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# LEY_bk953_01_finalpp Page 1 Wednesday, January 12, 2005 10:16 AM

Chapter 1
Review of Stage 4
This chapter reviews Stage 4 of the Mathematics syllabus and covers the outcomes of
Number, Patterns and Algebra, Data, Measurement, and Space and Geometry.
After completing this chapter you should be able to:
recognise the properties of special groups of
whole numbers and apply a range of strategies
to aid computation

## collect statistical data using either a census or a

sample, and analyse data using measures of

## use formulae and Pythagoras theorem in

calculating perimeter and area of circles and
figures composed of rectangles and triangles

## operate with fractions, decimals, percentages,

ratios and rates
solve probability problems involving simple
events
use letters to reperesent numbers and translate
between words and algebraic symbols
create, record, analyse and generalise number
patterns using words and algebraic symbols in a
variety of ways
use the algebraic symbol system to simplify,
expand and factorise simple algebraic
expressions
use algebraic techniques to solve linear
equations and simple inequalitites
graph and interpret linear relationships on the
number plane
construct, read and interpret graphs, tables,
charts and statistical information

## calculate surface area of rectangular and

triangular prisms and volume of right prisms
and cylinders
perform calculations of time that involve
mixed units
describe and sketch three-dimensional solids
including polyhedra, and classify them in terms
of their properties
identify and name angles formed by the
intersection of straight lines, including those
related to transversals on sets of parallel lines,
and make use of the relationships between them
classify, construct and determine the properties
identify congruent and similar two-dimensional
figures stating the relelvant conditions.

## Syllabus references NS4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, PAS4.1, 4.2,

4.3, 4.4, 4.5, DS4.1, 4.2, MS4.1, 4.2, 4.3, SGS4.1, 4.2,
4.3, 4.4
WM: S4.1S4.5

Exercise 1A
1

## Write the multiples of:

a 4 between 11 and 37
b 9 between 8 and 46
c 7 that are less than 78

## a List the multiples of 2 less than 30.

c Write the common multiples of 2 and 6.

## a Write the factors of 48.

c What is the HCF of 48 and 27?

Use a factor tree to write the following numbers as a product of prime factors.
a 54
b 84
c 144

Use the method of division by primes to write the following numbers as a product of
prime factors.
a 80
b 240
c 600

## a Write 35 and 60 as a product of prime factors.

b Find the HCF of 35 and 60.
c Find the LCM of 35 and 60.

## a Write 140 and 84 as a product of prime factors.

b Find the HCF of 140 and 84.
c Find the LCM of 140 and 84.

Find the HCF and LCM of the following pairs of numbers. Write the numbers as a
product of prime factors first.
a 84 and 56
b 100 and 75
c 175 and 200

Find:
a

10

16

121

a Roman numerals

169

## b List the multiples of 6 less than 30.

d What is the LCM of 2 and 6?
b Write the factors of 27.

125

216

b base 2

11

a 2628
b 9603
c 233 244?

12

1331

Exercise 1B
1

## Plot the following numbers on the number line:

a 1, 3, 5, 7
b 8, 1, 6, 2

a
b
c
d
e

Represent the following operations on a number line and hence find the answer.
a 2+3
b 2+43
c 627

## Write the opposite of each of the following statements.

a a withdrawal of \$15
b an increase of 30 cm in length
c a gain of 8 kg in weight
d a rise of 15C in temperature

## State the combined effect of each of the following.

a a deposit of \$8 followed by a withdrawal of \$7
b a deposit of \$8 followed by a withdrawal of \$3
c a deposit of \$8 followed by a withdrawal of \$14

## If east is the positive direction, write directed numbers for a journey:

a 1 km east
b 2 km west
c 2 km east then 7 km west

Plot the following whole numbers on a number line, then write them in ascending order.
a 12, 5, 4, 10, 2
b 0, 3, 3, 4, 5

Plot the following numbers on a number line then write them in ascending order.
a 2--3- , 1 1--3- , 2 2--3- , 2--3- , 0
b 1.8, 1, 1.8, 2.3, 0

Using a number line to help you, insert > or < symbols to make the following statements true.
a 3 4
b 5 5
c 5 0

10

11

12

13

## Plot the numbers 2 and 6 on a number line.

Write a statement using < to describe the numbers 2 and 6.
Write a statement using > to describe the numbers 2 and 6.
Write two whole numbers between 2 and 6.
Write three other numbers between 2 and 6.

Simplify:
a 8 5

b 7 (4)

c 3 (2)

Simplify:
a 5 (5) 2

b (3) (5) 2

Simplify:
a 14 2

b 55 (5)

c (72) (12)

Simplify:
a 19 4 2
d 54 9 (3)

b 17 + 5 3
e (7) 6 (2)

c 19 + 2 8
f 45 (9) (2)

Exercise 1C
1

7
-.

## In a class of 20 students 1--4- play soccer, 1--5- play

netball and the remainder play football. What
fraction of the class plays football?

Convert

## Convert 3 5--8- to an improper fraction.

155
31
Complete ---------- = -----20

Simplify

## State the reciprocal of 2 2--3- .

Calculate

146
---------11

to a mixed number.

175
---------240

3
--8

8
-----15

2
--3

of 592 kg.

10

Liam earns \$600 per week. He banks 1--5- , spends 2--3- on rent and food, and uses the remaining
money for personal use.
a How much does Liam bank each week?
b How much is spent weekly on rent and food?
c What fraction of Liams weekly wage is for personal use?
d How much is spent on personal use?

11

12

Express 8 +

13

14

15

Express

16

1
--6

3
-----10

7
------------1000

as a decimal.

17

18

Simplify:

19

Simplify:

## a (2.1 + 3) (11.9 5.9)

20

a Ahmed earns \$4.60 per hour. How much does he earn if he works 10 1--2- hours?

## b (10.3 8.7) + (0.4 9)

b Sylvanna won \$1 216 320 in a lottery. She decided to share it equally between eight
people. How much did each person receive?
21

22

23

24

25

## Express 3.8 as a percentage.

26

Express

27

Convert each to percentages and arrange in ascending order: 4--5- , 70%, 0.65

28

Convert

29

30

31

## Calculate 15% of \$360.

32

Find 25% of 48 m.

33

34

35

## Decrease 320 by 25%.

36

What is a rate?

37

In a class of 28 students there are 13 boys. Write the ratio of boys to girls.

38

39

40

41

5
--8

as a percentage.

27
---------100

to a percentage.

b 30 : 108

## Review of Stage 4 (Chapter 1)

42

If Susan speaks to Clara for 18 m and 53 s, calculate the cost of the phone call if it is
49c/min or part thereof.

43

A car travels at a speed of 97 km/h for 3 1--4- hours. Calculate the distance travelled.

44

A map has a scale of 1 : 300. Convert the following scale distances to real distances.
a 11 cm
b 15.8 cm

45

The ratio of the size of a model to the size of the real building is 1 : 500. If the model has a
height of 25 mm, find the actual height of the building in metres.

25 mm

## D. REVIEW OF NUMBER (NS4.4)

Exercise 1D
1

A hat contains 1 red, 1 blue, 1 yellow and 1 green ticket. One ticket is chosen.
a List the sample space.
b What is the probability of selecting the red ticket?

Ten cards with the numbers 1 to 10 written on them are shuffled and one card is chosen.
a List the sample space.
b What is the probability that the selected card has 7 written on it?

## Copy and complete.

Fraction
a

Percentage

0.7

b
c

Decimal

25%
5
--8

A bag contains 4 green, 9 red and 7 blue marbles. One is chosen at random.
a How many marbles are in the bag?
b How many marbles are red?
c What is the probability of selecting a red marble?

a P(a diamond)
b P(a red card)
c P(a king)?

## a Write a statement describing a probability of 0.

b Estimate a percentage probability for the phrase even chance.
c Write a phrase for an event with a probability of success of about 85%.

## Review of Stage 4 (Chapter 1)

A die with the numbers 16 is rolled once. Describe events that would be:
a certain
b impossible
c of even chance

A spinner has five equal-sized sectors coloured green, yellow, orange, brown and white. It is
spun once.
a What is the probability of white?
b What is the probability of any colour except white?
c What is the probability of yellow or orange?
d What is the probability of any colour except yellow or orange?

## E. REVIEW OF ALGEBRA (PAS4.1)

Exercise 1E
1

If there are p marbles in each cup, write algebraic expressions for the total number of
marbles in each of the following diagrams.
a

Simplify:
a 6p
e 3mm

b gr
f 5a+3q

## Insert multiplication signs to show the meaning of:

a 3p
b ab
c m2
Simplify:
a p+p+p
e 0 5p

b y+y+y+y+y

c m5

d 5x 2

c z 1

d 8ab

e 6pq

d 3pq 1

If m = 3 and n = 4, evaluate:
a mn
b 5mn

c 7m 3n

d n2

e 4n 2

a t2
b gr

c rg

d 4w 7

e 3 2x

## Show the meaning of the following expressions by inserting a division sign.

k
4
p
3e
a --b ---c --d -----3
m
q
4

mn
e -------t

## Review of Stage 4 (Chapter 1)

8
8

10

If p = 4 and q = 5, evaluate:
q
24
a --b -----5
p

5p
-----q

4q
d -----p

If p = 7 and q = 3, evaluate:
a 3(p + 1)
b 4(q 3)
d 5(q 4)
e pq(p 5)
If p = 12 and q = 5, evaluate:
p+9
q3
a -----------b -----------3
2

5p
e -----2q

c q(q + 1)

26
-----------p+1

p+6
d -----------q+1

3p + 3
e ---------------q+8

Exercise 1F
1

## Write down the next three numbers in the sequence:

a 2, 7, 12, 17, ___
b 21, 19, 17, 15, ___

Using the rules given, find the first four terms of each sequence.

## a Complete the table for the above pattern of shapes.

Number of pentagons

b i

## Plot the values in your table as points on a number

plane like the one given opposite.
ii Describe the geometric pattern formed by the
points on the graph.
c Write in words a rule to describe the pattern formed.
Begin with The number of matches needed is _____.
d If x = the number of pentagons and y = the number of
matches needed, write an algebraic statement for the
rule in part c.
e How many matches would be needed to build 200 pentagons?
4

1 2 3 4

## a Draw the next two shapes in this matchstick pattern.

b Write a sequence for the number of matches needed to make each shape.
c How many matches are needed for the 100th shape?

## Review of Stage 4 (Chapter 1)

The algebraic rule for a pattern of shapes is p = 3 + 2k where k represents the number of
shapes and p represents the number of matches needed to build the shapes. Find the number
of matches needed to build:
a 5
b 10
c 50 shapes

The terms of a number sequence are given by the rule y = 2z + 3 where z represents the
position number of the term and y represents the term. Find the first five terms of the
sequence.

## G. REVIEW OF ALGEBRA (PAS4.3)

Exercise 1G
1

10

11

Simplify:
a 9x + 5x

b 7y y

c 3a 2 + 4a 2

d 9ac 3ca

Simplify:
a 5 12n

b 5 2a

c 8m 3

d 5p 7

Simplify:
a 10a 2

b 12m 3

Simplify:
a 4wx + 2y 5xw 5y
Simplify:
4a a
a ------ + --7 7

12m
d ----------3

b 6m + 2m 8m

a a
b --- --3 5

## Expand each of the following.

a a(a n)
b mn(2n 5)
Expand and simplify.
a 3(5a + 3) 4(8 4a)
Factorise:
a mn2 + mn

abc
--------a

q
--- q
5

c 4p(3p + 2)

d 6p 2p
d 2p(4y 2w)

b 3x(y 4) + 4y (5x 2)
b pq aq

c 4p 12d

d 25f 15

a 3K + 9
b 4p 12d
Define:
a pronumeral

b coefficient

Qp
a 4Q + p
b ------c 6p 5Q
8

d 3(Q p) + 7p 8Q

10

12

a

b L = 3N + 5

m+3

L
13

## Write an algebraic expression for each:

a the product of six and d plus twenty-three
b the difference between x and seven multiplied by three. The result is then divided by eight.

Exercise 1H
1

## Solve these questions:

a x + 11 = 17
c 4x = 36
e 3y + 18 = 29
g 4d + 8 = 3d 12
i 3(m + 6) = 2(m 1)

b
d
f
h
j

## Solve these equations:

4p
a ------ = 6
5

3x + 12
b ------------------- = 12
7

x + 9 = 6
9x = 63
5 4p = 47
18 + 7c = 32 3c
8(q 5) = 3(10 + 3q)

## Is the given value for the pronumeral a solution to the equation?

x
a 5d + 12 = 28; d = 3
b --- + 7 = 24; x = 3 2--55

## Write an equation and solve this problem.

The sum of a certain number and 23 is 114. What is the number?

a x + 9 3

m
b ---- < 4
7

## I. REVIEW OF ALGEBRA (PAS4.5)

Exercise 1I
1

Plot these points on a number plane: A(0, 3), B(2, 3), C(3, 4), D(3, 2), E(2, 5)

## a Plot the points A(3, 6), B(3, 6) and C(3, 0).

b IF ABCD is a square, find the coordinates of the point D.

## a Copy and complete this table.

Number of patterns 1

Number of matches
b Write a rule describing the number of matches required to make each pattern.
c Using x to represent the number of patterns and y to represent the number of matches,
write a set of points describing this information.
d Graph these points on the number plane.
e Mark in the next two points and write their coordinates.
4

## Bulk washing powder is sold for \$4.50 per kilogram.

The following table shows weight versus cost for various
quantities of washing powder.
Number of kg

10

20

Cost (\$)

4.5

18 22.5 45

90

## a Using x to represent the number of kilograms and y to

represent the cost in dollars, write a set of points describing
this information.
b Graph these points on the number plane and draw a straight line through them.
c Use the graph to find how much 8.5 kg of washing powder would cost.
d Use the graph to find how much washing powder could be purchased for \$72.
5

## Copy and complete the table and draw the graph of y = 2x 3.

Some of the points are provided.

x 2 1 0
y

## This graph shows a straight line.

a Use the graph to complete this table of values.
x 2 1 0

y
b Write the rule describing this straight line.
The rule is of the form y = x .

2
1

11

12

Exercise 1J
1

## This graph shows a students pulse rate during exercise.

a What is the pulse rate after 3 minutes?
b When is the pulse rate 110?
c How many times was the pulse rate 90?

## The sector graph shows favourite activities.

a What was the second most popular
activity?
b What is the fraction of people cycling?
c What is the angle at the centre for
walking?

## The step graph shows postage charges.

a What is the cost of posting a package
weighing 140 g?
b What is the heaviest package that can
be posted for \$2?

## The travel graph shows Graces cycling journey.

a When does she rest?
b How far does she travel?

## Review of Stage 4 (Chapter 1)

Draw a divided bar graph of length 15 cm to represent the results from a survey of 30
year 9 students.
Favourite snack

Number of students

Hot chips

15

Hamburger

Kebab

Chicken

Pie

## Draw a travel graph to describe this journey.

Jack started from home at 7.00 a.m. and travelled 25 km in one hour. He stopped for 45 min,
then continued for another 2 h travelling another 80 km. Jack stopped for 30 min then
returned home taking 2 1--2- h.

## Classify these as nominal or numerical variables.

a hair colour
b height

c distance travelled

## a Construct a frequency distribution table for this information.

Winning margins in a series of soccer matches:
2
2
3
0
0
2
0
4
3
1
0
3
3
3
1
1
2
2
0
0
0
1
2
1
0
4
5
3
0
1
5
1
4
3
4
2
3
0
2
3
1
2
2
0
0
2
3
2
0
4
b Draw a frequency histogram and polygon for this information.
c i How many soccer matches were played?
ii How many winning margins of 2 were there?
iii What does a winning margin of 0 mean?

3
3
0
4
0

5
1
2
0
2

## a Draw a frequency distribution table to show the following information:

8
9
5
10
7
6
6
7
5
1
8
6
2
8
6
2
6
4
9
4
7
4
9
2
6
5
9
10
10
1
7
6
2
2
3
1
b How many numbers were 8 or more?

10

Draw a stem-and-leaf plot for the following information. Use stems of 12, 13, 14, 15, 16.
146
145
128
138
161
150
149
142
132
142
150
145
151
131
148
145
132
145
144
153

11

## a Draw a column graph for the data

in this table.
b Draw a dot plot showing this information.

Drink

Frequency

Soft drink

18

Still water

10

Juice

Tea/coffee

Other

13

14

12

Day
Price (\$)

7.40

7.20

7.08

7.00

7.35

7.55

7.80

7.25

7.40

7.30

Exercise 1K
1

## Define the statistical term sample.

Would a census or sample be used to investigate the number of people who use a particular
brand of toothpaste? Why?

Describe the sample you would use if you wanted to gather support for improved skateboard

For the scores 11, 14, 15, 19, 19, 21, find the:
a mean
b mode

## For the scores in this stem-and-leaf plot find the:

a mean
b mode
c median
d range

c median

d range

Stem

Leaf

788

001234566

1244468

3578

23

The back-to-back stem-and-leaf plot compares the marks gained by two classes, A and B, in
their half yearly Mathematics exam.
Class B

Class A

Leaf

Stem

Leaf

21

88

6421

0356

65310

02668

110

369

a Find the mean, mode, median and range for each class.
b Which class performed better? Explain.

## From a school of 800 students, a random sample of 50 students was selected.

There were 13 left-handed students in the sample.
a What fraction of the sample was left-handed?
b Estimate how many of the school population are left-handed.

Exercise 1L
1

## Estimate the width of your classroom.

Convert to millimetres:

a 0.27 m

b 0.004 km

Convert to centimetres:

a 0.34 m

b 0.07 km

Calculate the perimeter of a rectangle given a width of 11.9 cm and a length of 26.3 cm.

## Calculate the perimeter of each shape. All measurements are in centimetres.

a

An octagon has a perimeter of 1012.16 cm. Calculate the length of each side.

## Find the length of each side marked with a pronumeral,

then calculate the perimeter. All measurements are in
centimetres.
19.8

## By counting squares, find

the area of the figure.

a

25.3

15

16

10

a

11

a

12

## Copy and complete the following conversions.

a 5 cm = _____ mm
b 800 cm = _____ m
c 640 mm = _____ cm
d 11.6 m = _____ cm
e 43.8 cm = _____ mm f 8400 cm = _____ m
g 8 cm2 = _____ mm2
h 7.2 m2 = _____ cm2
i 9000 mm2 = _____ cm2

13

In these triangles

## i Which side is the hypotenuse?

ii Write an expression for Pythagoras rule for the triangle.
Show whether the following triangles are right angled.
a

15

## a Find the value of 92.

b Calculate the value of

14

16

17

a

## Find the length of the third side.

a

b
44.2 cm

9.4 cm
x cm

21.3 cm

7.2 cm

18

x cm

Find the value of the pronumeral in each of the following, correct to 1 decimal place.
a

b
8 cm

12 cm
29.3 cm

10.8 cm

19

Calculate the length of the diagonal of a square with side length 36 cm, correct to 2 decimal
places.

20

a

21

## What fraction of a circle is

represented by this sector?

22

Write down the formula for the circumference of a circle when given the diameter.

23

Calculate the circumference of a circle with a diameter of 11.4 cm, correct to 1 decimal place.

24

Write down the formula for the circumference of a circle when given the radius.

25

Calculate the circumference of a circle with a radius of 6.8 cm, correct to 2 decimal places.

108o

17

18

26

27

## Calculate the area of a circle, correct to 1 decimal place given:

b diameter = 3.9 cm
Calculate the area of this shape correct to 1 decimal place.

28

15.7 cm

Exercise 1M
1

## a If ABFE is the top face of the

rectangular prism, name the
bottom face.
b Name the front and back faces.
c Name the two sides.

a Construct a net of
the cube shown.

3.8 cm

b Use the net to calculate the total surface area of the cube.
3

a

15.2 cm

6.8 cm

5 cm

3 cm

a

## Review of Stage 4 (Chapter 1)

Draw the cross-section of each prism if it is cut along the dotted line shown.
a

a

A=
83.4 cm2
41.6 cm

7.4 cm

## Calculate, to the nearest cm3, the

volume of the cylinder shown.
38 cm

15.3 cm

a

b
10.3 cm

38.7 cm

7.8 cm
5.8 cm
9.4 cm

23.5 cm

## Complete the following conversions.

a 1 cm3 = ____ mm3
b 1 kL = ____ mL
3
d 1 m = ____ L
e 1 m3 = ____ kL

c 1 kL = ____ cm3

Exercise 1N
1

## Complete the following conversions.

a 240 s = ____ min

19

20
3

## Convert 210 min to hours and minutes.

Calculate:

If Sergio caught the bus at 6.35 a.m., what time did he arrive at work if the bus trip took
42 min?

High tide is at 5.20 a.m. and low tide is at 9.08 a.m. Calculate the time difference between
high and low tide.

## Round the following calculator display to the nearest minute: 3 16 41.3

a 3 h 35 min + 5 h 48 min

b 3 h 21 min 1 h 42 min

## O. REVIEW OF SPACE AND GEOMETRY (SGS4.1)

Exercise 1O
1

Name the common solids that have been combined to make each of the following solids.
a

## Sketch the view of each of the following solids from the:

a

front

Sketch the cross-section when the shapes below are sliced as shown.
a

ii top

iii side

## Review of Stage 4 (Chapter 1)

A solid was built from cubes. From the views given below, build the solid and sketch it on
isometric grid paper.

## Name the edges which:

a intersect at E
b are parallel to AB
c are skew to BE

Exercise 1P
1

## Name the angles marked with a and a in each of the following.

a

G
F

Draw an interval PQ, 4 cm long. Using P as the vertex and your protractor, draw angles of
the following sizes.
a 55
b 196
c 228
d 315

## Use the diagram shown to classify these angles

according to size.
a BAC
b BCA
d ACB

## a Describe adjacent complementary angles.

b Draw a diagram showing adjacent complementary angles.

a 135
b 60

c 72

d 133

21

22
6

125

## From the diagram in question 6, calculate the size of:

and give reasons.

a

QRU

ii SRT

73

115

a

b
134
50

34

125

10

a

b
75

128

52

Exercise 1Q
1

a

b
68

142

of each angle.

120
40

## Find the value of the pronumerals, giving reasons

43
52

a Draw a rhombus.
b List the properties of a rhombus.

## a Draw a diagram of a convex quadrilateral.

b Comment on the diagonals of your diagram.

## R. REVIEW OF SPACE AND GEOMETRY (SGS4.4)

Exercise 1R
1

Show how these shapes can be divided into two congruent figures. Name the resulting figures.
a

## Divide the rectangle into two congruent

figures in two ways.

23

## Review of Stage 4 (Chapter 1)

24
3

Each pair of figures is similar. Find the scale factor and the value of the pronumeral.
a

b
9 cm

5 cm

24 cm
40 cm

y cm
2.5 cm

7.5 cm
8 cm

## In STU, which side corresponds to

a MN
b NL
c ML ?

N
14
7

M
L

The shadow cast by a flagpole is 9 m long. At the same time the shadow of a 30 cm ruler
is 40 cm. Calculate the height of the flagpole.

## Draw a scale drawing of this floor plan

of a building with the given dimensions.
Use a scale factor of 200.

3m

10 m

## LEY_bk953_02_finalpp Page 25 Wednesday, January 12, 2005 10:14 AM

Chapter 2
Indices and Scientic
Notation
This chapter deals with indices and scientific notation.
After completing this chapter you should be able to:
change numbers to index form and vice versa
use the terms base, power, index, exponent
use the index laws to simplify expressions
define and use zero and negative integral indices
define fractional indices for square and cube roots
express very large and very small numbers in scientific notation and vice versa
perform calculations with, and order, numbers expressed in scientific notation.

## Syllabus reference NS5.1.1

WM : 5. 1. 15. 1. 4, 5. 2 .1 5 .2 .4

26

Diagnostic test

5 5 5 5 5 5 is:
A 65

B 56
6

C 555555
2

A 44

B 4444

C 22

D 2222

10

C 625

D 1024

B 214

C 245

D 445

13

B 78

14

C 735

D 735

315 35 =
B 110

C 33

D 310

15

230 =
A 23

B 54

25 29 =

A 13
7

## Which of the following numbers is written

in scientific notation?
A 49 1015

C 360 000

D 2.1 109

## When written in scientific notation

6 430 000 becomes:
A 6.43 104

B 6.43 105

C 6.43 106

D 6.436

A 715
6

12

A 414
5

D 555555

A 45
4

11

B 1

C 0

D 2

1
1
A -----5
B -----7
C 35
5
7

16
D 75

A 7

B 7

C 3

B 0.000 032

C 3 200 000

D 320 000

A 3.36 1088

B 3.36 1089

C 3.36 1019

D 3.36 1020

A 7.5 1019

B 7.5 106

C 7.5 106

D 7.5 1018

## When the numbers 3.8 106, 4.7 108,

8.9 108 are written in order from
smallest to largest, the answer is:
B 4.7 108, 8.9 108, 3.8 106

## The meaning of 6 is:

1
1
A 3
B -----2
C
6 D --3
6
3
When written in index form 7 =
1
--3

A 0.000 003 2

1
--2

3.2 105 is:

D 3

## C 3.8 106, 4.7 108, 8.9 108

D 8.9 108, 3.8 106, 4.7 108
1
--7

If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
Section

13

9, 10

1113

1416

## Indices and Scientific Notation (Chapter 2) Syllabus reference NS5.1.1

A. INDEX NOTATION
Index notation is a short way of writing the repeated product of numbers, for example
6 6 6 6 6 may be written 65.
This is read as 6 to the power 5 or 6 to the fifth (power).
The 6 is called the base. It is the number that is being repeated.
The 5 is called the power, index or exponent. It tells us how many times the base has been repeated.

Example 1
a Write 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 in index
form.
b Write the answer to part a in words.
c State which number is the
i base
ii index.

In index form
means using
index notation.

## a The number being repeated is 7 and the number

of times the 7 is repeated is 9, so
7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 = 79.
b 7 to the power 9.
c i The base is 7.
ii The index is 9.

Exercise 2A
1

## a Write 4 4 4 4 4 in index form.

b Write the answer to part a in words.
c State which number is the
i base

Exponent is
another word
for index.

ii index.

## a Write 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 in index form.

b Write the answer to part a in words.
c State which number is the
i base
ii index.

a 3333333
b 2222222222
c 444
d 555555
e 2222

27

28

## Indices and Scientific Notation (Chapter 2) Syllabus reference NS5.1.1

Example 2
For each of the following numbers:
i write down the base, i.e. the number that is being repeated
ii write down the index, i.e. the number of times the base is repeated
iii write the number in expanded form.
a 54
b 27
In expanded
a i
ii
iii
b i
ii
iii

form means as
a repeated
product.

## The base is 5. This is the number

being repeated.
The index is 4. This is the number of times
the base is repeated.
Hence 54 = 5 5 5 5
The base is 2. This is the number being repeated.
The power is 7. This is the number of
times the 2 is repeated.
Hence 27 = 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

## For each of the following numbers:

i write down the base, i.e. the number that is being repeated
ii write down the index, i.e. the number of times the base is repeated
iii write the number in expanded form.
a 35
b 24
c 73
d 96

e 58

Example 3
Use your calculator to evaluate 56.
Find the xy key on your calculator.
Enter the base, 5.
Press the xy key.
Enter the power, 6.
Press the

= key.

5 = 15 625

a 210
b 74
4
f 9
g 63

c 35
h 36

d 106
i 85

e 54
j 58

## B. MULTIPLYING NUMBERS WITH THE SAME BASE

Example 1
a Write in expanded form i 32
b Write the answer to part iii in index form.
c Is 32 34 = 32 + 4 ?

ii 34

a i 33
ii 3 3 3 3
6
b 3 because the 3 is repeated 6 times.
c Yes, because 2 + 4 = 6.

iii

32 34

333333

iii

Exercise 2B
1

## a Write in expanded form

i 73
b Write the answer to part iii in index form.
c Is 73 74 = 73 + 4 ?

ii 74

iii 73 74

## a Write in expanded form

i 54
b Write the answer to part iii in index form.
c Is 54 52 = 54 + 2 ?

ii 52

iii 54 52

## a Write in expanded form

i 63
b Write the answer to part iii in index form.
c Is 63 65 = 63 + 5 ?

ii 65

iii 63 65

Example 2
Write in index form:
a 57 54

b 38 310

## From the answers to part c in the above questions,

b 38 310 = 38 + 10 = 318
a 57 54 = 57 + 4 = 511

When multiplying numbers with the same base, add the indices.
4

a 35 34
b 27 25
f 69 64
g 105 104

c 72 78
h 210 210

d 57 52
i 520 510

e 410 46
j 311 37

29

30

## Indices and Scientific Notation (Chapter 2) Syllabus reference NS5.1.1

Example 3
a Write in expanded form
b Is 56 5 = 56 or 57 ?

ii 56 5

56

a i 56 = 5 5 5 5 5 5
ii 56 5 = 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
b From part ii, the 5 is repeated 7 times. Hence 56 5 = 57, i.e. 5 may be written as 51.
Hence 56 5 = 56 51
= 56 + 1
= 57
5

## Simplify by writing in index form.

a 54 5
b 37 3

c 29 2

d 5 58

e 7 711

Example 4
a Write in expanded form
i 23 34
3
4
3+4
b Is 2 3 = 6
? Give a reason.

ii 67

a i 2223333
ii 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
b No, because the bases are different.
6

## a Write in expanded form

b Is 35 42 = 125 + 2 ? Give a reason.

