 lottery has 100 000 tickets. Find the probability of:
a winning first prize with one ticket
b not winning first prize with 50 tickets
13
One ticket is chosen in a lottery consisting of 100 tickets numbered 1 to 100, and the
choice is made randomly. Determine the probability that the ticket is:
a a twodigit number
b a multiple of 12
c a multiple of 7 or 11
14
Determine the probability that a person randomly selected in the street has his (or her)
birthday in September. (Dont forget leap years.)
15
Investigation 2
WM: Reasoning, Communicating, Applying Strategies
A pair of dice
From the illustration, we can
clearly see that when two dice
are rolled there are 36 possible
outcomes.
Of these {1, 3}, {2, 2} and {3, 1}
give us a sum of 4.
Consider the following question:
What is the likelihood of the sum
of the numbers being 4, when two
dice are rolled?
255
256
The answer to this question lies in the fact that 3 out of the possible 36 outcomes give a sum of 4.
Hence the probability of a sum of 4 when two dice are rolled is
3
36
(or 8.333%).
Sum
Tally
Frequency
Fraction of total
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Total
200
C. CALCULATING PROBABILITIES
This section involves two groupwork activities designed to promote the understanding of probability concepts
relating to theoretical and calculated probabilities.
Groupwork 1
1
Each person designs their own spinner with four colours. Make the
spinner so that all colours are not equally likely but do not tell the
probabilities of each colour occurring.
Using the spinner you made, conduct a trial of 100 spins to see how closely the experimental
results match the probabilities.
a Working in pairs, use another persons spinner. One person spins, the other person
records the results. The person recording cannot look at the spinner.
b The recorder decides on the number of trials and must estimate the probabilities of each
of the colours after the experiment.
c Compare your results and explain them.
d Swap over so you are recording and spinning with another spinner, and repeat parts a, b
and c.
What can you conclude about the number of trials compared with the accuracy of the results?
Groupwork 2
1
a Using between 20 and 52 cards, each person designs a deck with their
own probabilities for drawing a red or a black card.
b Swap decks around the group. To experimentally find the probabilities
of red or black cards, shuffle the deck then select a card and record its colour.
Replace the card, shuffle, then select another card.
c The challenge is to be the first to correctly identify the probabilities. You may not guess
and you are only permitted one answer. You must decide how many trials are enough.
The teacher prepares a number of bags with counters or marbles of two different colours in
each bag. Only the teacher knows the number of each colour.
a Students in their groups draw a counter or a marble, note its colour and replace it.
b They repeat this process until they are ready to answer with the probability of each colour.
Each group is allowed only one answer.
c The first correct group wins.
d Compare the experimental results of all groups. Does this provide a better estimate?
Investigation 3
WM: Applying Strategies, Reasoning, Communicating
Rectangular spinners
This investigation is suitable for four students. A rectangular spinner
can be made from cardboard using a match or toothpick for its
spindle.
You are to investigate the chances of the spinner finishing on
blackened edges on opposite sides of the spinner. The other
two sides are to be 4 cm long.
257
258
4 cm
x cm
Each spinner is to be twirled several hundred times so that an estimate of the probability of
getting a black edge results for each of the spinners. Divide this task between the members
of your group.
Collect the data and complete a table like the one given below.
x
2.5
3.5
P(black) estimate
4
Graph P(black) against x. Write about the shape of your graph and explain how it could be
used to estimate P(black) for various values of x.
b P(black) if x = 4.5
Example 1
Comment on these statements:
a My family has four boys so the next baby born will be a boy.
b There are ten teams in the football competition, therefore the probability that my
1
.
team will win the competition is 10
a The fact that four boys were born is a coincidence. The next baby has approximately
an equal chance of being a boy or a girl.
b Some teams are better than others, so the probability of each team winning is not
1
 , if it is poor the
equal. If your team is good the probability will be greater than 10
probability could be very close to 0.
Exercise 9D
1
Investigation 4
WM: Applying Strategies, Reasoning
$5 $2 $1 $25 $10
$2 $2 $10 $5 $2
Losing ticket
Winning ticket
The social club is raising money for new clubrooms. They decide to sell 25 000 of these tickets at
20 cents each. They will distribute $2500 in prizes. They decide to print:
5 prizes of $25
25 prizes of $10
125 prizes of $5
250 prizes of $2
and the remaining prize money is in $1 tickets.
259
260
Determine how many prizes of $1 will have to be produced so $2500 is given in prizes.
When all tickets have been sold, how much money does the social club expect to make?
Determine the probability that when buying one ticket you will win:
a a $25 prize
b a $10 prize
c a $5 prize
d a $2 prize
e a $1 prize
f any prize
Investigation 5
WM: Applying Strategies, Reasoning, Communicating
Roulette
One game played extensively in casinos is roulette. The
game consists of a horizontal rotating wheel containing
38 equal slots and a steel marble that will spin into
one of them. The slots are numbered 00, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4,
5, up to 36. The slots are red or black for the
numbers 1 to 36. 0 and 00 are usually green.
(00 appears on the American version.)
Gamblers place their betting chips on the table as shown (International layout). They can bet on red
or black or single numbers or combinations of numbers.
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
Result
$ won
35
17
11
8
8
5
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
In the result table, the $ won shows how much can be won from a $1 bet. A loss results in the casino
keeping your $1. For example:
a win on number 17 pays $35 (and you also get back your original bet of $1)
a win on b above pays $17 if an 8 or 9 occurs.
(Assume that we use the table as shown, i.e. no 00 slot.)
1
If you bet $10 on number 23 and win, what will be your return?
If you bet $1 on each number, how much does it cost you and what will be your return?
From your answer to question 2 determine what percentage profit the casino expects to
make.
Possible $
winnings
P(winning)
P(losing)
Expected $
gain or loss
6
37
31
37
0.027
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
6
261
262
Investigation 6
WM: Applying Strategies, Reasoning
Prize
Cover
removed
4 golf balls
2 golf balls
1 golf ball
If all tickets are sold, how many balls are paid out as prizes?
Determine the total cost to the club for a complete round of 2000 tickets going through the
machine.
If you purchase one ticket, what is your chance of winning at least one ball?
What is your $ expectation for the playing of one game, i.e. purchasing one ticket.
Design your own concealed ticket game for a club or group so that the customer receives
an expected payout of around 80% (and certainly not less than 80%).
Example 1
A football goalkicker has a 60% chance of kicking a goal from the sideline.
a Simulate five kicks, using a table of random numbers, to find the number of goals he
would score by:
i assigning digits to represent a goal and a miss
ii selecting five random onedigit numbers from the table
b Repeat the simulation to estimate the number of goals he would kick from 50 attempts.
c Compare your results with the expected probability.
a i
Let each digit in the table represent a kick. Let the six digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 signify
a goal, and the four digits 6, 7, 8, 9 signify a miss. Six out of ten digits or 60%
represent a goal, and four out of ten digits or 40% represent a miss.
ii Choosing any place in the table as a starting point, read off five digits representing the
five kicks at goal. If the starting point is the third row with the seventh digit in, shown
in bold, then the five digits are 5, 2, 9, 3, 1. This represents four goals and one miss.
b Starting at the same place the fifty digits are:
52931580021760049333475458640693301792630
515148268
representing 34 goals and 16 misses.
c The expected number of goals from 50 kicks would be 30; from the simulation it is 34.
Note:
Any six of the digits 09 could have been chosen to represent a goal.
Starting at a different place may give different results.
A calculator or spreadsheet could be used to generate random numbers.
If it is possible or practical to use technology to generate the numbers,
then use the technology rather than the table for questions 35.
This spreadsheet provides a random number generator.
263
264
Exercise 9E
1
Repeat the question from the example starting with the first digit in the table.
A plant seedling has an 80% chance of surviving the first six weeks after planting.
Simulate the survival of 100 plants using a table of random numbers by:
a i assigning digits to represent the survival and death of the seedling
ii selecting 100 random onedigit numbers from the table.
b Compare your results with the expected number of 80 survivals.
The chance of a couple having a male child or a female child are each 12 . Simulate the number
of boys and girls in a family of four children, using a table of random numbers, by:
a i assigning even numbers to represent boys and odd numbers to represent girls
ii selecting four onedigit numbers from the table and recording the number of boys
and girls.
b Repeat the process until you have results for ten families.
c Combine the results of the class.
d Find the mean number of boys in a family of four, using the whole class results.
e From your results, what is the probability in a family of four children that there are 0, 1,
2, 3 or 4 boys?
noncalculator activities
2.5 1.7 =
7
9
10
11
1
Write 8  as a mixed fraction?
3
35.6543 1000 =
7
Change  to a percentage.
20
Find 20% of $180.
1
How many minutes in 3  hours?
2
What is the value of (0.4)2?
Consider the 4 in the number 13 746 892. Its value would be:
A 4
B 4000
C 40 000
D 400 000
D 7.1
C 6.93
12
What fraction is 4 days of 1 fortnight? Give your answer in simplest fraction form.
13
An urn contains 9 blue and 7 red marbles. If I withdraw one marble from the urn, what is the
probability that it will be blue?
15
20.4
Estimate the value of  giving your answer as a whole number.
2.1 + 1.8
Write the number for 200 + 3 + 0.02 + 0.004.
16
If John earns $140 for 7 hours work, how much will he receive for 5 hours work?
17
Rachel knows that 225 31 = 6975. Use this data to find the answer to Rachels question:
69 750 000 31 =
18
What is
19
20
The average of ten numbers is 3. What is the total of all ten scores?
21
5+72+1=
23
2 1
 +  =
3 6
14
25
36 + 4 ?
x cm
6 cm
8 cm
265
266
Language in Mathematics
Blaise Pascal (16231662)
Blaise Pascal was born in ClermontFerrand, France, in
1623. Pascals father was a judge in the tax court and his
mother died when he was only three years old. He began
showing a great insight and understanding of mathematics
at a relatively young age. When he was only 16, Pascal
wrote a paper on conic sections, the study of shapes
obtained when a right circular cone is cut at various
angles.
Before he turned 20, Pascal developed a calculating machine
(patented 1647) to assist his father with tax calculations.
This machine was, in a way, the first digital calculator.
Pascal conducted experiments with his father on vacuums,
and in 1647 described the effects of air pressure on tubes of
mercury, which led to the construction of barometers.
There appears very strong evidence that the theory and study
of probability originated in the gambling halls of France where players had little idea of odds or
percentages. However, Pascal is one of the main theorists in the development of the modem theory
of probability as it is known today.
Pascal is remembered not only for his contribution to mathematics, but also for his involvement in
physics and religious philosophy. His family originally held strong Catholic beliefs, but as a result of
the illness of his father he came into contact with people with an even stricter moral approach to
religion. As a result, Pascal became extremely interested in Christian beliefs and ethics, and
produced a large number of papers on these subjects.
Despite his great contributions to mathematical and religious thinking, the one criticism of Pascal
is that he was probably too concrete a thinkersome emotional problems he appeared to analyse
like a geometry problem. However, this minor criticism is far outweighed by the enormous
contributions he made in other areas.
1
a
b
c
d
b __ v __ nt
d r __ nd __ m
f th __ __ r __ t __ c __ l
Glossary
certainty
event
experimental probability
impossible
random
simulate
chance
equally likely events
fair
prediction
random number generator
theoretical
complementary event
experimental data
favourable outcomes
probability
relative frequency
trial
Country
Frequency
Australia
125
Japan
103
Korea
42
Germany
24
Other
1
267
42
C 300
Based on the table, the probability that a car will be Australian is:
125
125
100
A B C 100
300
125
A normal sixsided die is thrown once. The probability of getting a 1 is:
1
4
1
A B C 4
6
6
42
D 125
125
D 175
D even
268
A hat contains 7 red, 3 white and 1 blue ticket. A ticket is selected at random from the hat.
The probability that the ticket is red is:
7
1
7
A 7
B C D 11
11
10
A raffle has 50 tickets numbered from 1 to 50. The probability that the ticket selected is the
numbers 7 or 13 is:
2
1
7
13
A B C D 50
50
50
50
A poker die has faces A, K, Q, J, 10, 9, and is rolled once. The probability of getting an A or
a 10 or a 9 is:
1
2
3
1
A B C D 6
6
6
3
A 52card pack is shuffled and one card is dealt. The probability that it is a diamond is:
1
2
13
4
A B C D 52
52
52
52
A plant seedling has an 80% chance of surviving the first six weeks after planting. To simulate
the survival of 100 plants a table of random numbers can be used by:
A assigning the digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 to survival
B assigning the digits 1, 8, 0 to not surviving
C assigning the digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 to survival
D assigning the digits 0, 1, 2 to not surviving
If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
Section
1, 2
37
REVIEW SET 9A
1
A tennis racquet is spun 200 times. It has rough on one side and smooth on the other.
The table shows the results.
Outcome
Frequency
Rough
166
Smooth
34
Relative frequency
Percentage
Comment on the statement: There are 10 teams in our netball competition, so the probability
1
 .
that our team will win the competition is 10
The probability that a particular super12 kicker will score from a penalty is 80%. Simulate
50 kicks, using a table of random numbers, to find the number of goals he would score by:
a
i assigning digits to represent a goal and a miss
ii selecting fifty random onedigit numbers from the table starting with the first
number in the fifth row.
b Compare your results with the expected number of 40 goals.
c Repeat, starting from a different position in the table, and compare the results.
269
270
REVIEW SET 9B
1
Kim rolled a normal sixsided die six times. She did not throw a 6. Kim concluded that the
probability of obtaining a 6 was 0. Why is she wrong? How many 6s would be expected in
six throws of the die?
A hat contains 3 red, 5 white and 9 blue tickets. A ticket is selected at random from the hat.
Determine the probability that the ticket is:
a red
b blue
c white
d not blue
A raffle has 100 tickets numbered from 1 to 100. Determine the probability that the ticket
selected is:
a number 12
b a number less than 10
c a number between 19 and 31
REVIEW SET 9C
1
Four hundred car salespeople were randomly selected and asked the country in which their
car was manufactured. The results are shown in the table.
Country
Frequency
Australia
195
Japan
103
Korea
62
Germany
34
Other
Relative frequency
Perecentage
A poker die has faces A, K, Q, J, 10, 9 and is rolled once. Determine the probability of getting:
a aK
b a number
c an A and a J
A plant seedling has a 90% chance of surviving the first six weeks after planting. Simulate
the survival of 100 plants using a table of random numbers by:
a
i assigning digits to represent the survival and death of the seedling
ii selecting 100 random onedigit numbers from the table.
b Compare your results with the expected number of 90 survivals.
271
272
REVIEW SET 9D
1
In a year, a restaurant served 5188 bottles of wine. Of these 74 were returned because the
wine was faulty. Based on this information, estimate the probability that a bottle of wine from
this restaurant is faulty when opened.
A 52 card pack is shuffled and one card is dealt. Determine the probability that it is:
a an ace
b a red card
c a heart
d a picture card
Matthew and Melissa each tossed a coin 100 times. Matthew counted 53 tails and so stated
53
 . Melissa counted 46 tails and stated that the probability
that the probability of tails is 100
46
 . Who is correct? Explain.
of tails is 100
Chapter 10
Algebraic Techniques
This chapter deals with simplifying expressions, expanding binomial products,
and factorising quadratic expressions.
After completing this chapter you should be able to:
simplify algebraic expressions, including those involving fractions
generate, evaluate and expand quadratic expressions
recognise perfect squares and complete the square
factorise expressions
simplify expressions involving algebraic fractions
generate and describe quadratic expressions.
274
Diagnostic Test
1
15a a =
A 15
10
B 14
C 7a 2b
D 14a
3a 2b + 4a =
A a 2b
C 15a
B a + 2b
11
D 5a b
5 (2x 3) =
A 8 2x
B 2 2x
C 2x 2
D 5+x
12
B y 2 15y
C 3y 2 15y
D 3y 2 y
t t
  =
3 5
A 0
2t
C 15
a
 + a =
3
2a
A 3
a2
C 3
A 3x 2 + 12x 2
B 3x 2 + 12x 2
C 3x 2 + 3x + 2
D 3x2 + 2x + 2
(x 3)2 =
A x2 9
B x2 + 9
C x 2 6x + 9
D x 2 + 6x 9
(5 3x)2 =
A 25 3x 2
y(y 7) 2y(4 y) =
A y 2 15y
7x (3x 1)(x + 2) =
B 25 9x 2
C 25 15x + 9x 2 D 25 30x + 9x 2
13
(5x 1)(5x + 1) =
A 25x 2 1
B 25x 2 + 1
4a
B 3
2a 2
D 3
2y 3x
3y 4x  +  =
3
4
5y + 5x
28y 39x
A B 12
12
7y 13x
yx
C D 12
12
14
15
16
)2 = x 2 8x + then:
If (x
A
= 8; = 64
= 4; = 16
= 2; = 4
When factorised, pq 5p 2 =
A 4p 2
B p(q 5p)
C pq(1 5p)
D cannot be
factorised
When factorised, 4x + 4t x 2 xt =
A (4 x)(x + t)
B (4 x)(4 t)
C x(4 x t) + 4t
D 3x 3t
(x 3)(x + 5) =
A x 2 15
B x 2 + 2x 15
C 2x + 2
D x 2 2x 15
17
When factorised, m 2 4n 2 =
A (m 4n)(m + 4n)
B (m 4n)2
(3x 5)(2x + 3) =
A 6x 2 x 15
B 6x 2 + 5x 15
C 6x 2 x 2
D 6x 2 + 5x 2
8; = 8
C (m 2n)2
D (m + 2n)(m 2n)
275
18
23
A (4x 1)(3x + 2)
B (12x + 1)(x 2)
C (4x + 1)(3x 2)
D (9x 4y)
19
20
21
D (12x 1)(x + 2)
24
A (x + 9)(x 9)
B (x + 9)2
A x(x 2 + x + 12)
C (x 18)2
D (x 9)2
B x(x 3)(x + 4)
C x(x + 12)(x + 1)
B (16x + 25)2
C (4x 5)2
D (4x + 5)2
D x 2(x + 1) + 12x
2
25
When factorised, x 2 7x + 10 =
A (x 5)(x 2)
B (x + 5)(x + 2)
C (x 10)(x 1) D (x + 10)(x + 1)
22
26
When factorised, 3x 2 + x 10 =
A (3x + 1)(x 10)
x + 5x 14 =
When simplified, 2x + 14
B x(x + 3)
A x 2 + 3x
2C x1
D x2
3
5
  =
When simplified, 2
2
x + 2x x 4
2 ( x + 3 )
A x(x + 2)(x 2)
2
B (3x + 5)(x + 2)
2x 10x 12
B 2
2
( x + 2x ) ( x 4 )
2
C
2x 4
2
D 2
2x + 2x 4
If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
Section
14
57
810
1114
15, 16
17, 18
19, 20
21
22, 23
24
25, 26
d 3x 2 + 2x
276
a 3a + 4a
= 7a
b 11b b
= 11b 1b
= 10b
d 3x 2 + 2x is in simplest form
(x 2 and x are unlike terms)
c 2ab + 3ab
= 5ab
Exercise 10A
1
c
g
k
o
s
w
5x 2x
3x 2x
x 2 + 10x 2
7b + b
11n 11n
15b 8b
d
h
l
p
t
x
b+b
3x x
17x 7
7b b
3ab + ba
7bca 5abc
Example 2
c 3x x 2 + 4x
a 6d + 3d + 5
= 9d + 5
c 3x x 2 + 4x
= 7x x 2
b 4x + 5 + 2
= 4x + 7
c 9a 2 + 13a 2 17a 2
f 7q + q + 4q 10q
i 4p 2q + 3p 2q 5p 2q p 2q
c
f
i
l
o
r
u
x
x+6+x
7 + 4x x
p 2 + p + 4p 2
5cd + 2dc 2
3a + 2b a
6a + 3a ab
x x 2 + 2x
5x 2 3x 2 + 6x 3
Example 3
Simplify, where possible, by collecting like terms.
a 4x 7x 5 + x
b 5 5a a + 7
c x 5 2x 1
a 4x 7x 5 + x
= 2x 5
(as 4 7 + 1 = 2)
b 5 5a a + 7
= 5 + 7 5a a
= 12 6a
c x 5 2x 1
= x 2x 5 1
= x 6
c
f
i
l
o
4x + 7x
6d + d
4n 11n
x (2x)
4ac 5ca
c
f
i
l
o
r
3a + 2 + a + 4
ab + b2 + 2ab + 2b2
18c + 5 4 11c
7 5p + 3p 12
3x + 7x 2 x
x2 + x + 2 5x
c
f
i
l
3x 2y (x) + y
5t (t) + 6 t
5d c + d 2c + 2
6s2t + 5s2 8s2t 9s2
Example 4
Find an expression for the perimeter of this rectangle.
x+2
x
Perimeter = (x + 2) + x + (x + 2) + x
= 4x + 4
x
x+5
x3
x
y
y+3
277
278
x+1
x1
x
x+4
Example 5
A rectangular garden has one side 4 metres longer than the other. Write two
different expressions for its perimeter.
Method 1:
Let the shorter side be x metres, then
the longer side is (x + 4) metres.
The perimeter is given by
P = x + (x + 4) + x + (x + 4)
= 4x + 8 metres
Method 2:
Let the longer side be y metres, then the
shorter side is (y 4) metres.
The perimeter is given by
P = y + (y 4) + y + (y 4)
= 4y 8 metres
(y 4) m
xm
ym
(x + 4) m
Write down two expressions for the perimeter of a rectangular garden with one side
a 2 m longer than the other
c 5 m shorter than the other
A triangular fence has the longest side 4 metres longer than the second side which is 3 metres
longer than the smallest side. Write three expressions for the perimeter.
10
A rectangular garden has one side 1 metre longer than the other. Write two expressions for
its area.
Example 6
Expand and simplify:
a 2 (3 4x)
b 4 + 3(x 5)
2 (3 4x)
= 2 3 + 4x
= 1 + 4x
= 4x 1
4 + 3(x 5)
= 4 + 3x 15
= 3x 11
11
b
e
h
k
4 2(1 2x)
5x 3(2x + 1)
5 3(x 2)
2(x 3) + 1
c
f
i
l
19 (5x + 8)
7 5(1 2x)
7 6(3x 2)
3(x 2) 9x
Example 7
12
13
4(x + 2) + 3(5 x)
= 4x + 8 + 15 3x
= 4x 3x + 8 + 15
= x + 23
b
e
h
k
n
q
3(y + 1) + 2(y + 3)
d(d + 1) + d(d 1)
n(n + 2) n(2n + 1)
a(b + c) b(c + a)
(x 3) 2(2 x)
2(x + 3) 5x(x + 1)
c
f
i
l
o
r
4x
3
x+5
2(p + 1) 3(p 2)
d(d + 3) d(d 4)
4(2 + 3x) + 3(x + 5)
2x(x + 1) + 3(x + 2)
4x(1 x) + 2(x + 6)
x 5 8(x + 1)
3x + 1
2x + 7
x+y
6
2y
2 3
 + 3 4
2 4 3 3
=   +  3 4 4 3
8+9
= 12
17
= 12
279
280
x 5x
to find  +  we find the LCD and proceed in the
3
4
same way as for ordinary fractions.
x 5x
So,
 + 3 4
x 4 5x 3
=   +  3 4 4 3
LCD means
lowest common
denominator.
4x 15x
=  + 12 12
19x
= 12
Example 1
Simplify:
x 3x
a  + 2 4
a
a 2a
b  3 5
x 3x
 + 2 4
x 2 3x
=   + 2 2 4
a 2a
 3 5
a 5 2a 3
=    3 5 5 3
5a 6a
= 15
a
= 15
a
= 15
2x + 3x
= 4
5x
= 4
Exercise 10B
1
bb b 5 10
e b + b3 4
5tt 3 9
g m
 + 2m
7 21
3r + r7 5
2p p
 5 15
c + 3c
4 2
6x
 2x
7
3
o 3m
 + m
11 5
d x x7 2
h 5d
 d6 3
l
4m
 m
9
3
p 8d
 7d
5
4
Example 2
Write as a single fraction:
a b + 1
3
a
b + 1
3
a a
4
= a a 4
4
4
a 4a
= 4
3a
= 4
= b + 3
3 3
+3
= b
3
a a
4
y
b  1
3
x
f 2 5
a
j  a
2
m m m
n  +  + 2 3 6
a
 + 2
2
a
g a + 2
x
k x + 7
a a a
o   + 2 3 6
b
d  3
4
b
h b + 3
x
2x + 2
x x x
p   + 4 3 5
l
Example 3
Simplify:
2x 9a
2a 5x +  3
5
2x 9a
2a 5x +  3
5
15
15 2x 5 9a 3
= 2a  5x  +    15 3 5 5 3
15
30a 75x 10x 27a
=   +  15
15
15
15
3a 65x
= 15
3
Simplify:
x
a 3x 2a + 3a
 4 2
7p 4r
d   + 2p r
3
5
3t
5m
g   + m
 3t
4
3
4
b
e
h
3p
3m
 2p +  4m
2
5
6m
n
  + 4m 3n
5 2
5r
 3m
 + 3r
 7m
7
4
2
2
c
f
i
4a 7b + 3b
 4a
4
5
7a
3b
4a 5b  + 4
5
7x 2y
  + 3x y
3
5
281
282
C. QUADRATIC EXPRESSIONS
Quadratic expressions are of the form ax 2 + bx + c where x is a variable, and
a, b and c are constants, with a 0.
Example 1
A rectangle has length 4 cm more than its breadth. Write an expression for
the area.
Let the breadth be x cm.
Then the length is (x + 4) cm.
Area = length breadth
A = (x + 4) x
A = x(x + 4)
A = x 2 + 4x cm2
x+4
x
Exercise 10C
1
A rectangle has length 6 cm more than its breadth. Write an expression for the area.
A rectangle has length 5 cm more than its breadth. Write an expression for the area.
A rectangle has breadth 3 cm less than its length. Write an expression for the area.
A triangle has perpendicular height 3 cm more than its base length. Write an expression for
the area.
What is an expression for the area of the rectangle with sides (x + 3) and (x + 1)?
What is an expression for the area of the triangle with base (x + 7) and altitude (x + 2)?
Example 2
Expand and simplify the expression for the area of a rectangle with sides
(x + 3) and (x + 2).
x
+3
x2
+3x
+2
+2x
+6
Area = (x + 3)(x + 2)
A = x(x + 2) + 3(x + 2)
= x 2 + 2x + 3x + 6
= x 2 + 5x + 6
Example 3
Expand and simplify:
a (x + 3)(x 5)
b (x 2)(x 1)
c (x 5)(x + 7)
x + 3)(x 5)
= x(x 5) + 3(x 5)
= x 2 5x + 3x 15
= x 2 2x 15
(x 2)(x 1)
= x(x 1) 2(x 1)
= x 2 x 2x + 2
= x 2 3x + 2
(x 5)(x + 7)
= x(x + 7) 5(x + 7)
= x 2 + 7x 5x 35
= x 2 + 2x 35
Expand and simplify the expression for the area of a rectangle with sides:
a (x + 5) and (x + 1)
b (x + 7) and (x + 2)
c (x + 3) and (x + 8)
b
e
h
k
(x 3)(x + 2)
(x 5)(x + 3)
(x 4)(x 7)
(x 6)(x 9)
c
f
i
l
(x + 6)(x 2)
(x + 9)(x 5)
(x + 7)(x 1)
(x 12)(x 3)
Example 4
If x = 3 and y = 2, find the value of:
a 3x 2 2x + 5
b (x + 2)(y + 3)
a
3x 2x + 5
= 3(3)2 2(3) + 5
= 26
(x + 2)(y + 3)
= (3 + 2)(2 + 3)
= (5)(1)
=5
c (3x 2)(x + 5)
c
(3x 2)(x + 5)
= (3(3) 2)(3 + 5)
= (7)(8)
= 56
c
f
i
l
y 2 3y + 5
(x + 3)(y 2)
(3x 7)(2x + 1)
(8y 2)(y + 1)
Example 5
Expand and simplify:
a (2x 5)(x + 3)
a
b (5x 7)(2x + 5)
c (3x + 2)(2x 1)
(2x 5)(x + 3)
b
(5x 7)(2x + 5)
c
(3x + 2)(2x 1)
= 2x(x + 3) 5(x + 3)
= 5x(2x + 5) 7(2x + 5)
= 3x(2x 1) + 2(2x 1)
= 2x 2 + 6x 5x 15
= 10x 2 + 25x 14x 35
= 6x 2 3x + 4x 2
= 10x 2 + 11x 35
= 6x 2 + x 2
= 2x 2 + x 15
283
284
10
11
b
e
h
k
(2x 5)(x 8)
(2x + 9)(3x 2)
(2x 5)(3x 2)
(5x 3)(2x 5)
c
f
i
l
(3x 5)(x 5)
(4x 5)(4x + 5)
(2x + 3)(4x 5)
(4x + 1)(3x 5)
b
e
h
6x + (2x 1)(3x + 4)
(3x 7)(x 2) + 5x
7x (2x + 1)(x 5)
c
f
i
(x + 2)(x 7) 2x
(4x 2)(x + 3) 4x 2 + 2
6x (x 2)(2x 3)
12x 2 + 25x 14
Investigation 1
WM: Applying Strategies, Reasoning
Using substitution
Rachel and Diana have different answers to a question.
Rachel has (3x 2)(4x + 7) = 12x 2 + 13x 14 and
Diana has (3x 2)(4x + 7) = 12x 2 + 25x 14.
1
Robert substitutes x = 0 into the three expressions and says that both Rachel and Diana are
correct.
a Evaluate each expression when x = 0.
b Explain the flaw in Roberts reasoning.
D. BINOMIAL PRODUCTS
a2
ab
ab
b2
= a(a + b) + b(a + b)
= a 2 + ab + ba + b 2
= a 2 + 2ab + b 2
So,
(a + b) 2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2
and similarly
(a b) 2 = a 2 2ab + b 2
(a + b)(a b) = a 2 b 2
So,
Example 1
Expand and simplify:
a (x + 5)2
a
(x + 5)2
= x 2 + 2 x 5 + 52
= x 2 + 10x + 25
b (x 3)2
b
c (4x 5)2
(x 3)2
= x2 2 x 3 + 32
= x 2 6x + 9
(4x 5)2
= (4x)2 2(4x)(5) + (5)2
= 16x 2 40x + 25
Exercise 10D
1
c (y + 10)2
g (5x + 4)2
k (5 + 2x)2
d (3x + 1)2
h (3y + 2)2
l (4 + 5x)2
c (y 9)2
g (3x 4)2
k (5 3x)2
d (3x 1)2
h (4y 1)2
l (4 2x)2
c (2x 7)2
g (5 + 2x)2
d (2x + 7)2
h (3 7x)2
Example 2
Expand the following using the difference of two squares.
a (x + 5)(x 5)
b (2x 3)(2x + 3)
a
(x + 5)(x 5)
= x 2 52
= x 2 25
(2x 3)(2x + 3)
= (2x)2 (3)2
= 4x2 9
285
286
c (x + 8)(x 8)
f (x 7)(x 7)
i (x + 12)(x + 12)
Example 3
Complete the following expressions.
a (x + 5)2 = x 2 + __ x + __ b (x __)2 = x 2 8x + __
c (y + __)2 = y 2 + 5y + __
(x __)2 = x 2 8x + __
The coefficient of x must be halved, i.e. 8 2 = 4.
The constant term is then (4)2 = 16
(x 4)2 = x 2 8x + 16
c (y + __)2 = y 2 + 5y + __
5
The coefficient of y must be halved, i.e. 5 2 =  .
2
5 2 25
The constant term is then  =  2
4
25
2
5 2
(y + 2 ) = y + 5y + 4
c (x 2)2 = x 2 __ __ + __
f (x + __)2 = x2 + 12x + __
Example 4
What number needs to be added to complete the square?
a x2 + 4x
b x2 7x
a x 2 + 4x
x2 + 4x + __ = (x + __)2
constant = ( 42 )2 = 4
add 4
b x2 7x
x2 7x + __ = (x __)2
constant = ( 7 )2 =
2
49
add 4
49
4
What number needs to be added to complete the square in the following expressions?
a x 2 + 6x
b x 2 + 10x
c x 2 8x
d x 2 4x
e x 2 + 12x
f x 2 18x
g x 2 + 7x
h x 2 + 15x
2
2
2
i x 3x
j x 9x
k x x
l x2 + x
Example 1
Factorise fully by removing the HCF.
a 10x + 5
b 4x 2 2x
a
10x + 5
= 5(2x + 1)
4x 2 2x
= 2x(2x 1)
c p 2q q 2p
c
p 2q q 2p
= pq(p q)
Exercise 10E
1
Factorise fully:
a 3a 3b
c pq qr
e 4x 2 + x
g pq 3q 2
i 6x2y 18xy 2
k 9x 2y + 27xy
b
d
f
h
j
l
5m + 10n
x 2 5x
15x + 3x2
2R 2r
28p 2a 21pa
3pqr 15p 2q
Check factorising
by expanding
your answer.
287
288
Example 2
Factorise fully:
a 6R + xR + yR
c 4(x 1) + y(x 1)
b 9x + 18xy + 12x 2
d x(y + 3) (y + 3)
6R + xR + yR
= R(6 + x + y)
c
4(x 1) + y(x 1)
= (x 1)(4 + y)
9x + 18xy + 12x 2
= 3x(3 + 6y + 4x)
d
x(y + 3) (y + 3)
= (y + 3)(x 1)
Factorise fully:
a 6B + aB + cB
b 4R xR + yR
2
d 8x 24xy + 16xyz
e 4(x 2) + y(x 2)
g a(x + 1) + 3(x + 1)
h x(x 4) (x 4)
j x(a + 1) (a + 1) y(a + 1)
c 6x + 14xy 3xz
f 3(x 1) + y(x 1)
i 3(p 3) + x(p 3) + y(p 3)
Example 3
Factorise fully:
a 3x + 6 + xy + 2y
b 4x 4 + xz z
3x + 6 + xy + 2y
= 3(x + 2) + y(x + 2)
= (x + 2)(3 + y)
Factorise fully:
a 4x + 2 + 2x 2 + x
d xy 2y + 4x 8
g xy + 3x 2y 6
j 3x + 3t x 2 xt
m 4 + 4y 3x 3xy
b
e
h
k
n
4x 4 + xz z
= 4(x 1) + z(x 1)
= (x 1)(4 + z)
3x 3 + xz z
x 2 7x + xy 7y
2xy 8x + 5y 20
3a + ac 3b bc
6a 5ay + 6b 5by
c
f
i
l
o
xy + 5y + 3x + 15
4x x 2 + 4y xy
3xy 7y + 12x 28
3x 2 + 3xy 2x 2y
4p 3p 2 4q + 3pq
x
(x y)
(x y)
x
x
(x y)
Area = x 2 y 2
So, x 2 y 2 = (x + y)(x y)
Area = (x + y)(x y)
Example 1
Factorise:
a x2 9
a
b 4y 2 9
x2 9
= (x + 3)(x 3)
c 4x 2 25
4y 2 9
= (2y + 3)(2y 3)
4x 2 25
= (2x + 5)(2x 5)
Exercise 10F
1
Factorise fully:
a x2 4
e c 2 25
i 4x 2 1
m 25y 2 16x 2
b
f
j
n
y2 9
x2 y2
9x 2 4
100x 2 81y 2
c
g
k
o
z 2 16
a2 c 2
9x 2 1
64a2 25b 2
Example 2
Evaluate using the difference of two squares factorisation.
b (4.8)2 (2.8)2
a 1012 992
a
1012 992
= (101 + 99)(101 99)
= (200)(2)
= 400
(4.8)2 (2.8)2
= (4.8 + 2.8)(4.8 2.8)
= (7.6)(2)
= 15.2
Factorise:
a x4 y4
b 16a 4 81b 4
c (p q)2 (p + q)2
d
h
l
p
a2 9
m 2 n2
16y 2 9
121r 2 9t 2
289
290
Similarly
= (x y)(x y)
= x 2 2xy + y 2
So the factorisation of x 2 2xy + y 2 is (x y)2.
The sign of the coefficient of x is the sign inside the bracket.
The coefficient of
x must be double
this number.
Example 1
Factorise:
a x 2 + 4x + 4
a
x 2 + 4x + 4
= (x + 2)2
b x 2 6x + 9
b
x 2 6x + 9
= (x 3)2
Exercise 10G
1
Factorise:
a x 2 + 10x + 25
d x 2 16x + 64
g y 2 6y + 9
j p 2 8p + 16
b
e
h
k
x 2 20x + 100
x 2 14x + 49
y 2 + 2y + 1
m2 + 6m + 9
c
f
i
l
x 2 + 18x + 81
x 2 + 22x + 121
x 2 24x + 144
a2 10a + 25
Example 2
Factorise:
a 4x 2 + 12x + 9
9x 2 30x + 25
9x 2 30x + 25
9 = 3, 25 = 5
2 3 5 = 30
then 9x 2 30x + 25 = (3x 5)2
Factorise:
a 4x 2 + 20x + 25
d 9x 2 48x + 64
g 49x 2 + 140x + 100
j 49x 2 42x + 9
b
e
h
k
25x 2 + 60x + 36
121x 2 132x + 36
25x 2 20x + 4
9x2 30x + 25
16x 2 72x + 81
81x 2 + 90x + 25
4x 2 + 44x + 121
100x2 180x + 81
c
f
i
l
Example 3
Factorise:
a x 2 + 2xy + y 2
These are both perfect squares.
a
x 2 + 2xy + y 2
= (x + y)2
Factorise:
a p 2 + 2pq + q 2
d d 2 2dp + p 2
a 2 2ab + b 2
a 2 2ab + b 2
= (a b)2
b m 2 2mn + n 2
e n 2 2nt + t 2
c r 2 + 2rt + t 2
f r 2 + 2ry + y 2
H. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS
Expand
(x + a)(x + b)
= x(x + b) + a(x + b)
= x 2 + bx + ax + ab
= x 2 + (a + b)x + ab
the sum of the numbers
291
292
Example 1
Factorise:
a x 2 + 5x + 6
b x 2 + 7x + 10
c x 2 + 7x + 12
a x 2 + 5x + 6 Two numbers that add to give 5 and whose product is 6 are 3 and 2.
x 2 + 5x + 6 = (x + 3)(x + 2)
b x 2 + 7x + 10 Two numbers that add to give 7 and whose product is 10 are 5 and 2.
x 2 + 7x + 10 = (x + 5)(x + 2)
c x 2 + 7x + 12 Two numbers that add to give 7 and whose product is 12 are 4 and 3.
x 2 + 7x + 12 = (x + 4)(x + 3)
Exercise 10H
1
Factorise:
a x 2 + 8x + 7
e x 2 + 10x + 24
i x 2 + 9x + 20
b x 2 + 8x + 12
f x 2 + 13x + 30
j x 2 + 9x + 18
c x 2 + 13x + 12
g x 2 + 11x + 30
k x 2 + 19x + 18
d x 2 + 10x + 9
h x 2 + 12x + 20
l x 2 + 13x + 42
Example 2
Factorise:
a x 2 4x + 3
x 2 8x + 12
Factorise:
a x 2 6x + 5
e x 2 9x + 8
i x 2 16x + 15
b x 2 8x + 7
f x 2 7x + 10
j x 2 9x + 14
c x 2 12x + 11
g x 2 11x + 10
k x 2 15x + 14
d x 2 6x + 8
h x 2 8x + 15
l x 2 11x + 24
Example 3
Factorise:
a x 2 3x 10
x2 + x 6
Factorise:
a x 2 + 7x 8
e x 2 + 4x 12
i x 2 + 4x 21
b x 2 + 3x 10
f x 2 11x 12
j x 2 20x 21
c x2 + x 2
g x 2 5x 24
k x 2 + 17x 60
d x 2 + x 42
h x 2 + 5x 24
l x 2 + 3x 54
Factorise:
a x 2 + 19x + 18
e x 2 + 53x 54
i x 2 30x 64
b x 2 7x 18
f x 2 25x 54
j x 2 + 2x 35
c x 2 + 17x 18
g x 2 16x + 64
k x 2 + 7x 30
d x 2 + 15x + 54
h x 2 + 12x 64
l x 2 15x + 50
Example 1
Factorise:
a 2x 2 + x 3
a 2x 2 + x 3
( 2x + 3 ) ( 2x 2 )
= 2
3x 2 + 16x + 5
c 5x 2 + 13x 6
2 3 = 6
need two numbers with a product of 6 and a sum of
+1. These are 3 and 2.
= (2x + 3)(x 1)
b 3x 2 + 16x + 5
( 3x + 15 ) ( 3x + 1 )
= 3
3 5 = 15
need two numbers with a product of 15
and a sum of 16. These are 15 and 1.
= (x + 5)(3x + 1)
c 5x 2 + 13x 6
( 5x + 15 ) ( 5x 2 )
= 5
5 6 = 30
need two numbers with a product of 30
and a sum of +13. These are 15 and 2.
= (x + 3)(5x 2)
Place the coefficient of
x2 together with x at the
beginning of each bracket and
divide the whole expression by
this coefficient to maintain
equality.
293
294
Exercise 10I
1
Fully factorise:
a 2x 2 + 5x + 3
e 2x 2 + 7x + 5
i 5x 2 14x 3
b 2x 2 9x 5
f 2x 2 + 3x 2
j 5x 2 + 2x 3
c 3x 2 + 5x 2
g 7x 2 + 9x + 2
k 5x 2 8x + 3
Fully factorise:
a 2x 2 + 5x 12
e 3x 2 + 13x + 4
i 3x 2 + 10x 8
b 3x 2 7x 6
f 3x 2 17x + 10
j 2x 2 + 17x 9
c
g
k
Fully factorise:
a 2x 2 + 9x 35
d 3x 2 x 2
g 11x 2 52x 15
3x 2 + 7x + 4
3x 2 + 8x + 4
2x 2 + 9x 18
b 3x 2 + 5x 12
e 5x 2 29x + 20
h 7x 2 61x + 40
d 3x 2 5x 2
h 2x 2 + 3x 5
l 11x 2 9x 2
d 2x 2 3x 9
h 5x 2 13x 6
l 2x 2 + 11x 21
c 5x 2 8x + 3
f 7x 2 + 15x + 2
i 5x 2 52x + 63
Example 2
Factorise:
a 6x 2 13x 5
b 12x 2 5x 2
a 6x 2 13x 5
( 6x 15 ) ( 6x + 2 )
= 6
3 ( 2x 5 )2 ( 3x + 1 )
= 6
= (2x 5)(3x + 1)
b 12x 2 5x 2
( 12x 8 ) ( 12x + 3 )
= 12
4 ( 3x 2 )3 ( 4x + 1 )
= 12
= (3x 2)(4x + 1)
Fully factorise:
a 8x 2 + 14x + 3
e 6x 2 + 19x + 3
i 4x 2 + 4x + 1
Fully factorise:
a 6x 2 7x 3
d 12x 2 23x + 5
g 10x2 + 19x 15
6 5 = 30
need two numbers with a product of 30 and a
sum of 13. These are 15 and 2.
(factorise each bracket)
(cancel)
12 2 = 24
need two numbers with a product of 24 and a
sum of 5. These are 8 and 3.
(factorise each bracket)
(cancel)
b 15x 2 + x 2
f 10x 2 + 17x + 3
j 10x 2 + x 2
b 4x 2 23x + 15
e 12x 2 7x 10
h 20x 2 31x 7
c 21x 2 + 17x + 2
g 14x 2 + 37x + 5
k 9x 2 12x + 4
d
h
l
6x 2 + 5x + 1
21x 2 62x 3
3x 2 + 14x + 8
c 9x 2 6x 8
f 12x 2 79x 35
i 18x 2 + 19x 12
J. MISCELLANEOUS FACTORISATION
We suggest you use the following order of factorising. Follow these steps:
1 common factor
2 difference of two squares
3 quadratic trinomial
4 grouping in pairs
Example 1
Factorise fully:
a 3x 2 12
a
b 2x 2 10x + 12
3x 2 12
= 3(x 2 4)
= 3(x + 2)(x 2)
c x 4 9x 2
2x 2 10x + 12
= 2(x 2 5x + 6)
= 2(x 3)(x 2)
x 4 9x 2
= x 2(x 2 9)
= x 2(x + 3)(x 3)
Exercise 10J
1
Fully factorise:
a 3x 2 + 2x
d 3b 2 75
g x 2 8x 9