35 42

ii 127

## a Write in expanded form

b Is 53 25 = 103 + 5 ? Give a reason.

53 25

ii 108

## a Write in expanded form

b Is 35 32 = 95 + 2 ? Give a reason.

35 32

ii 97

## a Write in expanded form

b Is 23 25 = 43 + 5 ? Give a reason.

23 25

ii 48

10

## Write true or false.

a 37 35 = 312
d 25 24 = 29
g 46 47 = 442

b 37 25 = 612
e 25 54 = 109
h 46 37 = 1213

c 37 35 = 912
f 25 24 = 49
i 46 47 = 1613

Example 5
Simplify by writing in index form.

11

a 23 25 24

b 35 36 33

a 23 25 24 = 23 + 5 + 4 = 212

b 35 36 33 = 35 + 6 + 3 = 314

a 24 26 23
b 38 33 37

c 53 57 54

d 46 43 4

e 53 54 5 52

## C. RAISING A NUMBER TO A POWER

Example 1
Simplify by writing in index form
a

(32)4

b (75)3

c (24)7

(32)4 = (3 3)4
or (32)4 = 32 32 32 32
= (3 3) (3 3) (3 3) (3 3)
= 32 + 2 + 2 + 2
=33333333
= 34 2
8
=3
= 38

b (75)3 = 75 75 75
= 75 + 5 + 5
= 73 5
= 715
c

(24)7 = 24 7
= 228

Exercise 2C
1

a

(32)3

b (53)2

c (23)4

d (35)3

(102)5

g (42)6

h (63)7

(38)3

e (74)5
j

(27)10

Example 2
Simplify:
a (32)4 37
a

b (72)3 (73)4

(32)4 37 = 38 37
= 315

= 718

Simplify:
a

(32)3 35

e 76 (72)5
i

(34)5 (32)4

b (23)4 25
f

(23)2 (24)3

(92)5 (93)4

c (54)3 52

d 34 (33)5

g (52)4 (53)2

h (74)2 (73)3

31

32

## D. DIVIDING NUMBERS WITH THE SAME BASE

Example 1
a Write in expanded form 36 32.
b Write the answer to part a in index form.
c Is 36 32 = 36 2 ?
6

3
a 36 32 = -----2
3
1
1
333333
= --------------------------------------------------31 31

b 34
c Yes because 6 2 = 4.

=3333

Exercise 2D
1

## a Write in expanded form 37 32

b Write the answer to part a in index form.

c Is 37 32 = 37 2 ?

## a Write in expanded form 75 73

b Write the answer to part a in index form.

c Is 75 73 = 75 3 ?

## a Write in expanded form 28 23

b Write the answer to part a in index form.

c Is 28 23 = 28 3 ?

Example 2
a 210 27

b 38 37

## From the answers to part c in the questions above

a 210 27 = 210 7
b 38 37 = 38 7
= 23
= 31
=3

When dividing numbers with the same base, subtract the indices.
4

a 35 33
b 28 25
c 510 54
8
4
8
6
f 6 6
g 2 2
h 311 39
k 35 31
l 56 51
m 27 2

d 49 45
i 47 46
n 104 10

e 1012 107
j 54 53
o 79 7

## Indices and Scientific Notation (Chapter 2) Syllabus reference NS5.1.1

Example 3
Write true or false.
a 65 23 = 32

b 36 32 = 14
3

66666
a 65 23 = ----------------------------------------21 21 21

## We can only subtract

the indices when the
bases are the same.

=33366
32 = 3 3
3
2
65 2 3
1

3 3 3333
b 36 32 = -------------------------------------------------------31 31
= 34
2

36 3 1

5

a 58 55 = 53
e 65 32 = 23

b 67 24 = 33
f 26 22 = 14

c 59 53 = 16
g 39 33 = 33

d 410 42 = 45
h 107 53 = 24

Example 4
Simplify:
a 35 37 38

b (28)3 210

## a Working from left to right,

35 37 38 = 35 + 7 38
= 312 38
= 312 8
= 34

c 57 53 59

## b (28)3 210 = 28 3 210

= 224 210
= 224 10
= 214

c 57 53 59 = 57 3 59
= 54 59
= 54 + 9
= 513
6

Simplify:
a 36 34 35
e (45)2 47
i 210 24 23
m 23 26 24 27

b
f
j
n

25 28 26
(33)5 37
512 52 54
(52)3 (54)2 511

c
g
k
o

710 78 716
58 53 54
(24)3 29
320 38 37

d
h
l
p

(56)3 510
36 33 34
310 38 35
725 (73)5

33

34

## E. THE ZERO INDEX

Example 1
Complete the following table to find the value of 30.
35
243

34
81

33

32

31

30

27

As we read the first row of numbers, we can see that the powers of the 3 are going down
by one. The missing numbers, in the second row, can be found by dividing the number
before it by 3.
35

34

33

32

31

30

243

(243 3 = )81

(81 3 = )27

(27 3 = )9

(9 3 = )3

(3 3 = )1

## From the table, 30 = 1.

Exercise 2E
1

Complete the following table to find the value of 50. (Divide the second row of numbers by 5.)
55

54

53

3125

625

125

52

51

50

## Complete the following table to find the value of 20.

25

24

23

32

16

22

21

20

Example 2
a Use the index laws to simplify 74 74.
b By writing in expanded form, show that 74 74 = 1.
c Hence show that 70 = 1.
a

## Using the index laws

74 74 = 74 4
= 70

71 71 71 71
74 74 = -------------------------------71 71 71 71
=1

## a Use the index laws to simplify 73 73.

b By writing in expanded form, show that 73 73 = 1.
c Hence show that 70 = 1.

## a Use the index laws to simplify 95 95.

b By writing in expanded form, show that 95 95 = 1.
c Hence show that 90 = 1.

a 70
b 130
c 290
d 5.60

e 31.70

5
( --- )0
8

e 12.90

3
( --- )0
4

## From questions 1 to 7, you should have discovered that:

Any number raised to the power zero is equal to 1.
Without using your calculator, write down the value of:
a 40
b 230
c 9550
d 8.670

F. NEGATIVE INDICES
Example 1
Complete the following table to find the meaning of 31, 32, 33.
35

34

33

243

81

27

32

31

30

31

32

33

The powers of the numbers in the first row are going down by 1. The numbers in the
second row can be found by multiplying the number before it by 1--3- .
35

34

33

32

31

30

31

243 (243 --13- =)81 (81 --13- =)27 (27 --13- =)9 (9 --13- =)3 (3 --13- =)1 (1 --13- =) --13From the table, we see that:
1
1
31 = --- = -----1
3 3

1
1
32 = --- = -----2
9 3

1
1
33 = ------ = -----3
27 3

Multiplying a number
1
by --- is the same as
3
dividing it by 3.

32
( --13-

1
--3

33
1
=) --19- ( --19- --13- =) ----27

35

36

Exercise 2F
1

1
--2

## By multiplying the numbers in the second row by

meaning of 21, 22, 23.
25

24

23

32

16

22

21

20

21

22

## By multiplying the numbers in the second row by

meaning of 101, 102, 103.
105

104

103

100 000

10 000

1000

102

101

1
-----10

23

## complete the following table to find the

100

Example 2
a Use the index laws to simplify 34 36.
1
b By writing in expanded form, show that 34 36 = -----2 .
3
1
c Hence show that 32 = -----2 .
3
a 34 36 = 346
a 34 36 = 32
31 31 31 31
b 34 36 = ------------------------------------------------------------31 31 31 31 3 3
1
= -----------33
1
a 34 36 = -----2
3
1
c From parts a and b, 32 = -----2
3
3

## a Use the index laws to simplify 22 25.

1
b By writing in expanded form, show that 22 25 = -----3 .
2
1
c Hence show that 23 = -----3 .
2

## a Use the index laws to simplify 53 57.

1
b By writing in expanded form, show that 53 57 = -----4 .
5
1
c Hence show that 54 = -----4 .
5

101

102

103

## Indices and Scientific Notation (Chapter 2) Syllabus reference NS5.1.1

Example 3
Write down the meaning of:

a 91

b 63

c 75

From questions 1 to 4,
1
a 91 = -----1
9

1
b 63 = -----3
6

1
c 75 = -----5
7

## Write down the meaning of:

a 31
b 43
1
f 12
g 92
k 28
l 51

c 25
h 61
m 105

d 82
i 73
n 510

e 54
j 36
o 415

Example 4
Write as a simplified fraction:

a 52

b 35

1
a 52 = -----2
5
1
= -----25

1
b 35 = -----5
3
1
= ---------- (using a calculator)
243

## Write as a simplified fraction.

a 32
b 25
3
f 6
g 92
k 73
l 44

c 43
h 34
m 36

d 54
i 55 1
2
n ---
5

Example 5
Write using a negative index:
1
a --b
3
1
a -----1 = 31
3

1
-----2
3

1
-----8
3

1
b -----2 = 32
3

1
-----8 = 38
3

e 210
j 29 1
3
o 1 ---
4

37

38

## Write using a negative index:

1
1
a --b -----2
2
2
f

1
--5

1
------10
3

1
-----8
2
1
h -----3
4
1
m -----5
7
c

1
g -----2
7
1
l --6

1
d -----5
2
1
i -----4
3
1
n -----9
4

1
e -----3
2
1
j -----6
5
1
o -----10

G. FRACTIONAL INDICES
Example 1
1
--2 2

## a Use the index laws to simplify ( 5 ) .

1
b Find ( 5 )2.
--2
c Hence write down the meaning of 5 .
a

1
--2

( 5 )2 = 5

1
--- 2
2

1
--2

b ( 5 )2 = 5

c Since ( 5 )2 = ( 5 )2
1
--2

= 51

then 5 =

=5

Exercise 2G
1

1
--2

b Find ( 3 )2.

1
--2

2

1
--2 2

b Find ( 7 )2.

1
--2

Example 2
1
--3

## a Use the index laws to simplify ( 7 )3.

b Use your calculator to find ( 3 7 )3. 1--3
c Hence write down the meaning of 7 .
1
--3

a ( 7 )3 = 7

1
--- 3
3

= 71
=7

b ( 3 7 )3 = 7

1
--3

c Since ( 7 )3 = ( 3 7 )3
1
--3

then 7 =

1
--3 3

b Find ( 3 5 )3.

1
--3

4

1
--3

b Find ( 3 2 )3.

1
--3

## c Hence write down the meaning of 2 .

Example 3
Write down the meaning of:
a 24

1
--2

b 167

1
--3

1
--2

a 24 =

1
--3

b 167 =

24

167

a 29
f

69

1
--3

b 29

1
--3

g 31

1
--2

c 13

1
--2

h 47

1
--3

d 13

1
--2

1
--2

195

Example 4
Evaluate:
a 81

1
--2

1
--2

a 81 =
=

81
9

64

64

1
--3

1
--3

=
=

64
4

Evaluate:
a 49
e 25

1
--2
1
--2

b
f

1
--3

1000

c 100
1
--3

1
--2

d 27

1
--3

e 27
1
--3

1
--3

278

1
--2

39

40

## Indices and Scientific Notation (Chapter 2) Syllabus reference NS5.1.1

Example 5
Write in index form:

6 = 6

b
1
--2

## Write in index form:

a
b 3
5

7
7 = 7

1
--3

10

12

H. SCIENTIFIC NOTATION
The distance of Mars from the sun is approximately 229 000 000 kilometres. The diameter of the hydrogen
atom is 0.000 000 000 025 4 metres.
Scientists invented a more convenient method of writing very large and very small numbers like the ones
above. It is called scientific notation or standard notation.
To write a number in scientific notation, it is written as the product of a number between 1 and 10 and a
power of 10.

Example 1
State whether or not the following numbers are written in scientific notation.
a 6.7 108
d 2.96 107

b 23 105
e 480 000

c 3.65 1000

a Yes, as the first number (6.7) is between 1 and 10 and it is multiplied by a power of
10 (108).
b No, because the first number (23) is not between 1 and 10.
c No, because the second number (1000) is not expressed as a power of 10.
d Yes, as the first number (2.96) is between 1 and 10 and it is multiplied by a power of
10 (107).
e No, as it is not written as a product.

## Indices and Scientific Notation (Chapter 2) Syllabus reference NS5.1.1

Exercise 2H
1

State whether or not the following numbers are written in scientific notation.
a 5.9 106
b 34 108
c 8.97 10 000
d 5.03 109
15
4
e 28 000
f 7 10
g 0.85 10
h 4.2 100
68
i 163 000 000
j 2.006 10

## Copy and complete the following table.

100

101

10

102

104
1000

105
1 000 000

Example 2
Write the following numbers in scientific notation.
a 5 000 000

b 40 000

## a 5 000 000 = 5 1 000 000

= 5 106 (using the table in question 2 above)
b 40 000 = 4 10 000
= 4 104

## Write the following numbers in scientific notation.

a 3 000 000
b 70 000
c 8000

d 600 000

e 500

Example 3
Write the following numbers in scientific notation.

a 5300

b 284 000

= 5.3 103

= 2.84 105

a 4800
b 392 000
c 64 000

d 2 180 000

e 760

41

42

## Indices and Scientific Notation (Chapter 2) Syllabus reference NS5.1.1

Example 4
Write the following numbers as ordinary decimal numerals.

a 6 105

b 3.94 106

= 600 000

= 3 940 000

a 3 104
b 7 103
c 9 106
d 4 105
f 4.6 105
g 6.71 103
h 3.9 106
i 8.36 104

e 8 102
j 5.2 105

## Complete the table.

0.1

0.01

1
-----10

0.0001
1
------------1000

0.000 001
1
--------------------100 000

Example 5
Write the following numbers in scientific notation.
a 0.004

b 0.000 009

a 0.004 = 4 0.001
1
= 4 ------------- (from table in question 6)
1000
1
= 4 --------3- (from table in question 2)
10
= 4 103

a 0.003
b 0.000 007
c 0.0005

## b 0.000 009 = 9 0.000 001

1
= 9 -------------------------1 000 000
1
= 9 --------610
= 9 106

d 0.000 02

e 0.09

## Indices and Scientific Notation (Chapter 2) Syllabus reference NS5.1.1

Example 6
Write as an ordinary decimal numeral.

a 5 102

b 7 106

1
a 5 102 = 5 --------210
1
= 5 ---------100

1
b 7 106 = 7 --------610
1
= 7 -------------------------1 000 000

= 5 0.01

= 7 0.000 001

= 0.05

= 0.000 007

## Write as an ordinary decimal numeral.

a 6 102
b 3 106
c 2 103

d 5 104

Example 7
Explain the difference between:
a 2 104 and 24
a 2 104 = 2 10 000
= 20 000
1
b 2 104 = 2 --------410

b 2 104 and 24
and

and

24 = 2 2 2 2
= 16
1
24 = -----4
2

1
= 2 -----------------10 000

1
= -----16

= 2 0.000 01

= 0.0625

= 0.000 02

a 3 104 and 34
b 5 102 and 52
5
5
d 2 10 and 2
e 4 106 and 46

c 2 103 and 23

e 9 106

43

44

## Indices and Scientific Notation (Chapter 2) Syllabus reference NS5.1.1

Example 8
Write 246 000 in scientific notation.
Here is a quick method for writing numbers in scientific notation.
Step 1: Move the decimal point so that it is positioned between the first and second
digits of the number. This always produces a number between 1 and 10. In this case we
get 2.46000.
Step 2: Count the number of places back to the original position of the decimal point in
the number.
2.46000.

## Number of places = 5 to the right

= +5 This becomes the power of 10.

10

## Write in scientific notation

a 372 000
b 54 000
f 87 500
g 7 698 000

c 2 980 000
h 361 000 000

d 3400
i 8000

e 609 000
j 56 000 000

Example 9
Write 0.000 71 in scientific notation.
Step 1: Move the decimal point so that it is positioned between the first and second
digits of the number.
In this case we get 7.1.
Step 2: Count the number of places back to the original position of the decimal point in
the number.
0.0007.1

## Number of places = 4 to the left

= 4 This becomes the power of 10.

11

## Write in scientific notation:

a 0.000 57
b 0.000 078
e 0.000 801
f 0.000 000 5
i 0.000 09
j 0.000 000 004 9

c 0.0061
g 0.004 39

d 0.000 002 96
h 0.000 002 8

## Indices and Scientific Notation (Chapter 2) Syllabus reference NS5.1.1

Example 10
Write 6.48 106 as an ordinary number.
Reversing the process of example 8:
Since the power of 10 is +6, then the decimal point is moved back 6 places to the right,
i.e.
6.480000.
Hence 6.48 106 = 6 480 000

12

## Write as an ordinary number:

a 7.32 106
b 5.2 104
e 9.27 107
f 6.914 104
8
i 2 10
j 3.08 105

c 5.67 105
g 3.275 106

d 3.8 103
h 7 105

Example 11
Write 3.51 106 as an ordinary number.
Reversing the process of example 9:
Since the power of 10 is 6, then the decimal point is moved back 6 places to the left,
i.e.
0.000 003.51
Hence 3.51 106 = 0.000 003 51

13

a 3.98 106
b 5.3 104
e 5.9 106
f 3.07 107
5
i 2.71 10
j 3.6 1010

c 7.09 105
g 6 104

d 8.8 103
h 3 106

14

## Express the following numbers in scientific notation.

a The number of hairs on a persons head is approximately 129 000.
b The distance from the Earth to the Sun is 152 000 000 kilometres.
c The diameter of a hydrogen atom is 0.000 000 002 54 centimetres.
d The size of the influenza virus is 0.000 000 26 metres.
e The average speed of the Earth around the Sun is 107 000 kilometres/hour.

15

## Express the following as ordinary numbers.

a The distance of Mars from the Earth is 7.83 107 kilometres.
b The population of China is approximately 1.4 109.
c A human brain cell is 2.8 105 metres long.
d A microsecond is equivalent to 2.5 109 hours.
e The number of cells in the human body is approximately 1013.

45

46

## I. CALCULATIONS USING SCIENTIFIC NOTATION

Example 1
Use the index laws to calculate (leave the answer in scientific notation):
a

(3 1015) (6 107)

## (3 1015) (6 107) = (3 6) (1015 107)

= 18 1015 + 7
= (1.8 101) 108
= 1.8 (101 108)
= 1.8 109

b (8 104) ( 2 106)

b (8 104) (2 106)

c (5 107)3

= (8 2) (104 106)
= 4 104 6
= 4 1010

c (5 107)3 = 53 (107)3
= 125 1021
= (1.25 102) 1021
= 1.25 (102 1021)
= 1.25 1023

Exercise 2I
1

Use the index laws to calculate (leave the answer in scientific notation):
b (8 1012) (3 109)
a (3 108) (4 106)
15
7
c (7 10 ) (6 10 )
d (2 108) (3 107)
e (5 109) (4 1020)
f (9 1016) (3 106)
4
6
g (6 10 ) (2 10 )
h (8 104) ( 4 1016)
i (2 105)3
j (7 109)2
6 3
k (3 10 )
l (8 1010)2

Remember, one
digit before the
decimal point.

## Indices and Scientific Notation (Chapter 2) Syllabus reference NS5.1.1

Example 2
a (5.3 108) (7.2 1011)

c (3 107)4

a Press 5.3

EXP

8 7.2

EXP

11

24

( 5.76 10 )

## The display on the calculator will show

or

3.816 1020

3.81620

This is the way the calculator displays 3.816 1020. (It does not mean 3.81620.)
So (5.3 108) (7.2 1011) = 3.816 1020
b Press 4.8

EXP

15 1.6

EXP

or

3 1022

322

c Press 3

EXP

xy 4 =

d Press

5.76

EXP

8.1 1029

2

So

24

18

( 6.25 10 )

19

( 2.7 10 )

( 1.369 10

n
p

( 1.25 10

## a Calculate (3.6 108) (4.9 107).

b Is the answer positive or negative?
c Is (3.6 108) bigger or smaller than (4.9 107)?

## a Calculate (7.2 105) (2.6 108).

b Is the answer positive or negative?
c Is (7.2 105) bigger or smaller than (2.6 108)?

## a Calculate (4.9 104) (5.3 105).

b Is the answer positive or negative?
c Is (4.9 104) bigger or smaller than (5.3 105)?

23

13

2.4 1012

## Use your calculator to evaluate (leave the answer in scientific notation):

a (4.8 109) (3.2 1010)
b (2.7 106) (9 1012)
c (3.6 1013) (2.5 105)
d (1.8 108) (1.5 1010)
14
7
e (1.2 10 ) (1.5 10 )
f (3.6 1012) (4.8 106)
g (8 1012) (3.2 109)
h (5.6 1018) (4 106)
8 4
j (5.2 106)2
i (2 10 )
k (6 1012)3
l (5 108)5
m

24

47

48

## Indices and Scientific Notation (Chapter 2) Syllabus reference NS5.1.1

Example 3
Write the following numbers in order, from smallest to largest.
a 2.5 1016, 7.8 1014

1

## compare the powers of 10

if the powers of 10 are the same then compare the first numbers.

a Comparing the powers of 10, 14 < 16, hence 7.8 1014 < 2.5 1016
(Check: 7.8 1014 2.5 1016 = 2.422 1016 < 0
If the difference between two numbers is negative, the first number is smaller than
the second.)
b Comparing the powers of 10, 10 < 8, hence 4.3 1010 < 1.9 108
(Check: 4.3 1010 1.9 108 = 1.857 108 < 0)
c The powers of 10 are the same but 4.8 < 7.8, hence 4.8 106 < 7.8 106
(Check: 4.8 106 7.8 106 = 3 106 < 0)
6

## Write the following numbers in order, from smallest to largest.

a 7.2 1015, 4.6 1014
b 4.5 1016, 3.4 1018
c 9.6 1012, 6.8 109
d 3.8 106, 7.8 108
4
5
e 2.5 10 , 7.1 10
f 2.9 1016, 3 1016
g 8.5 1010, 6.4 1010
h 5.9 1016, 8.1 1014, 2.8 1015
6
5
8
i 5 10 , 3.9 10 , 8.9 10
j 6.3 106, 7.8 105, 8.3 103

## Light travels at 3 105 km/s. How far will it travel in 1 h?

The star Alpha Centauri is 4.1 1013 km from the Earth. The distance to Altair is
1.5 1014 km. Which star is closer to the Earth?

The diameter of the hydrogen atom is 2.54 109 cm. If one million hydrogen atoms could
be placed next to each other in a straight line, how long would the line be?

10

The average speed of the Earth around the Sun is approximately 105 km/h. How many days
would it take the Earth to travel 9.6 108 km?

11

Light travels at 3 105 km/s and sound travels at 330 m/s. A timekeeper stands at the
end of a straight 100 m running track. After the starter fires the starting gun, how long
does it take:
a the sight of the smoke to reach her
b the sound of the gun to reach her?

12

The area of Australia is approximately 7.7 1012 square metres. If the population of Australia
in 2010 is expected to be 22 million people, how much land will there be for each head of
population?

## Indices and Scientific Notation (Chapter 2) Syllabus reference NS5.1.1

non-calculator activities

1

## Write in index form:

a 9999

b 17 17 17 17 17 17 17

a 311
b 59

b 73
a 86

Evaluate:
a 25

## Simplify, leaving the answer in index form:

a 65 67
b (34)10
c 816 810
Write true or false.
a 34 35 = 99

b 58 54 = 14

b 3

1
--2

c 10

1
--3

b 36

1
--2

c 8

1
--3

a 360 000
b 0.000 006 5

10

a 7 105
b 1.2 104

11

12

## Find the value of (leave answer in scientific notation):

a (5 108) (3 106)
b (9 1015) (3 108)
c (3 106)2

13

e 2100 (25)4

Evaluate:
a 23

d 320 3

a 74

b 34

12

( 4 10 )

## Write the following numbers in order, from smallest to largest:

a 6.7 1012, 3.5 1013
b 4.2 1010, 5.3 1016

d 190

49

50

## Indices and Scientific Notation (Chapter 2) Syllabus reference NS5.1.1

Language in Mathematics

Write in words:
a 35

b 82

c 23

## Write numerical expressions for:

a seven squared
b four cubed
c six to the power five
d two to the fourth
e the square root of six f the cube root of five

Replace the vowels to make words that mean the same as power.
a __nd__x
b __xp__n__nt

## When writing numbers in index notation, what name is given to:

a the number that is being repeated
b the number of times it is repeated?

Explain why 23 24 47

7

## Explain how to write a number in scientific notation.

Explain why the following numbers are not written in scientific notation.
a 34 107
b 6.9 1 000 000

## Explain the difference between 3 104 and 34.

10

Write down the mathematical meaning and one other meaning of these words.
a product
b order
c base
d index

Glossary
base

compare

convenient

evaluate

exponent

expression

fractional

index

indices

integral

negative

notation

order

pattern

power

reverse

scientific

simplify

standard

51

1

## When written in index form 7 7 7 7 7 7 is:

A 76
B 67
C 777 777
When written in expanded form 35 is:
A 555
B 55555
When evaluated using a calculator 74 is:
A 74
B 47
34 38 =
A 912

B 312

## When simplified (94)6 =

A 910

B 924

520 510 =
A 110

B 12

3.70 =
A 3.7

B 1

26 is the same as
1
1
A -----2
B -----6
6
2
When written in index form 6 =
A

10

11

12

13

14

1
--2

B 62
1
--3

## The meaning of 6 is:

A 2

C 333

D 777 7776

D 33333

C 20 448

D 2401

C 332

D 932

C 946

D 946

C 510

D 52

C 0

D 37

C 12

D 26

1
C 6 --2

1
D 6 --2

1
B -----3
C 36
6
Which of the following numbers is written in scientific notation?
A 53 1018
B 9.2 100 000
C 300 000

D 3.7 1045

B 2.3 107
C 2.3 108
A 2.3 106

D 2.3 109

## When written as an ordinary number 5.1 106 is:

A 0.000 51
B 0.000 051
C 0.000 005 1
(8.6 1018) (2.5 1014) =
B 2.15 1033
A 2.15 1032

C 2.15 10252

1
--2

D 0.000 000 51

D 2.15 10253

52

15

16

## (3.6 107) (4.5 108) =

A 8 1014
B 8 1015

C 8 1014

D 8 1015

When the numbers 2.9 107, 5.2 109, 3.8 109 are written in order from smallest to
A 2.9 107, 3.8 109, 5.2 109
B 5.2 109, 3.8 109, 2.9 107
7
9
9
C 2.9 10 , 5.2 10 , 3.8 10
D 3.8 109, 5.2 109, 2.9 107

If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
Section

13

9, 10

1113

1416

REVIEW SET 2A
1

a 2222

b 5555555

a 79
b 310

a 35

b 76

a 38
b 56

a 34 25 = 69

b 86 42 = 24

## Simplify, leaving the answer in index form.

a 512 520
b (45)3
c 28 26
1
Write down the meaning of:
--2
a 46
b 3

Evaluate:
a 53

b 4

1
--2

d 75 7

c 15

c 27

e 56 57 59

1
--3

1
--3

d 190

a 23 000 000
b 0.000 05

10

a 9.8 104
b 3.7 105

11

## Explain why 7 105 75.

12

Use your calculator to find the value of (leave answer in scientific notation):
a (3.4 104) (3.5 109)
b (5.6 1010) (1.4 105)
c (3 109)5

13

12

( 2.25 10 )

## Write the following numbers in order, from smallest to largest.

a 3.8 1015, 4.6 1013
b 7.7 1016, 3.1 1012

53

54

REVIEW SET 2B
1

a 77777

b 9999999

a 38
b 52

a 64

b 73

a 29
b 36

a 310 33
b (72)6
c 410 45

## Write true or false.

a 45 26 = 811

e (25)4 210

b 57 53 = 14

1
Write down the meaning of:
--2
5
a 7
b 6

Evaluate:
a 62

d 612 6

b 9

1
--2

c 9

c 8

1
--3

1
--3

d 70

a 46 000
b 0.000 3

10

a 4 107
b 1.8 106

11

## Explain why 4 106 46.

12

Use your calculator to find the value of (leave answer in scientific notation):
b (8 1010) (1.6 105)
a (3.9 1013) (4 105)
c (3 106)5

13

( 1.96 10

10

## Write the following numbers in order, from smallest to largest:

a 4.1 109, 5 109
b 4.5 1011, 3.1 1015

REVIEW SET 2C
1

a 22222222

b 10 10 10

a 84
b 36

a 62

b 57

a 54
b 37

a 912 97
b (23)5
c 512 54

## Write true or false.

a 47 34 = 1211

e (28)2 (210)3

b 158 32 = 56

1
Write down the meaning of:
--2
8
a 4
b 3

Evaluate:
a 43

d 69 6

b 4

1
--2

c 2

1
--3

c 64

1
--3

d 40

a 17 000 000 000
b 0.000 000 35

10

a 2.86 105
b 3.06 104

11

## Explain why 3 104 34.

12

Use your calculator to find the value of (leave answer in scientific notation):
a (3 108) (5.3 106)
b (4.5 109) (5 1016)
c (7.3 1015)2

13

( 1.25 10 )

## Write the following numbers in order, from smallest to largest.

a 2.94 1015, 2.94 1016
b 6.5 1014, 1.4 1010

55

56

REVIEW SET 2D
1

a 66666

b 55555555

a 68
b 310

a 45

b 27

a 64
b 212

a 520 520
b (37)10
c 516 512

## Write true or false.

a 24 25 = 49

e 330 (35)3

b 76 74 = 12

1
Write down the meaning of:
--2
a 65
b 34

Evaluate:
a 25

d 423 4

b 100

c 51
1
--2

1
--3

c 125

1
--3

d 130

a 205 000 000
b 0.000 356

10

a 4.21 107
b 9 105

11

## Explain why 2 106 26.

12

Use your calculator to find the value of (leave answer in scientific notation):
b (3.9 1015) (6 108)
a (4.5 106) (5 1030)
c (2 1018)4

13

11

( 3.43 10 )

## Write the following numbers in order, from smallest to largest.

a 7.6 1010, 4.7 1010
b 2.4 1011, 3.5 1016

## LEY_bk9_03_finalpp Page 57 Wednesday, January 12, 2005 10:28 AM

Chapter 3
Data Representation
and Analysis
This chapter deals with grouping data to aid analysis, and constructing
frequency and cumulative frequency tables and graphs.
After completing this chapter you should be able to:
construct a cumulative frequency table for grouped and ungrouped data
construct cumulative frequency histograms and polygons
find the median using a cumulative frequency polygon
group data into class intervals
find the mean using the class centres
find the modal class.