j 2g 2 12g 110
m 12 11x x 2
p x4 x2
s a 3b 2 ab 2
v 9x 4 4x 2
b
e
h
k
n
q
t
w
x 2 81
2x 2 32
d 2 + 6d 7
4a 2 9d 2
5a 2 5a 10
d 4 + 2d 3 3d 2
x2 x 6
x 2 + 8x 9
c
f
i
l
o
r
u
x
2p 2 + 8
n 4 4n 2
3x2 108
4t + 8t 2
2c 2 8c + 6
b 2+ 3b 28
x 3 + 4x 2 + 4x
2a 2 12a 18
Fully factorise:
a 14 x 2 5x
d 18x 2x 3
g 4x 2 2x 3 2x
j (x + 2)2 4
m (x + 1)a + (x + 1)b
p x(x + 2) + 3(x + 2)
b
e
h
k
n
q
x 2 + 14x + 49
ab + ac 2a
x 3y 4xy
4x 4 64
x4 a4
x 3 + x2 + x + 1
c
f
i
l
o
r
4a3 4ab 2
a 2b 2 2ab
(a + b)2 9
(x 2)y (x 2)z
(x y)a + (x y)
x 3 + 2x 2 + x + 2
295
296
d
g
j
m
p
s
v
4
3x 5x 2
x 3 + 2x 2
3x 2 12
x2 x 6
x 2 16x + 39
9x 18x 2
13x 2 52x
e
h
k
n
q
t
w
x 2 + 3x 40
x2 9
3x 3 + 6x 2
4x 2 + 8x
7x 2 21x
8x 2 12x
x 2 + 2x 3
f
i
l
o
r
u
x
x 2 16
3x 3 + 6x
x 2 + 10x + 25
9x 2 25
2x 2 50
4x 2 + 4x 3
x 3 9x
Example 1
Factorise and simplify:
x2 x 6
a x3
a
x2 x 6
x3
(x 3)(x + 2)
= x3
=x+2
x 2 16
8x 32
x 2 16
8x 32
(x + 4)(x 4)
= 8(x 4)
x+4
= 8
Exercise 10K
1
3x + x 2
b 9 x2
f
x 2 + 6x + 9
x 2 5x 24
3x 2 9x
c x 2 2x 3
x 2 + 2x + 1
d x2 1
3x 2 12
g 214 5x x
2x 2 + 6x 36
h 212 + 8x 4x
Example 2
Factorise and simplify:
2y 4
10y
a  5
y 2 2y
a
2y 4
10y
 5
y 2 2y
2
2(y 2)
10y
=  y
2)
5
y
(
1
x 2 9 x 2 + 4x + 3
 x + 5 x 2 + 6x + 5
x 2 9 x 2 + 4x + 3
 x + 5 x 2 + 6x + 5
(x + 3)(x 3) (x + 3)(x + 1)
=  (x + 5)
(x + 5)(x + 1)
(x + 3)(x 3) (x + 5)(x + 1)
=  (x + 5)
(x + 3)(x + 1)
=4
=x3
7x + 7
x +x6
 e 2
x x 2 5x + 15
2
x 4
x+2
 g 2
2
x + 2x 8 x + 3x 4
2x + 10x
6
 4x
3x + 15
f
h
x + 8x + 15 4x + 12
 2
2
x 25
x 5x
2
2
2x 10x x 2x 15
 2
2
3x 9x
x 9
2
x + 2x
3x 15
 2
x+4
x 3x 10
Example 3
Factorise and simplify:
3
2
 a 2
2
x + 2x x 4
3
4
 + 2
2x
10
x 3x 10
297
298
2
3
 2
2
x + 2x x 4
2
3
=  x(x + 2) (x 2)(x + 2)
4
3
 + 2
2x
10
x 3x 10
4
3
=  + (x 5)(x + 2) 2(x 5)
2
x2
3
x
=    
x ( x + 2 ) x 2 ( x 2 ) ( x + 2 ) x
4
2
3
x+2
=   +  
( x 5 ) ( x + 2 ) 2 2 ( x 5 ) x + 2
2 ( x 2 ) 3x
= x(x + 2)(x 2)
8 + 3(x + 2)
= 2(x 5)(x + 2)
2x 4 3x
= x(x + 2)(x 2)
3x + 14
= x(x 5)(x + 2)
x4
= x(x + 2)(x 2)
3
2
5
b  + 2
x 16 4x 16
4
2
d  3x 12 x 2 3x 4
7
3
+ 2
2
x 7x + 10 x 2x
4
2
h  2
2
x 3x x 9
f
L. QUADRATIC RELATIONSHIPS
Many graphs are not straight lines. We see curved graphs in many reallife situations.
One of these graphs, a parabolic graph, occurs when we have a quadratic relationship.
The parabola is the basic shape used in headlight and torch reflectors, solar furnaces and satellite dishes. We
observe quadratic relationships in geometric patterns.
Example 1
Examine this pattern of squares and determine the relationship between the
width of each figure (W) and the total number of squares (S).
W
10
17
26
Graph S vs W means
W on the horizontal
axis and S on the
vertical axis.
b
25
20
15
10
5
W
1 2
4 5 6
7 8
c S = W2 + 1
What happens for values of W that are not integers, e.g. W = 1.5? What is the value of S?
Exercise 10L
1
299
300
Example 2
A rectangle has perimeter 24 cm.
a Complete this table comparing length (l), breadth (b) and area (A).
l
10
11
b
A
b
c
d
e
p = 2l + 2b
i.e. 2l + 2b = 24
2(l + b) = 24
l + b = 12
b = 12 l
If l = 1
b = 12 1
b = 11
10
11
11
10
11
20
27
32
35
36
35
32
27
20
11
b
c Maximum area = 36 cm2 when
l = 6 and b = 6, i.e. a square.
d If l = 13 then b = 1, and it is not
possible to have a side length
of 1. l 13.
If l = 0 then the side would be
zero, i.e. no rectangle at all.
e If l = 3.5, b = 12 3.5 = 8.5,
A = 3.5 8.5 = 29.75 cm2.
A
40
36
30
20
10
l
2
10
301
b
A
v 30 cm
Example 3
a Find an equation that describes y in terms of x for these tables of values.
b Draw a graph of y vs x for each table of values.
i
x
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
27
18
11
11
18
27
29
20
13
13
20
29
ii
y
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
6
ii a
y
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
x
6
26
17
10
10
17
26
302
b
x
30
21
14
14
21
30
24
15
15
24
23
14
14
23
28
19
12
12
19
28
noncalculator activities
Evaluate 8 2.73.
Meat pies are $2.80. On Sundays they cost 10% more. How much is a pie on Sunday?
1
Evaluate 1  .
4
The temperature at dusk was 3C. The temperature dropped 0.5C per hour. What was the
temperature after 9 hours?
Solve 5 3p = 7.
A bag contains 6 white, 5 green and 2 blue disks. What is the probability of not selecting a
green disk?
10
Sarah drives 350 km and uses 28 L of petrol. Express this rate in L per 100 km.
11
The mode of the data shown in this stemandleaf plot is 43. What is the value of ?
Stem
Leaf
7, 8, 9
0, 2, 3, , 5, 6, 9
0, 2
12
13
14
1 3Find 4 .
1 + 34
15
Andreas collects 15 cans of food from each of 8 friends. He then gives six cans to each home
room class. How many home room classes are there?
Language in Mathematics
Read the following biography and answer the questions below.
303
304
contribution to science. In the same year he discovered quaternionsa very important step in the
development of modern algebra. He continued to work on quaternion theory and spent the last
20 years of his life as a recluse.
The results of his research The Elements of Quaternions were published after his death in 1866. He
was honoured by many foreign academics for his contributions in each of his fields of interest.
1
a
b
c
d
e
Glossary
algebra
expand
perfect square
trinomial
binomial products
expression
quadratic expressions
common factor
grouping in pairs
solve
305
10
11
12
13
8z z =
A 8
B 7
C 7z
4x 3y + 5x 2y =
A 9x 5y
B x 5y
C x y
D 9x + 5y
2x (4 3x) =
A x 4
B 4 + x
C 5x + 4
D 5x 4
C 5m 2 + 25m
D 3m 2 + 25m
m(m + 3) 4m(7 m) =
A 3m 2 25m
B 5m 2 25m
p 3p
  =
4 7
2p
A 3
t
t +  =
4
5t
A 4
3x 3p
4p  +  2x =
4
5
7p 5x
A  5
4
5p
B 28
2t
B 4
C 5t
7p 5x
B 20
(x + 7)(x 5) =
A x 2 35
B x 2 + 2x 35
C x 2 + 2x + 2
D 2x + 2
(4x 3)(2x + 5) =
A 8x 2 + 14x 15
B 8x 2 + 6x 15
C 6x + 2
D 8x 2 + 26x 15
4x (2x + 1)(x 3) =
A 2x 2 x 3
B 2x 2 x + 3
C 2x 2 + 9x + 3
D 2x 2 + 9x 3
(y 5)2 =
A y 2 25
B y 2 + 25
C y 2 5x + 25
D y 2 10x + 25
(5x 3)2 =
A 25x 2 9
B 5x 2 9
C 25x 2 30x + 9
D 25x 2 30x 9
(3x 2)(3x + 2) =
A 3x 2
9x2 4
2p
28
D 8z
92p + 55x
20
9x 2 12x 4
4p
D 28
3t
D 4
92p 55x
D 20
D 9x 2 12x + 4
306
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
If (x )2 = x 2 x + 16 then:
A = 4, = 8
B = 16, = 8
When factorised, 3x 2 6x =
A 3x
B 3x 3
3x(x 2)
D 3(x 2 2x)
When factorised, px + 3q 3p qx =
A (p q)(x 3)
B pq(3 x)
(p 3)(x q)
D cannot be
factorised
When factorised, x 2 y 2 =
A (x y)(x + y)
B (x y)2
(x + y)2
(x 10)2
(81x + 11)2
When factorised, x 2 + 4x 21 =
A (x + 7)(x 3)
B (x 7)(x + 4)
(x + 21)(x 1)
D (x 21)(x + 1)
When factorised, 5x 2 7x 6 =
A (5x 3)(x + 2)
B (5x + 1)(x 6)
(5x + 3)(x 2)
D (5x 1)(x + 6)
When factorised, 8x 2 + 5x 3 =
A (4x 1)(2x + 3)
B (8x + 3)(x 1)
(4x + 1)(2x 3)
D (8x 3)(x + 1)
4(4x2 1)
D 4(x + 1)(x 1)
x2 9x + 20
25
26
x 12x + 35
When simplified  =
3x 15
2
x 4x + 7
x7
A B 3
3
7
2
When simplified,  =
2
2
x 7x + 10 x 5x
2
5
A 2
2
( x 7x + 10 ) ( x 5x )
7x 33x 4
B x(x 5)(x 2)
D 2(x y)
D (x 5)2
D (81x 121)2
x5
3
5x + 4
C x(x 5)(x 2)
7x 37x 4
x(x 5)(x 2)
If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
Section
14
57
810
1114
15, 16
17, 18
19, 20
21
22, 23
24
25, 26
c n(n + 2) 2n(n 1)
a
b a + 3
2x 2a
c 2a 3x +  5
3
b 3(x 5) 2
c (x 8)2
f (3x 5)(3x + 5)
a If x = 3, evaluate 3x2 5x + 8.
b Which number must be added to complete the square for:
i x 2 6x
ii x 2 + 11x?
Fully factorise:
a 7x + 14
d 4y 2 25
g x 4 16x2
b 8x 2y 20xy
e x 2 + 7x 8
h 2x 2 + 2x + 24
c 3x 9 + xy 3y
f 3x 2 + 11x 4
i 3x + 6y 9z
x +x6
a x2
x 9
2x + 4
b  4x + 12 x 2 x 6
2
3
+ 2
2
x 4x x 16
307
308
c p(p + 7) 3p(4 p)
x
b  + 2x
5
a 2x
c 3x  +  3a
4 3
b 4(2x 3) 5x
c (x + 4)2
f (5x 3)(5x + 3)
a If x = 2, evaluate 2x 2 9x + 5.
b What number must be added to complete the square for:
i x 2 + 10x
ii x 2 9x?
Factorise fully:
a 3a 9
d 16y 2 25
g 9x 4 16x 2
b 12xy + 18x 2
e x 2 3x + 2
h x 3 + 3x 2 + x + 3
x 3x 4 x 4x 5
b  2
8x 32
x 25
c 2xy 6x + 7y 21
f 6x 2 7x 5
i 3x + 2xy 4xz
1
3
 2
2
x + 7x + 10 x 4
b 2(x + 3) 4
c y(y + 2) 3y(y + 4)
x 3y
c 3x 4y +  3 4
c (x 4)2
f (4x 3)(4x + 3)
Factorise:
a 5x + 10
d 9x 2 100
g x 3 16x
b 3x 2 6xy
e x 2 x 12
h 3x 2 21x + 24
Simplify:
2
x x 20
a x5
x 4
3x 15x
b  2
2
x + x 6 x 3x 10
c 2x 4 + 3xy 6y
f 3x 2 + 16x + 5
i 12x 9p + 6z
4
5
 2
2
x 9 x + 3x
309
310
b 3(7 4x) 3x
c m(m 4) 3m(6 m)
r
 + 2r
4
2p 5x
c 2x 4p  + 3
2
c (y + 3)2
f (6x 5)(6x + 5)
Factorise:
a 3x 15
d 16x 2 25
g 6x 2 11x 10
b 12xy 8yz
e x 2 + 4x 21
h 2x 3 18x
c xp + 2x yp 2y
f 5x 2 + 7x 6
i 15x 20y + 10z
Simplify:
2
x + 5x 14
a 2x + 14
x 25
x 4x 5
 2
2
3x + 15x
x +x
2
3
c  2
2
x 5x x 25
Chapter 11
Consumer Arithmetic
This chapter deals with solving consumer arithmetic problems involving
earning and spending money, simple interest and loans.
After completing this chapter you should be able to:
calculate weekly, fortnightly, monthly and yearly earnings for various types of income
calculate net income after considering common deductions
calculate simple interest using the formula
apply the simple interest formula to problems involving investing money
calculate and compare the cost of purchasing goods by different means
calculate a best buy.
312
Diagnostic test
1
B $3150
C $4500
D $5400
B $1260
C $1560
D $1594.29
B $831.60
C $920.70
D $950.40
B $2839
C $3196
D $476
Sun.
$14.38
$17.98
$21.57
Sat.
Kitchen
hand
Mon.Fri.
10
11
A $273.22
B $323.57
C $305.62
D $337.93
B $673.80
C $320.20
D $536.20
B $2602.05
C $560.25
D $3050.25
A $5.76
B $18.24
A 26%
B 6.5%
C $218.88
D $1094.40
C 1.04%
D 4%
12
13
A $439.10
B $439.12
ii
C $59 90
D $59.88
iii
B hire purchase
15
16
17
A $1498
B $1737.68
C $1977.36
D $2217.04
A $1895
B $2016
A $468.41
B $548.04
C $2311
D $2190
C $639.34
D $483.05
18
A $36.94
B $47.62
19
C $39.59
D $30.83
B $45
C $445.50
D $450
98sit
$N1o 4
depo
No repayments
for 12 months
(conditions apply)
If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
Section
13
4, 5
10, 11
12
13
14, 15
16
17
18
19
313
314
A. EARNING AN INCOME
There are a number of different ways in which people are paid for providing their labour, knowledge, skills and
services. If people work for themselves they charge a fee, some people rely on income from investments, but
most people work for an employer. By research and discussion, complete the table below that shows the ways
people are paid when they work for an employer.
Exercise 11A
Earning an income
Method of
payment
Description
Salary
Wages
Commission
Piecework
Fee
Casual
Examples of
occupations
Advantanges/
Disadvantages
Exercise 11B
1
Convert the following weekly salaries into the equivalent salary per:
i fortnight
ii year
a $457
b $1025.60
c $1378.94
Example 2
Harry earns a salary of $48 600 p.a. How much does he earn per:
a week
b fortnight
p.a. is short
for per annum,
which means
per year.
c month?
Convert the following yearly salaries into the equivalent salary per:
i week
ii fortnight
iii month
a $52 400
b $95 370
c $82 900
Convert the annual salaries shown in the advertisements below to the equivalent:
i weekly
ii fortnightly
iii monthly salaries
a
b
Fashion
Girl's Surfwear Designer
$80K
Exciting position for the
right person. Ph 9444 222
c
Cleaner/Housekeeper
$40K Rare opportunity
to work in fine home.
Ph 9666 000
Foreman $110K
Experienced foreman required
for city project. Ph 9333 000
$80K is a
short way of
indicating
$80 000.
315
316
Example 3
Brad earns $288 per week. What is his monthly salary?
1 month 4 weeks, so we must calculate Brads yearly salary first.
Yearly salary = $288 52
= $14 976
Monthly salary = $14 976 12
= $1248
4
Example 4
Bruno earns $3600 per month. What is his equivalent weekly salary?
Again, we must calculate the yearly salary first.
Yearly salary = $3600 12
= $43 200
Weekly salary = $43 200 52
= $830.77 to the nearest cent
5
Scott earns $68 840 p.a., Lisa earns $1350 per week and Paula earns $5700 per month.
Who earns the most?
Example 5
Ella works a 35hour week and is paid $23.86 per hour. What are her weekly
wages?
Weekly wages = 35 $23.86
= $835.10
7
Calculate the weekly wages for a person who works a 35hour week and is paid:
a $18.90/h
b $26.48/h
c $84.50/h
Example 6
Yoshi earns $1389.50 for working a 35hour week. What is his hourly rate of pay?
Hourly rate = $1389.50 35
= $39.70
8
Calculate the hourly rate of pay for a person who works a 35hour week and is paid weekly
wages of:
a $994
b $847
c $626.50
Example 7
Sophie works a 38hour week and is paid $28.75 per hour. How much does she
earn in a:
a week
b fortnight
c year?
How much does a person earn in a i week ii fortnight iii year if the person works a 38hour
week and is paid:
a $43/h
b $52.90/h
c $75.30/h
Example 8
Remember that
1 month is not
equal to 4 weeks!
10
What are the average monthly wages for a person who works a 36hour week and earns:
a $18.20/h
b $32.90/h
c $76.50/h
317
318
C. ADDITIONAL PAYMENTS
Example 1
Ben normally works a 35hour week and is paid $18.90 per hour. Calculate his
total wages for a week in which he works an additional 5 hours overtime at
timeandahalf.
Fulltime employees who earn wages are expected to work a minimum number
of hours each day, or each week, as negotiated in their workplace agreement.
Overtime is paid to people who work hours in addition to those required by their
workplace agreement and it is paid at a higher rate. The most common rates of
overtime payment are:
a timeandahalf, i.e. the employee is paid at 1 12 times the normal hourly rate
of pay, e.g. if the normal rate of pay is $20/hour then the employee would be
paid ($20 1 12 =) $30/hour at timeandahalf.
b double time, i.e. the employee is paid double the normal rate of pay, e.g. if the
normal rate of pay is $20/hour then the employee would be paid ($20 2 =)
$40/hour at double time.
Normal pay = $18.90 35
= $661.50
Overtime = ($18.90 1.5) 5
= $141.75
Total wages = $661.50 + $141.75
= $803.25
Exercise 11C
1
Dianne normally works a 35hour week and is paid $23.40 per hour. Calculate her total
wages for a week in which she works an additional 4 hours at timeandahalf.
Rebecca normally works a 36hour week and is paid $17.20 per hour. Calculate her total
wages for a week in which she works an additional 3 hours at timeandahalf.
Tim is paid $18.60 per hour for a normal 35hour week and timeandahalf for any extra
hours worked. How much would he earn for a week in which he worked 40 hours?
Example 2
Ringo normally works a 35hour week and is paid $36.15 per hour. Calculate his
total wages for a week in which he works an additional 5 hours at timeandahalf and 3 hours at double time.
Normal pay = $36.15 35
= $1265.25
Overtime = ($36.15 1.5) 5 + ($36.15 2) 3
= $488.03
Total wages = $1265.25 + $488.03
= $1753.28
Jarrod normally works a 35hour week and is paid $31.20 per hour. Calculate his total wages
for a week in which he works an additional 5 hours at timeandahalf and 3 hours at double
time.
Martha normally works a 35hour week and is paid $28.60 per hour. Calculate her total
wages for a week in which she works an additional 8 hours at timeandahalf and 5 hours
at double time.
Dana normally works a 38hour week and is paid $36.15 per hour. Calculate her total wages
for a week in which she works an additional 4 hours at timeandahalf and 2 hours at double
time.
Erin is paid $24.70 per hour. She is paid the normal rate for the first 7 hours worked each
day, timeandahalf for the next 2 hours and double time thereafter. Calculate her total
wages for a day on which she worked:
a 8 hours
b 9 hours
c 10 hours
Rob is paid $26.30 per hour. He is paid the normal rate for the first 6 hours worked each day,
timeandahalf for the next 2 hours and double time thereafter. Calculate his total wages for
a day on which he worked
a 8 hours
b 9 hours
c 10 hours
Example 3
Don works a 35hour week and is paid timeandahalf for any extra hours
worked. One week he worked 5 hours overtime and was paid $969. What is his
hourly rate of pay?
Let the hourly rate of pay be $y, then
y 35 + y 1.5 5 = 969
35y + 7.5y = 969
42.5y = 969
969
y = 42.5
= 22.8
i.e. Don earns $22.80 per hour.
Angela works a 35hour week and is paid timeandahalf for any extra hours worked. One
week she worked 4 hours overtime and was paid $1102.90. What is her hourly rate of pay?
10
Daniel works a 35hour week and is paid timeandahalf for any extra hours worked. One
week he worked 7 hours overtime and was paid $982.80. What is his hourly rate of pay?
11
Pete works his normal 35hour week plus 4 hours overtime at timeandahalf and 3 hours at
double time. He was paid $1576.38. What is his hourly rate of pay?
12
Glenda is paid $17.90 per hour for working a 35hour week and timeandahalf for any extra
hours worked. One week she was paid $733.90. How much overtime did she do?
319
320
Example 4
Paul works for a builder and earns $66 000 per year. At the end of the year the
builder decides to pay Paul a bonus equal to one months salary. Calculate Pauls
bonus.
A bonus is an extra payment made to employees, often as a reward for meeting
deadlines, exceeding profit targets, producing a high quantity of work etc.
Bonus = $66 000 12
= $5500
13
Jenni works as a secretary and earns $58 600 per year. At the end of the year her employer
pays her a bonus of one months salary. Calculate Jennis bonus.
14
Abdul is paid $23.50 per hour and works a normal 35hour week. At the end of the year his
employer pays him a bonus of 5% of his yearly wages. Calculate Abduls bonus.
15
A company made a profit of $194 000 for the year. The owner decided to share 60% of the
profit between her 80 employees as a bonus. Calculate the bonus paid to each of the
employees.
16
For completing a project ahead of schedule, each member of the project team was given a
bonus of 3% of the aftertax profit made. Calculate the bonus paid to each member of the
team if the aftertax profit was $120 000.
17
An engineering design company decided to pay its 12 employees an equal share of 20% of the
profit on a special project, as a bonus. If each of the 12 employees received a bonus of $1300,
how much profit did the company make on this project?
18
Marks total income for the year was $57 337.28. This included a bonus of one months salary.
What is Marks normal annual income (i.e. his income without any bonus)?
Example 5
Tanya earns $810 per week. She is entitled to 4 weeks annual recreation leave
and receives an additional holiday loading of 17.5%. Calculate Tanyas:
a holiday loading
b total pay for this holiday period.
Holiday loading (leave loading) is an extra payment given to employees when
they take their annual recreation leave. It is usually calculated as 17.5% of
4 weeks normal salary or wages.
a Normal pay for 4 weeks = $810 4
= $3240
Holiday loading = 17.5% of $3240
= 0.175 $3240
= $567
19
Kylie earns $760 per week. She is entitled to 4 weeks annual leave and receives an additional
holiday loading of 17.5%. Calculate Kylies:
a holiday loading
b total pay for this holiday period
20
Vinh works a normal 35hour week and is paid $17.90 per hour. He is entitled to 4 weeks
annual leave and receives an additional holiday loading of 17.5%. Calculate Vinhs:
a holiday loading
b total pay for this holiday period
21
Sunny earns $1230 per fortnight. She is entitled to 4 weeks annual leave and receives an
additional holiday loading of 17.5%. Calculate Sunnys total pay for this holiday period.
22
Wesley earns $43 940 per year. He is entitled to 4 weeks annual leave and receives an
additional holiday loading of 17.5%. Calculate Wesleys total pay for this holiday period.
Example 6
Zoe works as a receptionist. She is entitled to 4 weeks annual leave and receives
a holiday loading of 17.5%. One year her total holiday pay was $3092.60. What
is Zoes weekly salary?
Let the weekly salary be $z, then
117.5% of 4 z = 3092.60
i.e. 1.175 4 z = 3092.60
4.7 z = 3092.6
3092.6
z = 4.7
= 658
i.e. Zoe earns $658 per week.
23
Tiffany is entitled to 4 weeks annual leave and receives a holiday loading of 17.5%. One year
her total holiday pay was $4512. What is Tiffanys weekly salary?
24
Bin is entitled to 4 weeks annual leave and receives a holiday loading of 17.5%. One year his
total holiday pay was $4812.80. Calculate his holiday loading.
321
322
Investigation 1
WM: Reasoning, Applying Strategies
A
Employee
B
Rate ($/h)
C
Normal time (h)
24.72
18.94
23.65
26.36
16.78
15.43
36
36
36
35
35
40
Bill
Sue
Alan
Gillian
Natasha
Eric
D
Overtime (h)
timeandahalf
8
6
4
5
E
Overtime (h)
double time
4
1
2
3
F
Total pay
Add some more employees, put in their rate and the number of hours worked. Calculate their
total pay.
D. PIECEWORK
Piecework is a method of earning money in which the employee is paid for the number of items (pieces)
produced or completed.
Example 1
Peta works at home sewing childrens tops. She is paid $3.20 for each top she
produces. How much does she earn for a week in which she produces 120 tops?
Income = 120 $3.20
= $384
Exercise 11D
1
Kerry is paid $0.83 per item for ironing shirts in a factory. How much does she earn for a
week in which she irons 240 shirts?
Patricia earns $1.03 for each dress she finishes in a clothing factory. If, on average, she can
finish 7 dresses per hour and she works a 35hour week, what are her average weekly
earnings?
Joe works for a mens hairdresser and is paid $9 for each haircut he does. If he averages
16 haircuts per day for 6 days, how much does he earn?
Terry has a job assembling door locks. One week he assembles 450 locks and is paid $216.
How much is he paid for assembling each lock?
Wayne works for Sparkler Lighting Co. assembling lamps. He is paid the following daily
piecework rates:
up to 50 lamps
$1.45 /lamp
No. assembled
for each lamp over 50 and up to 70
$1.60 /lamp
55
for each lamp over 70
$1.90 /lamp Mon.
Tues.
48
Here is Waynes work card for the week.
Wed.
62
Calculate Waynes earnings for the week.
Thurs.
76
Fri.
52
E. COMMISSION
Commission is a method of earning income by which the employee is paid a percentage of the value of
their sales.
Example 1
Georgia works as a salesperson and is paid a commission of 6% of the value
of her sales. If Georgia sells $12 000 worth of goods one week, what is her
commission?
Commission = 6% of $12 000
= 0.06 $12 000
= $720
Exercise 11E
1
A real estate agent charges a commission of 1.5% of the value of any house he sells. Calculate
how much he will earn if he sells a house for:
a $660 000
b $320 000
c $980 000
Joanne has a parttime job selling cosmetics. She is paid a commission of 18% of all sales.
Calculate how much she earns in one month if her sales are:
a $9000
b $5400
c $2300
323
324
The commission
earned for buying
or selling shares is
called brokerage.
Example 2
In excess of
means
more than.
b $8650?
Fiona has a job selling cleaning equipment. She earns a commission of 17.5% of all weekly
sales in excess of $10 000. How much commission does she earn on weekly sales of:
a $8000
b $12 000
c $24 000?
Example 3
Carol sells internet plans. She is paid the following rates of commission:
1.5% of the first $20 000 worth of sales,
2.5% of any sales above $20 000.
Calculate how much she earns in a week in which her sales are:
a $16 000
b $24 000
e $38 000
Rate means
the percentage rate of
commission.
Marie is a real estate agent. She charges the following commission for selling home units:
3% for the first $160 000 of the selling price of the unit,
2% for the next $50 000 and
1.5% for the remainder of the selling price.
Calculate how much Marie would earn for selling a unit for:
a $150 000
b $180 000
c $210 000
d $280 000
e $360 000
Example 4
Chad sells washing machines. He is paid a fixed wage of $200 per week plus a
commission of 3% of sales. How much does he earn in a week in which his sales
are $5480?
Commission = 0.03 $5480
= $164.40
Weekly earnings = Retainer + Commission
= $200 + $164.40
= $364.40
Therese sells printers for computers. She is paid a retainer of $250 per week plus a
commission of 4% of her sales. How much does she earn in a week in which she sells
$14 970 worth of printers?
Michael works for a bookseller. He is paid a retainer of $280 per week plus a commission of
2% of sales. How much does he earn in a week in which his sales are:
a $7650
b $3000
c $12 000
d $4700
e $8260?
325
326
10
Complete the following table to show the weekly earnings of the sales team for a
pharmaceutical company.
Employee
R. Roberts
H. Low
J. Thum
K. Trau
G. Flood
Retainer
Rate
Sales
Commission
$200
$150
$100
nil
nil
2%
5%
6%
8%
9%
$4 200
$8 600
$10 450
$12 900
$15 360
$84
Weekly earnings
11
Jacqueline works as a sales representative for a hardware company. She is paid a retainer of
$250 per week plus a commission of 3% of any sales in excess of $6000.
How much would she earn in a week in which her sales were:
a $4500
b $6400
c $7200
d $8430
e $10 960?
12
Hassan gets a job as a salesperson with a mobile phone company. He is offered two methods
of weekly payment:
A Retainer of $200 plus commission of 3%, or
B No retainer, commission of 8%.
a How much would Hassan earn, using each method, if his weekly sales were:
i $0
ii $3000
iii $4000
iv $5000
v $10 000?
b Which method of payment would you advise Hassan to choose? Give reasons.
13
14
One week Alex sells two cars costing $32 000 each. If he was paid a commission of $1280,
what is the rate of commission that he is paid?
15
Joe is paid a retainer plus a commission of 4% of sales. If he receives $980 for selling
$18 000 worth of goods, what is the retainer that he is paid?
16
Sally is paid a retainer of $220 per week plus a commission of 3% of sales. One week she
earned $478. What was the value of the goods that she sold?
17
Sasha is paid a retainer of $180 per week plus a commission of 6% of sales in excess of
$5000. One week he earned $858, what was the value of the goods that he sold?
18
Example 1
The table below shows part of an award agreement for tradespersons.
Tradespersons
Bricklayer
Carpenter
Painter
Sign writer
Roof tiler
15.90
16.08
15.63
15.89
15.79
19.08
19.30
18.76
19.07
18.95
a Tom is a fulltime bricklayer who works a 35hour week. Calculate his normal
weekly wages.
b Bob is a qualified bricklayer who is employed as a casual for 35 hours one week.
How much more than Tom does Bob earn?
a Toms wages = $15.90 35
= $556.50
b Bobs wages = $19.08 35
= $667.80
$667.80 $556.50 = $111.30
i.e. Bob earns $111.30 more than Tom for this week.
Exercise 11F
Use the table in example 1 above to do questions 14.
1
Emma is a signwriter who does casual work. She works the following hours one week:
Monday 3 hours, Tuesday 4 hours, Wednesday 3 hours, Friday 5 hours. How much does
she earn?
a Matt is a fulltime painter who works a 35hour week. Calculate his normal weekly wages.
b During a busy period he employs a casual to work with him for the 35 hours. How much
extra does the casual earn for the weeks work?
Jack is a fulltime roof tiler. Due to extra demand he employs two casuals to help him for
7 hours on each of 3 days. What is the wages bill for the two casuals?
Grant is a carpenter who is employed as a casual. One week he earns $463.20. How many
hours did he work?
327
328
Example 2
The table below shows part of the Restaurant Employees Award.
Casual $ per hour
Kitchen hand
Waiter
Grill cook
Grade 6 chef
Mon.Fri.
Sat.
Sun.
14.38
14.92
15.73
18.69
17.98
18.65
19.66
23.36
21.57
22.38
23.59
28.03
Calcuate the wages of a casual waiter who works 8 hours from Monday to Friday,
6 hours on Saturday and 4 hours on Sunday.
Wages = 8 $14.92 + 6 $18.65 + 4 $22.38
= $320.78
Emily is employed as a casual kitchen hand for 3 hours per day for each day Monday to Friday.
Calculate her wages.
Trent is a grade 6 chef who works as a casual on Saturday for 6 hours and Sunday for 6 hours.
Calculate his wages.
Calculate the wages of a casual grill cook who works the following hours:
M
3
8
Con is employed as a casual kitchen hand. One week he worked 3 hours on Saturday, 4 hours
on Sunday and the remaining hours were all worked in the period Monday to Friday. If he
received $226.50 for the weeks work, how many hours did he work from Monday to Friday?
The table below shows the Restaurant Award rates for Grade 1 juniors.
Juniors: Casual $ per hour
Age (years)
Mon.Fri.
Sat.
Sun.
17
18
19
20
8.92
10.07
11.51
12.95
11.15
12.58
14.38
16.18
13.38
15.10
17.26
19.42
10
a Ben is 18 years old and does casual work in a coffee shop. How much does he earn for
working 4 hours on Saturday and 6 hours on Sunday?
b Lara is 20 years old; how much would she earn for working the same hours as Ben?
11
Sarah and Ella work in a caf. Sarah is 17 years old and Ella is 18 years old. One week they
both work the same shifts, as shown below.
M
How much more than Sarah does Ella earn for this week?
12
Jenny is 19 years old and does casual work as a waitress on Friday, Saturday and Sunday
nights. One week she worked 5 hours on Friday night, 6 hours on Saturday night and was paid
$204.24 for the week. How many hours did she work on Sunday night?
G. NET EARNINGS
The total amount earned by an employee is called gross income. However this is not the amount of money that
the employee actually takes home because deductions are made.
The most common deductions are federal income tax, health insurance and superannuation. The amount
actually received, after deductions, is called net earnings or takehome pay.
Net Earnings = Gross Income Deductions
Example 1
Julie earns $890 per week. The deductions from her salary each week are:
tax $265.83, health insurance $43.59 and superannuation $42.70.
Calculate her net earnings each week.
Total deductions = $265.83 + $43.59 + $42.70
= $352.12
Net Earnings = $890 $352.12
= $537.88
329
330
Exercise 11G
1
Patricia earns $940 per week. The deductions from her salary each week are: tax $280.78,
health insurance $37.62 and superannuation $56.40. Calculate her net earnings each week.
David earns $760 per week. The deductions from his salary each week are: tax $212.80,
health insurance $32.40 and superannuation $30.40. Calculate his net earnings each week.
Sue earns $43.80 per hour and works a 36hour week. The deductions from her wages each
week are: tax $536.11, superannuation $94.61 and health insurance $51.25. She pays union
fees of $7.60 and also has $50 per week paid directly into an investment account. Calculate
her takehome pay each week.
Yuchen earns $63.70 per hour and works a 38hour week. The weekly deductions from her
wages include: tax $871.42, superannuation $217.85 and health insurance $44.90. She also
pays $5 per week to her favourite charity and has $70 per week paid into a special savings
account. Calculate her takehome pay.
Jamess gross salary is $1230 per week. His employer deducts 31% of his gross earnings for
tax and he contributes 9% of his gross income into a superannuation fund. His health fund
contributions are $39.99 and professional association fees are $13.20 per week. Calculate
his net weekly earnings.
H. BUDGETS
A budget is a financial plan for the future. It is a means by which you can save for future purchases and avoid
overspending. To prepare a budget you need to determine your expected income and estimate your expected
expenses. Your income needs to be larger than your expenses if you are to live within your means.
To prepare a budget, for a given time period (e.g. week, month, year):
calculate your total income
estimate your total expenses
calculate income minus expenses
adjust income or expenses if necessary.
Example 1
Karen has just started work and still lives at home with her parents. Her weekly
takehome salary is $480. Each week she pays $110 for board, $49 for fares and
$35 for lunches. She spends $120 per week on entertainment, $95 per fortnight on
personal items and $330 per month on clothes.
a Prepare an annual budget for Karen.
b Karen wants to go on an overseas holiday in 3 years time. The cost of the holiday
is $7899. Determine whether or not Karen will be able to take her holiday.
c If Karen will not have sufficient money to take her holiday, how could she adjust
her budget so that she would be able to afford the holiday?
Salary
($480 52) = $24 960
Board
($110 52) = $5720
Fares
($49 52) = $2548
Lunches
($35 52) = $1820
Entertainment
($120 52) = $6240
Personal items ($95 26) = $2470
Clothes
($330 12) = $3960
Total
= $22 758
Income Expenses = $2202
Karen has an excess of income over expenses so she will be able to live
satisfactorily on this budget and save some money.
b If Karen saves all her money, then in 3 years she will have $2202 3 = $6606.
She is $7899 $6606 = $1293 short of her target.
c Karen must either increase her income or decrease her expenses by at least
($1293 3 =) $431 per year.
She could increase her income by finding employment with a higher salary or
getting a second job. She could decrease her expenses by, for example, reducing
her spending on clothes to $290 per month. She would then save ($40 12 =) $480
per year on expenses. Or, if she reduced her spending on entertainment to $110
per week, she would save ($10 52 =) $520 per year. She would then be able to
afford to take the holiday.
a Income
Expenses
Exercise 11H
1
Naomi lives at home with her parents. Her weekly takehome salary is $590. Each week she
pays $100 for board, $53 for fares and $42 for lunches. She spends $150 per week on
entertainment, $84 per fortnight on personal items, $380 per month on clothes.
a Prepare an annual budget for Naomi.
b Naomi wants to go on an overseas holiday in 3 years time. The cost of the holiday is
$12 550. Determine whether or not Naomi will be able to take her holiday.
Matthews net earnings are $540 per week. He shares a house for which he pays $120 per
week rent. Each week he spends $110 on food, $145 on entertainment and $25 on personal
items. The loan repayments on his car are $380 per month. He spends $45 per week on petrol
and the sixmonthly service is $380. Annual registration and insurance amount to $1148.
His mobile phone costs him $24 per month.
a Prepare an annual budget for Matthew.
b How could Matthew adjust his budget so that he can live within his means?
George is a fulltime TAFE student. He receives an allowance of $320 per fortnight from the
government and averages earnings of $120 per week from his parttime job. His expenses
are: rent $320 per month, food $90 per week, phone $110 per quarter, entertainment
$70 per week, books $350 per year.
a Prepare an annual budget for George.
b George has already saved the money to buy a car. He estimates that it would cost him
$30 per week for petrol, $80 per month for maintenance and $840 per year for
registration and insurance. Can George afford to own and run a car?
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332
Kate and Robert want to prepare a budget for next year and have gathered the following
information.
Income:
Kates takehome pay is $490 per week and Robert clears $380 per week.
Interest of $230 from investments is expected in February and August of next
year.
Expenses: Home loan repayments, $980 per month
Food, $160 per week
Electricity, $480 each quarter
Telephone, $110 per month
Council rates, $340 each quarter
Water rates, $186 per quarter
Car registration and insurance, $780 per year