WM: S5.1.1S5.1.5

58

## Data Representation and Analysis (Chapter 3) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.1

Diagnostic Test
Use the table below to answer questions 14.
Score

10

Frequency

12

17

11

closest to:
A 7

B 7.7

C 8

class is:
A 64

B 44.5

C 26

exact scores
7

A 4049 class

D 7.5

B 50

C 46
2

is closest to:
A 17

B 7.7

D 7.5

C 8

D 7.5

8 is:

## Which frequency distribution table

represents the following scores?
12, 30, 38, 49, 13, 28, 33, 17, 21, 31, 23,
32, 25, 26, 39, 36, 42, 46, 36, 50, 48, 32,
45, 57, 43, 51, 49, 53, 42, 33
A
Class

Frequency

1019

2029

3039

4049

5059

Class

Frequency

1019

120

2029

100

3039

10

4049

5059

A 40
5

C 8

closest to:
A 7

B 7.7

exact scores

B 17

C 8

D 23

## The ogive is the:

A frequency polygon
B frequency histogram
C cumulative frequency polygon
D cumulative frequency histogram

Cumulative frequency

## Here is a cumulative frequency histogram and

polygon for questions 6 and 7.
Cumulative frequency
histogram

80
60
40
20
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

Class boundaries

Class

Frequency

Class

1019

1016

2029

1723

15

3039

2430

4049

3137

12

5059

3844

Class

Frequency

1019

2029

3039

10

4049

5059

Class centre

A 27

C 70

C 5

D 1044

B 10

C 8.6

## D impossible to determine without the

exact scores
The modal class is:
A 2430
C 2430

B 38

B 42

11

12
A 32

fx

## The class centre for the 3844 class is:

10

A 84

Frequency

D 35

B 1723
D 3137

If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question

14

5, 6

912

Section

A. UNGROUPED DATA
This section reviews some important aspects of DS4.2 that are needed for this section.

Example 1
For the scores in this table, find the:
a mode

b mean

c median.

Score

10

11

12

13

14

15

Frequency

12

18

14

a The mode is 11 as this is the score with the highest frequency of 18.
b Add an fx column to find the mean.

59

60

## Data Representation and Analysis (Chapter 3) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.1

Score (x)

Frequency (f)

fx

24

45

10

12

120

11

18

198

12

14

168

13

65

14

28

15

15

f = 60

fx = 663

means
sum of.

fx
Mean = -------f
663
= ---------60
= 11.05
c To find the median add a cumulative frequency cf column.
Score (x)

Frequency (f)

## Cumulative frequency (cf)

3+5=8

10

12

8 + 12 = 20

11

18

20 + 18 = 38

12

14

38 + 14 = 52

13

52 + 5 = 57

14

57 + 2 = 59

15

59 + 1 = 60

There are 60 scores so the middle scores are the 30th and 31st scores. These are
both 11. The median is 11.

## Data Representation and Analysis (Chapter 3) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.1

Exercise 3A
1

Add an fx column and find the mean for each frequency distribution table.
a

17

11

40

18

41

15

19

11

42

17

20

43

21

44

10

22

45

46

47

48

## Write the mode for each frequency distribution table in question 1.

Add a cumulative frequency column to each table in question 1 and find the median.

Use the statistics function of your calculator to find the mean from the tables in question 1.

The table shows the number of glasses of water drunk by 9 Orange in a day.
Number of glasses

Frequency

10

## a Copy the table and add a cumulative frequency column.

b Calculate the median number of glasses of water consumed.
c Use the cumulative frequency column to find the number of students who drank:
i less than 3 glasses of water
ii less than 4 glasses of water
d Use your answer from part c i to find the number of students who drank 3 or more glasses
of water.
e Draw a frequency histogram and polygon for the data.
The
histogram is
like a column
graph.

61

62

## Data Representation and Analysis (Chapter 3) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.1

Here is a frequency histogram showing the number of days absent for the 28 students in
9 Blue over a term.
Absences
9
8
7

Frequency

6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1

Days absent

a
b
c
d

Here is a frequency histogram showing the number of days that the families of students in
Year 9 hired a video in a week.
Videos hired
10

Frequency

## Draw a frequency distribution table showing this information.

Add a cumulative frequency column to the table.
How many students had 2 or less days absent?
After 3 days absent a note is sent home. How many notes were sent home? No student
receives more than one note per term.

0
1

Number of days

a
b
c
d

## Draw a frequency distribution table showing this information.

Add a cumulative frequency column to the table.
How many students hired less than 2 videos?
How many families hired more than 5 videos?

## Data Representation and Analysis (Chapter 3) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.1

Investigation 1
WM: Applying Strategies, Communicating

## Graphics calculator exercise

This is written for a Casio CFX 9850GB PLUS.
1

Here is a list of the number of hours of sleep on Friday night for each student in 9M3.
8, 8, 7, 6, 8, 10, 10, 9, 8, 6, 4, 5, 5, 8, 8, 8, 9, 7, 9, 5, 3, 4, 8, 6, 9, 8, 8, 5, 5, 3
a Select STAT from the main menu.
b Enter the data into list 1.
List 1 List 2 List 3 List 4
1
8
To clear old data press
2
3
4
DEL-A the YES .
5

c Select GRPH using F1 . Use F6 to get back to this menu after deleting.
d Use SET F6 to give the menu to select the graph type to Hist. Press EXIT to return.
e Select GPH 1 F1 to next screen, ignore Set Interval, press DRAW F6 . The histogram
is drawn.
Set Interval
Start: 3
pitch: 0.778
F6 (DRAW)
DRAW

1 VAR

F4

## Select IVAR F1 to obtain statistics data display.

1Variable
x
=
x
=
x2
=
xn
=
-1
xn
=
n
=

6.9
207
1545
1.97230829
2.0060254
30

DRAW

g Note that the mean is 6.9. Scroll down to see the median is 8 and the mode is 8.
h Use EXIT to return.
i
2

## Use F6 to next menu and DEL-A F4 to delete.

Collect information on hours slept and use the graphics calculator to draw the histogram and
calculate the mean, mode and median. Discuss your results.

## Note: It may be necessary to set the data lists.

From the list press CALC F2 then SET F6 .
Have the display read as shown.

1Var
1Var
2Var
2Var
2Var

XList
Freq
XList
YList
Freq

:List1
:1
:List1
:List2
:1

63

## B. CUMULATIVE FREQUENCY DIAGRAMS

In stage 4 you drew frequency histograms and polygons. This section involves drawing cumulative
frequency histograms and cumulative frequency polygons for grouped data.
Ogive is the correct
name for cumulative
frequency polygon.

Example 1
This table shows the height of Year 9 students in a particular school.
The information is shown in groups.
Class

Frequency

Cumulative
frequency

140146

147153

154160

12

161167

12

24

168174

30

175181

32

182188

34

## Draw a cumulative frequency

histogram and ogive.

Class boundaries
are used for
the columns.

## Height of year 9 students

40
35

Cumulative frequency

64

## Use the lowest value as the first number and

the class boundaries to form the columns.
First draw the cumulative frequency histogram.
A histogram has no gaps between the columns.
Next join the bottom left corner to the top right
corner of each column to form the polygon,
called an ogive.

30
25
20
15
10
5
0
140 147 154 161 168 175 182 189

Class boundaries

## Note: There are three ways of displaying the class values.

1 Write the class boundaries starting from the lowest value. The last value will be
the start of the next class after the final class in the table.
2 Use class centres in the middle of the columns.
3 Write the whole class below each column.
We will use the first method as it makes finding the median in section C easier.

Exercise 3B
1

For each of the following grouped frequency tables with cf columns, draw a cumulative
frequency histogram and ogive.
a

Class

Frequency

140146

147153

Cumulative
frequency

Class

Frequency

7078

7987

13

154160

11

8896

19

161167

15

26

97105

23

168174

11

37

106114

27

175181

44

115123

34

182188

52

124132

43

Class

Frequency

Cumulative
frequency

Class

Frequency

Cumulative
frequency

4049

16

16

2024

5059

13

29

2529

13

20

6069

15

44

3034

26

7079

12

56

3539

17

43

8089

21

77

4044

45

9099

82

4549

53

Cumulative
frequency

65

## Data Representation and Analysis (Chapter 3) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.1

Example 2
Use this cumulative frequency polygon to complete the frequency distribution table.
Cumulative frequency
60

Class
Cumulative frequency

66

Frequency

50

Cumulative
frequency

1016

40

1723
30

2430
20

3137

10
0
10

3844
17

24

31

38

45

Score

First read the values from the graph and complete the cumulative frequency column.
Class

Frequency

Cumulative
frequency

1016

1723

21

2430

27

3137

34

3844

52

Class

Frequency

Cumulative
frequency

1016

1723

12

21

2430

27

3137

34

3844

18

52

21 9 = 12
27 21 = 6
34 27 = 7
52 34 = 18

## Data Representation and Analysis (Chapter 3) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.1

Use these cumulative frequency histograms to complete the frequency distribution tables.
a

Cumulative frequency

Class

Frequency

45

Cumulative
frequency

2024

40

2529
Cumulative frequency

35

3034

30

3539

25

4044

20

4549

15
10
5
0
20

25

30

35

40

45

50

Score

Cumulative frequency

Class

50

7078

45

7987

40

8896
Cumulative frequency

35

97105

30

106114

25

115123

20
15
10
5
0
70

79

88

97

Score

106

115

124

Frequency

Cumulative
frequency

67

## Data Representation and Analysis (Chapter 3) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.1

Cumulative frequency

Class

Frequency

Cumulative
frequency

Frequency

Cumulative
frequency

45

4049

40

5059
Cumulative frequency

35

6069
30

7079

25

8089

20

9099

15
10
5
0
40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Score

Cumulative frequency

Class

80

2024

70

Cumulative frequency

68

2529

60

3034
50

3539

40

4044

30

4549

20
10
0
20

25

30

35

Score

40

45

50

## Data Representation and Analysis (Chapter 3) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.1

Investigation 2
WM: Communicating, Reflecting, Reasoning

1

## Select a section of a newspaper or magazine article of about 100 words.

a Complete a frequency distribution table with the number of letters per word.
b Add a cumulative frequency column.
c Find the number of words with:
i less than 3 letters
ii less than 5 letters
iii more than 6 letters.
d Use a graphics calculator or otherwise calculate
the mean, median, and mode number of letters
per word.
e Draw a frequency histogram.
f Draw a cumulative frequency histogram.
(You need to enter these values into the
graphics calculator.)

## a Compare your newspaper or magazine article and discuss

the summary statistics with others in the class.
b Discuss any results of your comparisons.

There are various reading level tests. Investigate some of these and how they are used.

## C. CALCULATING THE MEDIAN

While the median can be calculated for ungrouped data using a cumulative frequency column, only the median
class can be found in this way for grouped data.
The cumulative frequency polygon, the ogive, can be used to find an estimate for the median of grouped data.
To do this, first draw an ogive for the grouped data, draw a line across at the halfway point until it meets the
ogive: the value obtained is the estimate for the median.

69

## Data Representation and Analysis (Chapter 3) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.1

Example 1
Find the median class and
estimate the median for the
data in this table.

Class

Frequency

Cumulative frequency

110

1120

19

27

2130

32

59

3140

16

75

4150

25

100

## To find the scores in the median class,

n + 1 100 + 1
use ------------ = ------------------- = 50.5
2
2
we look for the 50th and 51st scores.
The class containing the median, called the
median class, is the 2130 class because it
contains the 50th and 51st scores.
Note: To estimate the median we use an
ogive or the cumulative frequency polygon.
Draw a line across at 50 to the ogive.
Then draw the line down to the axis.
Estimate the median from the
scale median  28.

## The columns form the

cumulative frequency
histogram, and the line
graph is the ogive.
Remember:
The ogive is drawn
by joining the top right
corner of each column,
not the centre of each
column.

Usually halve
the number
of scores.

100
90

Cumulative frequency

70

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1

11

21

31

41

51

## Data Representation and Analysis (Chapter 3) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.1

Exercise 3C
1

By drawing a line across at 50, find an estimate for the median of each of these distributions
with 100 scores.
a
b
Cumulative frequency
Cumulative frequency

120

Cumulative frequency

Cumulative frequency

120
100
80
60
40
20
0
1 11 21 31 41 51 61 71

100
80
60
40
20
0
3 10 17 24 31 38 45 52

Score

Score

Cumulative frequency

d
Cumulative frequency

120

Cumulative frequency

Cumulative frequency
120

100
80
60
40
20
0
5 14 23 32 41 50 59 68

100
80
60
40
20
0
30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Score

Score

These ogives are for distributions with 60 scores. The line to find the estimate for the median
is drawn across at 30. Find estimates for the median from these ogives.
a

Cumulative frequency

Cumulative frequency

70

70

Cumulative frequency

Cumulative frequency

60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1 11 21 31 41 51 61

Score

60
50
40
30
20
10
0
5 11 17 23 29 35 41

Score

71

72

## Data Representation and Analysis (Chapter 3) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.1

d
Cumulative frequency

Cumulative frequency
70

Cumulative frequency

Cumulative frequency

70
60
50
40
30
20
10

60
50
40
30
20
10
0
4 11 18 25 32 39 46

0
22 30 38 46 54 62 70

Score

Score

These ogives are for different numbers of scores. By halving the highest number, find an
estimate for the median.
a

b
Cumulative frequency

90

45

80

40

Cumulative frequency

Cumulative frequency

Cumulative frequency

70
60
50
40
30
20
10

35
30
25
20
15
10
5

0
3 12 21 30 39 48 57

0
1 11 21 31 41 51 61

Score

Score

Cumulative frequency

Cumulative frequency
Cumulative frequency

124

Cumulative frequency

120
100
80
60
40
20
0
30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135

Score

60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0

9 18 27 36 45

Score

## Data Representation and Analysis (Chapter 3) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.1

The results for 60 students in a geography test are given in the table.
Score

09

1019

2029

3039

4049

Frequency

15

31

## a Add a cumulative frequency column.

c Draw a cumulative frequency polygon.
5

## The management of a small production

business carried out a survey on the
production level of its employees.
The results appear in the table opposite.
a Add a cumulative frequency column.
b Find the median class.
c Draw a cumulative frequency polygon
(ogive).
d Estimate the median from the ogive.
A survey was conducted on the age
structure of a small country town,
with the following results.
a Add a cumulative frequency column.
b Find the median class.
c Draw a cumulative frequency polygon.
d Estimate the median from the ogive.

## b Find the median class.

d Estimate the median from the polygon.
Number of items

Frequency

1120

2130

17

3140

27

4150

5160

## Age last birthday

Frequency

09

165

1019

112

2029

103

3039

129

4049

94

5059

85

6069

73

7079

22

8089

D. GROUPED DATA
In stage 4 stem-and-leaf plots were often used when there was a large spread of data. This section uses groups
to collect data into frequency distribution tables.

Example 1
a Organise this data into a grouped frequency distribution table. Use groups 2029,
3039 and 4049.
33
38
23
36
30
41
47
49
35
26
24
34
23
35
41
37
42
40
48
27
35
33
31
42
b Construct a frequency histogram for this data.

73

74

## Data Representation and Analysis (Chapter 3) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.1

Group

Tally

Frequency

2029

3039

12

4049

7
Frequency histogram

15

Frequency

10

0
20

30

40

50

Class boundaries

Exercise 3D
1

Group

Tally

Frequency

1019
2029
3039
4049
10
33
22

18
28
36

23
41
37

35
47
25

37
33
31

19
28
43

42
19
33

48
41
48

16
33
34

20
39
15

## b Draw a frequency histogram.

2

a Organise this data into a frequency distribution table using the classes 410, 1117,
1824, 2531, 3238.
17
5
15
6

6
12
21
19

19
15
15
12

23
23
28
18

34
25
17
15

36
24
15
22

25
33
38
23

11
31
23
31

18
7
37
33

38
19
36
37

## Data Representation and Analysis (Chapter 3) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.1

a Organise the data from question 2 into a frequency distribution table using the classes
412, 1321, 2230, 3139.
b Draw a frequency histogram.
c Compare your histogram with that from question 2. Explain any differences.

## E. FINDING THE MEAN AND MODE

This section revises the method for finding the mean in a frequency distribution table and then extends that to
grouped data.
When using grouped data, the class with the highest frequency is called the modal class.
The mean is calculated by using the class centres. (There will be more on class centres later in the section.)

Example 1
For the following
distribution, find:
a the mode
b the mean

The mode is
the score with
the highest
frequency.

Score

Frequency

19
20
21
22
23
24

5
4
8
11
2
6

a To find the mode look for the highest number in the frequency column, and the
mode is the score with that frequency. The highest frequency is 11, the
mode = 22.
b To find the mean you need to add an fx column to the frequency distribution table.
The fx column stands for frequency (f ) times score (x). This column groups all of
the scores of each value and finds the total value for each.
Score (x)

Frequency (f )

fx

19
20
21
22
23
24

5
4
8
11
2
6

19 5 = 95
20 4 = 80
21 8 = 168
22 11 = 242
23 2 = 46
24 6 = 144

Totals

f = 36

fx = 775

means
sum of. It is
the Greek letter
sigma.

75

76

## Data Representation and Analysis (Chapter 3) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.1

fx
or ------------
f

sum of fx column
x = ------------------------------------------------------sum of the f column
775
x = ---------36
x = 21.527778
x = 21.5
(to 1 d.p.)

## The mean is the

total of the fx column
divided by the total
of the frequency
column i.e.
fx
_
x = ------------f

Example 2
Find the mean and mode for
this frequency distribution table.

35

36

37

38

39

We include an fx column.
x

fx

35
36
37
38
39

8
7
4
9
2

280
252
148
342
78

f = 30

fx = 1100

1100
mean = ------------30
 36.7 (to 1 d.p.)
mode = 38 (since 38 has the highest
frequency of 9)

Exercise 3E
1

Copy the following tables, complete the fx column and find the mean.
a
b
c
x
f
x
f
x
8
9
10
11
12

1
6
5
10
3

121
122
123
124
125

4
11
11
3
1

85
86
87
88
89

f
1
10
8
4
16

## Find the mode for each frequency distribution table in question 1.

Example 3
Find the mean of this data
using a scientific calculator.

Score

19

20

21

22

23

24

Frequency

11

## Instructions are for a Sharp calculator.

To find the mean, using the statistics function of the calculator:
1 Set the calculator to statistics mode SD by pressing 2ndF

Mode

1 .

## 2 Make sure the statistics memory is clear by pressing 2ndF DEL.

3 Enter the scores by pressing the score then STO then the frequency and the
M+ key. (Do not press = .)
4 When all the scores have been entered, press the appropriate buttons for the
x

mean RCL

4.

5 Press the appropriate keys to check that the correct number of scores have been
n

entered RCL

0 .

Mode

2ndF

or

Mode

SD

2ndF DEL

19 STO

M+

20 STO

M+

21 STO

M+

22 STO 11

M+

23 STO

M+

24 STO

M+

## Always enter the

score first, followed
by the frequency.

## to enter the scores.

x
_
Using the keys for the mean RCL , 4 , x = 21.52778.
n

## Using the keys for the number of scores RCL

check that n = 36.

77

78

## Data Representation and Analysis (Chapter 3) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.1

By following the correct calculator steps for your calculator, find the mean for these
frequency distribution tables.
a
b
c
d
x
f
x
f
x
f
x
f
63
64
65
66
67
68

4
10
2
5
7
3

10
20
30
40
50

8
6
12
8
11

35
40
45
50
55

11
7
5
8
12

840
850
860
870
880
890
900

11
3
7
2
5
4
7

## Find the mode for each frequency distribution table in question 3.

Example 4
Find the class centre for the classes:
a 19

b 2029

c 2125

## To find the class centre, average the class boundaries.

a

1+9
------------2
10
= -----2
=5
Class centre is 5

20 + 29
------------------2

49
= -----2
= 24 1--2Class centre is 24 1--2-

## Find the class centre for each of these classes.

a 1119
b 2030
c 3440
f 3540
g 5059
h 1422

21 + 25
------------------2
46
= -----2
= 23
Class centre is 23

d 2130
i 1624

e 2630
j 1724

Example 5
The following information appears in a
grouped frequency distribution table.
Find:
a the mean
b the modal class

Class

Frequency

110
1120
2130
3140
4150

8
19
32
16
25

## Data Representation and Analysis (Chapter 3) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.1

To find the mean use the class centres and the frequency. Enter these into the
calculator. The assumption is that the scores within a class are evenly distributed
throughout the class. You may use this method or the statistics function on your
calculator.
Class

## Class centre (x)

Frequency (f )

fx

= 5.5

44.0

110

1 + 10
---------------2

1120

11 + 20
------------------2

= 15.5

19

294.5

2130

21 + 30
------------------2

= 25.5

32

816.0

3140

31 + 40
------------------2

= 35.5

16

568.0

4150

41 + 50
------------------2

= 45.5

25

1137.5

f = 100

fx = 2860.0

Totals

fx 2860
a Mean = ------------ = ------------- = 28.6
100
f
b There is no single score as the mode,
but the class with the highest frequency
is the modal class. The modal class is 2130.

## The class with the

highest frequency
is the modal class.

## Class centres are

equally spaced, just
as the classes are.

## a Complete the frequency

distribution table.
b Find the modal class.
c Find the mean age of the population.

Class

Class centre

Frequency

610

1115

13

1620

18

16

2125

12

2630

3135

79

80

## Data Representation and Analysis (Chapter 3) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.1

The management of a small business carried out the following survey on the production level
of its employees and came up with the following.
No. of items produced
Frequency

1120

2130

3140

4150

5160

18

26

## a Draw a frequency distribution table including the class centre column.

b Find the mean number of items produced.
8

A survey was carried out on the age structure of the population of a country town and the
following results were obtained. Find the mean age of the population.
Age last birthday

Frequency

09

170

1019

107

2029

111

3039

121

4049

104

5059

75

6069

63

7079

32

8089

The ages of a class completing the ICDL (International Computer Drivers Licence) are listed.
49, 18, 36, 21, 33, 42, 26, 25, 60, 19, 22, 20, 36, 43, 39, 21, 22, 57,
20, 34, 28, 18, 39, 55, 41, 21, 31, 31, 40, 63, 65, 30, 30, 34, 33
a Using class intervals 1625, 2635, 3645, 4655, 5665, construct a frequency
distribution table and draw a histogram to represent the data.
b Using class intervals 1620, 2125, 2630, 3135, 3640, 4145, 4650, 5155, 5660,
6165, construct a frequency distribution table and draw a histogram.
c Compare the two histograms and comment on their shapes.
d The next ICDL class has these ages.
17, 35, 43, 54, 18, 33, 38, 22, 26, 36, 28, 37, 39, 30, 31, 44, 41, 47,
51, 41, 55, 53, 37, 40, 62, 48, 56, 54, 58, 63, 47, 65, 38, 47, 53
i Sort these ages into frequency tables using the same classes as parts a and b.
ii Draw histograms.
iii Compare the two classes.
e Calculate the mean in each of the four groupings. Comment on your answers.
f Calculate the modal class for each. Comment on the differences.
g Add a cumulative frequency column and find estimates for each of the four medians.

## Data Representation and Analysis (Chapter 3) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.1

Example 6
a The mean of 5 scores is 12.2. What is the sum of the scores?
b Find x if 10, 7, 3, 6 and x have a mean of 8.
a Let S = sum of scores
S
--- = 12.2
5

## b There are 5 scores.

10 + 7 + 3 + 6 + x
--------------------------------------------- = 8
5
26 + x
--------------- = 8
5
26 + x = 40

S = 12.2 5
S = 61

x = 14

10

## a The mean of 8 scores is 7.5. What is the sum of the scores?

b The mean of 9 scores is 11.6. What is the sum of the scores?
c While on an outback safari Bill drove, on average, 262 km per day for a period of 12 days.
How far did Bill drive in total while on safari?
d The mean monthly sales for a clothing store is \$15 467. Calculate the total sales of the
store for the year.

11

a
b
c
d
e

## Find x if 8, 11, 5, 7 and x have a mean of 8.

Find x if 3, 15, 7, 9, 11 and x have a mean of 10.
Find x if 5, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 17 and x have a mean of 12.
Find a, given that 3, 0, a, a, 4, a, 6, a and 3 have a mean of 4.
Over the complete assessment period, Jenny averaged 35 out of a possible 40 marks for
her eight maths tests. However, when checking her files, she could only find 7 of the tests.
For these she scored 29, 36, 32, 38, 35, 34 and 39. Can you determine how many marks
out of 40 she scored for the eighth test?

Example 7
A cricketer played 12 innings at an average of 38.5, and then scored 12 and 71 in the
next two innings. Find the cricketers new average.
There are 12 scores. Let S = sum of scores
S
------ = 38.5
12
S = 462
462 + 12 + 71
new average = -----------------------------------14
545
= ---------14
 38.9
12

## (There are now 12 + 2 = 14 scores in total.)

a Lili played 14 games of netball and had an average of 16.5 goals per game. In the final
two games of the season Lili threw 21 goals and 24 goals. Find Lilis new average.

81

82

## Data Representation and Analysis (Chapter 3) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.1

b A cricketer played 11 matches and had an average of 23 runs per game. In the last two
games she scored 41 and 35 runs. Find her new average.
c A tennis player averaged 8 aces per match in her first six matches. In the next three
matches she served 6, 11, 13 aces. Find her new average.
Extension:
13

A sample of 12 measurements has mean 16.5 and a sample of 15 measurements has mean
18.6. Find the mean of all 27 measurements.

14

15 of 31 measurements are below 10 cm and 12 measurements are above 11 cm. Find the
median if the other 4 measurements are 10.1 cm, 10.4 cm, 10.7 cm and 10.9 cm.

15

The mean and median of a set of nine measurements are both 12. If seven of the measurements are 7, 9, 11, 13, 14, 17 and 19, find the other two measurements.

Investigation 3
WM: Reasoning, Communicating, Reflecting

Grouping data
1

A drive-through fast food outlet boasts that the time taken to fill an order is 4 minutes. To
support this claim, a survey was done on the times taken to fill the orders of 50 customers
on their busiest day. The following results were recorded in minutes.
3.1 2.5 2.9 4.6 5.2 1.9 2.3 6.4 4.1 3.8 3.8 6.2 5.4
1.5 3.4 4.2 2.2 4.4 5.3 1.4 6.7 2.2 1.9 2.4 1.8 3.7
5.5 5.7 6.4 3.4 4.9 3.3 2.9 4.5 5.2 7.3 5.5 3.1 2.2
8.6 4.4 4.9 2.8 5.1 3.9 4.1 6.5 2.6 2.2 4.6
a Put this information into a frequency distribution table using the classes 1.01.9,
2.02.9, 3.03.9, and so on.
b Calculate the mean time taken.
c Draw an ogive and estimate the median time taken.
d Find the modal class.
e Do these results support the drive-through outlets claim?
f Which of these results is most useful when commenting on this claim?

Repeat question 1 using the classes 1.42.3, 2.43.3, 3.44.3, 4.45.3, and so on.