Comprehensive car insurance, $810 per year
Car loan repayments, $108 per week
Car running expenses, average $190 per month
Clothing, average $350 per month
Personal items, $45 per week
a Prepare an annual budget for Kate and Robert.
b In order to reduce the cost of their loans, Kate and Robert wish to increase their loan
repayments. Can they afford to do this? What advice would you give Kate and Robert?
I. SIMPLE INTEREST
When investing money in a financial institution, such as a bank, the bank pays for the use of your money. This
payment by the bank is called interest and is calculated as a percentage of the amount invested. Similarly, when
you borrow money a charge is made for the use of the banks money. This charge is also called interest and is
calculated as a percentage of the amount borrowed.
There are two methods of calculating the interest: simple interest and compound interest. If the interest is
calculated as a fixed percentage of the original amount invested (or borrowed), then it is called simple interest.
Example 1
Calculate the simple interest if $8000 is invested for 3 years at 4.5% p.a.
Interest for 1 year = 4.5% of $8000
= 0.045 $8000
= $360
Interest for 3 years = $360 3
= $1080
If $P is invested for T years at r % p.a. then the simple interest, I, can be found using the formula:
I = PRT
r
where P is called the principal, R is called the interest rate p.a. R =  and T is the time in years.
100
Example 2
Use the simple interest formula to calculate the simple interest earned on an
investment of $10 800 at 3.9% p.a. for 5 years.
I = PRT
= $10 800 0.039 5
= $2106
Exercise 11I
1
Calculate the simple interest if $12 000 is invested for 4 years at 3% p.a.
$5 800
$15 000
$24 000
$6 500
$18 000
$9 300
$6 000
7%
3.5%
4.5%
5%
2.8%
3.4%
3%
4
3
5
6
2
4
3
Simple interest
Example 3
Calculate the amount to which $7000 will grow in 3 years if invested at 6.5% p.a.
simple interest.
Interest = $7000 0.065 3
= $1365
Amount after 3 years = $7000 + $1365
= $8365
Calculate the amount to which $9000 will grow in 3 years if invested at 6.5% p.a. simple
interest.
Calculate the amount to which $20 000 will grow in 5 years if invested at 4% p.a. simple
interest.
If I invest $13 500 at 7.4% p.a. simple interest, how much will I have in 4 years time?
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334
Example 4
Calculate the simple interest earned on $6000 at 8% p.a. for 16 months.
16
The number of years the money is invested =  , hence
12
16
Interest = $6000 0.08 12
= $640
7
Example 5
Rene invested $4700 at 6% p.a. simple interest and earned $1128 in interest. For
how long did he invest his money?
Interest for 1 year = 0.06 $4700
= $282
No. of years invested = $1128 $282
=4
i.e. Rene invested his money for 4 years.
8
Harry invested $13 000 at 6% p.a. simple interest and earned $4680 in interest. For how long
did he invest his money?
Joy invested $2800 at 3.5% p.a. simple interest and earned $490 in interest. For how long
did she invest her money?
Example 6
Colin invested $4000 for 5 years and earned $700 in interest. What was the
annual rate of simple interest?
Interest for 1 year = $700 5
= $140
140
Annual interest rate =  100%
4000
= 3.5%
10
Kim invested $6000 for 5 years and earned $2100 in interest. What was the annual rate of
simple interest?
11
Lauren invested $17 000 for 4 years and earned $3128 in interest. What was the annual rate
of simple interest?
Example 1
How much would you actually pay in cash to purchase goods that cost:
a 87 cents
b $2.43
c $2.99?
c $3.00
Exercise 11J
1
How much would you actually pay in cash to purchase goods that cost:
a 76c
b $5.28
c $2.79
d $7.31
e $3.97
g $16.23
h $21.99
i $54.85
j $39.14
k $17.36
Calculate the change given when:
a $10 is offered to pay for goods worth $5.83
c $10 is offered to pay for goods worth $8.22
e $20 is offered to pay for goods worth $18.36
g $50 is offered to pay for goods worth $28.57
b
d
f
h
f
l
$8.52
$69.98
Example 2
An electrical store offers a discount of 12% for cash purchases.
Find the cash price of a television set marked as $799.
Discount = 12% of $799
or
Price = 88% of $799
= 0.12 $799
= 0.88 $799
= $95.88
Price = $799 $95.88
= $703.12
= $703.12
Rounding the discounted price to the nearest 5 cents, the cash price is $703.10.
An electrical store offers a discount of 12% for cash purchases. Find the cash price of a
sound system marked at $479.
A builders hardware store offers a discount of 6% for cash purchases. Find the cash price
for goods worth:
a $147
b $463
c $224
d $180.56
e $68.99
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336
Exercise 11K
Use the statement on the previous page to answer the following questions.
1
What is the:
a date the statement period starts and ends
c daily interest rate for purchases
e available credit
g minimum payment that must be made
Calculate the:
a total purchases made
b total credits (CR)
c Opening Balance + Purchases + Financial Institution Tax Credits. Is this the closing
balance?
List some advantages and disadvantages of using credit cards to purchase goods.
L. LAYBY
Some retail stores allow customers to purchase goods by a method called layby. Under a layby agreement a
deposit is paid and the goods are put aside. The remainder of the cost price must be paid off within a given period
of time. The customer cannot collect the goods until the balance is completely repaid, but no interest is charged.
Example 1
Nick decides to layby a tool set costing $849 and pays a deposit of $100. Over
the next 3 months he makes repayments of $150, $85, $90, $160, $120 and $70.
How much more does he have to repay to be able to collect the tool set?
Total amount repaid = $100 + $150 + $85 + $90 + $160 + $120 + $70
= $775
Balance = $849 $775
= $74
Nick still has $74 to pay before he can collect the tool set.
Exercise 11L
1
Ben decides to layby an electric saw costing $569 and pays a deposit of $120.Over the next
3 months he makes repayments of $60, $45, $90, $70, $70 and $80. How much more does
he have to repay to be able to collect the saw?
Zoe laybys a bike costing $225 for her sons birthday and pays a deposit of $60. Each week
for the next 5 weeks she makes payments of $25. How much more does she have to repay to
be able to collect the bike?
337
338
Example 2
Isabella laybys a dress costing $324 and pays a deposit of $50. She wants to
collect the dress in approximately 3 months time to wear to a wedding. If she
pays off the balance by making 3 equal monthly instalments, calculate:
a the balance to be repaid
Martine laybys a dress costing $485. She pays a deposit of $80 and pays off the balance
by making 4 equal monthly instalments. Calculate:
a the balance to be repaid
b the amount of each monthly instalment
Yvonne laybys a new electric oven costing $778. She is required to pay a 10% deposit and
repay the balance by 12 equal weekly instalments. Calculate the:
a deposit
b balance to be repaid
c amount of each weekly instalment
Josh laybys a new DVD player costing $456. He is required to pay a 15% deposit and repay
the balance by 6 equal fortnightly instalments. Calculate the:
a deposit
b balance to be repaid
c amount of each fortnightly instalment
List some advantages and disadvantages of using the layby method to purchase goods.
M. BUYING ON TERMS
Buying on terms
is sometimes
called hire
purchase.
Example 1
A refrigerator costing $2998 can be bought on terms for $299 deposit and
24 monthly instalments of $139.45.
a Calculate the total cost of buying the refrigerator on terms.
b How much would you save by paying cash?
a Total cost = $299 + 24 $139.45
= $3645.80
b Amount saved by paying cash = $3645.80 $2998
= $647.80
Exercise 11M
1
A refrigerator costing $2599 can be bought on terms for $399 deposit and 24 monthly
instalments of $115.50.
a Calculate the total cost of buying the refrigerator on terms.
b How much would you save by paying cash?
A laptop computer costing $2298 can be bought on terms for $229 deposit and 18 monthly
repayments of $135.60.
a Calculate the total cost of buying the computer on terms.
b How much would you save by paying cash?
A home theatre system costing $1598 can be bought on the following terms: 10% deposit and
48 weekly instalments of $37.15.
a Calculate the total cost of buying the system on terms.
b How much would you save by paying cash?
A hifi sound system costing $879 can be bought on the following terms: deposit 15% and
26 fortnightly repayments of $39.98.
a Calculate the total cost of buying the system on terms.
b How much would you save by paying cash?
Example 2
A computer costing $3498 can be bought on terms for $300 deposit and
36 monthly repayments of $124.17.
a
b
c
d
e
annual interest
100%
amount borrowed
$424.04
100%
$3198
= 13.3%
339
340
A camera costing $1499 can be bought on terms for $200 deposit and 24 monthly repayments
of $74.69.
a Calculate the total cost of buying the camera on terms.
b Find the total amount of interest charged.
c Calculate the amount of interest paid annually.
d What was the amount of money borrowed?
e Calculate the annual rate of interest charged.
A television costing $5890 can be bought on terms for $300 deposit and 36 monthly
repayments of $199.53.
a Calculate the total cost of buying the computer on terms.
b Find the total amount of interest charged.
c Calculate the amount of interest paid annually.
d What was the amount of money borrowed?
e Calculate the annual rate of interest charged.
A dining room suite was advertised for $5990 or $500 deposit and 48 monthly repayments
of $187.58.
a Calculate the total cost of buying the dining room suite on terms.
b Find the total amount of interest charged.
c Calculate the amount of interest paid annually.
d What was the amount of money borrowed?
e Calculate the annual rate of interest charged.
Example 3
A widescreen plasma TV set can be bought for $7998 cash or on the following
terms: deposit $799, the balance to be repaid over 2 years by 24 equal monthly
repayments. Simple interest is charged on the balance at 12% p.a. If the TV is
bought on terms calculate:
a the balance owing after the deposit is paid
b the interest charged on the balance owing
c the monthly repayment
a Balance owing = $7998 $799
b Interest = $7199 0.12 2
= $7199
= $1727.76
c Balance owing + Interest = $7199 + $1727.76
= $8926.76
Monthly repayment = $8926.76 24
= $371.95 (to the nearest cent)
8
Peter buys a secondhand car advertised for $9600 on the following terms: deposit $2000,
the balance to be repaid over 2 years by equal monthly repayments. Simple interest is
charged at 12% p.a. Calculate:
a the balance owing
b the interest charged on the balance owing
c the monthly repayment
Angela buys a car advertised for $12 900 on the following terms: deposit $3000, the balance
to be repaid over 3 years by equal monthly repayments. Simple interest is charged at 9% p.a.
Calculate:
a the balance owing
b the interest charged on the balance owing
c the monthly repayment
10
Adrienne buys a washing machine advertised for $4990 on the following terms: deposit 10%
and the balance repaid over 2 years by equal monthly repayments. Simple interest is charged
at 15% p.a. Calculate:
a the deposit
b the balance owing
c the interest charged on the balance owing
d the monthly repayment
11
Robin buys a new car advertised for $19 900 on the following terms: deposit 15%, the
balance to be repaid over 4 years by equal monthly repayments. Simple interest is charged at
11.9% p.a. Calculate:
a the deposit
b the balance owing
c the interest charged on the balance owing
d the monthly repayment
12
Investigation 2
WM: Applying Strategies, Reasoning
Monthly repayments
The spreadsheet below calculates the monthly repayment when an item is bought on terms.
A
1 Item
Cash
Deposit Interest
Repayment
Balance Interest on Monthly
price ($)
rate (% p.a.) period (years) owing
balance
Repayment
2 Computer
2998
298
12
3 TV
1899
189
15
4 Furniture
4672
250
11.6
5 Air
conditioner
7659
1000
14.2
6 Refrigerator
3628
628
9.9
In Cell F2 type the formula = B2 C2. This is the balance owing after the
deposit is paid.
341
342
In Cell H2 type the formula = (F2 + G2)/(E2*12). This is the monthly repayment.
Try changing the repayment period and/or the interest rate for the other items to investigate
the effect on the monthly repayment and the amount of interest paid.
Use some advertisements from newspapers or magazines to check the advertised monthly
repayment for several items. If there is a difference, investigate for hidden charges.
N. DEFERRED PAYMENT
Many advertisements make statements such as No repayments for 12 months or Pay nothing until next June.
Under these arrangements the goods may be taken immediately the finance contract is approved and no
payment needs to be made for the agreed period of time.
This type of financial arrangement is known as a deferred payment scheme.
Example 1
Michael sees a television set
advertised as shown opposite.
When Michael approaches the
retailer to buy the television, he
is given the conditions opposite
for the deferred payment scheme.
a Calculate the total amount Michael
would have to pay for the television
under this scheme.
b Calculate the monthly instalments.
$2498
NO
DEPOSIT
NO DEPOSIT
NO REPAYMENTS
NO
REPAYMENTS
FOR 1212
MONTHS
FOR
MONTHS
(Conditions apply.)
Exercise 11N
1
$2999
NO DEPOSIT
NO REPAYMENTS
FOR 12 MONTHS
(Conditions apply.)
$8599
No Deposit
No Repayments for 12 Months
(Conditions apply.)
Conditions: (i) Pay nothing for 12 months.
(ii) Balance plus interest to be repaid by equal monthly instalments over the
three years following the interestfree period.
(iii) Simple interest of 15% p.a. is charged for the 4year period of the agreement.
(iv) Establishment fee of $125.
(v) Account service fee of $2.55 per month for the 4year period of the agreement.
A sofa bed is advertised for $1598 with no deposit and no repayments for 6 months. The
conditions of the agreement are: (i) Pay nothing for 6 months. (ii) Balance plus interest to be
repaid by equal monthly instalments over the 12 months following the interest free period.
(iii) Simple interest of 1.5% per month is charged for the 18 months of the agreement.
(iv) Establishment fee of $135. (v) Account service fee of $2.85 per month, for the 18 month
period of the agreement
a Calculate the total amount you would have to pay for the bed under this scheme.
b Calculate the monthly instalments.
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344
O. LOANS
To purchase expensive items some people prefer to organise a personal loan through a bank, credit union or
other financial institution. Personal loans often cost less than other forms of payment, such as buying on terms
or deferred payment schemes, because of lower interest rates and lower fees. Banks have tables from which
the monthly repayments can be determined. For example, the table below shows the monthly repayments of
principal plus interest on each $1000 borrowed for various interest rates.
Monthly repayments on each $1000 borrowed
Annual interest rate
Loan term
(months)
10.0%
10.5%
11.0%
11.5%
12.0%
12.5%
13.0%
13.5%
14.0%
12
18
24
30
36
42
48
54
60
Example 1
Use the table above to calculate the monthly repayments on a loan of $8300 for
4 years at 13%.
From the table, the monthly repayment for each $1000 borowed = $26.8275
Monthly repayments for $8300 = $26.8275 8.3
= $222.67 to nearest cent
Exercise 11O
1
Use the table above to calculate the monthly repayments on a loan of $9000 for 3 years
at 12%.
Use the table above to calculate the monthly repayments on loans of:
a $85 000 for 2 12 years at 10.5%
b $67 000 for 5 years at 11%
c $14 600 for 3 12 years at 13.5%
e $12 450 for 42 months at 11.5%
Example 2
a Use the table to calculate the monthly repayments on a loan of $6900 for 3 years
at 12.5%.
b Calculate the total cost of the loan if there is a loan application fee of $180.
a Monthly repayment = $33.4536 6.9
= $230.83
b Total cost of loan = $230.83 36 + $180
= $8489.87
a Use the table to calculate the monthly repayments on a loan of $7000 for 3 years at 11%.
b Calculate the total cost of the loan if there is a loan application fee of $180.
a Use the table to calculate the monthly repayments on a loan of $15 500 for 4 years
at 13.5%.
b Calculate the total cost of the loan if there is a loan application fee of $250.
Calculate the cost of the following loans. (Calculate the monthly repayment first.)
a $5000 for 3 12 years at 12%, loan application fee $300
b $12 000 for 4 12 years at 14%, loan application fee $200
c $8500 for 2 years at 10.5%, loan application fee $260
d $9400 for 60 months at 11.5%, loan application fee $210
e $18 000 for 42 months at 10%, loan application fee $190
Terry borrowed $20 000 at 11.0% p.a. His monthly repayments were $654.77. Over what
period of time did he borrow the money?
Natasha borrowed $18 000 over 4 12 years. The monthly repayments were $446.59. What was
the interest rate charged?
Bill took out a loan over 3 years at 12.5% p.a. His monthly repayments were $802.89. How
much money did Bill borrow?
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346
P. COMPARING PRICES
Example 1
Which is the better buy, 3 kg of apples for $13.38 or 5 kg for $21.60?
Method 1
Method 2
Exercise 11P
1
Harrys Car Hire charges $28 per day with no limit on the number of kilometres travelled to
hire a new Toyota Corolla. Rays Car Rental charges $20 per day plus 8 cents per kilometre
travelled to rent the same car. Which company is cheaper if you are likely to travel, each day:
a 80 km
b 100 km
c 150 km?
To hire a new Holden Commodore each day, Bobs Rentals charges $45 plus 7 cents per
kilometre travelled. Sophies Rentals charges $48 per day plus 5 cents per kilometre
travelled. Which company is cheaper if you are likely to travel, each day:
a 100 km
b 300 km
c 150 km?
On savings accounts, Bobs Bank charges a management fee of $5.50 per month. The first
five transactions are free and then a fee of 28 cents per transaction is charged. Bills Bank
charges a monthly management fee of $6.00 plus 9 cents per transaction. Which bank is
cheaper to use if your average number of monthly transactions is:
a 5
b 10
c 15?
The Mobile Phone Company offers two plans. Plan A has a connection fee of $12 per month
and calls cost 21 cents/30 seconds. Plan B has a connection fee of $15 plus call charges of
16 cents/30 seconds. Which plan would be cheaper, and by how much, if your expected calls
per month were:
a 20 minutes
b 30 minutes
c 50 minutes?
Terrys Telecommunications has two mobile phone plans. The Starnet Plan has a monthly fee
of $25, 50 free calls then 45 cents/call. The Supernet Plan has a monthly fee of $35, 100 free
calls and then 35 cents/call. Which plan is cheaper, and by how much, if the expected number
of calls per month total:
a 50
b 100
c 200?
Example 1
Calculate the GST and the price including GST on a camera with a listed price of
$710, price excluding GST.
GST = 10% of $710
= 0.1 $710
= $71
Price including GST = $710 + $71
= $781
Exercise 11Q
1
Calculate the GST and the price including GST on the following items:
a microwave oven $440, price excluding GST
b computer $3690, price excluding GST
c TV repairs $258, price excluding GST
d DVD player $397, price excluding GST
e plumbers bill for services $1800, price excluding GST
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348
Example 2
Calculate the price including GST on a mobile phone listed as $299, price
excluding GST.
Price including GST = list price + 10% of the list price
= 110% of the list price
= 1.10 $299
= $328.90
Calculate the price including GST on the following items whose price, excluding GST, is given.
a car battery $95, price excluding GST
b ticket to Rugby Final $225, price excluding GST
c bottle of wine $17, price excluding GST
d printer repairs $336, price excluding GST
e electricians bill $457, price excluding GST
Example 3
Calculate the GST included on a television set advertised for $899, price
including GST.
Price excluding GST + GST = $899
i.e. price excl. GST + 10% of price excl. GST = $899
i.e. 110% of price excl. GST = $899
1.1 price excl. GST = $899
price excl. GST = $899 1.1
= $817.27
GST = $899 $817.27
= $81.73
Example 4
Calculate the GST included on a television set advertised for $899, price
including GST.
Note that example 3 above could have been calculated as follows.
110% of price excl. GST = $899
11
i.e.  price excl. GST = $899
10
11
price excl. GST = $899 10
10
=  $899
11
1
Hence GST =  $899
11
= $81.73
This leads to the GST Rule of Thumb which
1
states that GST =  of price including GST.
11
Tax Invoice
Services rendered = $850
GST
=
Total including GST =
c Tax Invoice
Services rendered =
GST
= $48.80
Total including GST = $536.80
Tax Invoice
Taxable items
Shirt
$69.95
Tie
$29.95
Total including GST = $99.90
GST included in total =
d Tax Invoice
Taxable items
5 CDs @ $32.90 including GST =
GST included in total
=
349
350
noncalculator activities
1
David earns $300 per week. How much does he earn per:
a fortnight
b year
c month?
Convert a salary of $43 800 p.a. to the equivalent salary per month.
Alice works a 35hour week and is paid $20 per hour. How much does she earn for a week in
which she works an additional 4 hours at timeandahalf and 1 hour at double time?
Katya earns $1.20 for each lamp she makes. If on average she can finish 10 lamps per hour
and she works a 36hour week, calculate her average weekly earnings.
Maria sells household cleaners. She is paid a commission of 5% of sales. How much does she
earn in a week in which her sales are $8000?
Jacks gross weekly income is $847. The deductions from his salary each week are:
tax $206, superannuation $51.60 and health insurance $26.53. Calculate his net earnings
each week.
A sports goods store offers a discount of 10% for cash purchases. Find the cash price of a
basketball marked as $89.
Alex laybys a tool set costing $638 by paying a deposit of $125. Over the next 3 months he
makes repayments of $100, $120 and $185. How much more does he have to repay in order
to collect the tool set?
A sound system can be bought for $589 cash or on the following terms: deposit $189 and
24 equal monthly repayments of $23.
a What is the total cost of the sound system if it is bought on terms?
b How much interest would be paid?
10
Calculate the GST included in the price of a DVD player costing $187, price including GST.
Language in Mathematics
List four different ways in which people are paid for providing their labour or services.
b bonus
c holiday loading
What is the difference in meaning between the words principal and principle?
The following words have a mathematical meaning as well as other meanings in ordinary
English. Use a dictionary to complete the table.
Word
Mathematical meaning
351
Other meaning
credit
deposit
balance
6
Complete the following words from this chapter by replacing the vowels.
a f rtn ghtly
b rtnr
c b dg t
d d sc nt
Three of the words in the following list have been spelt incorrectly. Rewrite them with the
correct spelling: peacework, purchase, cash, survice, loan, invesment.
Glossary
balance
cash
deductions
excluding
gross income
including
labour
overtime
repayment
simple interest
bonus
commission
deferred payment
expenses
GST
income
layby
piecework
retainer
takehome pay
budget
compare
deposit
flat interest
holiday loading
instalment
loan
principal
salary
timeandahalf
buying on terms
credit
discount
fortnight
hire purchase
investment
net earnings
purchase
service
wages
Samantha earns $326.80 per week. This is equivalent to a yearly salary of:
A $15 686.40
B $16 340
C $16 993.60
D $17 320.40
352
Garry earns $342 per week. This is equivalent to a monthly income of:
A $1368
B $1470.60
C $1482
D $1539
Sally works a 36hour week and is paid $14.80 per hour. Her total wages for a week in which
she works an additional 5 hours at timeandahalf and 3 hours at double time is:
A $732.60
B $651.20
C $710.40
D $769.60
Bianca earns $560 per week. She is entitled to 4 weeks annual recreation leave and receives
an additional holiday loading of 17.5%. Her total holiday pay for 4 weeks is:
A $2240
B $392
C $2338
D $2632
David is paid $0.37 for each tree that he plants. If he can plant an average of 18 trees
per hour and he works a 36hour week, then his average weekly earnings are:
A $6.66
B $13.32
C $239.76
D $479.52
Tony is a real estate agent. He charges the following commission for selling home units:
3% of the first $150 000 and 1.5% for the remainder of the selling price. His commission
for selling a home unit for $220 000 would be:
A $6600
B $5550
C $3300
D $9900
Casual $ per hour
8
Waiter
Mon.Fri.
Sat.
Sun.
14.92
18.65
22.38
The table shows the award wages for a waiter employed as a casual. The wages of a casual
waiter who works 10 hours Monday to Friday, 4 hours on Saturday plus 5 hours on Sunday is:
A $335.70
B $283.48
C $317.05
D $350.62
9
10
Stephen earns $487 per week. The deductions from his salary each week are tax $139,
superannuation $42, and health insurance $31.80. His net pay for the week is:
A $699.80
B $421.80
C $358.20
D $274.20
The simple interest on $3480 at 5.5% p.a. for 4 years is:
A $7656
B $191.40
C $765.60
D $4245.60
11
Michelle invested $5000 for 3 years and earned $825 in interest. The annual rate of interest was:
A 5.5%
B 16.5%
C 33.3%
D 3.33%
12
A camera store offers a discount of 12% for paying cash. The cash price of a camera marked
as $459 is:
A $55.08
B $55.10
C $403.92
D $403.90
13
The method of purchasing goods by which a deposit is paid, the balance is paid off over a
short period of time, no interest is charged but the goods cannot be taken until full payment
has been made is called:
A time payment
B hire purchase
C deferred payment D layby
14
A refrigerator costing $1395 can be bought on terms for $295 deposit and 24 monthly
instalments of $61. The total cost of buying the refrigerator on terms would be:
A $2859
B $1759
C $1464
D $2564
15
A television set costing $1089 can be bought on the following terms: deposit $289 and the
balance to be repaid over 2 years by equal monthly instalments. Simple interest is charged
at 13% p.a. If the TV is bought on these terms, the monthly repayment would be:
A $42
B $57.17
C $37.67
D $51.27
16
$1598
NO DEPOSIT
NO REPAYMENTS
FOR 12 MONTHS
(Conditions apply.)
17
Using the table on page 344, the monthly repayment on a loan of $24 000 over 2 12 years at
11.5% is, to the nearest cent:
A $38.51
B $924.30
C $696.82
D $1124.17
18
19
C 2 L for $15.00
D 5 L for $39
The price of a TV, including GST, is $583. The amount of GST included is:
A $58.30
B $53
C $524.70
D $530
If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
Section
13 4, 5
B
353
10, 11 12
I
13 14, 15 16
17
18
19
354
David earns $463.90 per week. How much does he earn per:
a fortnight
b year
c month?
Alice works a 35hour week and is paid $18.70 per hour. How much does she earn for a week
in which she works an additional 4 hours at timeandahalf and 3 hours at double time?
Michelle works a 35hour week and is paid timeandahalf for any extra hours worked. One
week she worked 4 hours overtime and was paid $746.32. What is her hourly rate of pay?
Travis earns $560 per week. He is entitled to 4 weeks annual leave and receives an additional
holiday loading of 17.5%. Calculate his total pay for this holiday period.
Sharon is entitled to 4 weeks annual leave and receives a holiday loading of 17.5%. One year
her total holiday pay was $2641.40. What is Sharons weekly salary?
Nerida earns $0.98 for each dress she finishes in a clothing factory. If on average she can
finish 12 dresses per hour and she works 8 hours per day for 4 days, calculate her average
weekly earnings.
Cass sells computers. She is paid a retainer of $220 per week plus a commission of 2% of
sales. How much does she earn in a week in which her sales are $12 800?
Jim is paid a retainer plus a commission of 4% of sales. If he receives $800 for selling
$13 000 worth of goods, what is the retainer that he is paid?
10
Sam works as a casual in a fruit shop. He gets paid $11.60 for any hours worked from Monday
to Friday, $12.90 per hour for Saturdays and $13.60 for Sundays. Calculate how much he
earns for a week in which he works 6 hours between Monday and Friday, 5 hours on Saturday
and 4 hours on Sunday.
11
Jacks gross weekly income is $768 per week. The deductions from his salary each week are:
tax $224, superannuation $38.40 and health insurance $33.76. Calculate his net earnings
each week.
12
13
A sports goods store offers a discount of 16% for cash purchases. Find the cash price of a
pair of running shoes marked as $179.
14
List two advantages and two disadvantages of using a credit card to purchase goods.
15
Melanie laybys a swing set costing $524 by paying a deposit of $150. Over the next 3 months
she makes repayments of $100, $120 and $85. How much more does she have to repay in
order to collect the swing set?
16
A car costing $10 999 can be bought on the following terms: deposit $3000, the balance to
be repaid over 4 years by 48 equal monthly repayments. Simple interest is charged on the
balance at 12% p.a. Calculate:
a the balance owing
b the interest charged on the balance owing
c the monthly repayment
17
Use the table on page 344 to calculate the monthly repayments on a loan of $7800 for
3 12 years at 12.5% p.a.
18
Terry borrowed $20000 at 11.5% p.a. His monthly repayments were $770.25. Over what
period of time did he borrow the money? (Use the table on page 344.)
19
20
Calculate the GST included in the price of a bottle of wine costing $18, price including GST.
355
356
Dan earns $368.54 per week. How much does he earn per:
a fortnight
b year
c month?
Olivia works a 36hour week and is paid $21.36 per hour. How much does she earn for a week
in which she works an additional 6 hours at timeandahalf and 2 hours at double time?
Stephanie is paid $21.30 per hour for working a 35hour week and timeandahalf for any
extra hours worked. One week she was paid $873.30. How much overtime did she do?
Terry earns $680 per week. He is entitled to 4 weeks annual leave and receives an additional
holiday loading of 17.5%. Calculate his total pay for this holiday period.
Nick is entitled to 4 weeks annual leave and receives a holiday loading of 17.5%. One year
his total holiday pay was $3741.20. Calculate his holiday loading.
Joanne sews buttons on shirts in a clothing factory. She is paid $0.38 per shirt. Calculate her
income for a week in which she completed the following number of shirts: Mon 165, Tues 189,
Wed 212, Thurs 194, Fri 176.
Benita sells printers. She is paid a retainer of $260 per week plus a commission of 1.5% of
sales. How much does she earn in a week in which her sales are $22 400?
Sally is paid a retainer of $220 per week plus a commission of 3% of sales. One week she
earned $598. What was the value of the goods that she sold?
10
Dennis works as a casual in a coffee shop. He gets paid $10.90 for any hours worked from
Monday to Friday, $13.64 per hour for Saturdays and $14.28 for Sundays. Calculate how
much he earns for a week in which he works 10 hours between Monday and Friday, 4 hours
on Saturday and 6 hours on Sunday.
11
Johns gross weekly income is $683 per week. The deductions from his salary each week are:
tax $216, superannuation $36.78, health insurance $41.20 and savings $50. Calculate his
takehome pay each week.
12
13
An electrical goods store offers a discount of 14% for cash purchases. Find the cash price of
a toaster marked as $89.
14
15
An outdoor furniture setting costing $1889 can be bought on terms for $300 deposit and
24 monthly instalments of $90.04.
a Calculate the cost of buying the furniture on terms.
b How much interest is paid?
16
A washing machine costing $1655 can be bought on the following terms: deposit $200, the
balance to be repaid over 2 years by 24 equal monthly repayments. Simple interest is charged
on the balance at 15% p.a. Calculate:
a the balance owing
b the interest charged on the balance owing
c the monthly repayment.
17
Use the table on page 344 to calculate the monthly repayments on a loan of $12 000
for 5 years at 10.5% p.a.
18
Sam borrowed $24000 over 4 years. The monthly repayments were $614.48. What was the
interest rate charged? (Use the table on page 344.)
19
AOne Car Hire Co. charges $34 per day with unlimited kilometres to rent a new Corolla.
BOne Car Rentals charges $26 per day plus 6 cents per kilometre travelled. Which company
is cheaper if you are likely to travel each day:
a 60 km
b 100 km
c 150 km?
20
Calculate the GST included in the price of a pair of shoes costing $128, price including GST.
357
358
Alice works a 38hour week and is paid $19.20 per hour. How much does she earn for a week
in which she works an additional 3 hours at timeandahalf and 1 hour at double time?
Kim works a 35hour week and is paid timeandahalf for any extra hours worked. One week
she worked 5 hours overtime and was paid $1140.70. What is her hourly rate of pay?
Kelly earns $632 per week. She is entitled to 4 weeks annual leave and receives an additional
holiday loading of 17.5%. Calculate her total pay for this holiday period.
Karen is entitled to 4 weeks annual leave and receives a holiday loading of 17.5%. One year
her total holiday pay was $5931.40. What is Karens weekly salary?
Peta earns $538 per week. At the end of the year her employer pays her a bonus of 5% of her
annual salary. Calculate Petas bonus.
Cameron sells real estate. He charges the following commission for selling home units:
3% of the first $150 00
2% of the next $50000
1% of the remainder of the selling price.
Calculate how much Cameron would earn for selling a home unit for:
a $145 000
b $185 000 c $220 000
Mick is paid a retainer plus a commission of 7% of sales. If he receives $992 for selling $9600
worth of goods, what is the retainer that he is paid?
10
James works as a casual in a bar. He gets paid $15.20 for any hours worked from Monday to
Friday, $17.68 per hour for Saturdays and $19.32 for Sundays. Calculate how much he earns
for a week in which he works 12 hours between Monday and Friday, 6 hours on Saturday and
6 hours on Sunday.
11
Joshs gross weekly income is $940 per week. The deductions from his salary each week are:
tax $312, superannuation $56.30 and health insurance $41.22. Calculate his net earnings
each week.
12
13
A sports goods store offers a discount of 18% for cash purchases. Find the cash price of a
tennis racquet marked as $279.
14
15
Sylvie laybys a dress costing $465 by paying a deposit of 10%. Over the next 4 weeks she
makes repayments totalling $320. How much more does she have to repay in order to collect
the dress?
16
A car costing $12 000 can be bought on the following terms: deposit $2000, the balance to
be repaid over 3 years by 36 equal monthly repayments. Simple interest is charged on the
balance at 8% p.a. Calculate:
a the balance owing
b the interest charged on the balance owing
c the monthly repayment
17
Use the table on page 344 to calculate the monthly repayments on a loan of $24 000 for
4 years at 13% p.a.
18
Lenny borrowed $35 000 at 10.5% p.a. His monthly repayments were $999.41. Over what
period of time did he borrow the money? (Use the table on page 344.)
19
Which is the best value? Chocolate: 55 g block for $1.10, 250 g block for $4.88, 375 g block
for $7.35.
20
Calculate the GST and the price including GST on a pair of boots costing $498, price
excluding GST.
359
360
Holly earns $528 per week. How much is this per month?
Alice works a 35hour week and is paid $24.10 per hour. How much does she earn for a week
in which she works an additional 5 hours at timeandahalf and 4 hours at double time?
Gayatri is paid $36.90 per hour for working a 35hour week and timeandahalf for any extra
hours worked. One week she was paid $1734.30. How much overtime did she work?
Ken earns $720 per week. He is entitled to 4 weeks annual leave and receives an additional
holiday loading of 17.5%. Calculate his total pay for this holiday period.
Ray is entitled to 4 weeks annual leave and receives a holiday loading of 17.5%. One year his
total holiday pay was $4091.82. Calculate his holiday loading.
Isabella earns $0.71 for each part she builds in a factory that produces electrical appliances.
If on average she can finish 15 parts per hour and she works 6 hours per day for 5 days,
calculate her average weekly earnings.
Kate sells mobile phone plans. She is paid a retainer of $180 per week plus a commission of
6% of sales. How much does she earn in a week in which her sales are $9200?
Olivia is paid a retainer of $250 per week plus a commission of 6% of sales. One week she
earned $768.40. What was the value of the goods that she sold?
10
Ann works as a casual in a cafe. She gets paid $12.34 for any hours worked from Monday to
Friday, $13.85 per hour for Saturdays and $15.98 for Sundays. Calculate how much she earns
for a week in which she works 8 hours between Monday and Friday, 6 hours on Saturday and
3 hours on Sunday.
11
Philss gross weekly income is $895 per week. The deductions from his salary each week are:
tax $291, superannuation $42.81 and health insurance $38.26. He also deposits $100 a
week into a special savings account and has $10 per week donated directly to a charity.
Calculate his takehome pay each week.
12
13
A store offers a discount of 12% for cash purchases. Find the cash price of a pair of sun
glasses marked as $189.
14
List the advantages and disadvantages of using a deferred payment option to purchase goods.
15
A car costing $10 999 can be bought on the following terms: deposit $3000, the balance to
be repaid over 4 years by 48 equal monthly repayments. Simple interest is charged on the
balance at 12% p.a. Calculate:
a the balance owing
b the interest charged on the balance owing
c the monthly repayment
No Deposit
$3999
16
No Repayments
for 12 months
(Conditions apply.)
17
Use the table on page 344 to calculate the monthly repayments on a loan of $15 500 for
4 12 years at 14% p.a.
18
Will borrowed $28000 over 5 years. The monthly repayments were $651.51. What was the
interest rate charged? (Use the table on page 344.)
19
On savings accounts, Bobs Bank charges a management fee of $5.50 per month. The first
5 transactions are free and then a fee of 26 cents per transaction is charged. Bills Bank
charges a monthly management fee of $7.00 plus 9 cents per transaction. Which bank is
cheaper to use if your average number of monthly transactions is:
a 10
b 15
c 20?
20
Calculate the GST in the price of a cooked chicken costing $9.90, price including GST.
361
Chapter 12
Rightangled Trigonometry
This chapter deals with the solution of rightangled triangles.
After completing this chapter you should be able to:
identify and label sides of a rightangled triangle
define sine, cosine and tangent ratios
use a calculator to find trigonometric ratios and angles
use trigonometry to find unknown sides and angles in rightangled triangles
solve problems involving trigonometry and angles of elevation and depression.
368
Diagnostic test
1
9
M
b
B t
t
C r
t
D b
AD
A DR
DR
B  A
AD
AR
C AD
DR
D AR D
11
18.2 cm
D 51
12
B 28
1.9 m
C 33
3.5 m
D 57
13
B 70
16.2 cm
C 32
43.9 cm
D 22
x mm
10
369
14
150 m
14 272 m
160 m
1492 m
15
hm
6
1500 m
If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
Section
14
57
810
1113
14, 15
Trigonometry is a branch of mathematics that combines arithmetic, algebra and geometry. The word
trigonometry is derived from Greek and means triangle measurement. The study of trigonometry enables
us to compare similar triangles so that lengths that are difficult or impossible to measure directly can
be calculated.
Greek, Persian and Hindu astronomers first developed trigonometry around 200 BC. Hipparchus is credited
with being the originator of the science at that time. Today trigonometry is used by astronomers, architects,
surveyors, engineers and navigators of both planes and ships.
Investigation 1
WM: Reasoning, Applying Strategies, Communicating
Ratios of sides
1
C
40
A
C
40
40
370
AB
BC
AC
BC
AC
AC
AB
BC
AB
a
b
c
Compare your answers in the last three columns. What do you notice?
Draw a triangle ABC with base AB of length 6 cm, angle A of measure 30 and angle B
of measure 90.
Draw a second triangle ABC with AB of length 10 cm and angles A and B as before.
Draw a third triangle ABC with AB of length of your choosing and again angles A and B are
the same as before.
Clearly the triangles are equiangular. Measure the lengths of the unknown sides and complete
a table like the one below.
Triangle
AB
6 cm
10 cm
BC
AC
AB
AC
BC
AB
c
8
What do you notice about the answers in the last two columns?
40
6 cm
B 4 cm
5 cm
AB
EB
AE
EB
AB
AB
AE
Triangle ACF
AC
FC
AF
FC
AC
AC
AF
Triangle
ADG
AD
GD
AG
GD
AD
AD
AG
What do you notice about the answers in the last two columns?
hypotenuse
371
372
Example 1
In this triangle, what is the:
a hypotenuse
b side opposite angle P
c side adjacent to angle P
d side opposite angle R
e side adjacent to angle R?
t
S
Exercise 12A
h
z
x
k
m
Find the:
a side opposite
b side opposite
c side adjacent to d side adjacent to
Example 2
Using the given
triangle, write
expressions to q
complete the
table.
p
r
opposite
adjacent
opposite
hypotenuse
adjacent
hypotenuse
opposite
adjacent
opposite
hypotenuse
q
r
q
p
adjacent
hypotenuse
r
p
opposite
adjacent
opposite
hypotenuse
adjacent
hypotenuse
opposite
opposite
The ratio  is the tangent of the angle and is abbreviated to tan = .
adjacent
adjacent
opposite
opposite
The ratio  is the sine of the angle and is abbreviated to sin =  .
hypotenuse
hypotenuse
adjacent
adjacent
The ratio  is the cosine of the angle and is abbreviated to cos = .
hypotenuse
hypotenuse
The trigonometric ratios can be remembered using a mnemonic.
SOH
sin
CAH
opp
= hyp
cos
TOA
adj
= hyp
tan
opp
= adj
373
374
Example 3
In the triangle ABC, find tan , cos , and sin .
B
tan
opp
= adj
BC
= AC
opp
= hyp
BC
= AB
sin
i tan
cos
ii sin
adj
= hyp
AC
= AB
iii cos
c
s
u
Find:
i sin A
ii cos A
iii tan A
T
in these diagrams.
V
Example 1
Find, correct to 4 decimal places:
a sin 41
b cos 78
a sin 41
0.6561
b cos 78
0.2079
sin 41 =
cos
tan 15
tan 15
0.2679
78 =
tan
15 =
Exercise 12B
1
c tan 35
g tan 75
k tan 55
d sin 14
h cos 38
l cos 11
Example 2
Find the value of , correct to the nearest degree if:
a sin = 0.4718
b tan = 3.624
cos = 0.7
a sin = 0.4718
28.151202
28
b tan = 3.624
74.57378579
75
c cos = 0.7
45.572996
46
2
1
sin
0.4718
Check your
calculator steps.
tan1 3.624
cos1 0.7
c
f
i
l
o
tan = 3.2415
sin = 0.7
cos = 0.044
cos = 0.8844
tan = 0.3333
375
376
Example 3
Find the value of A correct to the nearest degree
5
a sin A = 7
7.3
b cos A = 12
25
tan A = 8.7
5
a sin A = 7
A 45.5846914
46
sin1
( 5 7 )
7.3
b cos A = 12
A 52.53091057
53
cos1
( 7.3 12 )
tan1
( 25 8.7 )
25
c tan A = 8.7
A 70.8121034
71
With DAL
calculators enter the
trig ratio first.
8
b sin B = 11
12
c cos B = 17
8.3
d sin B = 15
7.1
e cos B = 11.2
8.4
f tan B = 3.9
0.7
g cos B = 1.2
6.3
h tan B = 7.1
0.05
i sin B = 0.13
Investigation 2
WM: Reasoning, Communicating
Comparing ratios
1
Use your calculator to complete the table below correct to three decimal places.
a What do you notice about the answers in
the tan column compared with the
sin
 column?
cos
b Based on your answer to part a,
sin
complete  =
cos
c From the table above, between which
values do:
i sin
ii cos
iii tan lie?
0
10
20
30
40
.
.
.
90
sin
cos
tan
sin cos
 cos sin
377
378
b
xm
20 cm
x cm
27
68
50 m
b
xm
20 cm
x cm
27
68
50 m
opp
sin = hyp
opp
sin = hyp
x
sin 27 = 20
x
sin 68 = 50
x = 20 sin 27
x = 50 sin 68
x 9.1
20
sin
x 46.4
27 =
50
sin
68 =
Exercise 12C
1
Use the sine ratio to find the value of the unknown correct to one decimal place.
a
b
c
t cm
a cm
68
18 cm
x cm
37
43
3 cm
16.5 cm
48
11.7 cm
x cm
y cm
35
15.2 cm
xm
43
2.5 m
x cm
67
zm
73
16.2 cm 53
y mm
11.5 mm
13.1 m
Example 2
Use the sine ratio to find the value of the unknown correct to one decimal place.
a
b
ym
4m
18
6.2 m
xm
65
opp
sin = hyp
6.2
sin 18 = y
4
sin 65 = x
x sin 65 = 4
opp
sin = hyp
y sin 18 = 6.2
4
x = sin 65
6.2
y = sin 18
x 4.4
y 20.1
sin 65 =
6.2
sin 18 =
Use the sine ratio to find the value of the unknown correct to one decimal place.
a
b
ym
27
8 cm
14
x cm
6.2 mm
43
53.2 cm
28
41
z cm
a mm
11.2 m
ym
115 mm
a mm
48
6.2 m
379
380
Find the value of x, giving your answer correct to one decimal place.
a
b
c
10 cm
x cm
50
xm
x cm
35
72
50 cm
2m
4.3 m
173 cm
x cm
x cm
xm
43
30
100 cm
60
Example 3
Use the cosine ratio to find the value of x correct to one decimal place.
a
b
23 m
52 cm
32
51
xm
xm
adj
cos 32 = hyp
23 m
x
cos 32 = 23
x = 23 cos 32
19.5
b
52
cos 51 = x
52
x = cos 51
82.6
xm
( 23
32
cos
( 52
32 )
52 cm is opposite.
52 cm
51
x is adjacent.
xm
cos
51 )
Use the cosine ratio to find, correct to one decimal, the value of x.
a
x km
66
12 m
x cm
8 cm
200 km
50
33
xm
x cm
6 cm
x cm
48
xm
24
x cm
3m
119 mm
16.8 cm
64
53
x mm
71
xm
25.2 cm
48
16.2 m
Find the length of the hypotenuse using the cosine rule. Give answers correct to one decimal
place.
a
53 cm
71
c
3.8 m
143 mm 39
25
x cm
a mm
ym
21
310 mm
39 cm
3.2 m
43
When finding
the hypotenuse
you will divide
by the angle.
xm
z mm
31
a cm
Use the cosine ratio to find, correct to one decimal place, the value of x.
a
b
c
xm
15
43 cm
40
x cm
15 m
x cm
60
8.64 cm
381
382
f
16
x cm
x cm
15 cm
15.8 cm
40
11.7 cm
x cm
41
Example 4
Use the tangent ratio to find the value of x correct to one decimal place.
a
16 cm
b
xm
x cm
31
53
8m
opp
tan 31 = adj
opp
tan 53 = adj
16
tan 53 = x
x
tan 31 = 8
16
x = tan 53
x = 8 tan 31
x = 4.8
8
tan
x = 12.1
31 =
16
tan
53 =
Use the tangent ratio to find the value of x, correct to one decimal place.
a
c
x cm
xm
23
12 cm
34
x km
40
20 km
4m
58
x cm
49
18.7 cm
x mm
91.3 cm
x cm
61
210 mm
Use the tangent ratio to find the value of x, correct to one decimal place.
a
b
c
16.5 cm
x mm
18
xm
43
214 mm
x cm
67
4.3 m
f
x cm
24 m
42
x km
16.9 km
40 cm
58
48
xm
Use the tangent ratio to find the value of x, correct to one decimal place.
a
52.9 cm
15.3 cm
28
137 mm
x cm
x cm
41
75
x mm
10
Use one of the sine, cosine or tangent ratios to find the value of the pronumeral, correct to
one decimal place.
a
15 cm
x cm
29.3 cm
41
x m 40
11
14.2 m
xm
18 m
f
17
48.3 mm
x cm
14.3 m
28
16
y mm
i
8.3 cm
50
15
x cm
83 cm
x cm
18.3 m
21
xm
xm
383
384
40 cm
28 cm
opp
sin = hyp
40 cm
44.43
44
sin
( 28 40
28 cm
Exercise 12D
1
Using the sine ratio, find to the nearest degree, the value of .
a
32 cm
8m
5m
8.7 km
3.5 km
50 cm
11 cm
16 cm
15 cm
22.3 cm
33.6 cm
28 cm
423 mm
i
6.25 m
0.81 m
1.2 m
312 mm
4.37 m
R
385
Example 2
Use the cosine ratio to find the value
of correct to the nearest degree.
12 m
cos =
12 m
4m
adj
cos = hyp
R 4m
4
12
cos
( 4 12 )
70.528
71
Using the cosine ratio, find to the nearest degree, the measure of the unknown angle.
a
b
c
18 km
10 cm
9m
4 cm
12 m
10 cm
12 km
f
14 cm
21 cm
18 cm
11.3 cm
41.2 cm
671 mm
258 mm
2.4 m
7.62 m
0.92 m
3.47 m
386
Example 3
Use the tangent ratio to find the value
of correct to the nearest degree.
R
5 cm
opp
tan = adj
tan =
5 cm
P
7 cm
7 cm
5
7
tan
( 5 7
36
Using the tangent ratio, find the measure of the angle marked to the nearest degree.
a
b
c
12 cm
52 cm
26 cm
4.2 m
18.1 cm
8.35 m
e
12 cm
10.8 cm
12.1 cm
18 cm
8 cm
7 cm
h
8.9 cm
7.13 m
235 mm
15.6 cm
118 mm
9.26 m
Use one of the sine, cosine or tangent ratios to find the unknown angle to the nearest degree.
a
b
c
8.2 m
11 m
6.2 cm
6.3 m
18 m
14.9 cm
e
46.9 cm
41 cm
3.1 m
18.3 cm
11.1 cm
13.9 m
4.3 cm
6.2 cm
1.9 cm
11.8 m
16.8 cm
1.9 m
14.2 cm
l
1200 mm
16.1 cm
1.1 m
4300 mm
3.2 m
observer
angle of elevation
horizontal
angle of depression
object
When an object is lower than an observer, the angle of depression is the angle from the horizontal down to the
object.
387
388
Example 1
The diagram shows the angle of elevation of the
top of a flagpole, as observed from a point 15 m
from its base, is 63. Find the height of the flagpole.
hm
63
15 m
opp
tan = adj
h
tan 63 = 15
h = 15 tan 63
h 29.4 m
Exercise 12E
1
hm
48
20 m
The top of a tree, when viewed 50 m from its base, has an angle
of elevation of 23. Find the height of the tree.
2
hm
23
50 m
Example 2
The angle of depression from the top of a cliff 180 m above sea level to a boat is
48. How far is the boat from the base of the cliff?
48
180 m
dm
Alternate
angles are
equal.
180 m
48
dm
57
200 m
dm
33
180 m
Example 3
A ladder leaning against a vertical wall reaches 3.5 m up the wall and makes an
angle of 55 with the ground. Determine the length of the ladder.
3.5
sin 55 = x
x sin 55 = 3.5
3.5 m
3.5
x = sin 55
55
x 4.273
the ladder is 4.273 m long.
( 3.5
sin
55 =
389
390
Example 4
Determine the length of the roofing
beam required to support the roof
of pitch 14 as shown in the diagram.
8.2 m
14
x
cos 14 = 8.2
8.2 m
xm
14
xm
x = 8.2 cos 14
( 8.2
x 7.956
cos 14 =
12 cm
9 cm
7
23
9
6.4 m
13.5 cm
23
A 6.4 m long ladder leaning against a wall has its base 3.6 m
from the foot of the wall. Find the angle between the ladder
and the ground.
3.6 m
10
12 cm
8 cm
11
1m
72
25 m
12
13
A boat has an anchor rope of length 55 m. Due to the ocean current, the boat drifts so that
the rope makes an angle of 63 with the surface of the water. Find the depth of the water at
the position where the anchor lies on the bottom.
14
415 m
15
6.7 m
16
l
Find half
first.
Language in Mathematics
115 m
__pp__s__t__
c__s__n__
__dj__c__nt
c hyp__t__n__s__
f t__ng__nt
Rearrange these words to form a sentence, the first word has a capital letter.
a measured degrees are Angles in
b tangent all cosine ratios and Sine are
c of the depression down Look for angle
d opposite hypotenuse The angle right is the
e side Cosine the the divided adjacent hypotenuse by is
391
392
AATERHFGEHHONBRVFIAWGEEISSNDROTYFHJTOPHMAEASWWEO
RERFRDYGCUJOSESFGINJNOIEPOIOISASFXCRFGOR EMWQTZCHV
GENHWKOOLIRJYDHTSDECAQOSWMDEPRFLTHEUJMIKEOPNNGTR
DOGAFJKSWEIGYNTHEDESTYOASTXDHFVABNTMKTLOHIUEUICYU
OYTSRTITENEREWQOSDFFTAASNDEARGNHJGKILOLEEFEDFQEFU
SDACFLVGSBHTDWHASEDGSJNITVNUREBHOPQFJLNOOICVNIGEH
JTKLYOMUYITRNEWUQASZSTERHFVEBGAYHNJUGIKLGFE
4
Investigate the origin of the terms sine, cosine, tangent and trigonometry. Write a report.
(19031987)
a
b
c
d
393
Glossary
adjacent
approximation
opposite
ratio
theta
alternate angles
cosine
parallel
right angled
triangle
angle of depression
degree
phi
sine
trigonometry
A LM
C MN
AD
A AR
AR
C AD
DR
B AD
DR
D AR
B 0.8829
C 0.1392
D 0.1736
A 28
6
g
B a
g
D x
B LN
D m
B BT
D the hypotenuse
a
A g
a
C x
angle of elevation
hypotenuse
pitch
tangent
B 0.075
C 13
0.56
The value of angle A in the expression sin A =  is closest to:
1.8
A 53
B 0.0098
C 34
D 4
D 18
394
A 82
C 47
67 mm
B 55
D 96
35
x mm
9
x cm
52 cm
71
10
x mm 44
A 82
C 41
B 57
D 85
11
15 cm
20.6 cm
12
59 mm
12 m
5.2 m
13
61 cm
14
15
38 cm
hm
4
1000 m
67
200 m
Dm
If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
14
57
810
1113
14, 15
Section
Write down expressions for sin , cos , tan , sin , cos and tan in each of the following.
a
b
c
d
Find the length of the side marked x correct to one decimal place.
a
c
11.2 cm
x cm
xm
18 cm
63
38
21 m
14
x cm
8.7 cm
c
15 cm
12.8 cm
65 m
108 m
28 cm
b
80 m
55
c Find the measure of all angles of a triangle that has sides 3 cm, 4 cm and 5 cm.
395
396
Write down expressions for sin , cos and tan in each of the following.
a
b
c
d
y
p
x
75
18.3 cm
73
58
16 cm
11.5 cm
c
11.9 cm
17.6 m
18.3 cm
x cm
x cm
15.3 m
28.3 cm
Hm
38
15 m
b An aeroplane takes off at a constant angle of 20. When it has flown 1000 m, what is its
altitude to the nearest metre?
c A ladder is 5 m long and makes an angle of 75 with the ground. How far up the wall does
it reach (to the nearest 10 cm)?
Write down expressions for sin , cos , tan , sin , cos and tan in each of the following.
a
b
c
d
p
8m
x cm
48
10 cm
xm
54
20 cm
x cm
x km
57
48
9 km
12 m
3 cm
9m
9 km
5 km
7 cm
57
36 m
c
150 m
Dm
Hm
8
100 m
397
398
Write expressions for sin , cos and tan in the following diagrams.
a
b
c
d
P
T L
d
x cm
3.2 m
xm
x cm
68
5.1 cm
28
6.2 cm 34
4.1 cm
53
x cm
40 km
20 m
25 cm
23 km
48 m
7 cm
T
xm
66
A
20 m
b An isosceles triangle has sides 7 cm, 7 cm and 8 cm long. Find the measure of the base
angles of the triangle to the nearest minute.
c From the top of a vertical
cliff 50 m high, the angle of
depression of a boat straight
out to sea is 15. How far
is the boat from the foot of
the cliff, to the nearest metre?
15
50 m
Chapter 13
Equations and Inequalities
This chapter deals with the solution of linear equations and
inequalities, and the solution of simple quadratic equations.
After completing this chapter you should be able to:
solve linear equations
solve word problems using linear equations
substitute into formulas and solve
explain why a particular value could be a solution to an equation
solve simple quadratic equations
solve linear inequalities.
400
Diagnostic Test
1
B x=5
 16
5
10
D x = 1
B 14
5
17
2
D 6
A x = 1
B x = 5
D 3(x + 12) = 2x + 12
C x=5
D x=1
11
A solution to x2 = 16 is:
A x=8
B x = 32
A 5x + 2 = 26 3x
C x = 4
D x = 256
D 5x 3 = 4x
12
13
C 3x = 2
2
3
5x + 2
The solution to  = 4 is:
3
A x = 65B x = 10
3
C x = 14
5
B 8x = 15
C x=
D x=
15
8
1 78
14
D x=2
5
2
C x = 2.4
B 3x + 1 = 3
D x=
C 5
C 2x 1 = 7
B 4
A x + 12 = 2(3x + 12)
D 4
B 4 3x = 2x 11
D x=2
x
The solution to  2 = 1 is:
3
A x=3
B x=9
C x=1
15
B x = 25
4
D x=
5
4
B 31.8
C 10
D 5.6
B 4n + 8 90
C 4n + 8 > 90
D 4n + 8 < 90
B x = 3
C x = 2
D x = 1
16
17
A x = 16
B x = 16
5
C x = 65
D x = 45
If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
Section
13
46
7, 8
9, 10
11, 12
13
14, 15
16, 17
A. LINEAR EQUATIONS
Linear equations are equations of the form (or can be simplified to the form) ax + b = 0,
where a and b are constants and x is the unknown (or variable).
Example 1
Solve:
a 7x 9 = 5
a
b 17 = 8 4x
7x 9 = 5
7x 9 + 9 = 5 + 9
7x = 4
7x
4
 = 7
7
x =
b
(+9)
(7)
17 = 8 4x
17 8 = 8 8 4x
9 = 4x
9
4x
 = 4
4
(8)
( 4)
94 = x
4
7
x = 94 x = 2 14
Exercise 13A
1
Solve for x :
a x + 3 = 10
e 5x + 8 = 2
i 6 + 7x = 2
m 6 x = 5
q 3 7x = 2
u 8 = 3 2x
b
f
j
n
r
v
3x = 9
4x 9 = 1
5 = 3x + 7
4x = 15
17 2x = 1
6 = 1 7x
c
g
k
o
s
w
3x + 6 = 0
8x 6 = 10
6x 7 = 1
3 2x = 7
11 = 3 2x
15 = 3 6x
d
h
l
p
t
x
3x 4 = 6
3x + 6 = 7
1 = 2x + 6
5 4x = 7
15 2x = 1
11 = 4 3x
401
402
Example 2
Solve:
m
 5 = 2
3
m
 5 = 2
3
m
 5 + 5 = 2 + 5
3
m
 = 3
3
m
 3 = 3 3
3
m=9
Solve for x:
x
a  + 3 = 8
2
x
d  + 3 = 4
6
x
b  1 = 4
3
x
e  2 = 4
7
c
f
x
 + 2 = 3
5
x
 6 = 1
10
Check the given solution by substitution and say whether or not it is correct.
a 2x + 8 = 15
(x = 7)
b 7 + 5x = 9
(x = 2)
x
c 15 = 6 7x
(x = 3)
d  3 = 6
(x = 95 )
5
Example 3
If y = 5x 3 find x when y = 18.
y = 5x 3
18 = 5x 3
15 = 5x
3 = x
x = 3
(divide by 5)
a If y = 3x 5, find x when y = 5
b If y = 4x + 2, find x when y = 11
If y = 3x 5, find x when y = 8
Example 1
Solve:
a 5x + 2 = 3x 5
a
b 15 2x = 11 + x
5x + 2 = 3x 5
5x + 2 3x = 3x 3x 5 ( 3x)
2x + 2 = 5
2x = 7
( 2)
x = 72( 2)
x = 3 12
15 2x = 11 + x
15 2x + 2x = 11 + x + 2x
15 = 11 + 3x
15 11 = 11 11 + 3x
4 = 3x
Always do the
same thing to
both sides.
43 = x
x = 1 13
Exercise 13B
1
c 5 + x = 8 2x
f 4 2x = 3 x
i 3x 5 = 7 x
Solve:
a 8x + 7 = 4x 2
d x 3 = 5x + 7
g 2x + 5 = 9 2x
j 5a + 3 = a 1
m 11a 7 = 5a + 12
c
f
i
l
o
b
e
h
k
n
7x + 3 = 2x + 7
3 + x = 17 + 4x
3x 5 = 5x + 9
4 3s = 2s + 17
3y 5 = 14 2y
5 + 2x = 11 x
15 3x = 2 x
5 7x = 3x + 2
9x 4 = 3 + 4x
7p = 15 3p
(+ 2x)
( 11)
( 3)
403
404
Example 2
By substituting, check the solutions to the following equations.
a 2x 5 = 10 3x
a
(x = 3)
Is 2x 5 = 10 3x ?
Is 2(3) 5 = 10 3(3)
1=1
x = 3 is the solution
b 5x + 2 = 2x 7
b
(x = 2)
Is 5x + 2 = 2x 7 ?
Is 5(2) + 2 = 2(2) 7
12 3
x = 2 is not the solution
Example 3
Solve:
a 5(x + 1) 2(x 2) = 7
a 5(x + 1) 2(x 2) = 7
5x + 5 2x + 4 = 7
3x + 9 = 7
3x + 9 9 = 7 9
3x = 2
x = 23b
3(x + 1) = 5x + 3(2x 1)
3x + 3 = 5x + 6x 3
3x + 3 = 11x 3
3x 3x + 3 = 11x 3x 3
3 = 8x 3
6 = 8x
6 8x
 = 8
8
3
4
=x
x=
3
4
b 3(x + 1) = 5x + 3(2x 1)
(expanding the brackets)
(collecting like terms)
(subtracting 9 from both sides)
(a = 3)
(x = 3)
(x = 3 12 )
b
d
f
h
2(x 5) + 3(x + 2) = 9
2(x 1) = 3(x + 5) 22
2(x 1) = 4(2x + 1) 9x
6 2(x + 5) = 2(2x 1) 5x
Solve for x :
a 2(x + 1) 1 = 8
c 3(x + 2) 7 = 11
e 4(2x 1) + 7 = 0
g 3 2(x + 1) = 4
i 5x 4(4 x) = x + 1
k 2(x 1) = 1 (3 x)
b
d
f
h
j
l
5(1 3x) = 4
2(x + 1) + 3(x 1) = 6
11 2(x 1) = 7
7 (2 x) = 2x
3 x = 5 2(x + 1)
x + 7(4 x) = 2x + 3(x 1)
Example 4
If y = 3 5(x + 4), find x when y = 32.
y = 3 5(x + 4)
32 = 3 5(x + 4)
32 = 3 5x 20
32 = 17 5x
32 + 17 = 17 + 17 5x
15 = 5x
3=x
x=3
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
(substituting y = 32)
(collecting like terms)
(add 17 to both sides)
(dividing by 5)
405
406
Example 5
The equation 3(x 4) = 5 (2x + 3) has solution x =
14
5
Change one term or sign so that each of the following equations has solution x = 2.
a 2(x 3) = 1 (2x 5)
b 3(x 1) = 4 (3x 2)
c 5(2x + 3) = 2 (5x + 1)
d 6x 5 = 5(3x 1)
Write three equations of your own (with at least four terms) that have solution x = 3.
Investigation 1
WM: Reasoning, Applying Strategies
Spreadsheet
Use a spreadsheet program to solve the equation 3x 7 = 9 x given that the solution is an integer.
The spreadsheet needs to have three columns labelled x, 3x 7, and 9 x.
In cell A1 enter x, in cell B1 enter 3x 7,
in cell C1 enter 9 x, in cell A2 enter 0,
in cell B2 enter = A2 * 3 7, in cell C2
enter = 9 A2.
3x 7
9x
11
Change the spreadsheet to solve the following equations with integer solutions.
a 5x 3 = 53 2x
b 3x + 5 = 35 2x
c 19 2x = 7x 44
d 6x + 11 = 41 4x
e 3x 17 = 33 7x
f 9x + 15 = 79 7x
Change the spreadsheet to solve the following equations with negative integer solutions.
a 4x 3 = 13 + 6x
b 7x 3 = 25 + 5x
c 8 7x = 2 8x
d 3 5x = 39 3x
Solve:
a 3x 7 = 6 9x
b 5x + 23 = 2x 8
c 8 7x = 4x + 59
Example 1
Solve for x:
x
2
a  = 3
5
a
x
2
 = 3
5
x
2
15  =  15
3
5
5x = 6
6
x = 5
4
x
b  = 7
3
b
4
x
 = 7
3
4
x
21  =  21
7
3
12 = 7x
12
x = 7
c
c
x
 = 4
2
x
 = 4
2
x
2  = 4 2
2
x=8
407
408
Example 2
Solve for x:
4x + 3
a  = 2
5
a
4x + 3
2
 = 5
1
4x + 3
2
5  =  5
5
1
4x + 3 = 2 5
4x + 3 = 10
4x + 3 3 = 10 3
4x = 13
 x = 13
4
1
3
(2x 1) = 4
1
3
(2x 1) = 4
Do the same
to both sides.
3 13 (2x 1) = 4 3
2x 1 = 12
2x 1 + 1 = 12 + 1
2x = 11
(subtracting 3
from both sides)
 x = 11
2
Exercise 13C
1
Solve for x:
x
a  = 5
3
x
d  2 = 1
4
2x + 7
g  = 0
3
1 2x
j  = 3
2
2x
b  = 4
5
x1
e  = 6
2
c
f
1
2
(3x + 1) = 1
1
5
(4 3x) = 1
x
 + 1 = 5
2
x+5
 = 1
3
1 + 2x
 = 6
7
1
4
(5 2x) = 2
Example 3
Solve for x:
3x + 1
a  = 2
3
a
3x + 1
 = 2
3
3x + 1
3  = 2 3
3
3x + 1 = 6
3x = 5
x = 53
3x 1
2x
b  = 5
7
b
3x 1
2x
 = 5
7
3x 1
2x
35  =  35
5
7
7(3x 1) = 5(2x)
21x 7 = 10x
21x 10x 7 = 10x 10x
11x 7 = 0
11x = 7
7
x = 11
Solve for x :
2x + 1 1
a  = 3
2
c
4x + 1
b  = 2
5
3x 2
 = 2
4
2x + 1
d  = 3
4
3x + 1
e  = 3
2
3x + 2 x 1
 = 5
4
1x x+2
g  = 2
3
x+1 x
h  = 2
3
2x 1 3x
 = 7
5
x + 1 2x 3
 = 2
3
2x + 5
 = x + 4
3
2x + 7
 = x 5
3
When either the LHS or RHS of a fractional equation has more than one term, we solve it
by multiplying both sides of the equation by the lowest common denominator (LCD).
Example 4
Solve for x:
2x x
a   = 5
3 2
2x x
a   = 5 has LCD of 6
3 2
2x
x
6  6  = 6 5
3
2
2(2x) 3(x) = 30
4x 3x = 30
x = 30
Solve for x :
x
x
a  +  = 2
2 5
x 5x
e  +  = 14
3
6
x 2x 5
b   = 2
3
6
x 3x
f  +  = 6 123
4
x
3x
 3 = 5
8
x
3x
b  3 = has LCD of 40
5
8
x
3x
40  40 3 = 40 
5
8
3x x
  = 11
2
8
2x x
g   = 2
5
2
c
x
x
d  +  = 5
2 4
x
7x
h  2 = 3
12
409
410
Investigation 2
WM: Applying Strategies
Equation solver
1
= . 6
x,,T
Solve:
a 4x 5 = 7 3x
c 6 5x = 3 + 2x
4 5x
e  = 8
3
b 6 2x = 5x + 3
d 4(x + 3) = 7(4 3x)
6 2x 4x + 1
f  +  = 3
5
2
D. PRACTICAL EQUATIONS
Example 1
If twice a certain number is subtracted from 11, the result is 4 more than the
number. Find the number.
Let x be the number,
2x is twice the number and 11 2x is twice the number subtracted from 11.
Also x + 4 is 4 more than the number.
Thus 11 2x = x + 4
11 = 3x + 4
7 = 3x
73 = x
the number is 73 (or 2 13 )
Exercise 13D
1
Example 2
The sum of three consecutive even numbers is 132. Find the smallest one.
Let x be the smallest even number.
(x + 2) and (x + 4) are the other two even numbers.
Now x + (x + 2) + (x + 4) = 132
3x + 6 = 132
3x = 126
x = 42
Thus 42 is the smallest even number.
Consecutive integers
are whole numbers
that follow one
another.
Example 3
If five more than a number is one more than twice the number, find the number.
Let n be the number, then 5 + n = 2n + 1
4 + n = 2n
4=n
the number is 4.
3
(subtracting 1)
(subtracting n)
411
412
Example 4
The sum of two numbers is 14. When one number is added to twice the other
the result is 25. Find the numbers.
Let n be one number.
Since the numbers add up to 14, the other number is (14 n), and
n + 2(14 n) = 25
n + 28 2n = 25
n + 28 = 25
n = 3 (subtracting 28 from both sides)
n=3
and since 14 n = 14 3 = 11, the numbers are 3 and 11.
4
Example 5
Apples cost 13 cents each and oranges cost 11 cents each. If I buy 5 more
apples than oranges, and the total cost of the apples and the oranges is
$2.33, how many oranges and apples did I buy?
Let x be the number of oranges bought.
Type
Number
apples
x+5
oranges
x
Cost/unit
13 cents
11 cents
Total
Total value
13(x + 5) cents
11x cents
233 cents
10 5
Example 6
At the moment Jack is 5 years older than Mim. In 7 years Mims age will be threequarters of Jacks age. How old are they at present?
Age now
Age in 7 years
Mim
x yr
(x + 7) yr
Jack
(x + 5) yr
(x + 12) yr
413
414
Investigation 3
WM: Reasoning, Applying Strategies, Communicating
Square numbers
1
Find:
a 4 4 and 4 4
c 6 6 and 6 6
b 5 5 and 5 5
d 10 10 and 10 10
The solution to the equation x2 = 49 is found by finding a number that when multiplied by
itself gives 49. What are the two answers?
Example 1
Solve:
a x2 = 25
b x2 = 169
a x2 = 25
x = 25 (square root both sides)
x = 5
b x2 = 169
x = 169
x = 13
is the symbol
for plus or minus.
Exercise 13E
1
Solve:
a x2 = 9
f x 2 = 121
b x 2 = 16
g x 2 = 36
c x 2 = 64
h x 2 = 81
d x 2 = 144
i x 2 = 100
e x 2 = 49
j x2 = 4
Example 2
Solve:
a x 2 = 10
b x 2 = 43
a x 2 = 10
x = 10
x = 3.16 (2 d.p.)
b x 2 = 43
x = 43
x = 6.56 (2 d.p.)
d x 2 = 47
i x 2 = 193
e x 2 = 83
j x 2 = 200
Example 3
Quadratic equations
have two answers.
Solve:
a 5x 2 = 80
a
5x 2 = 80
2
5x
80
 = 5
5
2
x = 16
b 3x 2 = 75
b 3x 2 = 75
2
3x
75
 = 3
3
2
x = 25
x = 16
x = 25
x = 4
x = 5
Solve:
a 2x 2 = 18
e 7x 2 = 175
b 5x 2 = 180
f 10x 2 = 160
c 8x 2 = 72
g 7x 2 = 252
d 3x 2 = 48
h 6x 2 = 294
Example 4
Solve:
a 9x 2 = 25
b 81x 2 = 49
415
416
9x 2 = 25
81x 2 = 49
2
9x
25
 = 9
9
25
x 2 = 9
81x
49
 = 81
81
49
x 2 = 81
25
x = 9
5
x = 3
4
Solve:
a 4x 2 = 49
e 49x 2 = 144
49
x = 81
7
x = 9
b 100x 2 = 81
f 121x 2 = 64
c 25x 2 = 16
g 144x 2 = 49
d 81x 2 = 16
h 81x 2 = 100
Example 5
Solve:
a
3x 2 = 21
5x 2 = 12
3x 2 = 21
5x 2 = 12
3x
21
 = 3
3
5x
12
 = 5
5
12
2
x = 5
x2 = 7
x= 7
12
x = 5
x = 2.65 (2 d.p.)
x = 1.55 (2 d.p.)
Example 6
Solve 4x2 5 = 20
4x 2 5 = 20
4x = 25
25
x 2 = 4
x=
5
x = 2
25
4
c
f
11x 2 = 66
5x 2 = 23
d 49x 2 20 = 5
Investigation 4
WM: Applying Strategies, Communicating, Reflecting
Square roots
Suppose the square root key is the only key on your calculator that does not work. How can
5 be determined? Heres a method.
Step 1:
Step 2:
Step 3:
Step 4:
Make an estimate of
5
Find the average of a and  , and call it b.
a
5
Find the average of b and  , and call it c.
b
And so on.
5 and call it a.
5 2 i.e. a = 2
1
5
 (2 +  ) = 2.25
2
2
1
5
 (2.25 +  )
2
2.25
2.2361
d = _____
e = _____
f = _____
1
Find
417
418
Formula substitution
If a formula contains two or more variables and we know the value of all but one of them, we can use the formula
to find the value of the unknown variable. Follow the method below.
1
Example 1
The area of a triangle is given by A = 1 bh, where A is the area, b is the base of
2
the triangle, and h the height.
a Find the area of a triangle with b = 8 m and h = 7 m.
b Find the height when A = 30 cm2 and b = 5 cm.
a A = 12 bh
A=
1
2
87
A = 12 bh
30 =
= 28
2
The area is 28 m .
1
2
5h
60 = 5h
60 5h
 = 5
5
h = 12
The height is 12 cm.
Exercise 13F
1
The area of a rectangle is given by A = lb, where A is the area, l the length and b the breadth.
a Find the area of a rectangle with length 16 cm and breadth 5 cm.
b Find the length of a rectangle with area of 30 cm2 and breadth 5 cm.
The formula for calculating the circumference C of a circle of radius r is C = 2r. Find:
a the circumference of a circle of radius 8.6 cm
b the radius of a circle of circumference 100 m
When a car travels a distance of d km in time t h, the average speed, s kmph, for the journey
d
is given by the formula s =  . Find:
t
a the average speed of a car that travels 200 km in 2 h
b the distance travelled by a car in 3 14 h if its average speed is 80 kmph
c the time taken for a car to travel 865 km at an average speed of 110 kmph
Example 2
When a stone is dropped down a well the total distance
fallen, D metres, is given by the formula D = 1 gt 2,
2
where t is the time of fall (in seconds) and g is the
gravitational constant of 9.8 m s1. Find:
D=
1
2
9.8 52 m
Calculator:
0.5
D = 122.5 m
the stone has fallen a distance of 122.5 metres.
b D = 12 gt 2 where D = 100 m, and g = 9.8 m s1
100 = 12 9.8 t 2
100 = 4.9t 2
100
 = t 2
4.9
100
t =  (as t > 0)
4.9
t 4.5175
the time taken is 4.52 seconds.
9.8
x =
2
Calculator:
100
4.9
When a cricket ball is dropped from the top of a building the total distance fallen is given by
the formula D = 12 gt 2 where D is the distance in metres and t is the time taken in seconds.
Find, given that g 9.8 m s1,
a the total distance fallen in the first 3 s of fall
b the height of the building when the time of fall to hit the ground is 5.13 s
419
420
8
h
Earth
10
point of support
.
11
pendulum
12
13
14
15
y2 y1
.
The formula for gradient, m, is given by m = x
x
2
1
Find:
a y2 when x1 = 5, x2 = 3, y1 = 2 and m = 2
b x1 when x2 = 7, y1 = 3, y2 = 4 and m = 1
G. INEQUALITIES
These symbols are convenient devices for representing inequalities.
Symbol
Meaning
<
less than
>
greater than
not equal to
Example 1
Write in algebraic form:
a Three times a number is always smaller than ten.
b Twice a number is larger than or equal to eight.
c Four more than three times a number is greater than fifteen.
Let the unknown number be x. Then,
a 3x < 10
b 2x 8
c 3x + 4 > 15
the 3 button.
421
422
Exercise 13G
1
Example 2
a Is x = 3 a solution to the inequality 3x 2 > 5?
b Is x = 5 a solution to the inequality 5 2x 6?
c Is x = 7 a solution to the inequality 3 5x > 2x + 1?
Check by substituting.
a
3x 2 > 5
Is 3(3) 2 > 5?
Is 9 2 > 5?
7 >5
which is true
x = 3 is a solution
5 2x 6
c
3 5x > 2x + 1
Is 5 2(5) 6?
Is 3 5(7) > 2(7) + 1?
Is 5 + 10 6?
Is 32 > 15?
15 6
which is false
which is false
x = 5 is not a solution x = 7 is not a solution
b 3 4x 13
(x = 5)
c 5x + 1 < 11 (x = 2)
x
d  + 3 > 0
2
3x 1
f  3
4
x3
h  <7
2
(x = 10)
a 3x 2 > 7
e 7x 8 5
(x = 10)
g 7 4x 3
(x = 2)
(x = 0)
(x = 3)
3x + 7 < 11 2x
(x = 3)
k 4x + 1 6
(x = 1)
7x + 3 < 5 x
(x = 3)
m 2>5x
(x = 3)
x+6>0
(x = 7)
(x = 1)
Example 3
Find a solution to these inequalities using the guessandcheck method.
a 5 7x 10
b 3x 5 < 8 5x
a Try x = 0
5 7(0) 10
5 10 false
x = 0 is not a solution
Try x = 5
5 7(5) 10
30 10 false
x = 5 is not a solution
Try x = 10
5 7(10) 10
75 10 true
x = 10 is a solution
b Try x = 4
3(4) 5 < 8 5(4)
7 < 12 false
x = 4 is not a solution
Try x = 0
3(0) 5 < 8 5(0)
5 < 8 true
x = 0 is a solution
Find three solutions to each of the following inequalities, using the guessandcheck method.
4x
a 3x 9
b  3
c 2x 5
5
d 4 + 3x 7 + 2x
e 5 6x 7
f 3x 4 > 5x 2
x
g 2>4x
h 4 2x 3 x
i  > 2
3
Investigation 5
WM: Reflecting, Reasoning
Inequalities
Example 1
Change both sides of the inequality 5 < 7 by the operation [x(3)]
and insert a sign to make the new inequality true.
5<7
15 21
Thus 15 > 21
423
424
Both sides of the inequality 6 > 4 are changed by the operation in brackets. Insert > or < signs
to make the new inequality true.
a 12 8
[2]
b 3
2
[2]
c 9
7
[+3]
d 1
1 [5]
e 12 8 [(2)]
f 3
2 [(2)]
g 4
2
[+2]
h 8
6
[(2)]
Both sides of the inequality 8 < 4 are changed by the operation in brackets. Insert < or >
signs to make the new inequality true.
a 2
1
[4]
b 24
12 [3]
c 1
13
[+9]
d 15 3 [7]
e 4
2 [(2)]
f 24
12 [(3)]
g 2
2 [(4)]
h 12
0 [+(4)]
Using your answers to questions 1 and 2 write a set of rules for working with inequalities.
Inequalities may be written in equation form, as a number line graph, or in words. Copy and
complete this table.
Inequality
x >3
x 3
4 < x 2
x < 0 or x > 4
Graph
1
Description
4 3 2 1
3 2 1
x 2
3
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
a
b
c
d
H. SOLVING INEQUALITIES
Inequalities are algebraic sentences containing at least one of
the symbols >, <, or .
7
Right Hand Side (RHS)
Rules
Note:
425
426
but, if 3x 18 then x 6
Example 1
Solve for x, graphing the solution on the number line.
b 3 4x 15
a 3x 16 > 8
a
3x 16 > 8
3x > 24
x >8
5
c 2 > 5 2x
3 4x 15
4x 12
 x 12
4
10
11
x 3
6
2 > 5 2x
2 5 > 5 5 2x
3 > 2x
3
 < x
2
x>
3
2
Exercise 13H
1
b x23
e 2x 12
x3>4
3x 9
x+5>0
c 3x 18
x
g  > 4
4
k 2x 6
x
d  < 2
3
h x + 4 < 3
l
5x < 10
m 2x + 1 > 13
n 3x 2 7
o 4x + 1 6
p 3x<0
q 5 2x 0
r 2>5x
s 3 4x 13
5 6x 7
c
f
i
x
 + 3 > 0
2
1
 (3 2x) 1
2
3 5x
 > 1
4
Extension
Example 2
Solve for x:
a 3 + 2x < 13 3x
a
b 5 3x x + 7
3 + 2x < 13 3x
3 + 2x + 3x < 13 3x + 3x
3 + 5x < 13
3 3 + 5x < 13 3
5x < 10
x<2
5 3x x + 7
5 3x x x x + 7
5 4x 7
5 5 4x 7 5
4x 2
x 12
Solve for x.
a 4 + 3x 5 + x
c 3x 4 > 5x 2
e 3x + 7 < 11 2x
g 3x + 2 > x 5
i 5 2x x + 4
k 3(x 1) > x + 2
m 3x 2 > 2(x 1) + 5x
o 5 (x + 2) 2(2x 1)
q 3 x 5 2(x + 1)
b
d
f
h
j
l
n
p
r
Solve for x.
3+x
2x
a  4
3
7x 5 3x 1
c  5
4
5x 3 4 x
e  > 2
3
3 2x 7x + 1
g
<
4
5
11 4x
i  3 > 5
7
4x 3 7x 5
k  +  1
2
3
6x 5
b 2
4x + 3
d 3
5 3x
f 7
9 2x
h
3
2x 7
j 4
8 3x
l 2
3 + 3x < 13 + x
x 3 5x + 7
4 2x 3 x
2x 3 < 5 7x
7 3x 5 x
5 2x 2(x + 2)
1 (x 3) 2(x + 5) 1
3(x + 1) 2 > 5 2(x 1)
x + 7(4 x) < 2 5(1 x)
3x + 1
< 4
1x
> 5
2+x
4
2x + 1