## Using the data in question 1:

a Calculate the true mean using all the scores.
b How does it compare to the means in questions 1 and 2?
c Calculate the true median.
d How does it compare to the medians in questions 1 and 2?

By analysing the answers to questions 1, 2 and 3, how do the class groupings affect:
a the mean
b the median
c the modal class?

## Data Representation and Analysis (Chapter 3) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.1

non-calculator activities

17
Write ------ as a mixed numeral.
5

If 5 2 =

## How many weeks are there in two years?

1
Write 7 --- as a mixed fraction.
8

341.786 10 =

10

9
1
A -----B --10
9

C 0.9

D both A and C

11

4

12

## What fraction is 3 kg of 9 kg? Give your answer in simplest fraction form.

13

The temperature at 6 p.m. in Jindabyne was 3C but it fell 2C each hour for the next 6 hours.
What was the temperature at midnight?

14

59.8
Estimate the value of ----------------------- giving your answer as a whole number.
3.2 + 2.8

15

## Find the missing number in the box.

32.7057 = 32 + 0.7 + 0.005 +

16

If John earns \$150 for 10 hours work, how much will he receive for 4 hours work?

17

Erin knows that 342 76 = 25 992. Use this data to find the answer to Erins question
25 992 342 =

18

What is

19

## What is the next number in the sequence:

85, 77, 69, 61, ____

20

81 + 4 2 ?

83

84

## Data Representation and Analysis (Chapter 3) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.1

21

3 + 12 3 =

22

Katie solved the equation 7x 6 + 2x 1 and got the answer x = 1. Is Katie correct?

23

The product of two numbers is 48. If one number is 6, what is the other number?

24

What is the area of a triangle with a base of 6 cm and a perpendicular height of 8 cm?

25

Peter reverses the digits in the number 9564 and subtracts them from the original number.

Language in Mathematics

## Hanna Neumann (19141971)

Hanna Neumann was born Hanna von Coemmerer
in Berlin. She was the daughter of a historian with
teaching qualifications, who was killed in World
War 1. As a result her family was very poor, and
from the age of 13 she helped support her family
by tutoring younger children. Hanna became an
extremely capable student and commenced studies
at the University of Berlin in 1932. Her main area of
study was mathematics but she also had time for
physics, philosophy, history and religion.
Here she met her husband Bernhard, who in 1933 left for England after deciding that living in
Germany under the Nazis had become too dangerous. She secretly travelled to England in 1934
to become engaged and then returned to continue her study in Berlin. Eventually, in 1938 after
completing her studies and working as a research student at Gottingen University, she travelled
to England and married Bernhard.
Hanna worked extremely hard and was recognised as being an excellent teacher. In 1948 she
started opening her house in the evenings for others to come and discuss mathematics. She
continued to be involved in teaching and studying mathematics, and in 1964 joined Bernhard at
the Australian National University in Canberra.
In her position at the university, Hanna was recognised as having an enormous capacity for work
and a great concern for those whom she taught. She held a number of administrative positions
within professional mathematical bodies and travelled delivering lectures. Unfortunately, at the age
of 57, on a lecture tour in Canberra she became ill suddenly and died. She is remembered not only
for her mathematical ability, but also for the willingness with which she was prepared to devote her
time to her teaching and her students.

a
b
c
d

## Complete these glossary terms by inserting the vowels.

a c__m__l__t__v__
b m__d__ __n
c __g__v__
e fr__q__ __ncy
f __st__m__t__

## Where and when was Hanna Neumann born?

What were her main areas of interest?
For what is she remembered?
Construct a timeline of her life.

d h__st__gr__m

Rearrange these words into sentences. The word with the capital letter starts the sentence.
a The the is mean average
b The the score median is middle
c The the calculate centre used mean class is to
d class class frequency modal highest with is the The the
e frequency name ogive cumulative The another for is polygon
f estimate data ogive grouped mean used is to the for The

## Use every third letter to reveal a message.

AJTSEHTBEMIMUTEEDAASNQAMWEORLDPDEVUAISNACDRNM
KYEWDDTVINBAZXNATAHIRLPEORCWEETFNGHTBFRSWAAXL
QRTTBODQTCIHOAESHSRITPLUNGDDSYFGODGFSDSAETGHA
JKTRTIYUSIHTFDISACQSS

Glossary
analyse
estimate
histogram
modal class
statistics

class centres
frequency
interpret
mode

class intervals
frequency table
mean
ogive

cumulative frequency
grouped data
median
polygon

Score

10

11

12

13

Frequency

11

18

12

16

10

85

A 10
B 10.5
C 10.6

D 12.3

86

A 10
B 10.5
C 11

D 12

A 10
B 10.5
C 10.6

D 12.3

A 16
B 25

D 65

C 50

## Which is used to calculate an estimate for the median of grouped data:

A frequency polygon
B frequency histogram
C cumulative frequency polygon
D cumulative frequency histogram

## This cumulative frequency histogram and polygon is for questions 68.

Cumulative frequency
90

Cumulative frequency

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0

7 14 21 28 35 42 49

Score

## The cumulative frequency for the 2127 class is:

A 63
B 27.5
C 23
D impossible to determine without the exact scores

## The frequency for the 1521 class is:

A 63
B 27.5
C 23
D impossible to determine without the exact scores

## An estimate for the median is closest to:

A 1623 class
B 16
C 20
D impossible to determine without the exact scores

## Which frequency distribution table represents the following scores?

12, 30, 38, 49, 13, 28, 33, 17, 21, 31, 23, 32, 25, 26, 39, 46, 42, 46, 36, 50, 48, 32, 45, 57,
43, 51, 49, 53, 42, 33

10

Class

Frequency

Class

1019

1019

2029

2029

3039

3039

4049

4049

5059

5059

Class

Frequency

1019

1019

2029

2029

3039

3039

10

4049

4049

5059

5059

Class

Class centre

Frequency

1018

1927

21

2836

13

3745

25

4654

11

D 35

C 13

D 1054

fx

A 64
B 32

12

## The mean for the data is closest to:

A 34
B 10
C 8.6
D impossible to determine without the exact scores

13

A 1927

B 2836

Frequency

C 70

Class

Frequency

## The class centre for the 3238 class is:

A 32
B 38

87

C 3745

D 4654

If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the section
listed in the table.
Question

14

57

1013

Section

88

## Data Representation and Analysis (Chapter 3) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.1

REVIEW SET 3A
1

a Find the mean, mode and median for the scores in this table.
Score

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

Frequency

15

18

11

## b Use a graphics calculator to check your calculations.

2

The table below shows the number of times the students of 9 Red ate take-away for dinner
over 39 days.
Number of days

Frequency

04

12

59

1014

1519

2024

2529

3034

3539

## a Add a cumulative frequency column.

b Draw a cumulative frequency histogram
and polygon.
c What is the modal class?
d Calculate the mean.
e Find the median using the cumulative
frequency column.

REVIEW SET 3B
1

a Find the mean, mode and median for the scores in this table.
Score

10

11

12

13

14

15

Frequency

23

16

12

## Data Representation and Analysis (Chapter 3) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.1

a Use this cumulative frequency histogram to complete the frequency distribution table.
Cumulative frequency

Class

Cumulative frequency

70

Frequency

2025

60

2631

50

3237

40
30
20
10
0
20 26 32 38 44 50 56 62

Score

b
c
d
e
f

## How many scores were more than 37?

Why cant you find the number of scores greater than 29?
Make an estimate for the median.
Calculate the mean.
What is the modal class?

REVIEW SET 3C
1

a Find the mean, mode and median for the scores in this table.
Score

Frequency

12

18

23

11

2

## The table shows the height of Year 9 Red students.

a Add a cumulative frequency column.
Class
Frequency
b Draw a cumulative frequency
140149
5
histogram and ogive.
150159
9
c Use the ogive to make an estimate for
the median.
160169
12
d Calculate the mean.
170179
3
180189

190199

89

## Data Representation and Analysis (Chapter 3) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.1

REVIEW SET 3D
1

a Find the mean, mode and median for the scores in this table.
Score

20

21

22

23

24

25

Frequency

14

## b Use a graphics calculator to check your calculations.

2

The histogram shows the number of videos hired in a week by families of a class.
a Complete this frequency distribution table.
Videos hired

Score

10

Frequency

90

8
6

0
0

No. of videos

b
c
d
e
f
g

4
5

## Add a cumulative frequency column.

How many families hired less than 3 videos in a week?
How many families hired more than 3 videos in a week?
Calculate the mean number of videos hired.
Use the cumulative frequency column to find the median.
Find the mode.

Frequency

## LEY_bk9_04_finalpp Page 91 Wednesday, January 12, 2005 10:32 AM

Chapter 4
Algebraic Techniques
This chapter deals with operations involving algebraic terms
including indices.
After completing this chapter you should be able to:
add, subtract, multiply and divide algebraic fractions
apply the index laws to simplify algebraic expressions
establish the meaning of the zero index
define indices for square root and cube root
establish the meaning of negative indices
simplify expressions involving fractional and negative indices
remove grouping symbols and simplify by collecting like terms
factorise by determining common factors.

## Syllabus reference PAS5.1.1, 5.2.1

W M: S5. 1. 1S5. 1. 5, S 5 .2 .1 5 .2 .5

92

Diagnostic Test

## Which of the following is not true?

2x
4x
2x
10x
A ------ = -----B ------ = --------3
5
3
15
2x
4x
2x
6x
C ------ = -----D ------ = -----3
6
3
9
12a
When reduced to its simplest form ---------- =
18a
12
2a
A -----B -----18
3a
2
4
C --D --3
6
3x
5x
------ + ------ =
11 11
8x
8x
A -----B -----22
11
8x
88x
C ---------D --------121
11
2x
x
------ + --- =
3
4
3x
3x
A -----B -----7
12
11x
11x
C --------D --------12
7
3m
4
-------- ------ =
7
5y
34m
12m
A ----------B ----------75y
35y
12my
34my
C -------------D -------------35
75
12ab 10
When simplified ------------- ------ =
5
3a
120ab
8ab
A ----------------B ---------15a
a
40b
C ---------D 8b
5
a b
--- --- =
3 2
ab
A -----6
2a
C -----3b

6
B -----ab
3b
D -----2a

5xy 3x
--------- ------ =
8
2
5y
A -----12
2
15x y
C --------------16

12
B -----5y
16
D -------------2
15x y
Which of the following does not simplify
to t20?
A t4 t5

B t 30 t 10

C (t 4)5

D t16 t 4

3 4

10

11

12

(a )
---------------- =
4
2
a a
A a2
B a4

A 8a7b 9

B 8a12b 20

C 8ab16

D 8(ab)16

(2m 5)3 =
2m 8 B 8m 8

B 3

17

1
--2

1
--2

D 9

B ( 4y ) C 2y

The meaning of y

1
--3

1
--2

D 4y2

is:

1
D ----3y
Which of the following is equivalent
1
to ----3- ?
1
a
--3
1
A 3a
B -----C a
D a 3
3a
A

16

C 5

## 4 y may be written in index form as:

A 4y

15

C 2m15 D 8m15

3k0 + 2 =
A 2

14

D 16

4a 3b 5 2a 4b 4 =

A
13

C a6

1
--3

B 3y

3m 2 is equivalent to:
1
3
A 6m B ----------2- C ------29m
m

1
D -------3m

93

18

8y 5 2y
1
--4

A
19

21
1
--4

C 4y

D 4y

## The highest common factor of

6y 2 and 12y is:
A 6

B 3y

C 6y

D 12

2p 2(5p 2 + 3pq) =
A 10p 2 6pq

B 10p 2 6p 3q

C 10p4 + 6p 3q

D 10p4 6p 3q

22

## When fully factorised 12ab 3a + 9a2 =

A 3a(4b 1 + 3a) B 3(4ab a + 3a2)
C a(12b 3 + 9a) D 3ab(4 1 + 3a)

20

## When expanded and simplified

3(2m 1) (m + 5) =
A 5m 8

B 5m + 2

C 5m 6

D 5m + 4

If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question

18

9, 10

11, 12

13

Section

14, 15 16, 17
E

18

19, 20 21, 22

A. ALGEBRAIC FRACTIONS
Example 1
Complete the following equivalent fractions.
2

a --- = -----3 15

3n
b ------ = -----7
14

2ab

---------- = -----5
20

2 5 10
a --- --- = -----3 5 15

3n 2 6n
b ------ --- = -----7
2 14

2ab 4 8ab
---------- --- = ---------5
4
20

Exercise 4A
1

## Complete the following equivalent fractions.

7k

2y

4m
a ------ = -----b -------- = ---c ------ = -----4
20
5
15
3
6

3t

## d ------ = ---------10 100

5a

e ------ = -----2
12

Example 2
Reduce to its simplest form:
15
a -----20
c

7a
-----9a

## Dividing the numerator

and denominator by
the same number is
sometimes called cancelling.

8t
b -----12
6ab
d ---------9a

94

## a Dividing the numerator and

denominator by 5,

## b Dividing numerator and

denominator by 4,

15
15
------ = --------420
20
3
= --4

8t
8 t
------ = --------312
12
2t
= ----3

## c Dividing numerator and

denominator by a,

## d Dividing numerator and

denominator by 3 and by a,

2 1

7a 7a
------ = --------19a 9a
7
= --9

6ab
6 a b
---------- = -------------3 1
9a
9 a
2b
= -----3

## Reduce to its simplest form:

6x
3m
a -----b -------12
9
6a
3p
f -----g ---------7a
10p

5t
-----20
8x
h --------12x

10y
d --------15
8ab
i ---------4a

9b
e -----12
12pq
j ------------9q

Example 3
Simplify:

7
4
a ------ + -----15 15

5x
4x
b ------ + -----11 11

7
4
7+4
a ------ + ------ = ------------15 15
15
11
= -----15

5x
4x
5x + 4x
b ------ + ------ = ------------------11 11
11
9x
= -----11

Simplify:
3x
4x
a ------ + -----10 10
9m 6m
d -------- -------10
10

7b 8b
b ------ + -----11
11
11k 3k
e ---------- -----12
12

c
c

7a 2a
------ -----10 10
7a 2a 7a 2a
------ ------ = ------------------10 10
10
5a
= -----10
a
= --2

2a 3a
------ + -----15
15

## Algebraic Techniques (Chapter 4) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.1, 5.2.1

Example 4
Simplify:
3 2
a --- + --4 3

5n 2n
b ------ + -----6
3

3 2
3 3 2 4
a --- + --- = --- --- + --- --4 3
4 3 3 4
9
8
= ------ + -----12 12
17
= -----12

7m m
-------- ---8
3

5n 2n
5n 2n
2
b ------ + ------ = ------ + ------ --6
3
6
3
2
5n 4n
= ------ + -----6
6
9n
= -----6
3n
= -----2

5
= 1 ----12

7m m 7m 3 m 8
-------- ---- = -------- --- ---- --8
3
8
3
3
8
21m 8m
= ----------- -------24
24
13m
= ----------24

Simplify:
2x
a ------ +
3
3t
f ------ +
10

x
--4
2t
----9

5k 3k
b ------ + -----6
4
4w
w
g ------- -----3
12

7b b
------ --8
4
3v 4v
h ------ + -----2
3
c

3a
a
d ------ + -----5
10
11e 3e
i ---------- -----10
5

4z 2z
e ------ -----5
3
5x 3x
j ------ -----6
8

Example 5
Simplify:

2 5
a --- --3 9

2a b
b ------ --3
9

2 5 25
a --- --- = -----------3 9 39
10
= -----27

2a b 2a b
b ------ --- = ---------------3
9
39
2ab
= ---------27

Simplify:
m n
a ---- --3
4

k m
b --- ---5
3

2p q
------ --3
5

c
c

3h
4
------ -------7
5m
3h
4
3h 4
------ -------- = -----------------7
5m 7 5m
12h
= ----------35m

3a
4
d ------ -----5
7b

2b 5d
e ------ -----3c 7e

95

96

## Algebraic Techniques (Chapter 4) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.1, 5.2.1

Example 6
Simplify:
8 15
a --- -----9 16

8a
15
b ------ ---------9
16b
1

8 15
8
15
a --- ------ = -----3 --------29 16
9
16
5
= --6
4 1

12ab 10
------------- -----5
3a

8a
15
8 a
15
- -----------b ------ ---------- = -------3
2
9
16b
16 b
9
5a
= -----6b
2

12ab 10
12 a b
10
------------- ------ = ----------------- ----------1
1 1
5
3a
3 a
5
8b
= -----1
= 8b

Simplify:
3m 10n
a -------- ---------5
7
5y
9
f ------ -----3
2y

2k 6n
b ------ -----9
5
7
3z
g ------ -----2z 14

4w 9z
------- -----3
8
2ab
6
h ---------- -----3
2b
c

8a
d ------
5
8mn
i -----------9

15b
---------16
15
-------3m

3t 10
e ----- -----5
9u
6pq 25
j ---------- -----5
3q

Example 7
Simplify:
2 5
a --- --3 8

a 5
b --- --4 b

## To divide by a fraction, we multiply by its reciprocal.

5
8
a The reciprocal of --- is --- , hence
8
5
2 5 2 8
--- --- = --- --3 8 3 5
16
= -----15

5
b
b The reciprocal of --- is --- , hence
b
5
a 5 a b
--- --- = --- --4 b 4 5
ab
= -----20

1
= 1 ----15

Simplify:
a b
a --- --5 7

w z
b ---- --6 2

p 5
--- --4 q

3
n
d ---- --m 8

a c
e --- --b d

## Algebraic Techniques (Chapter 4) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.1, 5.2.1

Example 8
Simplify:
2a 6b
a ------ -----3
7

b
1

2a 6b
2 a
7
a ------ ------ = --------- -------3
3
7
3
6 b
7a
= -----9b
8

Simplify:
2x 8y
a ------ -----3
5
16
8
e ------- ------9w 3w
4xy 2x
i --------- -----3
5

3a 6b
b ------ -----2
7
6k 7k
f ------ -----5
2
9
6
j --------------- -------10km 5m

5pq 3p
---------- -----8
2
1

5p 10q
------ ---------3
9
4m 2m
g -------- -------3
5
c

## B. THE INDEX LAWS

The index laws for numbers were established in chapter 2:
1 When multiplying numbers with the same base, we add the indices.
For example, 36 34 = 36 + 4 = 310
2 When dividing numbers with the same base, we subtract the indices.
For example, 36 34 = 36 4 = 32
3 When raising a power of a number to a higher power, we multiply the indices.
For example, (36)4 = 36 4 = 324

## If we use letters to represent numbers then the rules can be generalised:

am an = am + n
am an = am n
(a m)n = a mn

5pq 3p 5p q
2
---------- ------ = ----------- --------14
8
2
3p
8
5q
= -----12

7
3
d ------ --------5v 10v
7
m
h -------- ---2m
8

97

98

## Algebraic Techniques (Chapter 4) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.1, 5.2.1

Example 1
Show by writing in expanded form that:
a m4 m3 = m7

b m5 m2 = m3

a m4 m3 = (m m m m) (m m m)
=mmmmmmm
= m7

c (m4)3 = m12
1

c (m4)3 = (m m m m) (m m m m) (m m m m)
=mmmmmmmmmmmm
= m12

Exercise 4B
1

## Show by writing in expanded form that:

a m 2 m4 = m6
b m6 m 2 = m4

(m 2)4 = m8

Example 2
a Use a calculator to evaluate the following expressions when a = 3.
i a4 a3
ii a7
b Does the value of a4 a3 = the value of a7?
a i

a4 a3 = 34 33
= 81 27

m m mmm
b m5 m2 = ----------------------------------------------------1
1
m m
mmm
= -------------------------1
3
=m

ii a7 = 37
= 2187

= 2187
b Yes
2

## a Use a calculator to evaluate the following expressions when a = 2.

ii a9
i a5 a4
b Does the value of a5 a4 = the value of a9?

## a Use a calculator to evaluate the following expressions when m = 5.

i m8 m2
ii m6
8
b Does the value of m m2 = the value of m6?

## a Use a calculator to evaluate the following expressions when n = 3.

i (n4)2
ii n 8
b Does the value of (n4)2 = the value of n 8?

## Algebraic Techniques (Chapter 4) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.1, 5.2.1

Example 3
Use the index laws to simplify:
a y7 y3

b y 18 y 17

a y7 y3 = y7 + 3

b y 18 y 17 = y 18

= y 10

c
17

(b5)3

c (b5)3 = b5 x 3

= y1

= b15

=y

a m3 m6
b q8 q7

c t 10 t 9

d b15 b b 4

e v v5 v7

a a12 a10
b x15 x 5

c w8 w2

d b6 b 5

e z 20 z 19

a (b4)2
b (h 5)3

c (k 8)2

d (z10)6

e (n 2)4

## Use the index laws to simplify:

a m4 m 2
b x9 x 6
8
7
f n n
g b8 b

c (b4)6
h (y 5)5

d m 3 m6 m4
i t10 t20 t

e (v 7)10
j a12 a6

Example 4
Explain why the index laws cannot be used to simplify:
a p3 q4

b m6 n4

a p3 q4 = p p p q q q q
= p 3q 4
Since the bases are not the same we cannot simplify further.
mmmmmm
b m6 n4 = -----------------------------------------------------------nnnn
6
m
= ------4n
Again, since the bases are different we cannot simplify further.

a k5 m 3
b x9 y6

99

100

10

a b4 b 3 = b7

b m 5 m 2 = m10

c p 4 p 5 = p 20

d e 6 e10 = e16

e a4 b 5 = ab 9

z10 z 2 = z 8
6
4
p
p
----2- = ----q
q

g p12 p 3 = p4

h t8 t7 = t

k (b7)2 = b14

w15 w 3 = w 5

(n10)3 = n13

## C. APPLYING THE INDEX LAWS

Example 1
Simplify:
5

5 4

(a )
b ---------------3
2
a a

p p
a ----------------8
p

5 4
54
(a )
a
------------b ---------------=
3
2
3+2
a
a a

5+6

p p
p
a ----------------= ----------8
8
p
p
11

20

p
= ------8
p
= p11 8

a
= ------5
a
= a20 5

= p3

= a15

Exercise 4C
1

Simplify:
5

x x
a ---------------6
x
7

a a
e ---------------8
2
a a
k
-----------------16
5
k k

11

y y
-----------------10
8
y y

(m ) m

30

10

w w
b --------------------8
w

2 3

16

k k
d -----------------8
5
k k

10

16

x
h ---------------3
4
x x

14

z z
g -----------------10
7
z z
4 5

3 4

k (a ) (a )
4

10

a a a
n ------------------------------12
8
a a a

5 5

y )
m (----------20
y

m m
-------------------10
m

20

30

b b b
o -----------------------------------4 5
(b )

Example 2
Simplify:
4

a 5m 3m

2k 4k 3k

5 6

(t )
----------10
t

## Algebraic Techniques (Chapter 4) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.1, 5.2.1

5m 3m

= 53m m
= 15 m
= 15m

2k 4k 3k
7

= 243k k k

4+6

= 24 k

10

= 24k

7+3+5

15

Simplify:
5

a 4m 3m
d 10a

12

7a

b
4

g 3z 4z 2z

3t 6t

10

5b 6b b

d 6d 3d

5p 2p

e 4w 6w
3

h 2q 5q 8q

4
8

Example 3
Simplify:
8

10

12m
a ------------6
3m

b
8

10

12m
------------6
3m

20a
-------------4
16a

12 m
= ------------------6
3m

20 a
= -------------------4
16 a

10

20 a
= ------ ------16 a 4

10

12 m
= ------ ------63 m
= 4m
= 4m

20a
-------------4
16a

6
5
= --- a
4

5a
= --------4

Simplify:
7

6m
a ----------23m
10

9e
----------66e

12

10a
b -------------7
5a
8

2m
g ----------36m

10

12w
--------------8
4w

12

8z
d ----------86z

15

6a
h -------------10
12a

16k
e -----------312k

13

9t
----------612t

11

15b
-------------6
20b

101

102

## Algebraic Techniques (Chapter 4) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.1, 5.2.1

Example 4
3 5

Simplify ( 2a )
3 5

( 2a )
3

= 2a 2a 2a 2a 2a
3

= 22222a a a a a

3 5

= 2 (a )
= 32a

15

Simplify:
4 3

b ( 2m )

3 2 5

g (m n )

a ( 3a )

(x y )

3 6

c ( 7p )

5 2

4 6 3

h (p q )

2 4

d ( 10k )

7 3 4

4 10 2

(a b )

Example 5
Simplify:
2 4

10 8

5 8

a 5m n 3m n

2 4

10 8

5 8

5m n 3m n
2

7 12

= 15m n

12

10

y
12 x
= ------ ------6- ----28
x
y

= 53m m n n
= 15 m n

12x y
------------------6 2
8x y

= 5m n 3m n
2

12x y
------------------6 2
8x y

3
--2

x4 y6
4 6

3x y
= -------------2

11 3

e ( 5t )
j

5 2 3

( 2x y )

## Algebraic Techniques (Chapter 4) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.1, 5.2.1

Simplify:
3 2

5 3

b 5m n 2m n

5 8

6 7

d 10x y 3x y

a 4a b 2a b

c 3p q 4p q
10 12

e 2w z

4 5

6w z

10 9

4 3

5 6

6a b
-------------3 2
4a b
7

15x y
g ------------------6 2
5x y

indices when multiplying
and subtract them
when dividing.

12

2k m
h ------------------3 6
10k m

11 6

6 7

7 8

9a b
----------------8
12a b

12m n
------------------6 8
15m n

## D. THE ZERO INDEX

Example 1
a Use the index laws to simplify a5 a5.
b Hence show that a0 = 1.
a Using the index laws,
a5 a5 = a5 5
= a0
b But a5 a5 = 1 (Since any number divided by itself = 1)
Hence a0 = 1

Exercise 4D
1

103

104

Example 2
Evaluate:
a x0

b (3x)0

c 3x 0

a x0 = 1

b (3x)0 = 1

c 3x 0 = 3 x 0
=31
=3

Evaluate:
a y0
f (6z)0
k 3m0 + 1

b (3y)0
g (10m)0
l 9e0 3

c 3y 0
h 10m0
m 6p0 + 7

d 4k 0
i 8b0
n 3a0 + 2b0

e 9t 0
j (7q)0
o 6x 0 4y 0

## E. INDICES FOR SQUARE ROOTS AND CUBE ROOTS

Example 1
2

a Show that ( 6 ) = 6.
1
--2 2

1
--2

a ( 6)

6 = 6 .
1
--2

1
--- 2
2

66

= 61

36

=6

( 6 )2 = 6

=6
1
--2

1
--2

6 =6 .

Exercise 4E
1

## c Hence show that

2

1
--2

a Show that ( 5 )2 = 5.

## b Use the index laws to show that ( 5 )2 = 5.

1
--2

5 =5 .
1
--2

a Show that ( a )2 = a.
c Hence show that

1
--2

a =a .

## Algebraic Techniques (Chapter 4) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.1, 5.2.1

Example 2
Write in index form:
a

23

23 = 23

1
--2

t =t

1
--2

7t

d 7 t

7t = ( 7t )

1
--2

d 7 t =7

=7 t
= 7t

## Write in index form:

a
3
5k
e

12
b
f 5 k

x
c
g 6 y

1
--2

1
--2

m
6y

d
h

Example 3
Write down the meaning of:
a 5

1
--2

b ( 7z )

1
--2

a 5 =

1
--2

1
--2

b ( 7z ) =

7z

7z

7z

1
--2

1
--2

=7 z
=7

1
--2

=7 z

## Write down the meaning of:

a 8

1
--2

e ( 3z )

b 13
1
--2

1
--2

( 2m )

c p
1
--2

1
--2

g 5k

d q
1
--2

1
--2

h 4t

1
--2

Example 4
3

a Show that ( 3 5 ) = 5.
1
--3

## b Use the index laws to simplify ( 5 )3.

c Hence show that

1
--3

5 =5 .

105

106

1
--- 3
3

555

= 51

125

=5

1
--3

a (3 5) =

b ( 5 )3 = 5

=5
1
--3

## c Since ( 3 5 ) = 5 and ( 5 )3 = 5 then

1
--3

5 =5 .
1
--3

a Show that ( 3 6 ) = 6.
c Hence show that

## b Use the index laws to simplify ( 6 )3.

1
--3

6 =6 .
1
--3

a Show that ( 3 a ) = a.
c Hence show that

## b Use the index laws to simplify ( a )3.

1
--3

a =a .