4
3<7
4x + 1
 1
3
427
428
noncalculator activities
21
Write  as a mixed numeral,
2
If 20 5 =
1
Write 5  as a mixed fraction.
5
2367.5 10 =
10
3
B 10
C 0.03
D none of these
11
12
13
The temperature at 6 p.m. at Perisher was 4C but it fell 2C each hour for the next 6 hours.
What was the temperature at midnight?
14
9.9
Estimate the value of  giving your answer as a whole number.
3.1 + 1.8
15
16
If Kritizia earns $250 for 10 hours work, how much will she receive for 3 hours work?
17
Jade knows that 26 156 = 4056. Use this data to find the answer to Jades question
4056 156 =
2
18
What is
25 + 4 ?
19
What is the next number in the sequence 2, 10, 18, 26, __?
20
21
2+63=
22
Stuart solved the equation 2x + 2 = x + 5 and got the answer x = 3. Is Stuart correct?
23
The product of two numbers is 12. If one number is 2, what is the other number?
24
What is the area of a triangle with a base of 12 cm and a perpendicular height of 10 cm?
25
Jasmine reverses the digits in the number 4683 and subtracts them from the original number.
What is the answer?
Language in Mathematics
429
430
a
b
c
d
e
a l __ n __ __ r
b p r __ n __ m __ r __ l
c q __ __ dr __ t __ c
d s __ l __ t __ __ n
e s __ b s t __ t __ t __
v __ r __ __ bl __
Glossary
consecutive
equation
formulae
formulas
fractions
inequalities
like terms
linear
pronumeral
quadratic equation
solution
solve
substitute
unknown
value
variable
subject
431
1
3
C x=
1
2
B x=
5
7
11
3
1
2
D x=
11
3
C x = 25
A x=
5
1
3
x
The solution to  + 3 = 2 is:
5
1
A x = B x=1
5
A 7 124
B x=
C x=
D x = 5
D 7 12
5
3
D x=
5
3
D x=
5
12
B 7 2x = 3x + 17
D 6x + 4 = 2x 4
x 3 4 2x
The first line with an error in solving   = 2 is:
2
3
A 3(x 3) 2(4 2x) = 12
B
3x 9 8 4x = 12
C
x 17 = 12
D
x = 29
6 5x
The solution to  = 2 is:
3
A x = 2 25B x=0
C x=
8
5
3x x + 1 1
The line without an error in the solution of   =  is:
2
3
5
A 15 (3x) 10 (x + 1) = 1
B
45x 10x + 10 = 1
C
35x = 11
D
x = 35
11
When onethird of a number is added to twice a number, the answer is 10. The number is:
A 1 37B 10
C 3 13D 4 277
10
A woman is currently twice as old as her son. In 5 years time the sum of their ages will be
70 years. An equation to find the sons age now is:
A n + 2n = 5
B n + 2n = 70
C (n + 5) = 7 + (2n + 5)
D (n + 5) + (2n + 5) = 70
11
A solution to x2 = 64 is:
A x=4
B x=8
C x = 32
D x = 128
432
12
C x=
7
3
D x=
49
9
+ 499
13
The surface area of a sphere is given by A = 4r2. The value of r when A = 200 is closest to:
A 4
B 14
C 50
D 64
14
In symbols five times a number minus three is always greater than the number plus one is:
A 5n 3 >1
B 5(n3) > n + 1
C 3 5n > 1
D 5n 3 > n + 1
15
16
17
C x=3
4 3x
The number that is not a solution of  > 1 is:
5
A 3
B 2
C 1
A solution to 7 3x < 4 + 2x is:
3
A x = B x=0
5
C x=
D x=4
D 0
3
5
D x=1
If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
Section
13
46
7, 8
9, 10
11, 12
13
14, 15
16, 17
Solve for x:
a 2x + 5 = 3
b 4x = 2x + 11
x
d  + 9 = 3
7
e 2 x = 3x + 7
4 2x
If x = 3, find y if y =  .
5
Solve for x:
a 3(2x + 1) = 4
d 3(x 2) + 5(x + 1) = 15
2x 1
g  = 4
3
b 2(3 x) = 3(x + 5)
x 3
e  = 5 2
x x
h   = 4
3 6
x 1
 = 3 6
x5
 = 7
4
c 4 3(2 x) = 7
(2x + 1) = 3
1
2
x 3
x +  = 3 4
The period of a pendulum (the time for one complete swing) is given by T =
where l cm is the length of the pendulum. Find:
a the period if the pendulum has length 74 cm
b the length of the pendulum if its period is 2.5 seconds.
Solve:
a x+5<3
2x 3
d  > 1
4
x
b  3
2
4 2x
e  3
5
1
5
c 4x + 1 2
f
3 2x < 14 + 5x
l seconds,
433
434
Solve for x:
a 3x 1 = 2
b 6x = 11 3x
x
d  3 = 6
5
e 4 3x = 2x + 1
5a 4
If a = 2, find t if t =  .
3
Solve for x:
a 2(4x + 1) = 3
d 4(x 5) + 3(2x + 1) = 3
3x 5
g  = 8
2
2x
 = 5
3
x3
 = 2
4
c 5 2(5 2x) = 3
(4 5x) = 2
1
3
x 2
x  = 4 3
Solve:
a 2x 8
d 4 3x < 5
b x 5 < 3
3x 1
e  2
4
c 8x > 16
6x
f  > 4
2
Solve for x:
a 4x + 5 = 12
b 5 3x = 7
x
d  5 = 7
3
e 3x 2 = x + 6
2x 3
If y =  find:
5
1
a y when x = 2
x
 = 4
3
2x + 5
 = 1
4
b x when y = 3
Solve:
a 3(2a + 5) = 15
c 3(2p 3) = 4(p + 1)
x 4
e  = 2 3
2x + 3 3x 2
g  = 4
5
x+1
1x
i  + x = 5
2
b 2(3a 4) = a + 9
d x + 5(3 x) = 2x + 4(x 1)
f
1
3
(2x + 1) = 4
2x + 3 3x + 1
h   = 2
3
4
The value $V, of precious opal is given by the formula V = 20w2 dollars, where w is the weight
in grams.
a Find the value of an opal weighing 23.8 grams.
b Find the weight of an opal valued at $2300.
Solve:
x
a  > 2
3
x+1
d  < 2
3
b 6x<1
c 4x + 1 7
4 3x
e  1
5
5 3x 2(1 x)
435
436
Solve for x:
a 3x 2 = 5
x
d  + 3 = 2
7
3x 5
If y =  find:
3
a y when x =
b 4 7x = 3
e 4x 7 = 3x + 5
b x when y =
1
3
Solve:
a 2(4x + 3) = 15
d x 5(2x + 1) 3 = 4
3 4x x + 5
g  = 2
5
b 4(3t + 1) = t 2
4 x
e  = 3 4
3x 4 2 4x
h   = 1
5
3
x
 = 4
5
3x 2
 = 2
5
7
3
c 4(3p 7) = 5(1 p)
(3x 1) = 5
1
4
x+1
3x
 + x =  + 1
2
3
Solve:
a x4>3
x
d  + 2 0
3
b 3x > 9
4 3x
e  1
2
c 4 3x 14
f
3 x 2 4(x 1)
Chapter 14
Straight Lines and Regions
This chapter deals with the use and application of various standard forms of the equation
of the straight line and the graphing of regions on the number plane.
After completing this chapter you should be able to:
find the equation of a straight line
rearrange equations of straight lines into various forms
sketch straight lines given their intercepts
demonstrate that two lines are perpendicular if the product of their gradients is 1
find the equation of a line parallel or perpendicular to a given line
graph a variety of regions of the number plane involving straight lines.
438
Diagnostic Test
1
B y = 2x 7
C y = 2x 2
D y = 2x + 7
B 3x 2y = 8
3
D y =  x + 8
2
A y = x 1
B y=x+5
A 4 and 3
B 3 and 4
C y = 3x 7
D y = x + 1
C 4 and 3
D 3 and 4
10
y
3
2
11
1
3 2 1
x
1
 x 1
A y= 2
3
3
B y =  x 1
2
C y = x + 3
D y = 2x 1
12
B isosceles
C equilateral
D right angled
A 0
B 1
C 2
D 3
 x 2
In general form y = 1
 is:
2
3
A 6y 3x + 4 = 0 B 3x 6y 4 = 0
 x y 2
 = 0
C 3x + 2y 2 = 0 D 1
2
3
3 2
2 1
1
x
1
2
3
3 4
14
y
2 y
4 3 2
2 1
1
1
3 2
2 1
1
x
1
3 4
2
3
3 4
2
3
5
5
6
7
8
9
4
3
2
1
3 2
2 1
1
x
1
2 y
3 4
x
4 3 2
2 1
1
2
3
5
5
6
8
9
x
1
3 4
2
3
13
3 4
y
4
2
3
3 2
2 1
1
2 y
x
4 3 2
2 1
1
y
4
2
3
3
2
1
4 3
3 2
2 1
1
x
1
3 4
2
3
A x 3 and y < 2
5
5
6
8
9
3 4
439
440
If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
15
68
9, 10
11
12, 13
14
Section
A and B
A. EQUATIONS OF LINES
The equation of a line is the simplest relationship that connects the x and y values for
every point on the line.
Some of these are (1, 0), (0, 1), (1, 2), (2, 3), (3, 4), (4, 5).
2
1
3 2 1
x
1
2
3
3 4
4
y
Similarly, this line contains the points (5, 1), (4, 0), (3, 1), (2, 2), (1, 3),
(0, 4), (1, 5) and so on.
3
1
i.e. x + y = 4
Thus the equation of the line is x + y = 4.
2 1
x
1
2
3 4
If a straight line has gradient m and passes through the point with coordinates (x1, y1),
yy
x x1
Proof:
y
P(x2,y2)
Q(x1,y1)
x
Example 1
Find the equation of the line through (1, 2) having a gradient of 4.
The equation of the line is y y1 = m(x x1) where (x1, y1) = (1, 2) and gradient m = 4.
y 2 = 4(x (1))
y 2 = 4(x + 1)
y 2 = 4x + 4
y = 4x + 6
Exercise 14A
1
1
3
( 12
1 12
) with gradient 4
441
442
Example 2
Find the equation of the line that passes through the points A(1, 5)
and B(2, 3).
First we find the gradient of AB using
y2 y1
m = y2 x1
[use (1, 5) for (x1, y1) and (2, 3) for (x2, y2)]
35
m = 2 ( 1 )
8
m = 3
Second, find the equation of the line using
y y1 = m ( x x1 )
8
y 5 =  ( x ( 1 ) )
3
8
y 5 =  ( x + 1 )
3
8
8
y =  x  + 5
3
3
8
7
y =  x + 3
3
1
8
or y =  x + 2 3
3
Find the equation of the line passing through the following pairs of points.
a A(2, 3) and B(4, 7)
b A(0, 2) and B(2, 4)
c A(1, 3) and B(5, 5)
d A(6, 3) and B(4, 1)
e A(5, 2) and B(2, 5)
f P(0, 0) and Q(3, 5)
g P(3, 5) and Q(1, 2)
h L(3, 2) and M(0, 4)
i X(2, 2) and Y(3, 1)
j X(0, 6) and Y(4, 0)
Example 3
Find the equation of the line that cuts the yaxis at 3 and the xaxis at 2.
The yaxis is cut when x = 0, i.e. (0, 3) is one point.
The xaxis is cut when y = 0, i.e. (2, 0) is the other point.
y2 y1
Gradient, m = x2 x1
03
= 20
3
= 2
3
= 2
But, y y1 = m(x x1)
3
y 3 =  (x 0)
2
3
y 3 =  x
2
3
i.e. y =  x + 3
2
Proof:
Since the yintercept is b, the point (0, b) lies on the line.
Example 1
Find the equation of the line with gradient 3 and yintercept 2.
Since m = 3 and b = 2, the equation is y = 3x + 2.
443
444
Exercise 14B
1
d
f
Example 2
Find the equation of the line below.
(0, 2) and (4, 3) lie on the line
32
1
gradient is =  = 40
4
1
i.e. m =  and b = 2
4
1
equation is y =  x + 2
4
y
4
3
(4, 3)
2
1
x
1
c
y
4
3
(2, 3)
(3, 3)
x
1
x
1
y
3
x
x
(2, 3) 2
4 3 2 1
x
2 1
3 2 1
(4, 3)
c
G
slope 13
1
1
x
1
2 1
t
2 1
1
2
e
M
F
5
2
1
g
1
1
1
(10, 2)
x2
1
10
f
p
n
1
1
2
3
(6, 3)
Check the
variable on each
axis.
5
6
Example 3
Use y = mx + b to find the equation of the line passing through (3, 5) with
gradient 3.
y = mx + b
i.e. y = 3x + b
We substitute x
5
5
14
i.e. y
=
=
=
=
=
3 and y = 5
3 ( 3 ) + b
9+b
b
3x + 14
445
446
b
d
f
h
j
Example 4
Find a given that (a, 1) lies on the line y = 2x + 3.
Substitute x = a and y = 1 into the equation y = 2x + 3.
1 = 2(a) + 3
1 = 2a + 3
4 = 2a
a = 2
Find a given that each point below lies on the line with the given equation.
a (a, 3)
y = 2x 1
b (a, 2)
y=4x
c (4, a)
y= x+3
d (2, a)
y = 1 3x
Example 5
Draw the graph of the line with equation y = 2x + 1.
Method 1
Table of values:
x
Method 2
2
yintercept is 1 and gradient is 1
start at 1 on yaxis, xstep of 1,
then ystep of 2.
y
y=
2x
+1
2
1
1
4 3 2 1
x
1
2
3
3 4
4 3 2 1
1
2
3
x
2
3 4
c y = x + 3
f y = 2x 2
3
i y =  x 1
4
Example 1
Write, in general form, the equations
a y = 3x 1
y = 3x 1
0 = 3x y 1 (subtracting y)
(swapping sides)
3x y 1 = 0
2
y =  x + 4
3
2
y =  x + 4
3
2
0 =  x y + 4
3
0 = 2x 3y + 12
2x 3y + 12 = 0
2x + 3y 12 = 0
(subtracting y)
(multiplying by 3)
(swapping sides)
(multiplying by 1
so that A 0)
Exercise 14C
1
b y = 5x 2
d y = 2x 5
e y = 3x + 4
1
g y =  x 5
2
2
1
j  y =  x + 1
3
4
2
h y =  x 3
3
1
3
k y =  x 2
4
c y = 2x + 5
1
f y =  x + 2
2
3
2
i y =  x 4
3
1
1
l  y = x + 5
2
447
448
Example 2
Rewrite the equation 4x 3y 12 = 0 in the form y = mx + b and hence find the
gradient and yintercept.
4x 3y 12 = 0
4x 12 = 3y
(adding 3y to both sides)
3y = 4x 12 (swapping sides)
4
(dividing by 3)
y =  x 4
3
4
gradient is  m = and yintercept is 4.
3
Rewrite the following equations in y = mx + b form and hence find the gradient and
yintercept.
a x + 2y 4 = 0
b 3x + 2y 24 = 0
c 2x y + 4 = 0
d 4x 2y 6 = 0
e 5x + 2y + 10 = 0
f 3x + 2y 8 = 0
g 4x y 6 = 0
h 3x 2y + 17 = 0
i 8x 2y 7 = 0
Find b if each point below lies on the line with the given equation.
a (2, b)
x + 2y = 4
b (1, b)
3x 4y = 6
c (b, 4)
5x + 2y = 1
d (b, 3)
4x y = 8
Example 3
Find the x and yintercepts of the line with equation 4x 3y 12 = 0.
xintercept when y = 0
yintercept when x = 0
4x 3(0) 12 = 0
4(0) 3y 12 = 0
4x 12 = 0
3y 12 = 0
4x = 12
3y = 12
x =3
i.e. xintercept is 3
4
y = 4
i.e. yintercept is 4
c 2x y + 6 = 0
f 3x + 2y 5 = 0
i 9x 2y 5 = 0
Example 4
Draw the graph of the line with equation 5x 3y 15 = 0.
Find the xand yintercepts
If x = 0
5(0) 3y 15 = 0
If y = 0
5x 3(0) 15 = 0
3y 15 = 0
5x 15 = 0
3y = 15
5x = 15
y = 5
yintercept is 5
x=3
xintercept is 3
5(1) 3y 15 = 0
5 3y 15 = 0
2
1
3y 10 = 0
3y = 10
10
y = 3
10
(1,  ) is on the line.
3
4 3 2 1
x
1
3 4
2
3
4
5
c 2x 3y 4 = 0
f xy+5=0
i x 2y = 0
Investigation 1
WM: Reasoning, Communicating, Applying Strategies
Graphs of lines
1
a On the same number plane draw the straight lines with equations
y = 2x, y = 2x + 1, y = 2x 3, y = 3x + 1
b What do you notice about these lines?
449
450
a On the same number plane draw the straight lines with equations
y = 3x + 1, 3x + y 2 = 0, 6x + 2y + 3 = 0.
b What do you notice about these three lines?
c Rewrite the second two lines in y = mx + b form and find their gradients.
a On the same number plane draw the straight lines with equations
1
y = 2x + 1 and y =  x + 2.
2
b What do you notice about these lines?
Example 1
a Find the equation of the line parallel to the line y = 5x 7 passing through the
point (2, 3).
b Find the equation of the line parallel to the line 3x 6y + 8 = 0 passing through the
point (1, 2).
Use a graphics
calculator.
y
3
3
13
y
=
=
=
=
=
5x + b
5 ( 2 ) + b (substituting (2, 3))
10 + b
b
5x + 13 is the equation of the line.
1
So gradient =  .
2
1
Use y y1 = m(x x1) with m =  and (1, 2) for (x1, y1)
2
1
y (2) =  (x (1))
2
1
1
1
y + 2 =  (x + 1) =  x + 2
2
2
1
1
y =  x 1 2 is the equation of the line.
2
Exercise 14D
1
y = 2x
y = 4 3x
x 2y + 3 = 0
2x + 3y 5 = 0
with yintercept 2, that is parallel to the line segment joining (7, 5) and the origin
451
452
Example 2
a Is the line y = 3x 5 perpendicular to the line 2x + 6y + 9 = 0?
b What is the gradient of the line perpendicular to the line 5x 2y + 4 = 0?
c Find the equation of the line passing through (6, 3) perpendicular to the line
2
y =  x + 4.
3
a y = 3x 5 has gradient m1 = 3
We rearrange 2x + 6y + 9 = 0 to find its gradient.
6y = 2x 9
2x 9
y =  6
6
1
1
3
y =  x , and so had gradient m2 = 3
3
2
1
Now m1 m2 = 3  = 1 the lines are perpendicular.
3
b Rearrange 5x 2y + 4 = 0 into y = mx + b form.
5x 2y + 4 = 0
5x + 4 = 2y
5x 4
 +  = y
2 2
5
y =  x + 2
2
2
the gradient of the perpendicular line is 5
2
2
c y =  x + 4 has gradient m1 = 3
3
3
the gradient of the perpendicular line is 2
3
y =  x + b and so we substitute (6, 3)
2
3
3 =  (6) + b
2
5
2
(since   = 1)
2
5
2 3
(since   = 1)
3 2
3 = 9 + b
12 = b
3
y =  x 12 is the equation.
2
3
y = 4x + 3
e 3x 4y + 5 = 0, 4x + 3y 2 = 0
1
y =  x 2
3
2
5
d y =  x 1,
y =  x 1
5
2
f 7x + 5y + 3 = 0, 5y 7x = 0
3
c y =  x 5
2
f
5x 7y + 7 = 0
passing through (2, 5), perpendicular to the line segment joining (2, 3) and (5, 3)
g passing through the origin, perpendicular to the line segment joining (3, 0) and (0, 5)
6
1
a Find the equations of five lines that are perpendicular to y =  x 3.
2
b Find the equations of five lines that are parallel to y = 3x 2.
c Write the equation of all lines parallel to 3x 5y + 6 = 0.
d Write the equation of all lines perpendicular to 5x 3y + 7 = 0.
b perpendicular to 7x 5y + 6 = 0
Investigation 2
WM: Communicating, Reasoning
Transformation of lines
1
453
454
Describe a transformation that would superimpose the graph of y = 4x over the graph:
1
a y = 4x
b y = 4x 7
c y =  x
4
( x2 x1 ) + ( y2 y1 )
Exercise 14E
1
A(5, 3)
C
T
B(3, 1)
D(2, 0)
A(3, 2)
B(8, 4)
C(6, 1)
Triangle ABC has A(1, 4), B(2, 1) and C(5, 2) as vertices. Find the length of the line
segment from A to the midpoint of BC.
For the points P(2, 3), Q(0, 0), R(7, 4), S(a, 1), find a if:
a PQ is parallel to RS
b PR is parallel to QS
c PQ is perpendicular to RS
d PR is perpendicular to QS
The triangle ABC has vertices A(2, 0), B(2, 1) and C(1, 3).
a Find the length of the sides AB, BC and AC using the distance formula.
b Classify ABC as scalene, isosceles or equilateral. Give a reason.
The triangle PQR has vertices P(1, 0), Q(3, 1) and R(7, 3).
a Find the lengths of each of the sides.
b Classify PQR as scalene, isosceles or equilateral. Give a reason.
Classify LMN with vertices L(2, 1), M(0, 3) and N(4, 1) as scalene, isosceles or
equilateral. Give a reason.
The triangle XYZ has vertices X(1, 2), Y(2, 5) and Z(4, 1).
a Find the length of each of the sides XY, YZ and XZ.
b Use Pythagoras rule to decide if XYZ is right angled. Give a reason.
c Find the gradient of the sides XY, YZ and XZ.
d Use the gradients to decide if XYZ is right angled. Give a reason.
9
10
Is the triangle with the vertices D(2, 1), E(1, 1) and F(2, 3) right angled? Give a reason.
The triangle PQR has vertices P(2, 5), Q(3, 1) and R(4, 7).
a Find the coordinates of S, the midpoint of PQ.
b Find the coordinates of T, the midpoint of PR.
c Show that the length of QR is twice the length of ST.
d Show that ST is parallel to QR.
11
The quadrilateral PQRS has vertices P(2, 4), Q(5, 1), R(1, 2) and S(4, 1).
a Prove that PQRS is a parallelogram by showing that:
i the opposite sides are equal
ii the opposite sides are parallel
iii the diagonals bisect each other
iv one pair of opposite sides are equal and parallel.
455
456
ABC is a triangle with vertices A(4, 4), B(3, 2) and C(2, 3).
a Show that ABC is isosceles with AC = AB.
b Find the midpoint D of the base BC.
c Find the length of AD.
d Prove that AD is perpendicular to BC.
13
Triangle XYZ has vertices X(1, 3), Y(4, 1) and Z(3, 3).
a Show that XYZ is right angled. Do this in two ways.
b Find the equation of the perpendicular bisector of XY.
c Find the equation of the side YZ.
d Show that the point of intersection of the perpendicular bisector of XY and the side
YZ is ( 12 , 1).
e Show that the perpendicular bisector of XZ also passes through the point ( 12 , 1).
f
14
Explain why ( 12 , 1) is the centre of a circle with X, Y and Z on its circumference. What
names are given to this point and the circle?
The triangle STU has vertices S(2, 5), T(2, 3) and U(4, 1).
a Find the equation of the perpendicular bisectors of each side.
b Hence, find the circumcentre of STU.
15
The quadrilateral WXYZ has vertices W(2, 3), X(4, 4), Y(3, 2) and Z(2, 4). The points A,B,
C, D are the midpoints of each of the sides WX, XY, YZ and ZW.
a Find the coordinates of A, B, C and D.
b What type of quadrilateral is ABCD?
16
4
3
x=1
2
3 2 1
1 2
3 4
1
4 3 2 1
x
1
2
3
4
1 2
3 4
457
2
1
This line is the
boundary of the
region.
4 3 2
2 1
x
1
1 2
3 4
2
3
4
y
4
3
2
1
4 3 2
2 1
x
1
1 2
3 4 5
2
3
4
Example 1
Sketch the regions defined by:
a x2
y<3
458
a x2
y<3
2
1
1
4 3 2
2 1
x
1
3 4
4
4 3 2
2 1
1
2
3
4
4
3 4
Exercise 14F
1
b
e
h
k
x 1
x>3
y<7
3
y 2
c
f
i
l
y 2
x<1
x 4
y<1
Example 2
Sketch the region defined by the intersection of:
a x < 3 and y 1
b x 1 and y 2
y
4
3
y1
4 3 2
2 1
2
1
x
1
2
3
4
3 4
x<3
3
An open circle
shows that the
point (3, 1) is not
included.
y1
4 3 2
2 1
x
1
2
3
3 4
x<3
y
x1
3
y2
2
1
4 3 2
2 1
x
1
3 4
2
3
4
y
x1
y2
4 3 2
2 1
2
1
x
1
3 4
2
3
4
459
460
Write inequalities that would result in a region that is a rectangle 4 6 units on the number
plane.
Example 1
Sketch the region defined by:
a x+y3
b 2x y > 6
Draw an unbroken
line because the
inequality contains
an equals sign.
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
x
1
3 4
2
3
4
Second, decide which side of the line to shade. In the previous section this was easy,
but here it may not be as clear.
To decide where to shade, choose a point on one side of
the line and test to see if it satisfies the inequality.
+
y
4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4
3 4
b Step 1: 2x y = 6
Sketch 2x y = 6
x intercept when y = 0 is x = 3
2(0) 0 > 6
y intercept when x = 0 is y = 6
0 > 6 is false
shade the opposite side of the line
to (0, 0).
y
4
3
x
2
>6
3 4 5
2
3
2x
1
5 4 3 2 1
1
5 4 3 2 1
x
1
2
3
3 4 5
Exercise 14G
1
c x+y>3
g yx<3
d x + y < 2
h yx>2
c 4x y > 4
g 6x 5y 15
d 3x + 5y 15
h 3x + 5y 15
461
462
Example 2
Sketch the region defined by:
b y 4x
a y > 3x
a y > 3x
y = 3x
y = 3x
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
x
1
4 3 2 1
3 4
2
3
2
3
3 4
(0, 0) cannot be
used as the line
passes through
the origin.
Test (1, 0)
y > 3x
0 > 3(1)
0 > 3 is false
y
y = 4x
2
1
4 3 2 1
x
1
2
3
4
3 4
y 4x
2 4(0)
2 0 is false
x
1
2
3
4
3 4
d yx
h y 3x
c y<x
g y 2x
Example 3
Write an equation to describe the region.
a
4
6
5
y
4
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
(2, 6)
x
1
3 4
1
x
2
3
4 3 2 1
3 4
2
3
4
5
6
3y 2x = 6
Step 2: Substitute a point in the
region, not on the line, e.g. (0, 0).
3y 2x = 6
Test 3(0) 2(0) = 6
0 = 6 is false
inequality is 3y 2x < 6
inequality is y < 3x
463
464
1
4 3 2 1
x
1
4 3 2
2 1
3 4
x
1
2
3
2
3
3 4
d
4
1
4 3 2 1
x
1
3 4
5
5 4 3 2
2 1
x
1
2
3
2
3
3 4
f
y
(2,
2 8)
5
5 4 3 2
2 1
(4, 2)
x
2
3
1
4 3 2 1
x
1
2
3
4
3 4
4
5
3 4
noncalculator activities
1
Evaluate 8 2.63.
Peter buys a pair of jeans marked at $75.00. If he received 10% discount, how much does he
pay for the jeans?
Red and blue lollies are sold in the ratio 2 : 5. If there are 16 red lollies in a bag, how many
are blue?
Solve 5 2x = 9.
13 cm
d cm
10
Al works in a shoe store and notes that the mode female shoe size sold is 7 12 . Explain the
term mode.
11
12
13
My car uses 15 L of petrol per 100 km. Find the number of litres of petrol needed to travel
350 km.
14
Between which two consecutive whole numbers is the square root of 67.3?
15
465
466
Language in Mathematics
Pierre de Fermat
(16011665)
467
b When was his work Introduction to Loci published? What was it about?
c Who solved Fermats last theorem?
d Explain Fermats last theorem. Research this theorem and write a onepage report.
2
Glossary
boundary
gradientintercept form
linear relationship
product
translation
equation
inequality
parallel
reflection
yintercept
general form
inequation
perpendicular
region
gradient
line
point
sketch
The equation of the line passing through (2, 6) with gradient 2 is:
A y = 2x + 3
B y = 2x 7
C y = 2x 2
D y = 2x + 7
The equation of the line passing through A(4, 5) and B(2, 13) is:
A y = x 1
B y=x+5
C y = 3x 7
D y = x + 1
The equation of the line cutting the y axis at 4 and the x axis at +5 is:
4
4
5x
A y =  x 4
B y =  x 4
C y =  4
5
5
4
5x
D y =  4
4
y
3
2
1
3 2 1
x
1
2
3
468
D 3
1
In general form y =  x
2
A 6y 3x + 8 = 0
4
 is:
3
B 3x 6y 8 = 0
C 3x + 2y 4 = 0
1
4
 x y  = 0
2
3
10
11
12
C 4 and 3
D 3 and 4
C y = 3x + 3
D y = x + 3
C 3x + 5y + 7 = 0
5x
D y =  + 2
3
The triangle ABC with vertices A(2, 0), B(1, 4) and C(6, 3) is:
A scalene
B isosceles
C equilateral
The region defined by y 3 is:
A
4
1
4 3
3 2
2 1
1
x
1
4 3
3 2
2 1
1
3 4
1
2
3
2
3
D
4
1
4 3
3 2
2 1
1
1
2
3
3 4
3 4
x
1
D right angled
4 3
3 2
2 1
1
x
1
2
3
3 4
13
469
3
2
1
4 3
3 2
2 1
1
x
1
3 4
2
3
14
1
4 3 2 1
1
x
1
3 4
4 3 2 1
1
2
3
3
3 4
3 4
2
3
3
D
y
1
4 3 2 1
1
y
3
x
1
3 4
4 3 2 1
1
2
3
3
1
2
3
3
7
8
If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
15
68
9, 10
11
12,13
14
Section
A and B
470
a Find the fourth vertex of the parallelogram ABCD for A(7, 11), B(6, 5) and C(3, 8).
b Find the equation of the line from A(7, 2) to the midpoint of the line segment joining
B(6, 4) to C(3, 1).
2
1
1
4 3 2 1
x
1
3 4
6
6 5
5 4 3 2 1
2
3
2
3
3
3 4
Find the equation of the line passing through M(4, 2) and N(3, 7).
2
Write y =  x 4 in general form.
3
Find the equation of the perpendicular bisector of the join of (2, 3) and (4, 5).
xy>6
c 2x 3y 12.
Sketch x 3y = 7.
b 2x y > 4
471
472
a Find the equation of the line with gradient 3 passing through (2, 4).
b Find the equation of the line parallel to 3x 5y = 8 passing through the origin.
3x
Write y =  + 2 in general form.
4
Find the area of the triangle formed when 2x 3y = 6 cuts the coordinate axes.
Sketch:
a the intersection of y 2 and x < 1
b 3x y > 6
c y 4x
Chapter 15
Surds and Indices
This chapter deals with defining the system of real numbers, distinguishing between rational
and irrational numbers, performing operations with surds, using integers and fractions for
index notation, and converting between surd and index form.
After completing this chapter you should be able to:
define real numbers and distinguish between rational and irrational numbers
simplify expressions involving surds
expand expressions involving surds
rationalise the denominators of simple surds
use the index laws to define fractional indices
translate expressions in surd form to expressions in index form and vice versa
evaluate numerical expressions involving fractional indices
use the calculator to evaluate fractional powers of numbers
evaluate a fraction raised to the power of 1
prove some general properties of real numbers.
474
Diagnostic Test
1
10
4 = 2
4 = 2
12
B 225
C 15
30
40
 =
5
A 8
13
32 =
180
10 2 6
2( 5 2 3) =
150 D
900
14
1
B 8
C 2 2 D
D 2 19
B 10 10 2 5
C 8 5
D 2 15 + 6 10
17
B 4 2
C 2 3+ 2
D 2 5
10 4 3
D 10 2 6
( 5 + 2) =
B 7 + 2 10
14
D 2 7
15
 C
6
5
3
10
6
1
2
10 =
1
B 5
In index form,
B k
1
10 D 10
C
4
4
3
k =
C k
3
4
D k7
2
3
When evaluated, 27 =
A 18
18 + 2 =
20
A k12
16
A 8 15
10 2 3
A 5
35
15
C 4 13
5
 =
2 3
5
A 6
4 10 2 5 + 6 10 =
D 9 5
n, 5 6 =
180 C
1
4  =
9
37
A  B 2 133
C 10 30
A 7
(3 5 )2 =
B 30 2
11
A 2 8 B 8 2 C 16 2 D 4 2
5
A 30 6
C 4 = 2
2 35 6 =
3

5
B 9
C 6
D 40.5
3
B 5
5
C 3
A 1 23
=
1
15
If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
37
8, 9
1012
13
1416
17
Section
Example 1
Write down:
a the square root of 81
81
c 81
81 = 9
c 81 = 9
Exercise 15A
1
Write down:
a the square root of 4
d the square root of 25
g the square root of 49
j the square root of 64
4
25
49
64
b
e
h
k
c
f
i
l
4
25
49
64
Example 2
Find, where possible:
a
9 =3
c
b
9 = 3
c
h
m
x = 0 for x = 0
4
36
64
d
0
i 36
n 100
e
j
o
16
36
1
475
476
Example 1
Show that the following are rational numbers:
3
a 2 b 0.637
c 3
4
d 0. 4
e 3.1
3
11
a 2  = 4
4
a
3
This is in the form  , where a and b are integers, hence 2  is a rational number.
b
4
637
b 0.637 = 1000
a
This is in the form  , where a and b are integers, hence 0.637 is a rational number.
b
3
c 3 = 1
a
This is in the form  , where a and b are integers, hence 3 is a rational number.
b
4
d 0. 4 =  (You learnt how to convert recurring decimals into fractions in chapter 5.)
9
a
This is in the form  , where a and b are integers, hence 0. 4 . is a rational number.
b
1
e 3.1 = 3 10
31
= 10
a
This is in the form  , where a and b are integers, hence 3.1 is a rational number.
b
From Example 1 we note that:
Any terminating or recurring decimal is a rational number.
Exercise 15B
1
a
Show that the following are rational numbers by expressing them in the form  .
b
a 4 23b 0.91
c 5
d 0. 7
e 5 12f
4
16
g 0. 5 3
h 2.6
i
j
k 30%
l
9
2.84
69%
1
7
7.3%
477
Example 2
Convert the following real numbers to a decimal and discuss whether they are
rational or irrational.
a
Using a calculator
a
2 = 1.414 213 562
b
5 = 2.236 067 978
Since neither decimal terminates or recurs (although we have only been able to show
an answer to 9 decimal places, the limit of the calculator display) these numbers
cannot be expressed as the ratio of two integers and hence are not rational. They are
irrational numbers.
Example 3
Determine whether the following real numbers are rational or irrational.
16
a
6
b
49
a
6 = 2.449 897 43
Since the decimal neither terminates nor recurs, it cannot be expressed as the
ratio of two integers, hence 6 is an irrational number.
4 4 16
16 4
 =  (since   =  )
7 7 49
49 7
a
This is in the form  , where a and b are integers, hence
b
16
 is a rational number.
49
5
16
Example 4
Using a calculator
statements:
a
6 = 2.44
6 = 2.449
6 = 2.4494
478
Using a calculator
a
2 = 1.41
2 = 1.414 213 562 Write true or false for the following statements:
b 2 = 1.414
c
2 = 1.4142
151
a Using a ruler and set square, copy the diagram below into your exercise book.
P1
1
3
O
0
1 Q 2
2 on the number
O
0
1
1 Q 2
4,
5,
6,
Extension:
Proof that
2 is irrational
In example 2 we cannot be certain that the decimal form of 2 does not terminate or recur after some large
number of decimal places, hence it is not a proof that 2 is irrational. Work through the following proof with
your teacher.
a
Assume that 2 is rational. That is, assume that 2 can be written in the form  , where a and b are integers
b
and the fraction is written in its simplest form (i.e. a and b have no common factors).
a
If
2 = b
2
a
2 = 2b
a 2 = 2b 2 . (1)
i.e. a
a2
4k 2
b2
= 2k
= 4k 2
= 2b 2
= 2k 2
C. PROPERTIES OF SURDS
In section B we distinguished between rational and irrational numbers. The set of irrational numbers contains
numbers such as 2 , 3 2 , etc. Irrational numbers that contain the radical sign
are called surds.
When working with surds we may use the
following properties:
If x > 0 and y > 0,
2
1 ( x) = x =
A set is a group
of objects
(numbers, letters,
names ).
xy = x y
x
x
 = y
y
2
3
Example 1
Simplify:
2
( 5)
c (3 5 )2 = 3 5 3 5
= 9 ( 5 )2
=95
= 45
c (3 5)
b
5 = 25
=5
479
480
Exercise 15C
1
Simplify:
a ( 11 )2
f (3 2 )2
c ( 8 )2
h (5 2 )2
b
11
g (2 3 )2
d
8
i (10 7 )2
e ( 6 )2
j (4 5 )2
Example 2
Simplify:
a
5 3
Simplify:
2 7
a
d
7 11
g
7 5 10
b
e
6 7
6 7 =
=
67
42
3 10
13 17
c
f
5 2
3 2 5
Example 3
Simplify:
a
28
45
Using property 2:
a
28 = 2 14 or 4 7
= 2 14 or 4 7
Since 4 is a perfect square, 4 simplifies to 2 and we choose the second product.
i.e.
28 = 4 7
= 2 7
= 2 7
b We look for factors of 45, one of which is a perfect square.
45 = 9 5
= 3 5
Simplify:
a
12
f
90
k
24
b
g
l
20
50
32
c
h
m
18
75
48
d
i
n
27
200
72
e
j
o
8
98
128
Example 4
Simplify:
a
3 12
2 6
3 12 = 36
= 6
2 6 =
12
4 3
= 2 3
4
Simplify:
a
8 2
f
14 2
b
g
2 32
8 5
c
h
5 20
15 3
d
i
2 10
15 5
10 5
3 8
e
j
Example 5
Express 3 5 in the form
3 5 =
=
n.
9 5
45
c 4 5
5 2
10 7
Example 6
Simplify:
16
a
25
Using property 3:
16
16
a
 = 25
25
4
= 5
Simplify:
9
a
16
f
21
9
11
25
21