Example 5
Write in index form:
a

=7

1
--3

=e

4z

4z

1
--3

d 43 z
d 43 z = 4

= ( 4z )

1
--3

=4 z
= 4z

z
1
--3

1
--3

## Write in index form:

a

5y

53 y

9m

h 93 m

Example 6
Write down the meaning of:
a 8

1
--3

b n

1
--3

( 5x )

1
--3

d 5x

1
--3

a 8

1
--3

b n

1
--3

c
n

( 5x )
=

1
--3

d 5x

1
--3

=5x
=5

5x

1
--3

= 53 x

a 12

1
--3

b 35

e ( 6m )
9

c k

1
--3

6m

47

e 5 x

63 x

1
--3

g ( 7v )

d d
1
--3

1
--3

h 7v

1
--3

a

10

1
--3

1
--3

d 83 p

h 33 r

g 4 x

## Write down the meaning of:

a 5
e

1
--3

b 6

( 5p )

1
--2

1
--2

( 6r )

c x
1
--3

1
--3

g ( 5xy )

d t
1
--2

h ( 4pq )

F. NEGATIVE INDICES
Example 1
4

a
a Use the index laws to simplify ----5- .
a
1
1
c Hence show that a = --- .
a
4

= a1
4

a
b Expand and simplify ----5- .
a

a
a a a a
b ----5- = -------------------------------------------------1
1
1
1
a a a a a
a
1
= --a

a
a ----5- = a4 5
a

a
a
1
1
c Since ----5- = a1 and ----5- = --- then a1 = --- .
a
a
a
a

1
--2
1
--3

107

108

## Algebraic Techniques (Chapter 4) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.1, 5.2.1

Exercise 4F
3

a
a Use the index laws to simplify ----4- .
a
1
c Hence show that a1 = --- .
a
3
a
a Use the index laws to simplify ----5- .
a
1
2
c Hence show that a = ----2- .
a
2
a
a Use the index laws to simplify ----5- .
a
1
3
---c Hence show that a = 3 .
a
2
a
a Use the index laws to simplify ----6- .
a
1
c Hence show that a4 = ----4- .
a
a
a Use the index laws to simplify ----6- .
a
1
c Hence show that a5 = ----5- .
a

a
b Expand and simplify ----4- .
a
3

a
b Expand and simplify ----5- .
a
2

a
b Expand and simplify ----5- .
a
2

a
b Expand and simplify ----6- .
a
a
b Expand and simplify ----6- .
a

## From the above exercises, it can be seen that, in general,

1
an = ----n
a

Example 2
Write down the meaning of:

a k9

b m15

1
a k9 = ----9k

1
b m15 = -------15
m

## Write down the meaning of:

a y 2
b k 1

c m3

Example 3
Write with a negative index:
1
a ----5a

1
b ----7y

1
a ----5- = a5
a

1
b ----7- = y 7
y

d x 6

e t 10

## Write with a negative index:

1
1
a ----8b ----2k
a

1
-----11
x

1
d ------14
n

1
e -----20
z

Example 4
Write down the meaning of:
a 3m2

b (3m)2

a 3m2 = 3 m2

1
b (3m)2 = ---------------2
( 3m )
1
= ----------29m

3
1
= --- ------21 m
3
= ------2m

a 3k 1
b (3k)1
5
d (2y)
e 3t 4

2y 5
(3t)4

c
f

## G. FURTHER USE OF THE INDEX LAWS

Example 1
Use the index laws to simplify:
1
--2

1
--2

1
--2

1
--2

a 3y 2y

1
--3

1
--3

1
--3

1
--3

b 10 n 5 n
1
--2

a 3y 2y = 3 y 2 y
1
--2

=32 y y
=6 y

1 1
--- + --2 2

= 6 y1
= 6y

1
--2
1
--2

1
--3

10n
b 10 n 5 n = -----------1
5n

--3

1
--3

10 n
= ------ -----1
5
--3
n
=2 n

1 1
--- --3 3

= 2 n0
=21
=2

109

110

Exercise 4G
1

## Use the index laws to simplify:

1
--2

a 2z 6z
d 12 a

1
--3

1
--2

1
--2

b 8p 2p

4a

1
--3

1
--2

1
--3

1
--3

2m 3m 4m

1
--3

k
e ---------------1
1
--2

k k

--2

Example 2
Use the index laws to simplify:
a m6 m2

b q2 q7

c (x 3)5

a m6 m2 = m6 + 2

b q2 q 7 = q2 (7)

c (x 3)5 = x 3 5

= m4
2

= q5

## Use the index laws to simplify:

5
2
3
7
a a a
b y y
e b
i

2 4

(y )

w w

(t )

= x 15

c e e
g z

d n n

h k

5 4

Example 3
Simplify:
a 5m3 6m7

b 4y 7 5y 2

a 5m3 6m7 = 5 6 m3 m7
= 30 m3 + 7
= 30 m4
= 30m4

c (5y 2)3 = 5y 2 5y 2 5y 2
= 5 5 5 y 2 y 2 y 2
3

2 3

= 5 (y )
= 125y 6

c (5y 2)3
7

4y
b 4y 7 5y 2 = ---------2
5y
7
4
y
= --- -----5 y 2
4
= --- y 7(2)
5
4
= --- y 9
5
9
4
4y
= --- y 9 or -------5
5

## Algebraic Techniques (Chapter 4) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.1, 5.2.1

Simplify:
a 10a 5 9a 3
e 6p4 2p 2
i (3w 6)2

b 6b5 3b2
f 3k 4 8k 2
j 4n3 3n4 6n5

c 3v 6 2v 2
g (5z 4)3

d 8y 5 2y 1
h (2m3)5

Example 4
State whether the following are true or false.
a m3 m5 = m2

b 3y 0 = 1

1
d 2p3 = --------32p

c 6k4 2k4 = 3

a m3 m5 = m3 5

b 3y 0 = 3 y 0
=31

= m2
Statement is false.

=3
Statement is false.

6 k
c 6k 4 2k 4 = --- ----42 k
= 3 k4 4

d 2p3= 2 p3
1
= 2 ----3p
2
= ----3p
Statement is false.

= 3 k0
=31
=3
Statement is true.

## State whether the following are true or false.

a 6m 0 = 1

b a4 a7 = a 3

8t 9 2t 9 = 4

1
d 3c 2 = --------23c
6
g 5x x 6 = 5x

e 4k 0 = 4

b b6 = b5

4
h 4y 3 = -----3
y

8
(2p 1)3 = ----3p

Example 5
By substituting a = 5, show that a2 2a.

111

112

1
a2 = ----2a
1
= -----2
5
1
= -----25

2a = 2 5
= 10

Hence a2 2a
5

## By substituting a = 3, show that:

a a 2 2a
d a3 3a
g a2 a2 a0

b a3 3a
e a2 a a2 + a
h 5a2 3a 5a2 + 3a

c
f

a2 2a
a2 + a2 a4

Example 1
Expand:
a 3(x + 5)

b 4(3y 2z)

## Expand means to write

the expression without
the grouping symbols.

a 3(x + 5) = (x + 5) + (x + 5) + (x + 5)
=x+x+x+5+5+5
=3x+35
= 3x + 15
b 4(3y 2z) = (3y 2z) + (3y 2z) + (3y 2z) + (3y 2z)
= 3y + 3y + 3y + 3y 2z 2z 2z 2z
= 4 3y 4 2z
= 12y 8z

## From the examples above we can see that, in general:

a (b + c ) = a b + a c
that is, to remove the grouping symbols we multiply each term inside them by the number at
the front.
This result is known as the distributive law.

## Algebraic Techniques (Chapter 4) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.1, 5.2.1

Example 2
Use the distributive law to expand:
a 5(2y + 3)

b 7(3y 4w)

a 5(2y + 3) = 5 2y + 5 3

b 7(3y 4w) = 7 3y 7 4w

= 10y + 15

= 21y 28w

Exercise 4H
1

## Use the distributive law to expand:

a 3(2w + 5)
b 6(3z 2)
2
e 10(x + 6)
f 7(ab 2a 2)
i 5(4b + 2a + 3)
j 3(5x 3y 2z)

c 5(4a + 3b)
g 4(m 2 + n 2)

d 2(4x 3y)
h 2(m 3 3mn)

Example 3
Expand:
a 3w(2y + 4z)

b 2a(3a 4b)

a 3w(2y + 4z) = 3w 2y + 3w 4z

c 4m2(m3 + 2m5)

b 2a(3a 4b)= 2a 3a 2a 4b
= 6a2 8ab

= 6wy + 12wz
c 4m 2(m 3 + 2m5) = 4m 2 m3 + 4m 2 2m5
= 4m5 + 8m7

Expand:
a 3a(2b + 4c)
e y2(y3 4)
i 2p5(p2 + 3p3)

b 4x(3x 2y)
f 6x(2y 5x2)
j 5x2(2x3 3xy)

c 10k(6k 4m)
g 3k2(2k2 + 5)

d m(m2 + 2)
h a3(5a2 2)

Example 4
Expand:
a 3(2w + 5)

b 2(4a 3b)

c (4m + 3n)

113

114

## Algebraic Techniques (Chapter 4) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.1, 5.2.1

a 3(2w + 5) = 3 2w + 3 5

b 2(4a 3b) = 2 4a 2 3b

= 6w + 15

= 8a 6b

= 6w 15

= 8a + 6b

c (4m + 3n) = 1 4m + 1 3n
= 4m + 3n
= 4m 3n

Expand:
a 2(y + 3)
e (t + 3)
i (7w + 3)

b 5(a + 2)
f (b + 6)
j (4x 1)

c 3(w + 4)
g 3(2k + 5)

d 4(m 7)
h 2(4m 5)

Example 5
Expand:

a 3a(5a2 + 2ab)

b n3(2n4 5n2p)

## b n3(2n4 5n2p) = n3 2n4 n3 5n2p

Expand:
a 2a(3a 2 + 2ab)
d y3(4y2 3xy)

= 15a3 + 6a2b

= 2n7 5n5p

= 15a3 6a2b

= 2n7 + 5n5p

b 4x(2x 2 3xy)
e 3m4(2m 2 + 5mn)

Example 6
Expand and simplify by collecting like terms.
a 3(a + 2) + 7

b 3 + 2(3n 5)

a 3(a + 2) + 7 = 3a + 6 + 7
= 3a + 13

Remember to
multiply before

b 3 + 2(3n 5) = 3 + 6n 10
= 7 + 6n or 6n 7

3p 2(3p 2 + 4pq)

## Expand and simplify:

a 4(a + 3) + 6
e 6(3z 1) + 4
i 4 + 3(2w 4)

b 2(3b 12) + 12
f 10 + 2(4x + 3)
j 16 + 5(4e 6)

c 3(4w + 2) 7
g 12 + 2(3b 5)

d 5(2y 3) 2
h 13 + 4(y + 5)

Example 7
Expand and simplify 5 2(4y 3).
5 2(4y 3) = 5 8y + 6
= 11 8y or 8y + 11
6

## Expand and simplify:

a 12 2(a + 5)
e 20 3(2w + 5)
i 5 3(3 + 4z)

b 8 3(y 2)
f 2 5(3t 4)
j 3 10(1 2w)

c 9 4(b + 3)
g 4 3(5x + 2)

d 7 2(v 6)
h 10 2(3k 1)

Example 8
Expand and simplify 4(2m 3) + 3(m 2).
4(2m 3) + 3(m 2) = 8m 12 + 3m 6
= 11m 18
7

## Expand and simplify:

a 5(2k + 3) + 3(k 2)
c 4(2p 1) + 2(3p + 5)
e 2(5x 3) + 5(3x 1)
g (6v 1) + 3(2v 5)
i 7(2a 3b) + 3(3a + 4b)

b
d
f
h
j

2(6m + 7) + 3(m 1)
3(3a + 2) + 4(a 3)
3(4y 2) + (2y + 7)
4(3x + 2y) + 2(5x 3y)
3a(2a + 6) + 4a(3a 5)

Example 9
Expand and simplify:
a 2(3p + 4q) 4(2p 3q)

b 3(4m 1) (m + 4)

## a 2(3p + 4q) 4(2p 3q) = 6p + 8q 8p + 12q

= 2p + 20q or 20q 2p
b 3(4m 1) (m + 4) = 12m 3 m 4
= 11m 7

115

116

## Expand and simplify:

a 3(2k + 5) 2(k + 3)
c 2(6t + 1) 3(t + 4)
e 2(a + 5) 4(a 1)
g 4(3x + y) (2x 7y)
i 2q(q 5) 4(q 5)

b
d
f
h
j

5(w + 4) 3(w 2)
3(5z 1) (2z + 5)
5(d 3) 3(2d + 1)
3(2a 3b) (2a + 3b)
4z(3z + 2) (z 1)

I. FACTORISING
Use the distributive property to expand 2(3a + 5) = 2 3a + 2 5
= 6a + 10
Reversing the process, 6a + 10 = 2 3a + 2 5
= 2 (3a + 5)
= 2(3a + 5)
The reverse process to expanding is called factorising.

## Note that the 2 is the

HCF of 6a and 10.

Example 1
Factorise:
a 3y + 12

b 20k 8

## b The HCF of 20k and 8 is 4, hence

3y + 12 = 3 y + 3 4

20k 8 = 4 5k 4 2

= 3 (y + 4)

= 4 (5k 2)

= 3(y + 4)

= 4(5k 2)
Note that as 2 is a common factor of
20k and 8,
20k 8 = 2 10k 2 4
= 2(10k 8)
While this is a correct equivalent expression
for 20k 8, it has not been fully factorised.
20k 8 = 4(5k 2).

Exercise 4I
1

Factorise:
a 8a + 10
e 4w 12
i 24k 18n

b 6x 4
f 16m 8
j 16x 2 + 24y2

c 3a + 6b
g 12ab + 8

d 5x + 10y
h 10m 20n

Example 2
Factorise:
a 3u + 12v + 9w

b 12a 8b + 20c

## a The HCF of 3u, 12v and 9w is 3, hence

3u + 12v + 9w = 3 u + 3 4v + 3 3w
= 3(u + 4v + 3w)
b The HCF of 12a, 8b and 20c is 4, hence
12a 8b + 20c = 4 3a 4 2b + 4 5c
= 4(3a 2b + 5c)

Factorise:
a 5x + 15y + 10z
d 12m 6n 18r

b 3p 6q + 9r
e 20xy + 50z + 30

4a + 12b 8c

Example 3
Complete the following factorisations and check by expanding.
a y 2 + 2y = y (__ + __)

## b 12a2 8ab = 4a (__ __)

a Since y 2 + 2y = y y + y 2, then

y 2 + 2y = y(y + 2)
Check: y(y + 2) = y y + y 2
= y 2 + 2y

## Since 12a 2 8ab = 4a 3a 4a 2b, then

12a 2 8ab = 4a(3a 2b)
Check: 4a(3a 2b) = 4a 3a 4a 2b
= 12a 2 8ab

## Complete the following factorisations and check by expanding.

a y 2 + 7y = y (__ + __)
b m 2 3m = m (__ __)
c 3mn + 4m = m (__ + __)
d 9p 5pq = p (__ __)
2
f 2bc b 2 = b (__ __)
e x + 5xy = x (__ + __)

117

118

## Algebraic Techniques (Chapter 4) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.1, 5.2.1

g 6m 2 3m = 3m (__ __)
i 16pq 12p 2 = 4p (__ __)

## h 12a 2 10ab = 2a (__ __)

j 12k 2 +18k = 6k (__ + __)

Example 4
Complete the following factorisations and check by expanding.
a y2 + 7y = __ (y + 7)

b 2m2 8m = __ (m 4)

## b The HCF of 2m2 and 8m is 2m, hence

y2 + 7y = y(y + 7)

2m2 8m = 2m(m 4)

Check: y(y + 7) = y y + y 7

Check: 2m(m 4) = 2m m 2m 4

= y2 + 7y

= 2m2 8m

## Complete the following factorisations and check by expanding.

a p2 + 3p = __ (p + 3)
b k2 2k = __ (k 2)
2
c 3w + 2w = __ (3w + 2)
d 2z2 z = __ (2z 1)
e 4mn 3m2 = __ (4n 3m)
f 2x2 + 8x = __ (x + 4)
2
g 4pq 12p = __ (q 3p)
h 8pq 12pr = __ (2q 3r)
2
i 10z 5z = __ (2z 1)
j 6km 8m2 = __ (3k 4m)

Example 5
Explain why the following factorisation is incorrect.
18x2y + 12xy2 = 6xy(3x + 2)
6xy (3x + 2) = 6xy 3x + 6xy 2
= 18x2y + 12xy
18x2y + 12xy2

## Explain why the following factorisations are incorrect.

a y2 + 7y = 7(y2 + y)
b 24ab + 8a = 8a(3b 1)
d 15x2y + 12xy 2 = 3xy(5x + 4)
c x2 6xy = 6x(x y)
e 10ab2 5a2b = 5ab(2b2 a)

Example 6
Factorise:
a w 2 + 5w

b 3y 2 6y

## a The HCF of w 2 and 5w is w, hence

c 4a 2 + 8ab
b The HCF of 3y 2 and 6y is 3y, hence

w 2 + 5w = w w + w 5

3y 2 6y = 3y y 3y 2

= w(w + 5)

= 3y(y 2)

## c The HCF of 4a 2 and 8ab is 4a, hence

4a 2 + 8ab = 4a a + 4a 2b
= 4a(a + 2b)

Factorise:
a x 2 + 4x
e 2k 2 + 4k
i 12pq 18p 2

b y 2 7y
f 3y 2 12y
j 16km + 24k 2

c a 2 + ab
g 10b 2 + 5ab

d m 2 5mn
h 9w 2 6w

Example 7
Factorise 18ab 3a + 9a2.
The HCF of 18ab, 3a and 9a 2 is 3a, hence
18ab 3a + 9a 2 = 3a 6b 3a 1 + 3a 3a
= 3a(6b 1 + 3a)

Factorise:
a 2ab + 4a + 4a 2
d 5xy 10x 5x 2

b 6x 2 + 3x + 9xy
e 8k 2 6k 10km

2m 6m 2 + 4mn

119

120

## Algebraic Techniques (Chapter 4) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.1, 5.2.1

Language in Mathematics

Three of the words in the following list have been spelt incorrectly. Find these words and
write the correct spelling.
reduse, simplify, subistute, aply, numerator, equivalent

Complete the following words used in this chapter by replacing the vowels:
a f __ ct __ r
b z __ r __
c __ nd __ x
d __ lg __ br __ __ c
e f __ ct __ r __ s __

## Using an example, explain the meaning of:

a reciprocal
b highest common factor

Write in words:

x3

a ()
b []

x2

{}

a equivalent

A go backwards

b expand

B the same as

c reverse

d evaluate

e pronumeral

## E find the value of

How many words of three or more letters can you make from the word
DISTRIBUTIVE. (No proper names or plurals allowed.)

Glossary
algebraic

apply

base

cancel

check

common

cube root

denominator

distributive law

equivalent

evaluate

expand

expression

factor

factorise

grouping symbols

index

indices

negative

numerator

power

reciprocal

reduce

reverse

simplify

square root

substitute

value

zero

121

1

## Which of the following is not true?

3x
9x
A ------ = -----5
15

5a
C -----81

45a
D ---------9

11x
B --------15

11x
C --------8

3x
D -----15

45a
B ---------21b

28ab
C ------------15

20ab
D ------------21

xy
C -----6y

x
D --6

5x
B -----3y

5y
C -----3x

xy
D -----15

14a
B ---------15

35ab
C ---------------54

x y
--- --- =
5 3

7ab 5b
---------- ------ =
9
6

54
D ---------------235ab

## Which of the following does not simplify to k15?

A (k5)3
7

10

5a
B -----18

5 3xy
When simplified ------ --------- =
9y 10
15xy
15x
A -----------B --------90
90

15
A ---------14a
9

3xy
D --------2x

4a 5
------ ------ =
3 7b

3x
A -----5y
8

3y
C -----2

2x x
------ + --- =
5 3

20a
A ---------21b
6

3x
6x
D ------ = -----5
8

4a a
------ + --- =
9 9

3x
A -----8
5

3x
15x
C ------ = --------5
25

9xy
When reduced to its simplest form --------- =
6x
9y
A -----B 3y
6

5a
A -----9
4

3x
6x
B ------ = -----5
10

B k

10

C k

30

3 5

D (k )

b b
----------------=
2 4
(b )
A b55

B b2

C b8

D 18

122

## Algebraic Techniques (Chapter 4) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.1, 5.2.1

9 8

11

12x y
----------------=
6 2
8x y
3 6

A 4x3y6
12

17

18

1
--2

20

21

22

D 9m7

B 20

C 3

D 8

B ( 9a )

1
--2

C 3a

1
--2

## The meaning of 2a is:

3

2a
C -----3

B 23 a

2a

1
Which of the following is equivalent to ------2- ?
m
1
A -------B m2
2m

2
C ---m

2
A ----2c

B 4c

1
C --------22c

3xy
-----------2

B 3m2

1
C --- m2
3

D 9a

D 2a

D m

6m 3 2m5 =
A 3m2

19

C 3m7

1
--3

A
16

B 9m10

A 9a

15

5y 0 + 3 =
A 4

14

3x y
C -------------2

(3m5)2 =
A 3m10

13

3 4

3x y
B -------------2

3k(2k 2 4km) =

1
--2

1
D --------24c

1
D --- m2
3

A 6k 2 + 12km

6k 2 12km

C 6k 3 + 12k 2 m

D 6k 3 + 12k 2 m

## When expanded and simplified 2w(w 6) + 3(w 5) =

B 2w2 9w 15
C 7w 15
A 2w2 3w 15
The highest common factor of 10pq and 12p2 is:
A 2p
B 2

C p

## When fully factorised 4x2 6x =

A 2x2 (2x2 3)
B 2(2x2 3x)

C x(4x 6)

D 7w2 15

D 2pq

D 2x(2x 3)

If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question

18

9, 10

11, 12

13

Section

14, 15 16, 17
E

18
G

19, 20 21, 22
H

REVIEW SET 4A

## Reduce to simplest form:

12a
9xy
a ---------b --------15
6x

Simplify:
4a 7a
a ------ + -----13 13

2m 5m
b -------- + -------3
8

Simplify:
a y 10 y 7
e (5m4 )3

b k 11 k 5
f 3a 5 b 3 2ab 6

c (p7 )2

t t
d -------------3
4
t t

Evaluate:
a v0

b 5v 0

c (5v)0

d 2v 0 + 1

10

11

12

4w 2w
------- ------5
3

5x y
d ------ --6 3
7

## Write the meaning of:

a x

3mn

------------ = -----4
20

Complete:

2x

------ = -----9
18

1
--2

b 3x

1
--2

c ( 3x )

a z 3

b 2z 3

Simplify:
a y 3 y5
d 6b2 3b7

b e6 e2
e 4k5 2k3

1
--2

## State whether the following are true or false.

a 4q 0 = 4
b a 5 a7 = a2
4
2
d 4b = ----2e n2 n = n2 + n
b
Expand:
a 5(2v 4w)
b a3 (2a2 + 4a)
Expand and simplify:
a 4(m 2) + 3(2m + 5)

b 3(3a b) (2a b)

Factorise:
a 8w + 20

b x2 + 9x

d x

1
--3

c (2z)3

(n4 )5

6m5 3m5 = 2m

3(4x + 5)

4pq 12q2

e 2x

1
--3

123

124

## Algebraic Techniques (Chapter 4) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.1, 5.2.1

REVIEW SET 4B
3x

a ------ = -----7
21

Complete:

## Reduce to simplest form:

8m
4ab
a -------b ---------12
2a

Simplify:
2a 7a
a ------ + -----9
9

3y 2y
b ------ + -----4
3

Simplify:
a m14 m6
e (2m7 )4

b t25 t5
f 4p3 q7 5p4q

c (z6 )4

(b )
d ----------------7
4
b b

Evaluate:
a s0

b 4s 0

c (4s)0

d 4s 0 1

10

11

12

3k 2m
------ -------5
3

3w 2w
d ------- ------5
3
5 6

## Write the meaning of:

a c

2ab

---------- = -----3
18

1
--2

b 2c

1
--2

c ( 2c )

a e4

b 3e4

Simplify:
a k 6 k2
d 5n3 4n8

b m4 m1
e 2a5 4a8

1
--2

## State whether the following are true or false.

b b6 b9 = b3
a 3w 0 = 1
1
d 2t 2 = -------2e p 2 = 2p
2t
Expand:
a 10(4p + 3)
b m2 (3m5 m3)
Expand and simplify:
a 3(2q + 6) 2(q 7)

b 2a(2a 5) (3a + 1)

Factorise:
a 12x 18

b 2y2 7y

d c

1
--3

c (3e)4

(n3)5

a7 a7 = a

a(2a 5)

4a2 3ab + 2a

e ( 2c )

1
--3

REVIEW SET 4C

## Reduce to simplest form:

8w
5mn
a ------b -----------24
7n

Simplify:
2d 6d
a ------ + -----7
7

7b 3b
b ------ -----8
4

Simplify:
a p6 p8
e (3v7 )3

b y16 y 8
f 3x8 y9 6x2y5

c (t5 )6

c c
d -----------------4 5
(c )

Evaluate:
a a0

b 7a0

c (7a)0

d 7a0 + 5

10

11

12

6x 10y
------ --------5
9

3w 2w
d ------- ------4
5
12

## Write the meaning of:

a q

4xy

--------- = -----3
12

Complete:

3h

------ = -----5
20

1
--2

b 4q

1
--2

c ( 4q )

1
--2

d q

a b 5

b 3b 5

c (3b)5

Simplify:
a d 5 d 3
e 6m3 9m4

b n 2 n3

c (k 2)3

## State whether the following are true or false.

a 7h0 = 7
b a a5 = a5
3
4
d 3s = ----4e n2 + n2 = n4
s
Expand:
a 4(5w + 2x)
b k4 (2k3 4k)
Expand and simplify:
a 2(5t 1) + 3(2 3t)

Factorise:
a 15n 20

b 4b2 + 6b

1
--3

1
2p5 6p5 = --- p
3

(4s 7)

12m2 + 14mn

e 4q

1
--3

d 5a6 3a3

125

126

REVIEW SET 4D

## Reduce to simplest form:

20h
4pq
a ---------b ---------16
6q

Simplify:
10k 5k
a ---------- -----11 11

2w w
b ------- ---9 6

Simplify:
a y8 y5
e (9h5 )2

b k16 k10
f 6a7 b8 a6b 3

c (p5 )10

c c
d -----------------4 2
(c )

Evaluate:
a w0

b 8w 0

c (8w) 0

d 8w 0 9

10

3a 4b
------ -----2
5

9x 4x
d ------ -----10 3
3

13

## Write the meaning of:

a m

7pq

---------- = -----2
10

Complete:

5b

------ = -----8
24

1
--2

b 6m

1
--2

c ( 6m )

a x 2

b 2x 2

Simplify:
a y 2 y 5
d 5z4 3z7

b n6 n8
e 6m4 9m7

1
--2

## State whether the following are true or false.

b a9 a7 = a2
a 2b0 = 1
7
d 7n3 = ----3e (2m)2 = 4m2
n
Expand:
a 2x(6y 3z)
b m3(3a3 4m2)

11

## Expand and simplify:

a 5(3 + 5n) + 2(4 3n) b a(6a + 1) 2a(a + 1)

12

Factorise:
a 24x + 18

b h2 8h

d m

1
--3

c (2x)2

(p3)5

2p6 10p6 = 2

2(5 2a)

3y2 + 6y 9

e ( 6m )

1
--3

## LEY_bk9_05_finalpps Page 127 Wednesday, January 12, 2005 10:34 AM

Chapter 5
Rational Numbers
This chapter deals with rounding numbers to a specified number
of significant figures, expressing recurring decimals as fractions
and converting rates from one set of units to another.
After completing this chapter you should be able to:
identify significant figures
round numbers to a specified number of significant figures
use the language of estimation appropriately
use symbols for approximation
determine the effect of truncating or rounding during calculations on the accuracy of results
write recurring decimals as fractions
convert rates from one set of units to another.

WM: 5.2.25.2.4

128

Diagnostic Test

136.832 is:

23 629 is:
A 236
B 237
C 23 600
D 23 700

## Which of the following numbers are not

equal to 1490 when rounded off to
3 significant figures?
A 1486.23
B 1493.99
C 1495
D 1485

A 59 000
B 59 800
C 591 000
D 60 000

3.968 is:
A 3.97
B 4.0
C 3.9
D 4

10

## Which of the following numbers do not

have 3 significant figures?
A 6.931
B 3.60
C 245
D 35.7

11

a calculation:

A 80
2

B 8

8
-----10

8
---------100

## Which of the following numbers are not

equal to 52.39 when rounded off, correct
to 2 decimal places?
A 52.387
B 52.392
C 52.385
D 52.395

## When a number is rounded off to the

nearest 10 the answer is 60.