4
11
11
 = 25
25
11
= 5
c 21
 =
4
9
4
1
3
=  = 1 2
2
9
25
17
25
5
16
11
16
61

4
17

9
13

4
25

9
481
482
Example 7
Simplify:
12
a 3
15
5
15
 =
5
40
5
40
 =
5
Using property 3:
12
a  =
3
12
3
= 4
= 2
7
40
5
8
= 2 2
Simplify:
24
a 6
18
b 2
30
6
24
g 3
24
h 2
f
8
15
5
18
3
20
d 10
i
24
e 8
32
2
54
3
Determine whether the following statements are true or false. Give a reason.
2
a ( 5) = 5
e
20 5 = 10
b 3 7 =
f
12
 =
2
c (4 2) = 8
21
6
18 = 2 3
1
1
1  = 1 4
2
8 52 5
a 3 2+5 2 = 8 2
8 52 5 = 6 5
Exercise 15D
1
Simplify:
a 5 3+4 3
b 7 11 + 6 11
c 7 53 5
e 6 3+4 3+5 3
8 3+5 37 3
g 15 6 3 6 4 6
5 10 7 10
8 53 5+2 5
3 58 5+2 5
d 9 74 7
Example 2
Simplify:
a 4 2+5 3+3 2
7 6+4 73 65 7
7 6+4 73 65 7 = 4 6 7
Simplify:
a 5 2+4 3+6 2
b 7 3+4 5+3 5
c 6 2+5 2+2 3
d 5 7 2 10 + 3 7
e 6 5 + 2 11 3 5
7 10 4 6 6 10
g 5 2+6 33 2+ 3
6 3+2 75 34 7
4 11 3 10 6 11 2 10
10 5 4 3 5 3 + 2 5
Example 3
Simplify:
a
18 + 2
50 18
18 + 2 = 3 2 + 2
50 18 = 5 2 3 2
= 2 2
= 4 2
Simplify:
a
18 + 4 2
12 + 5 3
20 2 5
45 + 20
54 24
48 12
24 + 3 6 4 6
75 48 27
6 2 18 2 2
d 6 2 8
Simplify:
a 5 6 + 24 3 5
e 7 5 20 + 45 5 6
28 + 27 + 63 + 12
50 + 6 3 8
c 8 10 + 4 5 90
Determine whether the following statements are true or false. Give reasons.
a
5+ 3 =
d 4 3 + 2 7 = 6 10
b 3 52 5 = 1
e 6 2 =
72
24 6 =
483
484
E. MULTIPLICATION OF SURDS
Example 1
Simplify:
a 43 7
b 3 52 3
6 23 8
d 5 84 3
b 3 5 2 3 = (3 2) ( 5 3)
a 43 7 = 43 7
= 6 15
= 12 7
d 5 8 4 3 = (5 4) ( 8 3)
c 6 2 3 8 = (6 3) ( 2 8)
= 20 24
= 18 16
= 18 4
= 72
= 20 2 6
= 40 6
Exercise 15E
1
Simplify:
a 52 3
b 26 2
e 3 36 2
f
j
6 2 3 18
m 5 32 8
c 4 7 10
d 2 65
10 5 3 7
g 6 77 6
h 5 12 2 3
2 32 5 2
o 6 62 2
5 3 20
3 64 3
p 3 10 2
Example 2
Simplify:
a 3( 7 + 2 6)
a
2( 7 3 5)
3( 7 + 2 6) = 3 7 + 3 2 6
4 3(2 5 + 3 2)
2( 7 3 5) =
=
= 3 7+6 6
2 7 23 5
14 3 10
c 4 3 (2 5 + 3 2) = 4 3 2 5 + 4 3 3 2
= 8 15 + 12 6
Simplify:
a 5( 6 + 3)
d
3( 5 + 2)
g 3 2( 7 4 3)
j
2 10 ( 6 2 3 10 )
b 2( 5 + 4 3)
c 4 ( 2 10 3 2 )
5( 6 4 3)
2(3 5 + 2 7)
h 4 3 ( 2 5 + 5 10 )
3 5(2 3 + 4 5)
k 5 2(3 5 2 6)
3 6(4 3 + 2 8)
485
Example 3
Simplify:
a ( 5 + 3)( 5 4)
b (2 3 2 5)(4 3 + 5)
a ( 5 + 3)( 5 4) =
( 7 + 3)
5( 5 4) + 3( 5 4)
= 5 4 5 + 3 5 12
= 7
b
( 7 + 3) = ( 7) + 2 7 3 + ( 3)
= 7 + 2 21 + 3
= 10 + 2 21
Simplify:
a ( 3 + 5)( 3 + 2)
b ( 7 + 3)( 7 4)
c ( 10 6 ) ( 10 1 )
d ( 5 3)( 5 + 3)
e (2 3 + 5)( 3 + 1)
(3 2 + 4)(2 2 7)
g (2 5 3)(4 5 + 3)
h (5 2 2 3)(3 2 + 4 3)
(3 7 + 5 2)( 7 4 2)
k (3 5 + 4 2)(3 5 3 2)
(2 7 + 5)(2 7 5)
(2 6 4 3)(3 6 3)
m (4 5 3 2)(4 5 + 3 2) n ( 3 + 6)
p ( 10 5 )
4
o ( 5 + 2)
q (2 5 + 3)
r (3 7 2 5)
Determine whether the following statements are true or false. Give reasons.
a 2 33 2 = 6 6
d
7( 2 3) =
14 3
b 4 3 5 = 12 60
c 3 12 5 3 = 90
e ( 5 + 3) = 8
3
7
5 3
7
486
1
7
1
a  =  7
7
7
7
= 7
5 7
= 7
3
7
3
 =  7
7
7
5 3
7
5 3
d  =  7
7
7
5 21
= 7
21
= 7
Exercise 15F
1
1
b 3
8
7
3
g 5
7
h 3
3 2
5
3 7
m 6
5 5
n 2
4 3
10
1
10
5
d 2
3
e 6
11
6
2
7
4 10
o 3
Example 2
Rationalise the denominator of:
1
5
a b 4 7
4 7
1
7
1
a  =  4 7
7
4 7
5
7
5
 =  4 7
7
4 7
7
= 28
5 3
4 7
5 3
7
5 3
 =  4 7
7
4 7
5 7
= 28
5 21
= 28
1
2 3
1
3 5
4
5 2
8
3 7
5
3 2
10
4 3
5 7
3 10
6 2
5 3
3 5
2 11
2 7
5 6
Extension
Example 3
a Expand and simplify ( 5 + 3 ) ( 5 3 ) .
1
b Hence rationalise the denominator of
i 5+ 3
1
ii 5 3
a ( 5 + 3 ) ( 5 3 ) = 5 15 + 15 3
= 2
b i
1
5 3
1
 =  5+ 3
5 3
5+ 3
ii
1
5+ 3
1
 =  5 3
5+ 3
5 3
5+ 3
= 2
5 3
= 2
3
Remember that
2
2
(a + b)(a b) = a b
1
a ( 6 2)
3
b ( 10 + 2 )
( 10 2 )
d 10 + 2
(2 5 + 3 2)
e (2 5 3 2)
1
ii ( 7 2)
1
ii 10 3
1
ii ( 5 2)
10
ii (6 3)
7
ii (2 3 2)
ii
( 5 + 1)
c 3 2
(3 2 4)
(3 2 5)
487
488
G. FRACTIONAL INDICES
Example 1
1 4
4
a Use the index laws to simplify a .
4
b Simplify ( 4 a ) .
a
1 4
4
a
= a
= a
c
b
1
 4
4
1
4
(4 a) =
a.
a4 a4 a4 a
= a
1
= a
1 4
4
c Since a
1
4
= ( 4 a ) = a , then a =
Exercise 15G
1 2
2
a Use the index laws to simplify a .
2
b Simplify ( a ) . 12
c Hence show that a = a .
1 3
3
a Use the index laws to simplify a .
3
b Simplify ( 3 a ) . 13
c Hence show that a = 3 a .
Example 2
Write in surd form:
a k
a
1
5
1
5
k =
1
10
1
10
10
1
4
e 17
1
6
b y
f
1
2
25
c p
1
4
1
3
g 62
d t
1
3
1
8
h a
1
n
Example 3
Evaluate:
a 25
1
2
25 = 25
= 5
1
4
256
256 = 4 256
= 4 ( since 4 4 4 4 = 256 )
1
4
Evaluate:
a 49
f
1
2
1
2
b 27
1
3
1
3
h 121
c
1
2
625
81
1
4
d 32
1
4
64
1
5
e 1000 000
1
3
k 1
1
10
1
3
b 2
1
4
c 298
1
5
d 41
1
2
e 831
Example 4
Write in index form:
a
a
7
7 = 7
1
3
b
f
3
3
m = m
1
5
c
g
7
y
Example 5
Write in index form:
a ( m)
3
1
3 2
1 3
2
( m) = m
3
= m
= m
1
 3
2
3
2
m = (m )
= m
= m
1
3 2
3
2
4
5
5
k
d
h
38
m
1
6
1
6
489
490
m
4
c (3 m)
e ( a)
(4 t)
Example 6
Write down the meaning of:
a k
3
4
4
k = k
1
3 4
1 3
3
4
5
3
1 5
5
3
1
5 3
3
b w = w
or ( k )
= ( 4 k ) or
= (3 w)
or ( w )
5
or
2
3
4
3
3
2
3
5
Example 7
Evaluate:
a 8
5
3
5

a 83 = ( 3 8 )
25
25 = ( 25 )
3
2
= 5
= 125
Evaluate:
a
e
10
= 2
= 32
3
2
9
4
3
2
5
2
8
8
2
3
c 16
4
3
g 49
3
4
d 27
3
2
h 32
a 729 3
3

b 16 807 5
13

c 1024 10
4
3
3
5
5
2
5

2
6

5
9

7
2

3
3

4
a 1
b
Show that  =  .
b
a
If a and b are real numbers, determine whether the following statements are true or false. If
false give a counter example.
A counter example
(Hint: Try several different pairs of real
is an example that
numbers to test the truth of the statements.)
demonstrates the
statement is false.
a i a + b is a real number
ii a b is a real number
iii a b is a real number
iv a b is a real number
b i a+b=b+a
ii a b = b a
iii a b = b a
iv) a b = b a
c i (a + b) + c = a + (b + c)
ii (a b) c = a (b c)
iii (a b) c = a (b c)
iv (a b) c = a (b c)
d i a0=0
ii a + 0 = a
iii a 1 = a
iv a a = 1
If m and n are rational numbers, determine whether the following statements are true or
false. If false give a counter example.
a m + n is always rational
b m n is always rational
c m n is always rational
d m n is always rational
a Show that any even number can be written in the form 2k, where k is an integer.
b Show that any odd number can be written in the form 2k + 1, where k is an integer.
c Hence prove the following properties of numbers:
i the sum of any two even numbers is even
ii the sum of any two odd numbers is even
iii the sum of an even number and an odd number is odd
iv the product of two even numbers is even
v the product of an odd number and an even number is even
vi the product of two odd numbers is odd.
491
492
Language in Mathematics
1
m2
a real number
ii
iii m
b rational number
1

iv m 2
What is a:
c irrational number?
Use words from the list below to complete the following statements.
radical, terminating, false, rationalising, recurring
a Every rational number can be expressed as a ___ or ___ decimal.
b Converting the denominator of a fraction into a rational numbers is called ___ the
denominator.
c The mathematical sign
is called the ___ sign.
d A counter example is an example which demonstrates that a statement is ___ .
a Find the
i sum and
b What is the quotient when 13 is divided by 5?
Use a dictionary to write down two meanings of each of the following words:
general, property, index
Three of the words in the following list have been spelt incorrectly. Rewrite them with the
correct spelling.
ratio, convurt, indixes, recur, fractional, intejer
ii product of 5 and 9.
Glossary
approximation
fractional
integer
property
rational
recurring
consecutive
general
irrational
quotient
rationalise
square
convert
index
perfect square
radical sign
real
square root
counter example
indices
product
ratio
recur
surd
493
10
11
12
9
16
C 3 34
=
B 36
80 =
B 8 10
n, 2 7 =
B 28
10
C 6
25 = 5
D 21
C 2 20
D 4 5
98
196
C 2 5
D 5 2
B 3 12
C 3 14
D 9 12
6 52 3+3 5 =
A 7 7
B 9 52 3
C 7 2
D 4 2+3 5
12 + 27 =
A
39
B 5 3
C 5 6
D 3 5
4 35 2 =
A 20 6
B 60 2
C 5 24
D 120
5(3 2 3) =
A 3 10 3 5
C 3 10 15
D 3 10 3 5
C 5 2 14
D 9 2 14
1
9 4
A
17
(2 3)
A 12
C 25 = 5
37
2
30 15
( 7 2) =
A 5
B 25
494
13
3 2
Expressed with a rational denominator,  =
2 5
3 2
3 2
A B 10
5
3 10
10
12
6
2 10
1

14
15
12 2 =
A 6
In index form,
A k
16
1
B 6
3
k =
12
B k
When evaluated, 16
3
4
4

3
4
3
C k
3
4
B 21 13
C 8
1
B 12
3
C 4
1
D 8
4
A 3
D k
A 12
17
1
D 144
3
D 4
If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
37
8, 9
1012
13
Section
1416
17
a ( 2)
b (5 2)
Simplify: a
18
2 32 = 8
c
b
a 2 5
16
25
1
3
d 3 12
17
25
20
5
6 7
20
3 12
1
2 4
4
1 9
24
g 3
15
45 = 5 3
20
 =
2
1
1
4  = 2 4
2
b 8 26 6+4 6
c 5 74 7 =
Simplify:
a 2 85 2
b 6 82 3
27 6 =
21
50 18
c 4 5 10
f ( 6 + 3)( 6 2)
8 3
b 5 2
b 3 5 =
e
16
9
d 3 52 7
Simplify:
a 5 3+7 32 3
e 3 2(2 5 3 3)
13
n:
15
e 3
Write true or false.
2
a
7 = 7
d
12
16
11
Simplify:
10
c 16
a
Show that the following are rational numbers by expressing them in the form  .
b
a 3 14b 5
c 0.83
d 0. 5
16
g (3 7 + 4)
3
2 10
d 2 5 + 20
d
2
5( 7 + 2)
495
496
14
15
16
17
1
3
1
5
c k
3
4
d k
2
3
Evaluate:
a 25
18
1
2
b 8
5
Write as a fraction 
4
4
3
c 343
2
3
36
c 36
36
a
Show that the following are rational numbers, by expressing them in the form  .
b
1
a 3 b 4
c 0.27
d 0. 3
3
Simplify:
2
a ( 3)
b (5 3)
45
n:
b 4 3
2
3
1
d 4 2
16
9
5 6
d 2 76 2
8 2
8 6
10
11
12
13
14
15
Simplify:
9
a
4
18
e 6
17
1
3 4
10 = 10
b 5 3 =
15
54 = 6 3
2 18 = 6
20
 =
4
1
1
9  = 3 4
2
Simplify:
a 4 2 + 5 2 10 2
b 5 36 54 5
27 12 =
Simplify:
a 2 12 5 3
e 2 5(2 3 3 5)
f ( 7 + 3)( 7 2 3)
45 20
15
4 62 3
d 3 6 + 24
c 6 65 6 = 1
c 37 2
g (2 6 5)
3 ( 10 3 )
b n
1
4
c n
4
3
d n
Evaluate:
a 49
18
7
1 9
24
g 2
11
4
24
6
a n
16
1
2
3 1
Write as a fraction  .
5
b 16
3
4
c 324
3
2
3
5
497
498
c 9
a
Show that the following are rational numbers by expressing them in the form  .
b
7
a 1 b 2
c 0.314
d 0. 6
8
10
11
12
Simplify:
2
a ( 7)
b (2 7)
54
5
9
2
d 5 3
5 11
d 3 62 5
20 5
24 2
5
1 16
n:
Simplify:
9
a
16
30
e 10
Write true or false.
2
b 3 7
b
f
9
1 16
48
g 6
17
16
27
3
3 = 3
b 4 3 =
12
63 = 7 3
27 3 = 9
40
 =
4
10
4
2
1  = 1 9
3
Simplify:
a 2 5+8 5 5
Write true or false.
a
10 + 10 = 20
Simplify:
a 2 85 8
e 5 2(3 5 2 2)
16
25
b 6 35 3+2 7
12 3 = 3
b 4 82 6
f ( 10 + 5 ) ( 10 6 )
32 18
3 + 27
c 9 58 5 = 1
c 32 7
2
g ( 5 + 2 3)
3( 6 + 5)
13
14
15
16
17
1
3
c w
3
2
d w
2
3
Evaluate:
a 16
18
b w
1
6
1
2
b 25
3
2
c 9261
4
3
3 1
Write as a fraction  .
8
81
c 81
81
a
Show that the following are rational numbers by expressing them in the form  .
b
7
a 4 b 6
c 0.09
d 0. 2
8
Simplify:
2
a ( 11 )
b ( 3 11 )
48
n:
b 3 3
5
6
3
d 3 4
25
36
8 7
d 4 29 5
2 18
21 3
499
500
Simplify:
25
a
36
21
3
Write true or false.
e
10
11
12
14
15
17
45
5
13
1 36
14
72 = 2 6
20 5 = 10
48
e  =
8
1
1
6  = 2 4
2
Simplify:
a 6 3+2 35 33 3 b 5 32 6+3 68 3
Write true or false.
a
1+ 5 = 6
Simplify:
a 5 72 7
20 10 =
b 2 15 3 3
f
17
1 36
60
5
b 2 7 =
50 8
d 5 3 + 27
c 2 11 11 = 1
10
c 72 3
( 3 + 2 2)(2 3 2)
2 ( 10 + 6 )
g ( 5 + 3 7)
b z
1
3
c z
5
2
d z
Evaluate:
a 8
18
5 = 5
a z
16
29
36
e 3 5(2 3 5)
13
1
3
1
Write as a fraction 1 
2
b 4
1
5
2
c 1296
3
4
5
3
504
Answers
ANSWERS
5 a
c
deposit of $1
debt of $6
CHAPTER 1
6 a
+ 1 km
Exercise 1A
7 a
1 a
b
c
12 1110 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
2 a
b
3 a
b
4 a
54 = 2 33
c
5 a
c
84 = 22 3 7
240 = 24 3 5
144 = 24 32
80 = 24 5
2 km
5 4 3 2 1 0
2 23 , 23 , 0,
8 a
9
2
3
deposit of $5
, 1 13
5 km
35 = 5 7, 60 = 22 3 5
5
c 420
7 a
b
140 = 2 5 7, 84 = 2 3 7
28
c 420
8 a
84 = 22 3 7, 56 = 23 7, HCF = 28,
LCM = 168
3 > 4
5 < 5
5 < 0
10 a
13
11 a
50
30
24
12 a
11
13 a
d
11
18
b
e
2
21
c
f
13
10
Exercise 1C
1
b
e
11
6
c
f
10 a
MMMCDXVI
11 a
c
2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12
b
2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 11, 12
11
20
3 13
5 100
13
11
3
8
3
11
35
48
29
8
4
5
10 a
3, 9, 11
$120
$400
2
15
12 8.307
13 4 15
14 3.375
17 4
16 3.85
18 a
4.64
1 a
19 a
30.6
5.2
20 a
$48.30
$152 040
2 3
4 5
2 3
4 5
2 3
4 5
2<6
6>2
b
8
15
$80
11 hundredths
15 0.17
2 a
9 222 kg
Exercise 1B
2
3
12 4488
600 = 23 3 52
6 a
b
9 a
d
3, 4
e
c
332.4
11.9
21
3 12
3 a
4 a
b
c
deposit of $15
decrease of 30 cm in length
loss of 8 kg
d fall of 15C
4 12
,5
37
100
22 48%
23
25 380%
26 62.5%
27 0.65, 70%,
24 0.57
4
5
28 27%
29
3
20
30 4.25
31 $54
32 12 m
33 25%
Answers
34 $130
35 $240
Exercise 1F
1 a
22, 27, 32
13, 11, 9
2 a
3, 6, 12, 24
3, 5, 9, 17
37 13 : 15
38 a
3 : 10
39 x = 24
3 a
5 : 18
40 $375, $625
b
42 $9.31
44 a
No. of matches
10 15 20 25
43 315.25 km
3300 cm
4740 cm
45 12.5 m
1
4
2 a
(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10)
1
10
3 a
7
10
, 70%
1
4
, 0.25
4 a
20
9
20
5 a
1
4
1
2
1
13
6 a
b
7 a
b
c
8 a
1
5
4
5
2
5
3
5
20
15
10
5
1 2 3 4 5
No. of pentagons
ii The number of matches increases by 5,
and points lie in a straight line.
c The number of matches needed is five times
the number of pentagons.
d y = 5 x, y = 5x
e 1000
4 a
0.625, 62.5%
25
Exercise 1D
1 a
No. of matches
No. of pentagons
,
b Multiply the shape number by 5 and add 1.
c 501
5 a 13
b 23
c 103
6 5, 7, 9, 11, 13
Exercise 1G
1 a
14x
6y
7a 2
6ac
Exercise 1E
2 a
60n
10a
24m
35p
1 a
p+1
3 a
5a
4m
bc
4m
2 a
6p
4 a
wx 3y
5 a
5a
7
2a
15
q2
5
6 a
a2 an
d
3 a
d
3p
b
2p + 2 d
gr
c
2
3p + 3
5m
8ab
3m
5a + 3q
3p
5xx
b
e
ab
6pq
mm
c
2mn2 5mn
12p + 8p
8py + 4pw
23xy 12x 8y
4 a
3p
5y
3pq e
5 a
12
60
16
64
7 a
31a 23
3
2x
8 a
mn(n + 1)
t
2
6 a
7 a
d
g
r
r
g
k3
3e 4
b
e
4w
7
4m
mn t
e
pq
24
12
42
10 a
4(p 3d)
9 a
3(k 3)
10 a
b
11 a
c
q(p a)
5(5f 3)
4(p + 3d)
59
28
7
 = 8
2
51
505
506
Answers
Exercise 1G continued
13 a
m3
1
3
2
3
4
3
11 14 17 20
6d + 23
3 a
(3, 0)
Exercise 1H
1 12, 4
2 a x=6
c x=9
11
e y = 3
g d = 20
b
d
x = 15
x = 7
p = 13
m = 20
15
p = 2
4 a No
5 x + 23 = 114, x = 91
6 a x 12
14
7
c =  = 10
5
10
q = 17
x = 24
No
m < 28
3 a
D (3, 2)
3 2 1 0
1
2
No. of matches
14
12
10
8
6
4
2 3 4 5 6 7
No. of pattern
(6, 11), (7, 13)
(0, 0), (1, 4.5), (2, 9), (4, 18), (5, 22.5),
(10, 45), (20, 90)
e
4 a
b
5
4
3
2
1
E (2, 5)
5 4 3 2 1
1 2 3 4 5
1
2
3 A (0, 3)
C (3, 4)
B (2, 3)
4
5
2 a
Cost ($)
5
4
3
2
1
Exercise 1I
1
c
d
3(x 7)
8
No. of patterns
No. of matches
12 a
C
x
1 2 3 4 5
c
5
$38.25
10 12 14
No. of kg
2 1
7 5 3 1
16 kg
16
18
20
Answers
8 a
Score
3
2
1
3 2 1 0
1
2 3x
2
3
Tally
   
 
14
  
12
 

18
16
2 1
12
Frequency
10
8
y = 3x + 6
6
4
1 a
b
2 a
jogging
3 a
4 a
$4
23 p.m.
1
18
c
b
b
2
0
200
50 g
40 km
i 60
2 3
Score
Kebab
Hot chips
ii 14
5 Favourite snacks
7 a
c
60
14
12
Exercise 1J
Winning margins in a
series of soccer matches
16
Total
6 a
Frequency
Hamburger
Jacks journey
9 a
Chicken
Score
Tally
Pie
Frequency
125

100

75
50


 



10

25
. . . .
m m m m m m m m
a. a. a. a. a. p. p. p.
7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2
Time
.
nominal
numerical
numerical
Total
b
10
36
507
508
Answers
Exercise 1J continued
10
Stem
Leaf
12
13
14
15
16
8
1228
2245555689
0013
1
11 a
Choice of drink
20
18
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
14
12
10
8
6
4
Student to answer.
a 270 mm
b 4000 mm
a 34 cm
b 7000 m
76.4 cm
a 174.7 cm
b 102.94 cm
126.52 cm
x = 9.12 cm, y = 12.6 cm, w = 7.2 cm,
z = 12.6 cm, perimeter = 90.2 m
180 mm2
9 a
er
nk
at
r
td
So
lw
il
St
ce
Ju
er
ee
ff
o
/c
c
11 a
12 a
c
e
Soft drink
Still water
Juice
Tea/coffee
Other
g
i
13 a
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Price ($)
10 m
10 a
Frequency
12
th
a
Te
Drink
Drink
7.80
7.75
7.70
7.65
7.60
7.55
7.50
7.45
7.40
7.35
7.30
7.25
7.20
7.15
7.10
7.05
7.00
21
104 cm2
F
M
Day
49 cm2
44 cm2
5400 mm2
22 m2
50 mm
64 cm
438 mm
b
b
d
f
2100 cm2
8m
1160 cm
84 m
800 mm2
72 000 cm2
243 m
90 cm
ii b2 = a2 + c2
i b
b i PR
a No
a 81
a 7.5 cm
a 6.0 cm
a 14.4 cm
50.91 cm
a diameter
3
10
27 a
T
24 C = 2 r
M
208
8 29 units2
Exercise 1L
16
Frequency
13
50
7 a
153.9 cm
ii
b
b
b
b
b
chord
22 C = d
23 35.8 cm
25 42.73 cm
26 A = r 2
11.9 cm2
28 96.8 cm
Exercise 1K
Exercise 1M
1 a
c
DCGH
AEHD, BFGC
ABCD, EFGH
Answers
2 a
86.64 cm2
3.8 cm
3 a
4 a
338.72 cm2
b
b
492 cm2
6 a
FE, DE, BE
FE
FD, CA
Exercise 1P
5 a
6 a
3163.5 cm3
3469.44 cm3
7 27 946 cm3
8 a
3546.86 cm3
793.27 cm3
9 a
1000 mm3
1 000 000 mL
1000 L
c
e
Exercise 1N
1
2
3
4
5
7
48 hours
a 4 min
3 h 30 min
a 9 h 23 min
7.17 a.m.
2 h 20 min
5 hours
b 1 h 39 min
6 3 h 48 min
8 317
Exercise 1O
1 a
b
c
d
2 a
3 a
rectangular prisms
rectangular prism and triangular prism
cylinder and cone
cube and square based pyramid
i
ii
iii
ii
iii
5 a 45
b 120
c 108
d 47
6 vertically opposite angle
7 i 55 straight angle
ii 55 vertically opposite QRU
8 a k = 65, cointerior angles, supplementary,
parallel lines
b n = 107, straight line is 180
9 a x = 83 vertically opposite
b x = 142 angles at a point
10 a Yes
b Yes, corresponding angles equal and
parallel to a third line.
Exercise 1Q
1 Student to answer.
2
509
510
Answers
Exercise 2B
Exercise 1Q continued
7 Student to answer.
8 a
b
b 77
c Yes
2 a i 5555
ii 5 5
iii 5 5 5 5 5 5
Exercise 1R
1 a
i 777
ii 7 7 7 7
iii 7 7 7 7 7 7 7
1 a
1 diagonal inside
1 diagonal outside
56
c Yes
i 666
ii 6 6 6 6 6
iii 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
b
3 a
1 rightangled
triangle
trapesium
68
Yes
4 a
39
212
710
59
416
613
109
220
530
318
b
10 a
f
5
b 3
c 2
d 5
e 712
i 3333344
ii 12 12 12 12 12 12 12
No, bases are different.
i 55522222
ii 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
No, bases are different.
i 3333333
ii 9 9 9 9 9 9 9
No, bases are different.
i 22222222
ii 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
No, bases are different.
T
b F
c F
d T
e F
F
g T
h F
i F
11 a
213
5 a
6 a
b
7 a
and
3
8
3 a
4
5
6
7
,x=9
1
5
,x=
y = 24
a ST
b SU
6.75 m
Student to answer.
9
5
, y = 20
TU
CHAPTER 2
Diagnostic Test
1
5
9
13
B
A
C
B
2
6
10
14
45
b
a
10
318
514
410
510
56
212
315
720
412
621
324
14
Exercise 2C
D
D
B
D
3
7
11
15
D
B
D
A
4
8
12
16
B
A
C
B
i 4
1 a
f
2 a
f
Exercise 2A
1 a
36
1010 g
11
18
b
g
17
14
17
d
i
270
19
716
28
922
3
3
Exercise 2D
b
4 to the power 5
ii 5
c 43
d 56
e 24
iii 3 3 3 3 3
iii 2 2 2 2
iii 7 7 7
iii 9 9 9 9 9 9
iii 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
2401
c 243
625
f 6561
729
i 32 768
1 a
b
2 a
b
3 a
3333333
 = 3 3 3 3 3
33
35
Yes
77777
 = 7 7
777
72
Yes
22222222
 = 2 2 2 2 2
222
b
4 a
f
k
25
32
64
34
b
g
l
23
22
55
c
c 56
h 32
m 26
Yes
d 44
i 41
n 103
e
j
o
105
51
78
Answers
5 a
e
6 a
r
i
m
T
F
35
43
29
26
b
f
b
f
j
n
F
F
27
38
510
53
c
g
c
g
k
o
F
F
72
59
23
35
d
h
d
h
l
p
F
F
58
37
37
710
1
m 10 5
55
54
3125 625
53
52
51
50
125
25
1
36
1
28
1
5 10
1
4 15
1
51
1
9
1
32
1
64
1
625
1
1024
1
216
1
81
1
81
1
3125
6 a
Exercise 2E
1
1
73
25
24
23
22
21
20
1
512
1
343
1
256
32
16
1
m 729
1
2 2
4
7
73 3 = 70
3 a
70 = 1
55
4 a
=9
9 =1
5 a
d
6 a
d
1
1
1
1
b
e
b
e
32
1
16
1
1
1
1
c
f
c
f
1
2
1
4
104
1
100
1
1000
1
1
=  = 1000
10 3
c
4 a
c
5 a
e
34
5
m 7
22 5 = 23
1
23 = 23
22
1
 = 3
22222
2
1
1
1
12 1
25
43
56
310
61
10
1 a
2 a
3 a
13
27
69
47
195
c
f
10
10
43
12 3
13
31
j
a
d
7
3
52
23
29
1 a
f
2
29
3
278
1
1

1
92
1
61
Yes
Yes
0
b
e
2
5
32
10 2
No
g
1
No
2
10 10 10
555
1
53 7 = 54 b  = 4
5555555
5
1
1 1
1
4
5 = 54
1
1
1
1
b c d 31
43
25
82
1
54
28
22
1
1