A 55
B 55.1
C 59
D 59.99

## Janelle was measured to be 162 cm tall,

to the nearest centimetre. Within what
range of values does her actual height
lie?
A 161 height < 163 cm
B 161 < height < 163 cm
C 161.5 height < 162.5 cm
D 161.5 < height < 162.5 cm
The first significant figure in the number
0.04072 is:
A 0

B 4

C 7

D 2

should be
12

equivalent to:
A 0.527777
B 0.527527527
C 0.5272727
D 0.052705270527

13

A 1.666666667
B 1.666666666
C 1. 6
D 1.7

## Rational Numbers (Chapter 5) Syllabus reference NS5.2.1

14

To convert 0. 5 7 to a fraction:
Step 1: Let n = 0.575757
Step 2: then 100n = 57.575757
Step 3:
19
------ = -----Step 4 : Hence n = 57
99
33
The missing Step 3 is:
A 19n = 57
B 33n = 57
C 99n = 57
D 90n = 57

15

to:
A 0.18 kg/m2
B 1.8 kg/m2
C 18 kg/m2
D 180 kg/m2

16

## Which of the following rates are not

equivalent to 6 m/s?
A 360 m/min
B 21 600 m/h
C 21.6 km/h
D 216 km/h

If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
Section

16

710

11

1214

15, 16

A. APPROXIMATIONS
Consider these situations.
1 \$1600 is to be shared between seven people and each share deposited in a bank account.
Now, \$1600 7 = \$228.571 428
However it is not possible to deposit this exact amount in a bank account. Since the smallest unit of money
we can deposit is a cent, and each share is closer to \$228.57 than to \$228.58, then we would deposit
\$228.57 into each persons account.
2 A piece of timber 2600 mm long has to be cut into three equal lengths.
Now, 2600 mm 3 = 866.666 6 mm
However it is not possible to cut a piece of timber
exactly this long. Since the smallest unit of
measurement we are likely to have on a tape
measure is a millimetre, and this length is closer
to 867 mm than 866 mm, then we could measure
and cut each piece of timber to be 867 mm.
In both of these examples we have approximated the
result of a calculation to make the answer meaningful.

This process of
approximating
numbers is also
called rounding off.

129

130

## Rational Numbers (Chapter 5) Syllabus reference NS5.2.1

Example 1
Write down the value of the digit 7 in each of the following numbers.
a 273.6

b 1407.2

86.457

d 2764

a 7 tens or 7 10 (= 70)

b 7 units or 7 1 (= 7)

1
7
c 7 thousandths or 7 ------------- (= ------------- )
1000
1000

## d 7 hundreds or 7 100 (= 700)

Exercise 5A
1

Write down the value of the digit 6 in each of the following numbers.
a 465.9
b 2346.1
c 3698
e 16 382 000
f 12.836
g 5.698
i 20 600
j 0.0006

d 6284
h 30.562

Example 2
Round off to the nearest thousand:
a 7390

b 24 830

c 46 500

a Round off 7390 to the nearest thousand means: is 7390 closer to 7000 or 8000?
6000

7000

8000

7390
By drawing part of a number line showing thousands and using the digit in the
hundreds column (3) to find the approximate position of 7390, we can see that it
is closer to 7000, that is 7390  7000, to the nearest thousand.
Note that the digit to the right of the thousands column (3) determines to which
number it is closer.
b Round off 24 830 to the nearest thousand means: is 24 830 closer to 24 000 or
25 000?
23 000

24 000

25 000

24 830
By drawing part of a number line showing thousands and using the digit in the
hundreds column (8) to find the approximate position of 24 830, we can see that it
is closer to 25 000, that is 24 830  25 000, to the nearest thousand.
Note that the digit to the right of the thousands column (8) determines to which
number it is closer.

## c Round off 46 500 to the nearest thousand means

is 46 500 closer to 46 000 or 47 000?
45 000

46 000

By convention means
everyone agrees to do
it this way.

47 000

46 500
By drawing part of a number line showing thousands and
using the digit in the hundreds column (5) to find the
position of 46 500, we know that it is exactly in the middle
of 46 000 and 47 000. By convention, we round off to 47 000,
that is 46 500  47 000, to the nearest thousand.
To round off a number to the nearest thousand, locate the digit in the thousands column.
If the digit to the right of the thousands column is smaller than 5, retain the thousands digit and
replace the digits to the right of it by zeros.
If the digit to the right of the thousands column is bigger than 5, increase the thousands digit by one
and replace the digits to the right of it by zeros. This is called rounding up.
By convention, if the digit to the right of the thousands column is equal to 5, round up.

Example 3

## The symbols  and

mean approximately
equal to.

a 874 296

b 23 741

2520

## a The digit in the thousands column is 4. The digit to the

right of it is 2, which is smaller than 5. Hence we replace
all the digits to the right of 4 with zeros.
874 296  874 000, to the nearest thousand
b The digit in the thousands column is 3. The digit to the right
of it is 7, which is bigger than 5. Hence we increase the
thousands digit by one and replace all the digits to the
To the nearest
right of it by zeros.
thousand is known as
the level of
23 741  24 000, to the nearest thousand
c The digit in the thousands column is 2. The digit to
the right of it is equal to 5. Hence we increase
the thousands digit by one and replace all the
digits to the right of it by zeros.
2520  3000, to the nearest thousand

131

132

## Round off to the nearest thousand:

a 36 800
b 83 500
f 623 490
g 180 524
k 760
l 390

c 524 100
h 6287

d 8299
i 2999

e 18 560
j 400 721

Example 4
Round off:
a 2380 to the nearest hundred
c 28.5 to the nearest whole number

## Using the method of examples 2 and 3:

a Locate the digit in the hundreds column (3). The digit to the right of it is 8, which
is bigger than 5. Hence we round up.
2380  2400 to the nearest hundred
b Locate the digit in the tens column (6). The digit to the right of it is 2, which is
smaller than 5. Hence we round off.
7862  7860 to the nearest ten
c Locate the digit in the units column (8). The digit to the right of it is 5. Hence we
round up.
28.5  29 to the nearest whole number

a 5360
b 16 829
f 240 230
g 3075
k 86
l 29

c 20 421
h 9628

d 849
i 450

e 369
j 147

a 674
b 2368
f 28
g 306
k 8
l 4

c 825
h 20 056

d 1056
i 409

e 73
j 1251

a 16.7
b 25.3
c 81.5
f 265.07
g 20.9
h 106.28
k 0.71
l 0.36

d 236.67
i 300.7

e 583.1
j 55.5

i 1000
ii 100
iii 10
a 46 783.5
b 28 456.7
c 39 165.5
e 182 678.5

iv 1
d 8462.3

## Rational Numbers (Chapter 5) Syllabus reference NS5.2.1

Example 5
Round off to the nearest 1000:
a 39 600

99 798

a Locate the digit in the thousands column (9). The digit to the right of it is 6, which
is bigger than 5. Hence we increase the thousands digit by one (increasing 39 to
40) and replace all the digits to the right by zeros.
39 600  40 000 to the nearest 1000
b Locate the digit in the thousands column (9). The digit to the right of it is 7, which
is bigger than 5. Hence we increase the thousands digit by one (increasing 99 to
100) and replace all the digits to the right by zeros.
99 698  100 000 to the nearest 1000

a 29 700
b 59 854

c 179 500

d 199 870

e 799 500

a 3970
b 5963

c 23 950

d 79 980

e 19 965

## Round off to the nearest 10:

a 698
b 1795

c 32 599

d 99

e 6999

1 decimal
place can be
abbreviated to
1 d.p.

Example 6
Round off 12.3815 to:
a 1 decimal place
c 3 decimal places

b 2 decimal places

## a Locate the digit in the first column after the decimal

point (3). The digit to the right of it is 8, which is bigger
than 5. Hence we increase the 3 by one and delete any
digits to the right of it.
12.3815  12.4 to 1 d.p.
b Locate the digit in the second column after the decimal point (8). The digit to the
right of it is 1, which is smaller than 5. Hence we round off at the 8 and delete any
digits to the right of it.
12.3815  12.38 to 2 d.p.
c Locate the digit in the third column after the decimal point (1). The digit to the right
of it is 5. Hence we increase the 1 by one and delete any digits to the right of it.
12.3815  12.382 to 3 d.p.

133

134

10

11

a 1 d.p.
b 2 d.p.

c 3 d.p.

a 8.4382
b 6.5839
f 21.6029
g 4.0611

i 1 d.p.
c 0.8625
h 5.0437

ii 2 d.p.
iii 3 d.p.
d 0.1864
i 7.0069

e 18.5555
j 3.0002

## The last zero must

be shown in order to
indicate the level of
accuracy of our
approximation.

Example 7
Round off:
a 2.497 correct to 2 decimal places
b 19.96 correct to 1 decimal place

a Locate the digit in the second column after the decimal point (9).
The digit to the right of it is 7, which is bigger than 5. Hence we
increase the 9 by one (increasing 49 to 50) and delete any digits
to the right of it.
2.497  2.50 to 2 d.p.
b Locate the digit in the first column after the decimal point (9). The digit to the
right of it is 6, which is bigger than 5. Hence we increase the 9 by one (increasing
199 to 200) and delete any digits to the right of it.
19.96  20.0 to 1 d.p.
12

Round off:
a 3.598 to 2 d.p.
e 0.996 to 2 d.p.

b 49.96 to 1 d.p.
f 4.8997 to 3 d.p.

c
g

2.6895 to 3 d.p.
99.98 to 1 d.p.

d 12.997 to 2 d.p.
h 69.995 to 2 d.p.

Example 8
When a number was rounded off to the nearest 10, the answer was 60.
a What is the smallest the number could have been?
b What is the largest the number could have been? Discuss.
c Write a mathematical statement that shows the range of possible numbers.
a 55 is halfway between 50 and 60 but by convention is rounded up to 60. This is the
smallest the number could have been.
b We cannot specify the largest number but we do know that it has to be less than 65
(because 65 would be rounded up to 70).
c The number could be equal to 55 or between 55 and 65. Mathematicians write this as:
55 number < 65.

## Rational Numbers (Chapter 5) Syllabus reference NS5.2.1

13

When a number was rounded off to the nearest 10, the answer was 80.
a What is the smallest the number could have been?
b What is the largest the number could have been?
c Write a mathematical statement that shows the range of possible numbers.

14

When a number was rounded off to the nearest 100, the answer was 400.
a What is the smallest the number could have been?
b What is the largest the number could have been?
c Write a mathematical statement that shows the range of possible numbers.

15

## For each of the following:

i What is the smallest the number could have been?
ii What is the largest the number could have been?
iii Write a mathematical statement that shows the range of possible numbers, given that
when the number was rounded off:
a to the nearest 1000, the answer was 28 000
b to the nearest 1 (whole number), the answer was 43
c to 1 decimal place, the answer was 5.7
d to 2 decimal places, the answer was 6.32

16

Emily was measured to be 163 cm tall, to the nearest centimetre. Within what range of values
does her actual height lie?

17

The weight of a can of fruit was measured as 420 g, to the nearest 10 g. Within what range
does the actual weight of the can lie?

18

The time taken for Ken to complete the 100 m sprint at the athletics carnival was 12.4 s, to
the nearest tenth of a second. Within what range does his actual time lie?

B. SIGNIFICANT FIGURES
A method that combines the rounding off techniques of section A of this chapter involves the use of significant
figures.
The first significant figure in a number is the first digit that is not a zero (reading from left to right).

Example 1
Write down the first significant figure in each of the following numbers.
a 3790

b 4.0625

0.002 86

a 3
b 4
c 2

135

136

## Rational Numbers (Chapter 5) Syllabus reference NS5.2.1

Exercise 5B
1

Write down the first significant figure in each of the following numbers.
a 2876
b 5 069 836
c 1.0035
d 0.0791

e 0.000 802

Significant figures
may be abbreviated
to s.f.

Example 2
Round off 63.75091 correct to:
a 1
d 4

b 2
c 3
e 5 significant figures.

## a The first significant figure is the 6 which is in

the tens column. In this case we are required
to round off to the nearest 10.
63.75091  60 correct to 1 significant figure.
b The second significant figure is the 3 which is in the units column. In this case we
are required to round off to the nearest 1 (whole number).
63.75091  64 correct to 2 s.f.
c The third significant figure is the 7 which is in the first place after the decimal
point. In this case we are required to round off to 1 decimal place.
63.75091  63.8 correct to 3 s.f.
d The fourth significant figure is the 5 which is in the second place after the decimal
point. In this case we are required to round off to 2 decimal places.
63.75091  63.75 correct to 4 s.f.
e The fifth significant figure is the 0 which is in the third place after the decimal
point. In this case, we are required to round off to 3 decimal places.
63.75091  63.751 correct to 5 s.f.

## Round off 28.470 58 correct to:

a 1
b 2
c 3
e 5 significant figures, giving the level of accuracy of the answer.
Round off each of the following numbers to:
i 1
ii 2
iii 3 significant figures.
a 428.3
b 6238
c 7.819
e 53 689
f 725 600
g 0.039 26
i 6103
j 2005

d 4

d 0.5273
h 0.005 072

## Rational Numbers (Chapter 5) Syllabus reference NS5.2.1

Example 3
Write correct to 3 significant figures:
a 249 700

b 629.51

0.001 896

d 6.998

a The third significant figure is the 9 in the 1000s column. We need to round off to
the nearest 1000.
249 700  250 000 to 3 s.f.
b The third significant figure is in the units column. We need to round off to the
nearest whole number.
629.51  630 to 3 s.f.
c The third significant figure is in the fifth place after the decimal point. We need to
round off to 5 decimal places.
0.001 896  0.001 90 to 3 s.f.
d The third significant figure is in the second place after the decimal point. We need
to round off to 2 decimal places.
6.998  7.00 to 3 s.f.

## Write correct to 3 significant figures:

a 369 800
b 239.6
f 499.7
g 0.039 98

c 0.005 798
h 0.299 9

d 8.997
i 0.001 999

e 299 700
j 999 900

Example 4
When a number was rounded off to 2 significant figures, the answer was
a 430
b 3.7
i What is the smallest the number could have been?
ii What is the largest the number could have been?
iii Write a mathematical statement that shows the range of possible numbers.
a The second significant figure is in the tens column, hence the number has been
rounded off to the nearest 10.
i 425 is halfway between 420 and 430 but by convention is rounded up to 430.
This is the smallest the number could have been.
ii We cannot specify the largest number but we do know that it has to be less
than 435 (because 435 would be rounded up to 440).
iii The number could be equal to 425 or between 425 and 435. Mathematicians
write this as:
425 number < 435

137

138

## Rational Numbers (Chapter 5) Syllabus reference NS5.2.1

b The second significant figure is in the first column after the decimal point, hence
the number has been rounded off to 1 decimal place.
i 3.65 is halfway between 3.6 and 3.7 but by convention is rounded up to 3.7.
This is the smallest the number could have been.
ii We cannot specify the largest number but we do know that it has to be less
than 3.75 (because 3.75 would be rounded up to 3.8).
iii The number could be equal to 3.65 or between 3.65 and 3.75. Mathematicians
write this as:
3.65 number < 3.75

When a number was rounded off to 2 significant figures the answer was:
a 560
b 8.2
c 48
d 0.72
e 37 000
f 0.084
i What is the smallest the number could have been?
ii What is the largest the number could have been?
iii Write a mathematical statement that shows the range of possible numbers.

When a number was rounded off to 3 significant figures the answer was:
a 483
b 3.86
c 14 500
d 0.128
e 56.9
f 3210
Write a mathematical statement that shows the range of possible numbers in each case.

For each of the following write a mathematical statement that shows the range of possible
numbers, given that when rounded to:
a 2 s.f. the answer is 300
b 2 s.f. the answer is 3000
c 3 s.f. the answer is 6000
d 3 s.f. the answer is 24 000
e 3 s.f. the answer is 500 000
f 2 s.f. the answer is 0.80
g 3 s.f. the answer is 0.400

Example 5
How many significant figures are there in each of the following numbers?
a 294

b 0.3

4.20

d 0.0017

e 56 000

a 3
b 1
c 3
d 2
e We are unable to tell precisely. 56 300 rounded to the nearest thousand  56 000;
55 970 rounded to the nearest hundred  56 000; 56 003 rounded to the nearest
ten  56 000; 55 999.6 rounded to the nearest whole number  56 000. So there
could be 2, 3, 4 or 5 s.f.

## Rational Numbers (Chapter 5) Syllabus reference NS5.2.1

How many significant figures are there in each of the following numbers?
a 38
b 0.49
c 2896
d 0.075
f 1.800
g 0.0053
h 0.060
i 400
k 23 000
l 8 000 000

e 0.40
j 7000

The number of
significant figures
indicates the level of
accuracy of the
measurement.

Example 6

## Explain the difference between measurements of:

a 5.62 m and 5.620 m

## a 5.62 m has 3 significant figures. The last significant figure

(2) is in the hundredths (of a metre) column. This indicates
that the measurement has been made to the nearest
hundredth of a metre, i.e. to the nearest centimetre.
5.620 m has 4 significant figures. The last significant
figure (0) is in the thousandths (of a metre) column.
This indicates that the measurement has been made to
the nearest thousandth of a metre, i.e. to the nearest millimetre.
So 5.62 m has been measured to the nearest centimetre, and 5.620 has been
measured to the nearest millimetre. The second measurement is more accurate.
b 2.4 kg has 2 significant figures. The last significant figure (4) is in the tenths
(of a kilogram) column. This indicates that the measurement has been made to
the nearest tenth of a kilogram, i.e. to the nearest 100 g.
2.40 kg has 3 significant figures. The last significant figure (0) is in the hundredths
(of a kilogram) column. This indicates that the measurement has been made to the
nearest hundredth of a kilogram, i.e. to the nearest 10 g.
So 2.4 kg has been measured to the nearest 100 g, and 2.40 kg has been measured
to the nearest 10 g. The second measurement is more accurate.

10

## Explain the difference between measurements of:

a 3.64 m and 3.640 m
b
c 12 s and 12.0 s
d
e 23.8 s and 23.80 s
f
g 1.5 t and 1.50 t
h

## 5.8 kg and 5.80 kg

36 cm and 36.0 cm
7.29 km and 7.290 km
5.83 L and 5.830 L

Working in groups, discuss the level of accuracy of the numbers in the following statements.
(You could consider the number of significant figures and how the numbers may have been
rounded.)
a There were 42 000 people at the concert.
b The profit made by the bank was \$600 million.
c The radius of the Earth is 6400 km.
d The distance of Mars from the Sun is 229 000 000 km.
e Light travels at 300 000 km/h.
f The length of the influenza virus is 0.000 26 mm.

139

140

Exercise 5C
1

## a Calculate 12 843 + 678 + 15 632.

b Round off the answer to part a, correct to the nearest 100.
c Round off to the nearest 100:
i 12 853
ii 678
iii 15 692
d Find the sum of the three answers in part c.
e Compare the answers to parts b and d. Comment.

## a Calculate 8085 2834 correct to the nearest 10.

b Round off to the nearest 10:
i 8085
ii 2834
c Find the difference between the answers in part b.
d Compare the answers to parts a and c. Comment.

a
b
c
d

## Multiply 2.341 by 8 and round off the answer to 1 decimal place.

Write 2.341 correct to 1 decimal place.
Multiply the answer to part b by 8.
Compare the answers to parts a and c. Comment.

## Truncate to 1 decimal place

means to cut off all digits
after the first decimal place
(without rounding).

## a Calculate 4.83 29.68 and give the answer to 1 decimal place.

b Round off each of the numbers in part a to 1 decimal place and
then perform the multiplication, giving the answer to 1 decimal place.
c Compare the answers to parts a and b. Comment.
d Truncate each of the numbers in part a to 1 decimal place
and then perform the multiplication, giving the answer
to 1 decimal place.
e Compare the answers to parts a and d. Comment.

## a Calculate 32.683 + 16.87 + 25.619.

b Round off the answer to part a, correct to 2 significant figures.
c Round off to 2 s.f.:
i 32.683
ii 16.87
iii 25.619
d Find the sum of the three answers in part c to 2 s.f.
e Compare the answers to parts b and d. Comment.

a
b
c
d

## Multiply 3.5 by 17 and round off the answer to 1 s.f.

Write 3.5 and 17, correct to 1 s.f.
Multiply the numbers in part b and give the answer to 1 s.f.
Compare the answers to parts a and c. Comment.

## a Calculate 16.358 7.499 giving the answer to 3 s.f.

b Find:
i 16.358
ii 7.499 correct to 3 s.f.
c Divide the answers in b and give the answer to 3 s.f.
d Compare the answers to parts a and c. Comment.

## a Multiply 32.86 by 128.57, giving the answer correct to 3 significant figures.

b Round off each of the numbers in part a to 3 significant figures and then perform the
multiplication, giving the answer to 3 significant figures.
c Compare the answers to a and b. Comment.

## a Calculate 145 784, giving the answer correct to 2 significant figures.

b Round off each of the numbers in part a to 2 significant figures and then perform the
division, giving the answer to 2 significant figures.
c Compare the answers to a and b. Comment.

10

## a Find 11 correct to 2 significant figures.

b Multiply the answer in part a by itself (i.e. square the answer.) Is the result 11?
c Repeat parts a and b using
i 3
ii 4
iii 5
iv 6 significant figures.

It should be clear from the above questions that rounding numbers during a calculation often affects the
accuracy of the result. So never round off before the last step of a calculation.
11

The value of is 3.141 592 65 correct to 9 significant figures. Calculate and comment on the
accuracy of the following approximations for , i.e. to how many significant figures is the
approximation accurate?
22
------ to 1, 2, 3, s.f. and compare with the value
a -----(Round off the value of 22
7
7
of to 1, 2, 3, s.f.)
355
b ---------113

553 2
c ----------
312

31

9.87

Example 1
Five metres of rope have to be cut into three equal lengths. Calculate the length
of each piece, rounding off to a reasonable level of accuracy.
5 m 3 = 1.6666 m
A reasonable level of accuracy for the result of this calculation could be correct to
4 significant figures or correct to 3 decimal places, as this would be equivalent to
correct to the nearest millimetre, i.e. 5 m 3  1.667 m.
Note that if our tape measure only showed centimetres, then rounding off to
3 significant figures or 2 decimal places (i.e. to the nearest centimetre) would
be more appropriate, i.e. 5 m 3  1.67 m.
Hence, several answers are possible, depending on the accuracy of our measuring
instrument.

141

142

## Rational Numbers (Chapter 5) Syllabus reference NS5.2.1

12

Perform each of the following calculations, rounding off the answer to a reasonable level of
accuracy.
a 100 mm of cotton has to be cut into three equal pieces. Find the length of each piece.
b 100 cm of string has to be cut into three equal pieces. Find the length of each piece.
c 100 m of rope has to be cut into three equal pieces. Find the length of each piece.
d 2 m of rope has to be cut into three equal pieces. Find the length of each piece.
e A running track is 11 m wide. If the track is to be divided into 8 lanes, how wide should
each lane be?
f There are 2100 families in a country town and the total number of children is 4897. Find
the average number of children per family.
g A bank announced that its annual profit was \$170 million. Calculate its average monthly
profit.

D. RECURRING DECIMALS
As a decimal

3
--8

= 0.375 and

1
--3

= 0.333 33

## When converted to a decimal, the fraction

three places have been filled.

3
--8

## When the fraction 1--3- is converted to a decimal,

the digits after the decimal point keep repeating
or recurring. We call this a recurring decimal.

When converted to
a decimal, all
fractions either
terminate or recur.

0.3333 is written 0. 3
The dot above the 3 indicates that this digit recurs.

Example 1
Write the following recurring decimals using the dot notation.
a 0.4444
d 0.415 415 415

0. 4

b 0.4 1

b 0.411 11
e 0.415 341 534 153

0. 4 1

0. 4 1 5

## The dots are put

above the first and last
digits of the group of
digits that repeat.

0.414 141

e 0. 4 15 3

Exercise 5D
1

## Write the following recurring decimals using the dot notation.

a 0.7777
b 0.355 55
c 0.282 828
d 0.325 325 325
e 0.678 467 846 784
f 1.4444
g 6.922 22
h 0.494 949
i 0.234 234 234
j 0.033 33
k 0.909 090
l 0.536 666
m 0.217 77

Example 2
5
2
a --b --- to a decimal.
8
3
a By calculating 5 8 or using the fraction key

5
--8

= 0.625.

b By calculating 2 3 or using the fraction key, the display could show 0.666666666
or 0.666666667, depending on the calculator used.
Both are approximations for the recurring decimal 0. 6 . In the first case the answer
has been truncated (because of the limitations of the calculator display) and, in the
second case, the calculator has automatically rounded up to the last decimal place,
2
i.e. --- = 0. 6 .
3

## Convert the following fractions to decimals.

a

7
--8

5
--9

1
--6

2
-----11

5
e 1 ----12

1 2--3-

11
-----18

22
-----33

-----1 13
22

11
-----24

Example 3
Convert the following decimals to fractions:

a 0.8

b 0.63

8
4
a 0.8 = ------ = --10
5

63
0.63 = ---------100

## Convert the following decimals to fractions.

a 0.6
b 0.78
c 0.125

0.148

148
37
c 0.148 = ------------- = ---------1000 250

d 0.08

e 0.256

143

144

## Rational Numbers (Chapter 5) Syllabus reference NS5.2.1

Example 4
Convert 0. 4 to a fraction.
Let n = 0. 4
n = 0.4444
10n = 4.4444
9n = 4

then
by subtraction

4
n = --9

hence

4
0. 4 = --9

i.e.

## Convert the following recurring decimals to fractions.

a

Multiplying by 10
moves the decimal
point one place to
the right.

0. 2

0. 3

0. 5

0. 8

0. 7

0. 9 8

## Convert 0. 9 to a fraction. Discuss the result with your class.

Example 5
Convert 0. 5 7 to a fraction.

then
by subtraction
hence
i.e.

Multiplying by 100
makes the decimal
parts the same.

n = 0.575757
100n = 57.575757
99n = 57
57 19
n = ------ = -----99 33
19
0. 5 7 = -----33

a 0. 4 6
b 0. 9 1
c 0. 3 0

0. 6 3

a 0. 5 8 6
b 0. 2 3 9
c 0. 8 5 2
d 0. 4 2 3
e

0. 6 1 5

## Rational Numbers (Chapter 5) Syllabus reference NS5.2.1

Example 6
Convert 0.3 5 to a fraction.
Let n = 0.3 5
then
and
by subtraction
hence
i.e.

n
10n
100n
90n

=
=
=
=

0.35555
3.5555
35.5555
32
32 16
n = ------ = -----90 45
16

0.3 5 = -----45

We need to make
the decimal parts
the same before
we subtract.

## Convert the following recurring decimals to fractions.

a 0.3 8
b 0.6 5
c 0.9 2

d 0.1 6

0.0 9

0.04 9

Example 7
Convert 0.51 2 to a fraction.
Let n = 0.51 2
then
and
by subtraction
hence
i.e.

n
100n
1000n
900n

=
=
=
=

0.512222
51.2222
512.2222
461
461
n = ---------900
461
0.51 2 = ---------900

## Convert the following recurring decimals to fractions.

a 0.54 6
b 0.72 3
c 0.76 2

0.90 5

E. RATES
A rate is a comparison between different kinds of quantities. For instance, we could compare
distance travelled with the time taken to travel this distance (this well known rate is called
speed), mass of fertiliser with the area to be fertilised, cost of washing powder with the mass
bought, and so on.

145

146

## Rational Numbers (Chapter 5) Syllabus reference NS5.2.1

Example 1
Farmer White spread 1500 kg of fertiliser over 1200 m2 of a field. Write the rate
of application of fertiliser in simplified form.
We are required to find the amount of fertiliser per (one) square metre of area.
1500 kg
1500 kg per 1200 m2 = ------------- ------21200 m
kg
kg
------ is usually written
2
= 1.25 ------2m
2
m
kg/m .
2
= 1.25 kg/m

Exercise 5E
1

a
b
c
d
e

Julie paid \$8.60 for a 2.5 kg packet of washing powder. Find the cost per kilogram.
Ben was paid \$100.48 for 8 hours of work. Calculate his rate of pay (per hour).
Kylie typed 660 words in 12 min. How many words per minute can she type?
On a journey of 882 km a car used 84 L of petrol. Express the petrol consumption in km/L.
A truck travelled 585 km in 6 1--2- h. Calculate the average speed of the truck.

Example 2
Convert a rate of:
a 83 cents/metre to cents/centimetre
b \$8.70/hour to
i cents/hour
a 83 c/m

83 c
= ------ ---1 m
83 c
= ---------- ------100 cm
c
= 0.83 ------cm
or 0.83 cents/centimetre

ii cents/minute
b i \$8.70/h = \$ 8.70
----------1h
870 c
= ---------- --- or 870 cents/hour
1 h
870 c
ii
= ---------- ---------60 min
c
= 14.5 ---------- or 14.5 cents/minute
min

## Rational Numbers (Chapter 5) Syllabus reference NS5.2.1

Example 3
Convert 12 tonnes/hectare to grams/square metre.
Write the rate as a
fraction then convert.