1
1

Exercise 2H
1
3 a
1
8
1
1
1
101 =  , 102 =  =  ,
100
10 1
10 2
10
Exercise 2G
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
=  , 22 =  =  , 23 =  = 4
8
21
22
23
105
21
Exercise 2F
5
7 a
99999
 = 1
99999
777
 = 1
777
10
No
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
10
106
10
3 106
7 104
6 10
5 10
4.8 103
3.92 105
8 103
6.4 10
2.18 106
e
5 a
7.6 10
30 000
7000
4
2
511
512
Answers
Exercise 2H continued
c
e
g
i
6
9 000 000
800
6710
83 600
d
f
h
j
400 000
460 000
3 900 000
520 000
1
100
1
1000
1
10 000
1
100 000
7 a
3 10
d
8 a
c
e
2 105
e
0.06
0.002
0.000 009
9 a
3 104 = 30 000, 34 = 81
7 10
5 102 = 0.05, 52 =
2 103 = 2000, 23 = 8
10 a
3.72 10
2.98 10
6.09 10
7.698 10
i
11 a
1
1 000 000
5 10
9 102
b 0.000 003
d 0.0005
6 1015
2.0 1012 f
3 1010
3 1010
2 1012
8 1015
4.9 10
2.7 10
6.4 1019
17
2.43 1019
9 10
2.7 1018
8 10
7.5 1019
2.5 1021
1.4 1012
1.6 10
2.704 1011
2.16 1038
3.125 1037
3.7 1012
5 105
8
6
33
m 2.5 10
1
25
1
32
3 106
3 a
c
3.11 10
Bigger
Positive
4 a
c
2.5928 108
Smaller
Negative
5 a
c
4.37 104
Bigger
Positive
6 a
5.4 10
3.4 10
8.75 10
3.61 10
8.0 10
5.6 10
5.7 104
7.8 105
5
6
5
6
4
3
4
8
6.1 10
2.96 10
8.01 104
5 107
4.39 10
2.8 10
i
12 a
c
e
g
i
13 a
c
e
g
i
9 105
7 320 000
567 000
92 700 000
3 275 000
200 000 000
0.000 003 98
0.000 070 9
0.000 005 9
0.000 6
0.000 027 1
j
b
d
f
h
j
b
d
f
h
j
4.9 109
52 000
3800
69 140
700 000
308 000
0.000 53
0.008 8
0.000 000 307
0.000 003
0.000 000 000 36
14 a
1.29 105
1.52 108 km
2.6 107 m
c
e
15 a
c
d
e
2.54 10
cm
7 1.08 109 km
8 Alpha Centauri
9 2.54 103 cm or 0.002 54 cm
10 400 days
11 a 0.000 000 3 s
b
1.2 1015 b
2.4 1022 c
4.2 109
0.3 0 s
b 177
94
base = 3, index = 11
base = 5, index = 9
888888
32
b 81
5 a
612
d
6 a
7 a
19
3
F
1
74
8 a
1
8
9 a
3.6 10
Exercise 2I
1 a
19
1.536 1020
2 a
b
e
b
b
b
5
340
777
86
10
120
2
F
3
c
6.5 10
Answers
10 a
700 000
b
5
1.5 1015
12 a
9 10
12
3 1023
2 10
12 a
1.19 1014
2.43 1047
13 a
5.3 10
16
< 4.2 10
10
13 a
b
Language in Mathematics
three to the power of five
eight squared
two cubed
the square root of seven
the cube root of nine
2 a
72
43
d
3 a
4 a
24
index
base
e
b
b
6
f 35
exponent
power, index or exponent
65
5 23 24 = 27 = 128; 47 = 16 384
6 Scientific notation is also known as index
notation.
7 Scientific notation is a way of writing the
repeated product of numbers,
D
C
C
B
3
7
11
15
D
B
D
C
4
8
12
16
B
B
B
D
Review Set 2A
1 a
2 a
b
3 a
4 a
5 a
24
b 57
base = 7, index = 9
base = 3, index = 10
33333
b 777777
6561
b 15 625
F
b F
32
6 a
7 a
1
46
8 a
1
125
15
7
c
< 3.8 10
b 97
75
base = 3, index = 8
base = 5, index = 2
6666
b
512
b 729
5 a
6 a
313
F
7 a
1
75
8 a
1
36
15
712 c 45
b F
b
b
777
d
611
230
e
3
3 104
b 0.000 001 8
1.56 109 b
5 1015
2.43 1028
1.4 105
4.1 10 < 5 10
9
Review Set 2C
1 a
2 a
b
3 a
4 a
b 103
28
base = 8, index = 4
base = 3, index = 6
66
b 5555555
625
b 2187
5 a
6 a
919
F
7 a
1
48
8 a
1
64
215 c 58
b F
b
b
610
3
c
12 a
1.59 1013
9 106
5.329 1031
5 103
13 a
11 3 104 = 30 000, 34 = 81
2.95 10
15
246
b 3.5 107
b 0.000 306
9 a 1.7 1010
10 a 286 000
e
3
1 a
2 a
b
3 a
4 a
b
b
1.5 106
15
9 a 4.6 104 b
10 a 40 000 000
A
B
A
C
4.6 10
13
4 105
Review Set 2B
1 a
b
c
d
e
1
5
9
13
b 5 105
b 0.000 037
9 a 2.3 107
10 a 98 000
0.000 12
11 2 10 = 200 000, 2 = 32
5
513
Answers
Review Set 2D
3 a
b 5
6
base = 6, index = 8
base = 3, index = 10
44444
2222222
1296
b 4096
1 a
2 a
b
3 a
b
4 a
40
5 a
6 a
5
F
7 a
1
65
8 a
1
32
cf
70
c 5
b F
b
22
45
34
19
14
51
23
23
54
25
33
59
26
40
45
51
47
b
10
b 3.56 104
b 0.000 09
2.25 1025
6.5 1022
1.6 1073
7 103
13 a
4 a
5 a
4.2
Diagnostic Test
2 C
6 C
10 B
3
7
11
C
C
A
fx
43.6
cf
b
c
10
10
13
18
20
26
30
Total
30
2
i 18
ii 20
12
10
9
fx
fx
7
6
51
80
33
90
164
60
209
336
85
80
387
18
42
440
3
2
35
22
315
138
96
b
19
44
5
4
94
16
2 a
19
4 A
8 B
12 B
Exercise 3A
1 a
CHAPTER 3
1 B
5 C
9 D
cf
43
34
9 a 2.05 108
10 a 42 100 000
12 a
cf
19
Frequency
514
6 a&b
1 2 3 4 5
No. of glasses
Days absent
Freq.
cf
17
20
21
23
28
Total
28
c
d
9
19
Answers
c
Number of days Freq.
cf
13
16
20
26
29
30
Total
30
c
d
Cumulative frequency
90
8
4
1 a
52
37
Cumulative frequency
44
40
29
30
11
6
2
43
19
2 a
13
88
70 80
Class
90 100
53
43
45
26
20
7
25
30
35 40
Class
27
6
79
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
20
34
60
Cumulative frequency
26
23
50
Cumulative frequency
70
50
40
44
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
56
60
10
Cumulative frequency
Cumulative frequency
Cumulative frequency
70
20 16
Exercise 3B
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
82
77
80
Cumulative frequency
7 a&b
45
50
Cumulative
frequency
Class
Frequency
2024
2529
12
3034
21
3539
12
33
4044
38
4549
40
Class
Frequency
Cumulative
frequency
7078
7987
10
16
8896
11
27
97105
31
106114
39
115123
45
515
Answers
Exercise 3B continued
5 a
Class
Frequency
Cumulative
frequency
4049
5059
11
6069
16
7079
24
8089
30
9099
39
Class
Frequency
Cumulative
frequency
2024
2529
12
21
3034
28
3539
32
4044
20
52
4549
16
68
d
26
34
b
b
27
18
c
c
44
56
d
d
65
17
3 a
27
28
83
24
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
6 a
cf
51
60
3039
277
cf
380
2
5
15
31
7
60
2
7
22
53
60
509
603
688
761
783
792
Cumulative frequency
60
53
50
40
30
22
20
Cumulative frequency
3039
33
31 41
Class
165
Frequency
10
21
about 33 or 34
09
1019
2029
3039
4049
Total
0
d
Cumulative frequency
Score
60
3140
3
20
47
52
55
11
1 a
2 a
b
c
Exercise 3C
4 a
cf
Cumulative frequency
Cumulative frequency
516
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
2
10
20 30
Class
40
49
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Age range
d
31
Answers
Exercise 3D
1 a
Group
Tally
1019
 
2029
 
3039
  
4049
 
Frequency
6
Exercise 3E
1 a
11
7
Frequency
Frequency histogram
15
11
10
6
Classes
Tally
Frequency
410
1117
1824
2531

 
  

4
10
12
5
3238
b
 
Total
40
Frequency
10
10
12
9
5
5
4
3 a
2
3
4
5
Frequency histogram
15
11
18 25
Classes
32
Tally
Frequency
 
  
 
7
13
9
  
11
Total
40
Frequency
10
b
7 a
11
5
13
22 31
Classes
8
9
10
11
12
T
1
6
5
10
3
25
8
54
50
110
36
258
39
fx
121
122
123
124
125
T
4
11
11
3
1
30
484
1342
1353
372
125
3676
Mean = 122.5
fx
85
86
87
88
89
T
1
10
8
4
16
39
85
860
696
352
1424
3417
20.5
13
fx
Mean = 87.6
11
b 122 and 123
65.3
b 31.8
c 45.3
64
b 30
c 55
15
b 25
c
25.5
e 28
f
54.5
h 18
i
38
412
1321
2230
15
a
a
a
a
d
g
6 a
Classes
3139
Mean = 10.32
5
10 20 30 40 50
Class boundaries
2 a
c 89
d 867
d 840
37
37.5
20
Class
Class centre
Frequency
610
1115
1620
2125
2630
8
13
18
23
28
7
8
16
12
4
3135
33
1620
18.7
No. of
items
Class
centre
Frequency
1120
2130
3140
4150
15.5
25.5
35.5
45.5
3
18
26
6
5160
55.5
111
55
1813.5
32.95
fx
46.5
459
923
273
517
518
Answers
Exercise 3E continued
8 31.73 32
Tally
c.c. Frequency
cf
11
10
8
2
11
21
29
31
35
1625
2635
3645
4655
  
 
 

20.5
30.5
40.5
50.5
5665

60.5
Class
intervals
Tally
Class
centre
Freq.
cf
1625
2635
3645
4655
5665

 
  
 

20.5
30.5
40.5
50.5
60.5
3
6
11
10
5
3
9
20
30
35
Frequency
20
Class
Tally C.c.
intervals
15
11
10
10
8
4
5
0
2
16
26 36 46 56
Class intervals
Class
Tally C.c. Frequency
intervals
1620
2125
2630
3135
3640
4145
4650
5155
5660
6165

 

 






18
23
28
33
38
43
48
53
58
5
6
4
6
5
3
1
1
2
63
65
cf
5
11
15
21
26
29
30
31
33
35
cf
1620
2125
2630
3135
3640
4145
4650
5155
5660




 


 

18
23
28
33
38
43
48
53
58
2
1
3
3
7
4
4
6
2
2
3
6
9
16
20
24
30
32
6165

63
35
ii
Histogram 1:
Age of next ICDL class
12
11
10
10
Frequency
9 a
Class
intervals
8
6
Frequency
6
4
2
0 16 21 26 31 36 41 46 51 56 61 65
Class intervals
c
16
26 36 46 56
Class interval
66
Answers
g
ii
Frequency
7
6
6
4
16 21 26 31 36 41 46 51 56
Class interval
i 34.2 ii 34.3
iii 42.8
iv 42.7
i 1626
ii 2125, 3135
iii3645
iv 3640
i 33
ii 33
iii 41
iv 41
60
b 104.4
3144 km
d $185 604
9
b 15
c 15
11
e 37
17.25
b 25.3 (1 d.p.)
8.7 (1 d.p.)
17.7 (1 d.p.)
14 10.1
15 12 and 6
C
C
B
B
1 a
b
2 a
3 16 290
5 60
6 78
0.015
104
9 3417.86
10 D
11 36
12
1
3
13 9C
14 10
15 0.0007
16 $60
17 76
18 25
19 53
20 50
21 5
22 Yes
23 8
24 24 cm2
d
e
cf
26
29
30
32
33
34
b
Language in Mathematics
cumulative b median
c ogive
histogram e frequency f estimate
The mean is the average.
The median is the middle score.
The centre is used to calculate the mean
class.
The modal class is the class with the highest
frequency.
The ogive is another name for cumulative
frequency polygon.
21
25 4905
2 a
d
3 a
b
c
4 D
8 B
12 A
12
Cumulative frequency
2 45.88
4 $693
3 A
7 C
11 B
Review Set 3A
Noncalculator Activities
1 3 25
2 C
6 A
10 D
34
32
30
28
26
26
24
21
22
20
18
16
14
12
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
04
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
No. of days
d 10.1
e 8
Review Set 3B
1 a
b
519
Answers
b
c
d
2 a&b
b
2 a
2025
17
2631
13
24
3237
12
26
3843
14
27
4449
30
5055
5662
1.6
CHAPTER 4
Diagnostic Test
1
5
9
13
17
21
A
B
A
C
C
C
2
6
10
14
18
22
C
D
C
A
C
A
3
7
11
15
19
B
C
A
C
D
4
8
12
16
20
C
A
D
D
A
1 a
6y
15
8m
 c
6
35k
 d
20
30t
 e
100
30a
12
2 a
x
2
m
3
t
4
2y
3
3b
4
6
7
3
10
2
3
2b
4p
3
3 a
7x
10
15b
 c
11
a
3
3m
 e
10
2k
3
4 a
11x
 b
12
19k
 c
12
5b
8
7a
10
2z
15
47t
 g
90
5w
4
17v
 i
6
e
2
11x
24
2pq
15
26
29
29
30
b
30
29
30
26
25
20
15
10
5
163
160
km
15
12a
35b
10bd
21ce
6 a
6mn
7
4km
15
3wz
2
3ab
2
2t
3u
7 12
3
4
2a
40n
9
10p
Review Set 3D
mean = 22, mode = 22, median = 22
Student to answer.
mn
12
5 a
14
1 a
b
24
Exercise 4A
cf
Frequency
Review Set 3C
1 a
Score Frequency
Class
28
It is within a group and individual scores are
not known in this case.
39
e 37.7
f 3843
Cumulative frequency
520
7 a
7a
5b
w
3z
pq
20
24
 e
mn
ad
bc
8 a
5x
 b
12y
7a
4b
3p
2q
4 23
2
3
12
35
3 13
28
m2
10y
 j
3
3
4k
521
Answers
Exercise 4E
Exercise 4B
1
2
3
4
12 Student to answer.
Student to answer.
a i 512
ii 512
a i 15 625 ii 15 625
a i 6561
ii 6561
b
b
b
Yes
Yes
Yes
m9
q15
t 19
b 20
v 13
6 a
10
7 a
b8
h15
k16
z 60
n8
8 a
24
n
g b
h y
Bases are different.
Bases are different.
T
b F
c F
T
g F
h T
T
l F
25
f
9 a
b
10 a
f
k
d
i
d
i
m
t
31
T
F
70
a6
e
j
F
F
Exercise 4C
x
a32
1 a
t 20
m y5
k
k
m11
a5
b40
2 a
12m12
10p10
18t12
70a16
24w 19
30b9
17
24z
18d18
3 a
2m5
2a5
3w 2
4z 4
3
4k 6
3
3e 4
2
m5
3
a5
2
3t 7
4
3b 5
4
18
80q
12 2 c
5k 2 g
6y 2 h
1

4 a
1

1

13
1

23
w3
5 k
4 t
1

93
( 5y ) 3
( 9m ) 3
9m 3
8 a
12
7v
73 v
1

1

9 a
47
1
2
1

5x 2
3
10 a
e
f
b
5p
1

c3
5y 3
35
6m
63 m
1

1

1

1
2
1

x3
6x 3
4x 2
6r
1

1

( 5k ) 2
m2
( 6y ) 2
e
f
3z
2m
56 Student to answer.
7 a
1

x2
1

1

32
5 a
13
1

3 a
1

8p 3
3r 3
5xy
1

1

Exercise 4F
15 Student to answer.
6 a
1
y2
1
k
1
m3
k 2
x 11 d
1
x6
1
t 10
n 14 e
z 20
27a12
64m18
49p10
7 a
a8
10 000k 8
125t 33
x15y 10
8 a
m12n18
p 28q12
a 8b 20
1
3k
3
k
2
y5
1
32y 5
3
t4
1
81t 4
24m
4 a
15 6
8x y
5 a
8a8b 5
10m10n8
12p11q15
30x10y 4
12w14z17
3a 2 b 4
2
d
g
j
3x4y 7
k4m6
5
3a 3 b 5
4
4m
5
12 Student to answer.
3 a 1
b 1
c 3
f 1
g 1
h 10
k 4
l 6
m 13
Exercise 4G
1 a
d
d
i
n
4
8
5
e
j
o
9
1
2
12z
3
2 a
a7
e
b
f
y4
w
e2
k 4
4y 6
3 a
90a2
18b7
6v 4
3p6
3k 2
8
125z 12 h
Exercise 4D
4pq
20
i 9w 12 j 2n2
4 a F
b F
c
f F
g F
h
5 Student to answer.
T
T
d
i
F
T
32m 15
522
Answers
Exercise 4H
1 a
c
6w + 15
20a + 15b
b
d
18z 12
8x 6y
10x 2 + 60
7ab 14a 2
4m + 4n
20b + 10a + 15
h
j
2m3 6mn
15x 9y 6z
6ab + 12ac
12x 2 8xy
60k2 40km
m3 + 2m
y 5 4y 2
12xy 30x 3
5a5 2a3
g
i
2 a
6k + 15k
i
3 a
d
g
j
2p7 + 6p8
2y 6
4m + 28
6k 15
4x + 1
4 a
6a3 4a2b
b
e
h
j 10x5 15x3y
5a 10
c 3w 12
t 3
f b 6
8m + 10 i 7w 3
9p4 12p3q
6
8x3 + 12x2y
4y 5 + 3xy 4
e
5 a
d
g
j
6 a
d
g
j
7 a
d
g
6m 15m n
4a + 18
b
10y 17
e
2 + 6b
h
14 + 20e
2 2a
b
19 2v
e
2 15x
h
7 + 20w
13k + 9
b
13a 6
e
12v 16
h
j
8 a
c
e
g
18a2 2a
4k + 9
9t 10
2a + 14
10x + 11y
b
d
f
h
2w + 26
13z 8
d 18
4a 12b
2q 2 14q + 20
12z 2 + 7z + 1
6b 12
18z 2
33 + 4y
c
f
i
12w 1
16 + 8x
8 + 6w
14 3y
5 6w
12 6k
c
f
i
3 4b
22 15t
4 12z
15m + 11
25x 11
22x + 2y
c
f
i
14p + 6
14y + 1
23a 9b
4 a p(p + 3)
c w(3w + 2)
e m(4n 3m)
g 4p(q 3p)
i 5z(2z 1)
5 Student to answer.
6 a x(x + 4)
c a(a + b)
e 2k(k + 2)
g 5b(2b + a)
i 6p(2q 3p)
7 a 2a(b + 2 + 2a)
c 2m(1 3m + 2n)
e 2k(4k 3 5m)
2(4a + 5)
3(a + 2b)
4(w 3)
4(3ab + 2)
b
d
f
h
2(3x 2)
5(x + 2y)
8(2m 1)
10(m 2n)
i
2 a
c
e
3 a
c
e
g
i
6(4k 3n)
5(x + 3y + 2z)
4(a + 3b 2c)
10(2xy + 5z + 3)
y(y + 7)
m(3n + 4)
x(x + 5y)
3m(2m 1)
4p(4q 3p)
j
b
d
8(2x 2 + 3y 2)
3(p 2q + 3r)
6(2m n 3r)
b
d
f
h
j
m(m 3)
p(9 5q)
b(2c b)
2a(6a 5b)
6k(2k + 3)
k(k 2)
z(2z 1)
2x(x + 4)
4p(2q 3r)
2m(3k 4m)
b y(y 7)
d m(m 5n)
f 3y(y 4)
h 3w(3w 2)
j 8k(2m + 3k)
b 3x(2x + 1 + 3y)
d 5x(y 2 x)
Language in Mathematics
1 reduce, substitute, apply
2 a a factor
b zero
c index
d algebraic e factorise
4 a x squared (to the power of 2)
b square root of x
c x cubed (to the power of 3)
d cube root of x
5 a parentheses
b brackets
c braces
Check Your Skills
1
5
9
13
17
21
D
A
C
D
A
A
2
6
10
14
18
22
C
D
C
A
A
D
3
7
11
15
19
A
A
B
B
C
4
8
12
16
20
B
B
B
B
B
Review Set 4A
1 a
4x
18
15mn
20
2 a
4a
5
3y
2
3 a
11a
13
31m
24
4 a
y 17
d
5 a
Exercise 4I
1 a
c
e
g
b
d
f
h
j
t
1
e
5
6 a
7 a
1
z3
8 a
9 a
y2
T
10 a
b
b
k6
12
125m
c
3 x c
b
e8
F
10v 20w b
8w 2
15
2
z3
c
c
p14
6a6b9
d 3
3x d
c
n 20 d
F
d
5x
2y
e
1
8z 3
18b5 e
T
e
2a5 + 4a4 c
23 x
2k 2
F
12x 15
Answers
11 a
12 a
10m + 7 b
4(2w + 5) b
Review Set 4D
7a 2b
x(x + 9)
4q(p 3q)
Review Set 4B
1 a
15b
24
35pq
10
1 a
9x
21
12ab
18
2 a
5h
4
2p
3
2 a
2m
3
2b
3 a
5k
11
w
18
6ab
5
27
40
3 a
17y
12
2km
5
9
10
4 a
y13
k6
p50
c8
4 a
m20
t 20
z 24
b19
e
5 a
81h10
1
f
b
6a13b11
8
c
6 a
6 m
2
x2
e
5 a
16m
1
6 a
28
f
b
7 8
20p q
4
b
2 c
1
e4
8 a
k 4
m3 c
n15 d
20n5 e
1
2
9 a
3m7 m5
10 a
3
e4
40p 30 b
1
81e 4
a3
2a 2 + 5a
11 a
12 a
c
4q + 32
b 4a 13a 1
6(2x 3)
b y(2y 7)
a(4a 3b + 2)
12h
20
2 a
w
3
3 a
8d
7
4 a
p14
y8
t 30
d
5 a
1
1
e
7
27v 21
c 1
18x10y 14
d 12
4 q
43
b
q
16xy
12
5m
7
b
8
4xy
3
1 78
p15 d
9 a
15z3 e
T
3
2m 3
3
T
10 a
c
12xy 6xz
10 + 4a
3a m + 4m5
11 a
12 a
23 + 19n
6(4x + 3)
b
b
4a 2 a
h(h 8)
D
B
B
B
4
8
12
16
D
C
B
D
600
3(y 2 + 2y 3)
1
243b 5
8 a
d 8
k6
15a3
10 a 20w + 8x b
11 a t + 4
b
12 a 5(3n 4)
c 2m(6m + 7n)
C
A
B
C
1 a
d
q
c
1
5
9
13
3
b5
n2
4q
2m 7
3
c F
7
T
5
2
6
10
14
C
C
A
C
3
7
11
15
Exercise 5A
1
b5
9 a
y 7
Diagnostic Test
7 a
8 a
1
4x 2
CHAPTER 5
1 a
6 a
7 a
Review Set 4C
6m
1
x2
2c
7 a
2c
6m
2k + 4k c 4s + 7
15y
b 2b(2b + 3)
2 a
d
g
j
3 a
d
g
j
4 a
d
g
j
60
6000
6 000 000 f
6
h
10
37 000
8000
181 000
401 000
5400
800
3100
100
670
1060
310
1250
6
i 600
100
b 84 000
c
e 19 000
f
h 6000
i
k 1000
l
b 16 800
c
e 400
f
h 9600
i
k 100
l
b 2370
c
e 70
f
h 20 060
i
k 10
l
6
1000
6
10 000
524 000
623 000
3000
0
20 400
240 200
500
0
830
30
410
0
j
523
524
Answers
Exercise 5A continued
5 a 17
b 25
c 82
d 237
e 583
f 265
g 21
h 106
i 301
j 56
k 1
l 0
6 a i 47 000
ii 46 800
iii 46 780
iv 46 784
b i 28 000
ii 28 500
iii 28 460
iv 28 457
c i 39 000
ii 39 200
iii 39 170
iv 39 166
d i 8000
ii 8500
iii 8460
iv 8462
e i 183 000 ii 182 700
iii 182 680
iv 182 679
7 a 30 000
b 60 000
c 180 000
d 200 000
e 800 000
8 a 4000
b 6000
c 24 000
d 80 000
e 20 000
9 a 700
b 1800
c 32 600
d 100
e 7000
10 a 38.3
b 38.27
c 38.268
11 a i 8.4
ii 8.44
iii 8.438
b i 6.6
ii 6.58
iii 6.584
c i 0.9
ii 0.86
iii 0.863
d i 0.2
ii 0.19
iii 0.186
e i 18.6
ii 18.56
iii 18.556
f i 21.6
ii 21.60
iii 21.603
g i 4.1
ii 4.06
iii 4.061
h i 5.0
ii 5.04
iii 5.044
i i 7.0
ii 7.00
iii 7.007
j i 3.0
ii 3.00
iii 3.000
12 a 3.60
b 50.0
c 2.690
d 13.00
e 1.00
f 4.900
g 100.0
h 70.00
13 a 75
b < 85 c 75 no. < 85
14 a 350
b < 450 c 350 no. < 450
15 a i 27 500
ii < 28 500
iii 27 500 no. < 28 500
b i 42.5
ii < 43.5
iii 42.5 no. < 43.5
c i 5.65
ii < 5.75
iii 5.65 no. < 5.75
d i 6.315
ii < 6.325
iii 6.315 no. < 6.325
16 162.5 height < 163.5 cm
17 415 weight < 425 g
18 12.35 time < 12.45 s
Exercise 5B
1 a
2 a
d
3 a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
4 a
d
g
j
5 a
30
b 28
c 28.5
28.47
e 28.471
i 400
ii 430
iii 428
i 6000
ii 6200
iii 6240
i 8
ii 7.8
iii 7.82
i 0.5
ii 0.53
iii 0.527
i 50 000
ii 54 000
iii 53 700
i 700 000 ii 730 000
iii 726 000
i 0.04
ii 0.039
iii 0.0393
i 0.005
ii 0.0051
iii 0.005 07
i 6000
ii 6100
iii 6100
i 2000
ii 2000
iii 2010
370 000
b 240
c 0.005 80
9.00
e 300 000
f 500
0.0400
h 0.300
i 0.002 00
1 000 000
i 555
ii < 565
iii 555 no. < 565
b i 8.15
ii < 8.25
iii 8.15 no. < 8.25
c i 47.5
ii < 48.5
iii 47.5 no. < 48.5
d i 0.715
ii < 0.725
iii 0.715 no. < 0.725
e i 36 500
ii < 37 500
iii 36 500 no. < 37 500
f i 0.0835
ii < 0.0845
iii 0.0835 no. < 0.0845
a 482.5 no. < 483.5
b 3.855 no. < 3.865
c 14 450 no. < 14 550
d 0.1275 no. < 0.1285
e 56.85 no. < 56.95
f 3205 no. < 3215
a 295 no. < 305
b 2950 no. < 3050
c 5995 no. < 6005
d 23 950 no. < 24 050
e 499 500 no. < 500 500
f 0.795 no. < 0.805
g 0.3995 no. < 0.4005
a 2
b 2
c 4
d 2
e 2
f 4
g 2
h 2
i 1, 2 or 3
j 1, 2, 3 or 4
k 2, 3, 4 or 5
l 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7
a 3.64 m is the total nearest cm, 3.640 to the
nearest mm
b 5.8 kg is to the nearest 100 g, 5.80 kg to the
nearest 10 g
c 12 s is to the nearest second, 12.0 s to the
nearest tenth of a second
d 36 cm is to the nearest cm, 36.0 cm is to the
nearest mm
Answers
29 153
b 29 200
i 12 900
ii 700
iii 15 700
29 300
e Differ by 100.
5250
i 8090
ii 2830
c 5260
Differ by 10.
18.7
b 2.3
c 18.4
Differ by 0.3.
143.4
b 142.6
Differ by 1.2.
d 142.1
Differ by 1.3.
75.172
b 75
i 33
ii 17
iii 26
76
e Differ by 1.
60
b 4, 20
c 80
Differ by 20.
2.18
i 16.4
ii 7.50
2.19
d Differ by 0.01.
4220 b 4240 c Differ by 20.
0.18
b 0.19
c Differ by 0.01.
3.3
b 10.89
i 3.32, 11.0224
ii 3.317, 11.002
iii 3.3166, 10.9998
iv 3.31662, 10.99996
11 a 3 s.f.
b 7 s.f.
c 4 s.f.
d 3 s.f.
e 4 s.f.
12 Student to answer.
Exercise 5D
0.7
0.35
0.2 8
0.3 25
0.6 784
1.4
6.92
0.4 9
0.2 34
0.03
0.9 0
0.536
1 a
m 0.217
2 a
d
0.875
0.5
0.16
0.1 8
1.416
1.6
0.61
0.4583
0.6
1.59 0
3 a
3
5
39
50
1
8
2
25
32
125
4 a
2
9
1
3
5
9
8
9
7
9
91
99
10
33
7
11
98
99
0.9 = 1
6 a
46
99
7 a
586
 b
999
239
 c
999
284
 d
333
47
 e
111
205
333
8 a
7
18
59
90
83
90
1
6
1
10
9 a
41
75
217
 c
300
163
 e
180
1
20
Exercise 5E
1 a $3.44/kg
c 55 words/min
e 90 km/h
2 a 0.91 c/cm
c 1.4 L/min
e 2.25% per quarter
g
i
k
3 i
iii
4 i
iii
5 i
8
9
10
343
 d
450
b
d
$12.56/h
10.5 km/L
b
d
f
0.125 c/mm
1.25% per month
16 c/min
84 c/min
1800 g/m2
650 g/m2
3.6 c/mL
1.2 km/min
20 m/s
1.8 km/min
30 m/s
1 km/min
j 1.9 c/g
l 7.5 g/mL
ii 1200 m/min
ii 1800 m/min
ii 1000 m/min
ii 5 L/min
11 a
d
12 a
c
13 a
c
14 a
320 m2 b
2
i 8m
450 km
25 m/s
270 L
75 mL/s
1200 mL
15 L
0.016 m2/mL
ii 3.2 m
b
d
b
d
b
7.5 h
135 m
8 h 53 min
1800 mL
10 drops/min
525
526
Answers
Exercise 5E continued
15 a 17c/min
b 66c
c 22c/min
d 108.5c
e 5 min
16 i 0.072 g/mL
ii 72 mg/mL
iii 720 mg/10 mL
Noncalculator Activities
1 a
d
2 a
35 000
2500
3
b
3 a
d
4 a
b
e
2
7.30
7.64
c
0.4
0.5 2
0.576
0.2 13
0.4
0.375
15
1, 2, 3, 4 or 5
c
0.56
15 120 L/100 km
Review Set 5B
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
37
5 99
6 a 10 m/s
6
6
b 600
c  d 60
1000
10
a 13 600 b 4060 c 148
d 100 000
a 1.6
b 1.56
c 1.561
a 2.70
b 40.0
163.5 height < 164.5 cm
a 2
b 1
c 5
a 365 000
b 540
c 0.002 40
d 2.00
a 2
b 2
c 4
d 1
e 1, 2, 3 or 4
1.85 kg is to the nearest 10 g, 1.850 to the
nearest gram.
1 a
0.3
0.36
0.3 14
0.5 678
11 a
0.1875
1.7
12 a
3
10
81
100
10 a
1.5 kg/L
Language in Mathematics
1 D
5 a fraction
d product
b
e
decimal
terminate
sum
D
D
D
D
2
6
10
14
50
3
7
11
15
D
B
B
B
4
8
12
16
5
100
34
8.463
0.2
0.42
0.4 25
0.4 253
11 a
0.375
1.6
12 a
3
5
73
100
4
9
14 1600 g/m2
267
1000
8
49
b 9
99
14 i 0.6 km/min ii 600 m/min
iii 10 m/s
15 18 L/h
C
D
A
D
500
a 2500 b 7930 c
d 50 000
a 8.5
b 8.46
c
a 3.50
b 20.0
a 35
b < 45
c 35 no. < 45
a 3
b 4
c 2
a 50
b 48
c 48.4
d 48.35
e 48.351
8 a 3
b 1
c 3
d 2
e 2, 3, 4 or 5
9 3.65 m is to the nearest cm, 3.650 to the nearest
mm.
13 a
Review Set 5C
2
3
4
5
6
7
10 a
0.2 8
13 a
D
C
A
C
Review Set 5A
1 a
41
99
0.4 2
8
8
c d 8000
100
10
a 13 800 b 770
c 24
d 90 000
a 13.1
b 13.07
c 13.065
a 4.20
b 21.0
a 3
b 4
c 2
a 20
b 18
c 17.6
d 17.63
e 17.631
a 425
b < 435
c 425 no. < 435
a 3
b 1
c 3
d 2
e 2, 3, 4 or 5
6 cm is to the nearest cm, 6.0 cm to the nearest
mm.
1 a
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0.1
0.37
0.6 37
0.423
11 a
0.275
1.916
12 a
1
5
29
50
13 a
8
9
635
999
10 a
69
500
0.9 2</
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