12 t
12 t/ha = ----------1 ha
12 1000 1000 g
= ---------------------------------------------- ------210000
m
= 1200 g/m2
2

Convert:
a 91 cents/m to cents/cm
c 84 L/h to L/min
e 9% p.a. to % per quarter
g \$50.40/h to cents/min
i 6.5 t/ha to g/m2
k \$36/L to c/mL

b
d
f
h
j
l

## 125 cents/m to cents/mm

15% p.a to % per month
\$9.60/h to cents/min
18 t/ha to g/m2
\$19/kg to c/g
7.5 kg/L to g/mL

Convert 72 km/h to

km/min

ii m/min

iii m/s

## Convert 108 km/h to

km/min

ii m/min

iii m/s

Convert 60 km/h to

km/min

ii m/min

iii m/s

A 600 litre fish tank was filled in 2 hours. Calculate the rate of flow of water into the tank in:
i L/h
ii L/min
iii mL/s

Example 4
Convert:
a 5 m/s to km/h

b 12 g/m2 to kg/ha

a 5 m/s = 5 60 m/min

## b 12 g/m2 = 12 10 000 g/ha

12 10000
= ----------------------------- kg/ha
1000

= 5 60 60 m/h
5 60 60
= ----------------------------- km/h
1000

= 120 kg/ha

= 18 km/h

Convert:
a 8 m/s to km/h
d 15 g/m2 to kg/ha
g 0.5 c/g to \$/kg
j 0.8 g/mL to kg/L

b 20 m/s to km/h
e 8 g/m2 to kg/ha
h 12 c/min to \$/h

c
f
I

35 m/s to km/h
25 g/m2 to kg/ha
2 mL/s to L/h

147

148

## An athlete can run 100 m in 10 s. Calculate his speed in km/h.

A car uses 125 L of petrol to travel a distance of 1000 km. Calculate the rate of petrol
consumption in:
i L/km
ii L/100 km
iii mL/km

10

## A machine fills bottles at the rate of 240 bottles/h.

a How many bottles could be filled in 4 1--2- hours?
b How long would it take to fill 6000 bottles?
c Convert the rate to bottles/min.
d How many bottles could be filled in 45 min?
e How long would it take to fill 200 bottles?

11

## Paint covers walls at the rate of 16 m2/L.

a What area could be covered by a 20 L drum?
b How much paint would be needed to cover an area of 240 m2?
c Convert the rate to m2/mL.
d What area could be covered by a
i 500 mL
ii 200 mL can of paint?

12

## A car travels at an average speed of 90 km/h.

a How far will the car travel in 5 h?
b How long will it take the car to travel 675 km?
c Convert the speed to m/s.
d If the time it takes to stop the car from this speed is 5.4 s, how far does the car travel
before it stops?

13

## Water can flow from a tap at the rate of 4.5 L/min.

a How much water would flow from the tap in 1 h?
b How long would it take to fill a 40 L drum?
c Convert the rate to mL/s.
d If a plastic bottle is filled in 24 s, what is the capacity of the bottle?

14

## A patient in hospital is given a saline solution intravenously at the rate of 50 mL/h.

a How much saline solution will the patient receive in 24 h?
b If each millilitre contains 12 drops, convert the rate to drops/min.

15

A telecommunications company quotes its rate for mobile phone calls as 15c/call plus
8.5c/30 s (or part thereof).
1 gram = 1000
a Convert the time rate to c/min.
milligrams
b What is the total cost of a 3-minute phone call?
c Use the answer to part b to calculate the average cost per minute
of a 3-minute phone call.
d How much would it cost to make a call lasting 5 min and 10 s?
e Joo-Mee decides that when she rings her friends she cannot
afford to spend more than \$1 per phone call. What is the
maximum time she can spend talking to a friend?

16

Slopon UV protection cream contains 72 g/L of the chemical titanide. Express this
concentration in:
i g/mL
ii mg/mL
iii mg/10 mL

## Rational Numbers (Chapter 5) Syllabus reference NS5.2.1

non-calculator activities

Round off:
a 34 671 to the nearest thousand
c 15.187 to the nearest whole number
e 7.6351 to 3 significant figures

## b 7.296 to 2 decimal places

d 2454 to 2 significant figures

How many significant figures are there in each of the following numbers?
a 2.34
b 0.0087
c 40 000

a 0.4444
b 0.525 252
e 0.213 213 213

## By division, convert to a decimal:

Convert 0. 3 7 to a fraction.

Convert:

a 36 km/h to m/s

c 0.566 66

3
--8

d 0.576 666

4
--9

## b 1.5 g/mL to kg/L.

Language in Mathematics
1

## The value of the digit 7 in the number 13.475 is:

A 7 tens
B 7 tenths
C 7 hundreds

D 7 hundredths

Explain the difference between the measurements 9 seconds and 9.0 seconds.

## Complete the following words by replacing the missing vowels:

a fr__ct__ __n
b d__c__m__l
c s__m
d pr__d__ct
e t__rm__n__t__

Write in your own words the meanings of: recurring, convert, retain, truncate, convention.

149

150

## Rational Numbers (Chapter 5) Syllabus reference NS5.2.1

Three of the words in the following list are spelt incorrectly. Find these words and write the
correct spelling:
significent, repeating, deleet, figgers, accuracy.

How many words of three or more letters can you make from the word APPROXIMATION.
(No proper names or plurals allowed.)

Glossary

accuracy

affect

approximate

calculation

convention

convert

decimal

delete

digit

effect

equivalent

figure

fraction

identify

product

rate

recurring

repeating

retain

round off

significant

sum

terminate

truncate

1

A 30
B 3

A 23
B 24

3
C -----10
C 23 000

## When 7982 is rounded to the nearest hundred the answer is:

A 7900
B 7990
C 7980

notation

3
D ---------100

D 24 000

D 8000

Which of the following numbers are not equal to 36.5, when rounded off correct to
1 decimal place?
A 36.48
B 36.54
C 36.55
D 36.50

When a number is rounded off to the nearest 10 the answer is 70. The smallest the number
could be is:
A 69.99
B 69
C 65.01
D 65

The mass of a soup can was given as 380 g to the nearest 10 g. The actual mass of the can
lies in the range:
A 370 mass < 390 g
B 370 < mass < 390 g
C 375 mass < 385 g
D 375 < mass < 385 g

A 0
B 5
C 6

D 4

## Rational Numbers (Chapter 5) Syllabus reference NS5.2.1

Which of the following numbers are not equal to 4600 when rounded off to 2 significant
figures?
A 4639
B 4608
C 4550
D 4650

A 4.597
B 4.598

10

C 4.59

## Rounding numbers before the last step of a calculation:

A never affects the accuracy of the answer
B often affects the accuracy of the answer
C always affects the accuracy of the answer
D makes the answer bigger than it should be

12

A 0.6444
B 0.646 464

13

14

A 1.777777778
B 1.777777777

16

B 11n = 63

A 0.13 kg/m2
B 1.3 kg/m2

D 0.034

C 0.064 44

## D 0.064 064 064

C 1.8

D 1. 7

C 99n = 63

D 90n = 63

C 13 kg/m2

D 130 kg/m2

To convert 0. 6 3 to a fraction:
Step 1
Let
n = 0.636363
Step 2
then
100n = 63.636363
Step 3
63
7
Step 4
hence
n = ------ = -----99 11
The missing Step 3 is:
A 7n = 63

15

D 4.60

A 7.29
B 5.0
C 36

11

## Which of the following rates are not equivalent to 5 m/s?

A 300 m/min
B 18 000 m/h
C 18 km/h

D 180 km/h

If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
Section

151

16

710

11

1214

15, 16

152

## Rational Numbers (Chapter 5) Syllabus reference 5.2.1

REVIEW SET 5A
1

Write down the value of the digit 5 in each of the following numbers.
a 253.6
b 1405.2
c 86.457

d 2564

Round off:
a 2470 to the nearest hundred

## Round off 8.4625 to:

a 1 decimal place

b 2 decimal places

c 3 decimal places

Round off:

## b 19.98 correct to 1 decimal place

When a number was rounded off to the nearest 10, the answer was 40.
a What is the smallest the number could have been?
b What is the largest the number could have been? Discuss.
c Write a mathematical statement that shows the range of possible numbers.

Write down the first significant figure in each of the following numbers.
a 3790

10

b 2

c 3

d 4

b 0.6

c 8.20

0.0032

## Explain the difference between measurements of 3.65 m and 3.650 m.

Write the following recurring decimals using the dot notation.
a 0.2222

b 0.422 22

11

12

## Convert the following decimals to fractions:

a 0.6

13

e 5 significant figures

How many significant figures are there in each of the following numbers?
a 795

c 0.002 86

## Round off 48.350 92 correct to:

a 1

b 4.0625

Convert to a fraction:

0.73
a 0. 4

c 0.424 242

3
--8

c 0.138
b 0. 4 1

b 1 2--3-

e 28 000

14

15

## Convert 1.2 L/km to L/100 km.

REVIEW SET 5B
1

Write down the value of the digit 6 in each of the following numbers.
a

253.6

1607.2

83.456

2564

Round off:
a

## Round off 1.5607 to:

a 1 decimal place

b 2 decimal places

c 3 decimal places

Round off:

## a 2.695 correct to 2 decimal places

Susan was measured to be 164 cm tall, to the nearest centimetre. Within what range of values
does her actual height lie?

Write down the first significant figure in each of the following numbers.
a 24 560

b 15.0715

10

11

0.005 09

b 539.53

c 0.002 397

d 1.998

How many significant figures are there in each of the following numbers?
a 37

a 365 400

b 1.3

c 17.90

0.0008

e 4000

## Explain the difference between measurements of 1.85 kg and 1.850 kg.

Write the following recurring decimals using dot notation.
a

0.3333

b 0.366 66

c 0.282 828

3
-----16

b 1 7--9-

153

154

12

## Convert the following decimals to fractions:

a

0.3

13

Convert to a fraction: a 0. 8

14

15

## Convert 5 mL/s to L/h.

0.81

c 0.267
b

km/min

0. 4 9

ii m/min

iii m/s

REVIEW SET 5C
1

Write down the value of the digit 8 in each of the following numbers.
a

318.6

b 36.8

c 23.487

Round off:
a 13 827 to the nearest hundred

## Round off 13.0652 to:

a 1 decimal place

b 2 decimal places

c 3 decimal places

Round off:

Write down the first significant figure in each of the following numbers.
a

3790

b 4.0625

c 0.002 86

## Round off 17.6308 correct to:

a 1

8567

b 2

c 3

d 4

e 5 significant figures

When a number was rounded off to 2 significant figures the answer was 430.
a What is the smallest the number could have been?
b What is the largest the number could have been? Discuss.
c Write a mathematical statement that shows the range of possible numbers.

How many significant figures are there in each of the following numbers?
a 795

b 0.6

8.20

d 0.0032

28 000

9
10

## Explain the difference between measurements of 6 cm and 6.0 cm.

Write the following recurring decimals using dot notation.
a 0.1111.

b 0.377 77

c 0.929 292

e 0.423 333
11

12

## Convert these decimals to fractions:

13

Convert to a fraction:

14

15

## Convert 2 cents/min to \$/day.

0.2

0. 8

11
-----40

-----b 1 11
12

0.58

0.125

b 0. 6 3 5

REVIEW SET 5D
1

Write down the value of the digit 3 in each of the following numbers.
a 12.03

b 3568

c 93.257

d 530.8

Round off:
a 78 463 to the nearest hundred

## Round off 2.0566 to:

a 1 decimal place

b 2 decimal places

Round off:

The weight of a can of tomatoes was measured as 240 g, to the nearest 10 g. Within what
range does the actual weight of the can lie?

Write down the first significant figure in each of the following numbers.
a 135 700

## a 3.198 correct to 2 decimal places

c 3 decimal places

b 0.0063

c 5.0084

a 24 671

67.835

c 0.050 67

d 2.995

155

156

## Rational Numbers (Chapter 5) Syllabus reference 5.2.1

How many significant figures are there in each of the following numbers?
a

9
10

462

0.5

3.60

d 0.000 93

600

## Explain the difference between measurements of 12 seconds and 12.0 seconds.

Write the following recurring decimals using dot notation.
a 0.9999

b 0.455 55

0.858 585

d 0.726 666

11

17
-----80

12

## Convert the following decimals to fractions:

0.8

13

Convert to a fraction:

a 0. 6

14

15

km/min

5
b 1 ----12

b 0.96

b 0.3 9
ii m/min

iii m/s

c 0.545

## LEY_bk9_06_finalpp Page 157 Wednesday, January 12, 2005 10:39 AM

Chapter 6
Perimeter and Area
This chapter deals with the use of formulas to find the area of
quadrilaterals, and the perimeter and area of composite figures.
At the end of this chapter you should be able to:
develop and use formulas to find the area of quadrilaterals
calculate the area and perimeter of composite figures including quadrants and semicircles
calculate the perimeter and area of sectors and composite figures involving sectors.

WM: S5.2.1S5.2.5

158

Diagnostic Test

The formula A =

1
--2

A kite

B trapezium

C rhombus

D all of these

A 30.38 cm2

B 15.19 cm2

C 11.1 cm2

D 22.2 cm2

to:
B

5.3 cm

9.8 cm

6 cm
20 cm

>

A
AC = 20 cm

2.2 cm

4 cm

>
6

A 16.61 cm

B 33.22 cm2

C 57.134 cm2

D 114.268 cm2

A 480 cm2

B 200 cm2

C 300 cm2

D 100 cm2

garden is:

5.2 m

3.8 cm

A 9.3 m

B 21.5 m

C 13.4 m

D 4.08 m

8.5 cm

B 24.6 cm

D 16.15 cm2

A 32.3 cm
C 12.3 cm
4

7.1 m

1.8 m

4.9 cm
6.2 cm

A 19.2 m

B 20.6 m

C 23.5 m

D 12.78 m

## Simone has 50 m of garden edging. The

radius of the circular garden she can
enclose with the edging is:
A 15.9 m

B 7.96 m

C 12.5 m

D 157 m

10

## The perimeter of a rhombus with

diagonals 4.1 cm and 6.3 cm is closest to:

13

A 7.7 cm

A 3.76 cm

B 7.5 cm

B 23.7 cm

C 15 cm

D 30 cm

C 440 cm

55

D 25.8 cm

8 cm
8.2 cm

14
5.8 cm

A 212 cm2
B 248 cm2

3.4 cm

C 59.6 cm2

11

A 161.7 cm2

B 59.12 cm2

C 36 cm2

D 34.8 cm2

75

D 1350 cm2

18 cm

10.1 m

16.

4.8 cm

3m
2

A 248.1 m

B 62 m

D 46.8 m2

C 88.2 m
12

25o

1.2 m

## A farmer fertilises a paddock consisting

of a rectangle and a semicircle, shown
below. The fertiliser is spread at the rate
of 2.3 kilograms per square metre. The
amount of fertiliser the farmer needs is
closest to:

15 m

15

16
28 m

A 2.6 t

B 1.2 t

C 250 kg

D 966 kg

A 29.2 m

B 9.1 m

C 12.7 m

D 9.7 m

## The area of the shape is closest to:

A 5.56 m2

B 4.25 m2

C 1.96 m2

D 10.36 m2

If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
Section

15

69

10, 11

12

1316

159

160

## A. AREA AND PERIMETER REVIEW

This section reviews conversions, area and perimeter from Stage 4.

Linear conversions
1 km = 1000 m

1 m = 100 cm

1 cm = 10 mm

Example 1
Convert:
a 50 mm to cm

b 8.6 km to m

50 mm
50
= ------ cm
10
= 5 cm

8.6 km
8.6 1000 m
= 8600 m

Area conversions
When converting area units, which are square units, the linear conversion must be squared.
Since 10 mm = 1 cm
then 102 mm2 = 12 cm2

## 100 mm2 = 1 cm2

The hectare (ha) is a special unit of area: 1 ha = 10 000 m2.

## Perimeter and Area (Chapter 6) Syllabus reference MS5.1.1, 5.2.1

Example 2
Convert:
a 25 cm2 to mm2
a

b 2000 cm2 to m2

1 cm = 10 mm
1 cm2 = 102 mm2
1 cm2 = 100 mm2
25 cm2 = 2500 mm2
2

100 cm = 1 m
1002 cm2 = 12 m2
10 000 cm2 = 1 m2
2000 cm2 = 0.2 m2
(dividing both sides by 5)

Exercise 6A
1

Convert:
a 21 cm to m
d 4 cm to mm
g 200 mm to cm
j 8.3 cm to mm
m 0.05 km to cm

b
e
h
k
n

180 mm to cm
2.3 m to cm
280 cm to m
6.3 km to m
3.2 m to mm

c
f
i
l
o

3500 m to km
1.8 km to m
5.2 m to cm
0.03 m to cm
83 000 cm to km

Convert:
a 4 cm2 to mm2
d 32 km2 to m2
g 5 ha to m2

b 31 m2 to cm2
e 40 000 cm2 to m2
h 7.3 ha to m2

c
f
i

5.3 m2 to mm2
7 000 000 mm2 to m2
42 000 m2 to ha

When converting
square units,
square the
conversion first.

Convert:
a 15 cm2 to mm2
c 32 000 cm2 to m2
e 235 m2 to cm2
g 7.82 m2 to ha
i 23 km2 to ha
k 5.2 m2 to cm2

b
d
f
h
j
l

15 ha to m2
3280 mm2 to cm2
36.5 ha to m2
3 654 200 cm2 to ha
0.004 2 ha to cm2
0.002 m2 to mm2

161

162

## Perimeter and Area (Chapter 6) Syllabus reference MS5.1.1, 5.2.1

Example 3

The perimeter of a
circle is called the
circumference.

C = 2r
C = 2 8.2
= 51.5221...
= 51.5 cm

8.2 cm

## Find the circumference of these circles, to 1 decimal place

if necessary.
a

half the
diameter.

0.4 km

5.1 cm

d
12.6 cm
48 cm

Example 4
Find the area of this rectangle.
A = lb
= 3.4 6.8 cm2
= 23.12 cm2

3.4 cm

6.8 cm

## Find the area of each rectangle.

a

12 m
16 cm
8 cm

12 m

15 m
4 cm
5 cm

Example 5
Find the area of each triangle.
a

b
3m

8m

5m

2.5 cm

6 cm
12 m

a A = 1--2- bh

b A = 1--2- bh

c A = 1--2- bh

1
--2

12 5 m2

= 30 m2

8 3 m2

1
--2

= 12 m2

1
--2

2.5 6 cm2

= 7.5 cm2

## Find the area of each triangle.

a

7m
4 cm

4m

40 m

8 cm

2 cm
9 cm

32 m

Example 6
Find the area of the parallelogram.
A = bh
= 10 5 cm2
= 50 cm2

5 cm

10 cm

163

164

## Find the area of each parallelogram.

a
b

c
6 cm

3 cm

10 cm
6 cm
12 cm

8 cm

Example 7
Find the area of these circles correct to 1 decimal place.
a

b
12 cm

5 cm

a Area
= r2
= 5 5 cm2
= 25 cm2
 78.5 cm2

b Area
= r2
= 6 6 m2
= 36 m2
113.1 m2

a
b
c
8 cm
14 m

2
6.

cm

8.5 cm

15.3 m

1.26

km

## Perimeter and Area (Chapter 6) Syllabus reference MS5.1.1, 5.2.1

Investigation 1
WM: Applying Strategies

## Formulas for area

In Stage 4 you learnt that the area of a triangle is:
A = 1--2- b h
Use this formula to find an expression for the area of a rhombus and a kite.
1

Rhombus
Use this diagram to find an expression for the area of a rhombus with diagonals x and y units
in length.
y
y
2

y
2

Kite
The formula for the area of a kite is the same as that of a rhombus. Compare this derivation
with yours from question 1.

1
2

y cm

y cm

x cm

Area =

1
--2
1
--4
1
--2

( 1--2-

y) x +

1
--2

( 1--2-

y) x

1
2

y cm

xy + xy
1
--4

= xy

## From Investigation 1, the following formulas have been developed.

Use the formula for the area of a triangle to find an expression for the area of a trapezium.

Rhombus
Trapezium
3
Use these diagrams to find an expression for the area of a trapezium.
a

cu

165

166

## B. AREA OF SPECIAL QUADRILATERALS

From Investigation 1, we have developed the following formulas.

Rhombus
y

Area =

1
-2
1
-2

## A = xy, where x and y are the lengths of the diagonals

Kite
y cm

Area

A=

1
-2

xy

x cm

Trapezium
a

A = 1--2- ah + 1--2- bh
A = 1--2- h (a + b)

height

a+b
or A = ------------ h
2
b

Note the height is the perpendicular distance between the two parallel sides. Sometimes it is a side but usually
it is not.

Example 1
Find the area of the rhombus with diagonals of length 5 cm and 7 cm.
Area = 1--2- xy
=

1
--2

5 7 cm2

= 17.5 cm2

Exercise 6B
1

## Find the area of each rhombus.

a
b

c
4.3 cm
6.3 m

4 mm
12 mm

7.2 cm

9.5 m

Example 2
Find the area of this kite.
Area = 1--2- xy
=

1
--2

5 cm

58

8 cm

= 20 cm2

## Find the area of each kite.

a

4.8 m

6 cm

15 cm

9 cm

11.6 m

4.3 cm

Example 3
Find the area of this trapezium.
First identify the height then use the formula.
Area = 1--2- h(a + b)
=

1
--2

4(11 + 16)

= 54 m2

11 m
4m
16 m

167

168

## Find the area of each trapezium. Identify the height first.

a

The height is
perpendicular
to the parallel
sides.

6m
4m

6 cm

3 cm

7 cm

10 m

16 cm
7 cm

35 mm

50 mm

12 m
28 mm

Example 4
Find the area of this quadrilateral.

Q
3 cm

=

1
--2

14 3 +

1
--2

14 5

5 cm
14 cm
B

= 56 cm2
P

a

4 cm
P

4 cm
PQ = 8 cm

RS = 13 m

11 m

a
b
c
10 m

8 cm

8 mm

12 cm

8m

6m

15 mm
7m

TU = 28 m

Q
1 cm

5 cm

3 km
11.3 m

18 m
15 km

7.5 m

8 km
8.5 m
4.1 m

## C. PERIMETER OF COMPOSITE FIGURES

This section involves finding the perimeter of composite figures, and the solution of worded problems involving
perimeter.
Composite figures are those made up of more than one plane shape, including curved shapes.

Example 1
Find the perimeter of these figures.
a

b
6 cm

40 m

a Perimeter
Divide by 2
because it is a
= (2r 2) + 6
semicircle.
=3+6
= 3 + 6
 15.4 cm (1 d.p.)
b Perimeter
= circumference of circle + 2(length of straight side)
= 40 + 2 40
= 40 + 80
 205.7 m
Two semicircles
make a circle.

169

170

Exercise 6C
1

a
b
10 cm
8 cm

20 m

20 m

20 m

18 m

Example 2

A quarter of
a circle, so
divide by 4.

## Find the perimeter of these figures.

a

8 cm

Perimeter
= (2r 4) + 2 8
= (2 8 4) + 2 8
= 28.6 (1 d.p.)

12 m

Perimeter
= (2r 4) + 4 12
= (2 12 4) + 4 12
= 66.8 (1 d.p.)

a
b
c

d
20 cm

18 mm

10 cm

6 cm
10 m

## Perimeter and Area (Chapter 6) Syllabus reference MS5.1.1, 5.2.1

Find the perimeter of the following (giving your answer correct to 4 significant figures).
a
b
c

4 cm
6 cm
4m

## a i Find the lengths of the paths from A to B

along the 4 small semicircles, and along
the larger semicircle (to 2 d.p.).
ii Which is shorter?
b What is the difference between the lengths
of the two paths?

B
8m

Find the perimeter correct to 2 decimal places (all measurements are in cm).
a
b
c
10

11

15
5

## A farmer decides to fence a 400 m by 350 m

paddock with a 4-strand wire fence. Find the
total cost of the wire required given that single
strand wire costs 12.4 cents per metre.

## Find the total length of string used to tie a box as

illustrated. An extra 15 cm is required for the
knot and bow.

10 cm

20 cm
15 cm

8
2m

## The framing of a toolshed consists of square

galvanised tubing which costs \$4.65 a metre.
Find the total cost of the tubing necessary to
make the framing of the shed opposite.

4m
3m

## A garden consists of six rectangular-shaped 8 m by 7 m

garden beds and a 2 m wide path surrounding them as
shown. Jarrah timber strips are used to surround each
bed and the whole garden area. Find the total length
of jarrah required.

171

172

## Perimeter and Area (Chapter 6) Syllabus reference MS5.1.1, 5.2.1

Example 3
Izat ran around a circular track. He ran 500 m. Find the radius of the track.
C = 2r
r

500
2r
------------ = --------------------2
2
500
r = ----------------(2 )
= 79.6 cm (to 1 d.p.)

10

A circular plate has circumference 50 cm. Find the radius correct to 1 d.p.

11

Georgette wants a circular track with a circumference of 200 m. Find the radius of the track
correct to 1 d.p.

12

## A satellite has a circular orbit 800 km above the Earths surface.

a If the radius of the Earth is 6400 km, find the radius of the orbit of the satellite.
b Find the circumference of the satellites orbit.
c If the satellite makes one orbit in a day, find the speed of the satellite.

13

A bicycle wheel has diameter of 0.6 m. Through how many complete revolutions must the
wheel turn during a 100 km trip?

14

## A newspaper company decides to place a plastic wrapper around its

newspapers. Each wrapper is 50% longer than the circumference of
the rolled-up paper, and the average diameter of a paper is 5 cm.
Find the number of kilometres of wrapper required to wrap the
275 000 newspapers produced daily. Give your answer correct to 2 d.p.

15

## A rhombus has diagonals 24 cm and 10 cm as shown.

a Calculate the length of the side of the rhombus.
b Calculate the perimeter of the rhombus.
Remember
Pythagoras.

24 cm

10 cm

16

## A kite has diagonals as shown.

a Calculate the length of one short side
of the kite.
b Calculate the length of one long side
and hence the perimeter.

12 cm 3 cm

10 cm

D. COMPOSITE AREAS
Figures that cannot have their areas calculated using one formula are called composite areas.
The area of a composite figure can be calculated by dividing it into identifiable shapes, then adding or
subtracting the area of these shapes to find the total area.

Example 1
The area is found by adding the area
of the rectangle and the triangle.
Total area = area of triangle + area of rectangle
1
= --- 14 3 + 8 14
2
= 133 cm2

11 cm

8 cm

14 cm

Example 2
Find the area of this shape.

## Divide the figure into two rectangles and find

any unknown side lengths.
Area = 18 8 + 7 8
= 200 cm2
8 cm

18 cm

7 cm
8 cm
15 cm

8 cm

18 cm

7 cm
8 cm
15 cm

173

174

## Perimeter and Area (Chapter 6) Syllabus reference MS5.1.1, 5.2.1

Exercise 6D
1

Find the area of each shape (correct to 2 d.p. where necessary). All angles are
right angles.
a

3 cm

c
2 cm

5 cm

15 cm

8 cm
8 cm

4 cm

16 cm

7 cm

5 cm

9 cm
6 cm

10 cm

f
7 cm

3 cm

10 cm
11 cm
9m

15 cm

13 cm

12 m

Example 3
5 cm

## The shaded area is found by calculating the

total area and then subtracting the
Area = area large circle area small circle
= 72 52 cm2
= 49 25 cm2
= 24 cm2
 75.40 cm2

2 cm

a

c
1m

3m

4 cm

10 m

8 cm

2m
4m

5m

17 m

7 cm

## Perimeter and Area (Chapter 6) Syllabus reference MS5.1.1, 5.2.1

23 cm

27 cm
18 cm

8 cm 6 cm

10 cm

7 cm

11 cm

10 cm
PR = 5 cm, SQ = 7 cm

## Find the areas of the shaded regions (answer to 1 d.p.).

a
b

1 cm

4 cm

3 cm
100 m
5 cm

5 cm

9 cm

f
8 cm

8 cm
3 cm
11 cm

5 cm
17 cm
8 cm 8 cm

E. AREA APPLICATIONS
This section involves practical problems using area.

Exercise 6E
1

Calculate the cost of carpeting a rectangular room 4.8 m long and 7.3 m wide, if carpet costs
\$72.95 a square metre.

## The diagram shows the floor plan of a conference

room.
a Calculate the area of the conference room.
b Calculate the cost of tiling the floor of the
conference room if the tiling costs \$32.80 per
square metre.
Scale 1 cm : 5 m

175

176

## A family room is in the shape of a rectangle

with semicircles at either end as shown
4m
in the diagram.
a Calculate the area of the family room.
6m
b Tiles cost \$45 per square metre, and laying
them costs \$35 per square metre. Find the total cost of tiling the family room.

## Concreters charge \$18.90 per square metre.

Calculate the cost of concreting the area shown.

8m
4.2 m
7.6 m

ro

3
-----10

## of the area is used for pasture lands and the

homestead. How many hectares are used for these
purposes?
e Calculate the value of the hobby farm if each square
metre is valued at \$7.20.

## A small triangular hobby farm is situated along a main road.

a Calculate the area (in m2) of the farm.
b How many hectares are there in this farm?
c How many hectares are used for growing crops, if
7
------ of the area of the farm is used for crop growing?
10

ain

Hobby
farm

850 m

620 m

1 ha = 10 000 m2

## A 2 m wide path is placed around a circular pond

of diameter 4 m. Find the area of the path correct
to the nearest whole number.

4m

2m

## A garden bed is in the shape of a quadrant of a circle, radius 3.5 m.

A path 1 m wide is to be built around the curved boundary only.
Find the area of the path.

## A farmer wants to spread 200 kg of superphosphate

per hectare. What weight of superphosphate is required

400 m
200 m

Example 1
A circle has the same area as a square with sides 10 cm. Find its radius.

r cm
10 cm
10 cm

## Area of circle = r 2 cm2

Area of square = 10 10 cm2 = 100 cm2
r 2 = 100
100
r 2 = ---------
r 2  31.83
r  31.83 (r is positive)
r  5.642 cm

A rectangle is 12 cm by 8 cm.
a Find the area of the rectangle.
b If the length of the rectangle is increased by 3 cm, find the width if the area remains the
same.

10

A rectangle is 12 cm by 8 cm. If the length of the rectangle is increased by 4 cm, how must
the breadth be varied so that the area remains the same?

11

A 10 cm by 16 cm rectangle has the same perimeter as a square. Which figure has the greater
area? By how much?

12

## A circle has the same area as a rectangle 15 cm 7 cm.

a Find the area of the rectangle.
b Find the radius of the circle (to the nearest hundredth).
c Which figure has the larger perimeter?

## F. AREA AND PERIMETER INVOLVING SECTORS

Earlier in this chapter we found the perimeters and areas of semicircles and quadrants. In this section we will
find the areas and perimeters of sectors.
To find the perimeter and area of sectors the fraction of the whole circle must be found first.

177

178

## Perimeter and Area (Chapter 6) Syllabus reference MS5.1.1, 5.2.1

Example 1
Calculate the perimeter of this sector.
30
The sector is ---------- of a circle.
360
30
The curved length = ---------- 2 r
360
30
= ---------- 2 8
360
= 4.189 cm
Perimeter = 4.189 + 8 + 8
= 20.2 cm (to 1 d.p.)

30
8 cm

Always divide
the angle by
360.

Exercise 6F
1

## Find the fraction of a circle represented by these sectors.

a
b

4 cm

5 cm
12 cm
120

60

20

Calculate the curved length and hence the perimeter of the sectors in question 1.

Example 2
Calculate the area of this sector.
50
The sector is ---------- of a circle.
360
50
Area = ---------- r2
360
50
= ---------- (12.3)2
360
= 66.0 cm2 (to 1 d.p.)

50
12.3 cm

## Calculate the perimeter and area of these figures.

a

b
5m

320

100

200

57 m

115 m

10

15.7 m

Example 3
Calculate the perimeter of this figure.
4m

70
Curved length = ---------- 2 4
360
= 4.887 m

70

## Perimeter = 4.887 + 1.5 + 4 + 1.5 + 4

= 15.9 m (to 1 d.p.)

1.5 m

a

b
8m

5m

40
50

5.29 m

5.1 m
1.8 m
8.4 m

d
53 cm
3.7 cm
70
18 cm
50 cm

37
0.65 m

179

180

## Perimeter and Area (Chapter 6) Syllabus reference MS5.1.1, 5.2.1

Example 4
Calculate the area of this figure.
55
Area = ---------- r2 + lb
360
55
Area = ---------- (135)2 + 81 135
360

55

81 cm
135 cm

24 cm

30
3m
50

50

8m
40

## Perimeter and Area (Chapter 6) Syllabus reference MS5.1.1, 5.2.1

Language in Mathematics

## Johann Kepler (15711630)

Johann Kepler was born in the German town of
Wurttemberg. Although small and suffering from ill
health, he was recognised as being intelligent. With
a scholarship he was able to attend the University
of Tubingen, where he studied first for the Lutheran
ministry and then science. He studied under a master
in astronomy who believed in, and taught, the
Copernican theory that the Earth rotated around its
own axis, and also about the Sun. Kepler taught
mathematics in Graz from 1594.
In 1600 he went to Prague and became assistant
to Tycho Brahe, an important astronomer. After
Brahes death, Kepler succeeded him as astronomer
and mathematician to the emperor. Kepler had
and calculations.
With his belief in the Copernican theory, he became
one of the founders of modern astronomy. He
developed three fundamental laws of planetary motion,
now known as Keplers Laws, in 1609. These proposed, among other things, that the Sun was at the
centre of our planetary system, and that the orbits of the planets were elliptical rather than circular.
Sixty years later these laws helped Newton develop his Universal Law of Gravitation.
Kepler also suggested that tides are caused by the Moons gravitational pull on the seas. He
produced tables giving the positions of the Sun, Moon and planets, which were used for about
100 years. In 1611 he proposed an improved refracting telescope, and later suggested a reflecting
telescope developed by Newton.
1

a
b
c
d
e
f

## How old was Kepler when he died?

When and where did Kepler teach Mathematics?
Describe the development of Keplers ideas concerning planetary motion.
Research Keplers three laws.
For how long were his tables of positions used?
How are tides formed?

## Insert the vowels in these glossary terms.

a c __ rcl __
b q __ __ dr __ l __ t __r __ l
c c __ mp __s __ t __
d rh __ mb __ s

181

182

## Perimeter and Area (Chapter 6) Syllabus reference MS5.1.1, 5.2.1

e k __ t __
g tr __ p __ z __ __ m

f s __ ct __ r
h tr __ __ ngl __

## Rearrange these words to form a sentence.

a circle a semicircle A half is
b a is of quarter quadrant A circle
c are shapes calculated Composite dividing by area up the
d may way than Composite more in areas one be found

## Use every third letter to find the sentence.

WDTRFHTGEHYAUJRNHEGBAVFOEDFSWAAZRDFHHJOLPMOE
BTHQHSOEYAPEFRHKOIPDNMUAECSDTCGOHNFBETWXHAUEI

Glossary
area
diameter
perimeter
rhombus
triangle

circle
formula
sector

circumference
kite
semicircle

1

A parallelogram

B trapezium

C rhombus

A 15.2 cm2
B 30.4 cm2
C 56.202 cm2
D 28.101 cm2

composite figure
parallelogram
trapezium

5.1 cm

3.8 cm

2.9 cm

0.9 m

1.3 m

A 1.17 m2
B 2.34 m2
C 0.585 m2
D 2.2 m2

D all of these

A 107.01 cm2
B 13.37625 cm2
C 26.7525 cm2
D 53.505 cm2

8.7 cm
12.3 cm

5
10 m
4m

4m
20 m

## The perimeter of this semicircular

garden is closest to:
A 7.2 m
B 8.8 m
C 4.4 m
D 8.96 m

7
1.6 m

A 174.9 cm2
B 99.5 cm2
C 225.1 cm2
D 300.5 cm2

2.8 m

## The perimeter of this shape is:

A 18.05 m
B 16.45 m
C 10.5 m
D 8.9 m

Tiarne has 35 m of garden edging. The radius of the circular garden she can enclose with
this edging is:
A 11.1 m
B 5.6 m
C 220 m
D 3848 m

The perimeter of a rhombus with diagonals 5.2 cm and 8.6 cm is closest to:
A 3.4 cm
B 22.36 cm
C 5 cm
D 20.1 cm

10

A 7.84 m2
B 14 m2
C 5.88 m2
D 9.8 m2

11

4.8 cm

183

1.5 cm

1.4 m

A 25.16 cm2
B 65.3 cm2
C 29.7 cm2
D 14.8 cm2

184

12

## A farmer fertilises the paddock consisting of a

rectangle and a semicircle as shown.
The fertiliser is spread at the rate of 4.5 kilograms
per square metre. The amount of fertiliser the
farmer needs is closest to:
A 10 t
B 7.875 t
C 12.2 t
D 2.231 t

35 m

50 m

A 22 cm
B 29 cm
C 46 cm
D 70 cm

13

105

12 cm

14

A 3.87 cm2
B 7.6 cm2
C 15.6 cm2
D 222.3 cm2

57
3.9 cm

15

16

4.2 m

A 67.42 m
B 18.99 m
C 14.8 m
D 2.7855 m

38

1.8 m

## The area of the shape is closest to:

A 5.85 m2
B 9.02 m2
2
C 13.41 m
D 14.8 m2

If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
Section

15

69

10, 11

12

1316

REVIEW SET 6A
1

## Copy and complete.

a 85 cm = ___ m

b 15 000 m2 = ___ ha

## Find the perimeter of these shapes.

a
b

3.5 km = ___ m

d
8 cm
4 cm

3m

4 cm

3 cm
10 cm

18 m

7m

a A rectangular field 110 m by 75 m is to be fenced. Find the total length of fencing required.
b Find the perimeter of a right-angled triangle with hypotenuse length 26 cm and one other
side length 10 cm.

## Find the perimeter correct to 1 decimal place.

a
b
15 cm
13 cm

8 cm

5 cm
24 cm

5 cm

A satellite has a circular orbit 700 km above the surface of the Earth. If the radius of the
Earth is 6400 km, how far does the satellite travel in one orbit?

a

10 m

14 cm

5m

7 cm
5 cm
15 cm

6m

a

40

8 cm

8 cm
3.2 m
4.8 m

10 cm

15 cm

185

186

REVIEW SET 6B
1

## Copy and complete.

a 4.28 ha = ___ m2

a
b

4300 cm = ___ m

d
25 m

5 cm

7 cm

10 cm

15 m

12 cm

12 cm

12 m

## a A rectangular swimming pool is 20 m by 10 m and is surrounded by a path 2 m wide.

What is the perimeter around the outside edge of the path?
b Find the perimeter of a rhombus with diagonals 12 cm and 16 cm.

## Find the perimeter correct to 1 decimal place.

a
b

12 cm

6 cm

15 cm

A machine makes circular plates with circumference 60 cm. Find the diameter of the plate
correct to 1 decimal place.

a

7.3 cm

22.4 cm

80

4.2 cm
5.3 m
6.5 cm

18.3 cm

a
1m
10 m

15 m

b
12 cm

5 cm

REVIEW SET 6C
1

a
b

7 cm

11 cm

15 cm

8 cm
5 cm

## Write the formula for the area of the following shapes.

a rectangle
b rhombus
c
Calculate the area of each shape.
a

trapezium

17 cm
3 cm

18 cm
7 cm
6 cm

25 cm

9 cm

Farmer Smith has a rectangular paddock that is 408 m wide and 673 m in length.
Calculate the cost of fencing the paddock if fencing costs \$8.53 per m.

## Karl wishes to cut a triangle from a rectangular piece

of wood, as shown. Calculate:
a the area of the triangle if the base is 52 cm and
the height is 64 cm
b the area remaining after the triangle is removed

1.2 m

64 cm
52 cm
2.3 m

a
b
4.5 m
75

4.3 m

8.2 m

6m

187

188

REVIEW SET 6D
1

a

12 cm
15 cm

10 cm

24 cm
6 cm
12 cm

a trapezium
b kite

c parallelogram

## Calculate the area of each shape.

a

29 cm
16 cm

17 cm

35 cm

33 cm

Crystal walks around her block three times each morning. If the block is 450 m by 384 m,
calculate the distance that she walks each morning. Express your answer in kilometres.

## Deborahs lounge room is shown opposite.

Calculate the cost of carpeting the lounge
room if the carpet costs \$119.80 per square
metre.

a

3.4 m

2.3 m

2.7 m
1.6 m

b
2.1 m

8.3 m

2.1 m

7.2 cm
4.5 m

## LEY_bk953_7_3rdpps Page 193 Wednesday, January 12, 2005 10:43 AM

Chapter 7
Coordinate Geometry
This chapter deals with operations on the number plane.
After completing this chapter you should be able to:
determine the midpoint of an interval from a diagram
use Pythagoras rule to find the length of a line interval drawn between two points
find the gradient of an interval using a diagram
determine whether a line has positive or negative slope
find the gradient of a line using a right-angled triangle
draw graphs of horizontal and vertical lines
graph a variety of linear relationships
graph simple non-linear relationships.

WM: S5.1.1S5.1.5

194

Diagnostic Test
1

(10, 3) is:
A (14, 6)

B (6, 3)

C (7, 3)

D (6, 6)

## The gradient of the join of X(5, 1) and

Y(3, 5) is:
3
3
4
4
A + --B --C + --D --4
4
3
3

(3, 11) is:
A (6, 6)

B (3, 6)

C (6, 3)

D (3, 3)

6
A --7
7
B --6
6
C --7
7
D --6

(8, 0) is:
A (9, 4)
C

(4 1--2-

B (7, 4)
D (3 1--2- , 2)

, 2)

10

B(7, 5) is:
1
1
A + --B --C +3
D 3
3
3

11

(7, 5) is:
A (1, 2)

B (2, 4)

C (6, 6)

D (6, 3)
4 y

and (2, 9) is:
A

89

181

39

13

and (4, 5) is:

3
2
1
0
5 4 3 2 1 0 1
1
2

63

225

21

5
6

7
8

B 3
4
C --7
7
D --4

x
4 5

A +3

2 3

A +2
M

B 2

1
C + --2

1
D --2

12

B
y

4 y
3

5
4

1
0
5 4 3 2 1 0 1

13

2 3

A y=3

B x=3

C y = 3x

D x = 3y

x
4 5

1
0
4 3 2 1 0 1
1
2

x
4

y = 2x 1 is:
x

2 3

4
5
6

y
C
A

6
5

7
6
5

4
3

1
0
4 3 2 1 0 1
1
2

2
1
0
4 3 2 1 0 1
1
2

2 3

x
4

2 3

x
4

3
4

5
6
7
8

D
y
1
0
4 3 2 1 0 1
1
2
3

2 3

x
4

195

196

14

## By completing this table of values for

each equation, the equation of this graph
is:
x

15

A y = 3x 8

B y = 3x 3

C y = 4x + 14

D y = 4x 11

3
16

## The equation of this graph is:

y
9 y
8
7

y
9
8

6
5

7
6
5

3
2
1
0
4 3 2 1 0 1
1
2

2 3

x
4

1
0
4 3 2 1 0 1
1

x
2 3 4

A y = 3x

B y = 2x

C y = x2

D y = x2 + 1

3
4
5
6
7
8
9

A y = 3x 1

B y = 3x + 1

C y = 4x 1

D y = 4x 1

If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
Section

14

5, 6

7, 8

911

12

1315

16

## Coordinate Geometry (Chapter 7) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.2

A. MIDPOINT
The midpoint of an interval is the point halfway
between the end points of the interval.

L
Midpoint
M

B
A

Example 1
Plot each pair of points, join them with a straight line and find the coordinates of
the midpoint.
a (3, 2) and (9, 2)
a

## b (5, 1) and (5, 7)

The length of this horizontal line interval is
6 units. The midpoint then is 3 units from
either end.

Midpoint

(3, 2)

(9, 2)

## Both points and the midpoint

have y-ordinate of 2. The coordinates of
the midpoint are (6, 2).

(5, 9)

b
Midpoint

(5, 1)

## The length of this vertical line interval is

8 units. The midpoint then is 4 units from
either end.
Both points and the midpoint
have x-ordinate of 5. The coordinates of
the midpoint are (5, 5).

Exercise 7A
1

Plot the following pairs of points, join them with a horizontal line and find the coordinates of
the midpoint.
a (1, 4) and (9, 4)
b (2, 3) and (12, 3)
c (3, 6) and (7, 6)

Plot the following pairs of points, join them with a vertical line and find the coordinates of the
midpoint.
a (2, 1) and (2, 11)
b (5, 3) and (5, 7)
c (3, 4) and (3, 8)

197

198

## Coordinate Geometry (Chapter 7) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.2

Example 2
Plot each pair of points, join them and find the midpoint.
a (5, 2) and (8, 2)
a
5

## b (1, 5) and (1, 7)

The length of the interval is
5 + 8 = 13 units.
The midpoint is 13 2 = 6 1--2units from either end.

4
3

5 + 6 1--2- = 1 1--2-

2
1
0
5 4 3 2 1 0 1
1
2
(5, 2)
3

x
2 3

5 6

7 8

(8, 2)

4
5
y
7

(1, 7)

## The length of the interval is

5 + 7 =12 units.
The midpoint is 12 2 = 6
units from either end.

6
5
4
3
2
1
0
5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3
1
2

x
4

5 + 6 = 1
or 7 6 = 1
the midpoint is (1, 1)

3
4
5

(1, 5)

Plot the following pairs of points and find the coordinates of the midpoint of these horizontal
and vertical line intervals.
a (1, 2) and (1, 4)
b (2, 1) and (2, 5)
c (3, 1) and (3, 3)
d (5, 1) and (3, 1)
e (5, 2) and (3, 2)
f (4, 3) and (4, 5)
g (0, 0) and (0, 9)
h (0, 0) and (3, 0)
i (7, 14) and (3, 14)

## Coordinate Geometry (Chapter 7) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.2

Example 3
Plot the following pairs of points and find the coordinates
of these oblique lines.
b (2, 5) and (3, 1)

a i

An oblique line
is neither
vertical nor
horizontal.

y
9

(5, 9)

8
7
6
5
4
3

(1, 4)

(5, 4)

2
1
1

2 3

4 5 6

## ii Draw vertical and horizontal lines

to make a right-angled triangle.
iii Write the coordinates of the third vertex.
iv Find the midpoint of each interval.

y
9

(5, 9)

8
7

(5, 6 12 )

6
5
4

2
1

x
1

2 3

6 7

## v The midpoint is (3, 6 1--2- ).

b Use the same steps as in part a.
length is 5 units
5 2 = 2 1--2 x ordinate is --122 + 2 --12- = --121
midpoint of interval is ( --2- , 5)
height is 1 5 = 4 units
42=2
y ordinate is 3
1 2 = 3
midpoint of the line interval is ( --12- , 3)

y1

2 1
1

2 3 4

(3, 1)

(3, 3)

3
4
(2, 5)

5
6

( 1 , 5) (3, 5)
2

199

200

## Coordinate Geometry (Chapter 7) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.2

Plot the following pairs of points and find the coordinates of the midpoint of these oblique
lines.
a (5, 2) and (1, 4)
b (2, 0) and (0, 8)
c (3, 1) and (1, 5)
d (2, 5) and (2, 5)
e (2, 1) and (1, 3)
f (5, 7) and (3, 1)
g (2, 3) and (5, 1)
h (4, 4) and (1, 1)
i (2, 3) and (2, 3)

Example 4
Find the midpoint of the line segment joining A(5, 2) and B(7, 3).
Since the midpoint M is halfway
between A and B, then the
x-coordinate of M will be halfway
between the x-coordinates of A and B:

y
4
3

A(5, 2)

## Similarly, the y-coordinate of M will be

halfway between the y-coordinates
of A and B:
2 + ( 3 )
i.e. y-coordinate of M = --------------------- = 1--22

Midpoint

5+7
i.e. x-coordinate of M = ----------------- = 1
2

1
5 4 3 2 1
1

x
2

2
3
4

B(7, 3)

## the coordinates of the midpoint M are (1, 1--2- )

5

Find the midpoint of the line segment joining the following pairs of points.
a (5, 8) and (3, 3)
b (2, 2) and (6, 3)
c (0, 6) and (6, 0)
d (15, 27) and (17, 3)
e (51, 12) and (36, 11)
f (0, 0) and (7, 11)

## B. DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO POINTS

Pythagoras rule can be used to find the length of the line interval joining two points.

Example 1
Plot the points (1, 4) and (8, 6) on the number plane. Find the distance between
the two points.
First draw in a right-angled triangle.
Find the length of each side:
the vertical side = 6 4 = 2 units
the horizontal side = 8 1 = 7 units
Use Pythagoras rule:
c2 = a2 + b2
= 22 + 72
c 2 = 53
c = 53
= 7.28 units (to 2 d.p.)

8 y
7
6
5
4
3

(8, 6)
(1, 4)

2
1
0

x
0 1

2 3

4 5

6 7 8

201

## Coordinate Geometry (Chapter 7) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.2

Exercise 7B
1

Plot the following pairs of points and find the distance between them.
a (2, 3) and (5, 7)
b (5, 3) and (8, 6)
c (8, 7) and (3, 3)
d (1, 9) and (7, 2)
e (2, 8) and (7, 5)
f (0, 0) and (5, 7)

Example 2
Find the distance between the points (5, 8) and (4, 2).
i

## Plot the points and draw in the

right-angled triangle.
ii Find the length of each side.
iii Use Pythagoras rule:
c2 = a2 + b2
c 2 = 102 + 92
10
2
c = 181
(2 + 8 = 10)
c = 181
c = 13.45 (to 2 d.p.)

(8, 6)

8 y
7
6
5
4
3 (1, 4)
2
1
0

6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1
1
2
9
3
(5 + 4 = 9)

## Find the distance between each pair of points.

a (5, 3) and (6, 2)
b (2, 5) and (3, 7)
d (7, 0) and (5, 4)
e (8, 3) and (0, 0)

x
2 3

4 5

## c (4, 5) and (5, 1)

f (4, 0) and (0, 3)

We use the words slope or gradient when talking about the degree of steepness of a line or a line segment.
Horizontal lines have no slope.
This line is very steep. It must therefore have a large slope.

## To compare the slope of different lines we

use the ratio of vertical rise to horizontal run.
vertical rise
vertical rise
slope = -----------------------------horizontal run

horizontal run

202

House roof

Escalator

2m
8m

56 m

4m
10 m

slope =
=

4m

4
slope = ------

2
--8
1
--4

------slope = 56
4

10
2
--5

= 14

## For a horizontal line the vertical rise is 0, therefore the slope is 0.

When line segments are drawn on graph paper, we can easily determine the slope of the line segments by
drawing horizontal and vertical lines to complete a right-angled triangle.

Example 1
Find the slope of AB.

## Draw in a right-angled triangle, the same as when calculating distance.

Slope of AB
vertical rise
= -----------------------------------horizontal run
=

2
--5

2
5

Exercise 7C
1

a
b

c
10 m

150

4m

3m
4m

1000 m

6m

a barn roof

a slippery-dip

## Coordinate Geometry (Chapter 7) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.2

In each of the diagrams, draw a right-angled triangle and find the gradient using
vertical rise
horizontal run
a

b
B

A
A

Example 2
Find the gradient of the line passing through C(4, 2) and D(3, 2).
Plot the points and draw the right-angled
triangle showing side lengths.
rise
=

4
--7

Find the gradient of the line passing through each pair of points.
a C(5, 2) and D(4, 5)
b A(3, 1) and B(5, 2)
c C(5, 3) and P(7, 7)
d M(1, 5) and N(2, 6)

203

204

## Coordinate Geometry (Chapter 7) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.2

Investigation 1
WM: Communicating, Reflecting

## Varying the slope

Copy and complete the table.

1
N

Line
segment

x-run

y-rise

Slope

AB

CD
H
F

M
I
K

GH
IJ

E
C
A

EF

KL
MN

## Copy and complete:

a The slope of a horizontal line is ____.
b The slope of a vertical line is ____.
c As the line segments become steeper, their slopes ____.

## D. POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE GRADIENTS

Negative slopes
In the figure opposite Line 1 and Line 2 are
parallel, and each of them has the same slope
of 2.
Line 3 is not parallel to Lines 1 and 2, yet
it has the same degree of steepness.
Line 1

Line 2

Line 3

## We say that Lines 1 and 2 are forward sloping

whereas Line 3 is backward sloping.
As we go from left to right on Line 1 we
are going uphill, whereas on Line 3 we are
going downhill.

## Coordinate Geometry (Chapter 7) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.2

Example 1
Determine the slope of AB
and CD in the following.

B
C
6

A
4

## The slope of AB is positive (uphill)

rise
slope AB = + --------run
+6
= -----4
= +1 1--2-

2 D

## The slope of CD is negative (downhill)

rise
slope CD = --------run
5
= --2
= 2 1--2-

Determine
positive or
negative slope
first.

205

206

## Coordinate Geometry (Chapter 7) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.2

Exercise 7D
1

Find the gradient of each line. Determine positive or negative slope first.
a

T
C

X
Y

D
f

V
M
2

a OA
b OB
c OC
d OD
e OE
f OF
g OG

F
E

C
B
O

## Determine the slope of:

a AP
b AQ
c AR
d AS
e AT
f AU

P
R

U
S
Q
R

Imagine you are walking across the countryside from O to W (i.e. from left to right).
a When are you going uphill?
b When are you going downhill?
c Where is the steepest positive slope? d Where is the steepest negative slope?
e Where is the slope 0?
f When is the slope not zero but least?

Example 2
a Plot the points A(3, 5) and B(7, 2).
b Find the gradient of the lines though A and B.
a

## Plot the points and draw the line.

(3, 5)
A

B
(7, 2)
10

Find the side lengths of the triangle. The slope is negative as it is downhill.
rise
3
= -----10

207

208

## Coordinate Geometry (Chapter 7) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.2

Plot the following pairs of points and determine the gradient of the line passing through the
two points.
a A(4, 6) and B(7, 2)
b C(4, 1) and D(5, 3)
c P(1, 3) and Q(4, 1)
d R(0, 0) and S(5, 3)
e M(5, 3) and N(5, 2)
f S(3, 2) and T(4, 6)

Example 3
Find the gradient of this line.

y
4
3
2
1
x
2 1

2 3

2
3

First choose any two points on the line and draw in a right-angled triangle.
The slope is positive uphill.
rise
6
= + --5

By choosing two points on each line, find the gradient of these straight lines.
a
b

## Coordinate Geometry (Chapter 7) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.2

Example 4
Find the gradient of the given line.

## Draw a right-angled triangle, labelling

the rise and run.
rise
3
= --6
1
= --2

a

b
3

209

210

## Coordinate Geometry (Chapter 7) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.2

Find the slope of each of these graphs. Be careful as the scales are not the same.
a

## Coordinate Geometry (Chapter 7) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.2

Investigation 2
WM: Reasoning, Communicating

1

## Copy and complete the table

Line segment

x-run

y-rise

y-rise
----------------x-run

BC

1
--2

DE
AC
BE
AE
AF
2

State, in sentence form, any conclusions drawn from the graph and table.

Investigation 3
WM: Reflecting, Communicating

1

## Plot the points A (1, 2) and B (5, 9).

Form a right-angled triangle and write the lengths of the horizontal and vertical lines.

## Explain the result from question 7.

Calculate the angle equal to the slope of the line with the x-axis.

10

Calculate the angle for the gradient of the join of the points in Exercise 12D Question 5.

11

## Copy and complete:

The gradient of a line is equal to ___ , where is the angle made by the line and the ___ axis.

211

212

## E. LINES PARALLEL TO THE AXES

In section A of this chapter, we found the midpoint of horizontal and vertical lines.
In the first example, the points (3, 2) and (9, 2) were joined to give a midpoint of (6, 2).
By noticing that all points have a y-ordinate of 2, the equation of that horizontal line must be y = 2.
The points (5, 1) and (5, 9) were joined by a vertical line, and the midpoint was found to be (5, 5). All three points
have a x-ordinate of 5. This shows that the equation of the vertical line is x = 5.
Horizontal lines are of the form y = a where a is a positive or negative number. Vertical lines are of the form
x = b where b is a positive or negative number.

Example 1
Graph these lines:
a x=3
a x=3

b y = 2

b y = 2

## Plotting the points gives:

Exercise 7E
Graph these horizontal and vertical lines.
a y=3
b x=1
e x=5
f y=8

c x = 2
g y = 3

d y = 4
h x=7

## a List the equations from question 1 that represent horizontal lines.

b Write the coordinates of the point where each of these lines cuts the y-axis.

## a List the equations from question 1 that represent vertical lines.

b Write the coordinates of the point where each of these lines cuts the x-axis.

## a Graph these horizontal lines on the sane number plane:

y = 2, y = 1, y = 1, y = 2
b The x-axis is a horizontal line. The equation of the x-axis is y = ___.

## a Graph these vertical lines on the same number plane:

x = 2, x = 1, x = 1, x = 2
b Write the equation of the y-axis.

## F. GRAPHING LINEAR RELATIONSHIPS

Consider all points (x, y) in which y = 2x. We can write down any number of ordered pairs that satisfy this rule.
For example, (1, 2), (2, 4), (3, 6), (2, 4), (0.7, 1.4).
To visualise all the points that satisfy the equation y = 2x, we draw a graph of all points near the origin, O. Often
we find that a table of values is useful.
For y = 2x, a table of values is:
x

## Graphing these seven points only, we get the graph in Figure 1.

However, not just the integers satisfy this rule. Figure 2 on the next page is the plot of all points with x-values
0.25 units apart.

213

214

## Coordinate Geometry (Chapter 7) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.2

In fact, if we imagine ordered pairs where the x-values are the complete set of real numbers, we would obtain
the complete line as in Figure 3.

Example 1
Draw the graph of the lines with these equations.
a y=x+2

b y = 2x

c y= x1

When you choose values for the table you can choose any x value you like.
a y=x+2
x

b y = 2x
x

## Coordinate Geometry (Chapter 7) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.2

c y=

1
--2

x1

2 1--2-

1 1--2-

1--2-

1
--2

Note: When graphing the lines shown above, the line is extended past the plotted points with an arrow on each
end to show that it continues in both directions. Write the equation on the line.

Exercise 7F
In each of the following, copy and complete the table of ordered pairs.

a y=x
x

b y=x2
1

y
d y=5x

c y = x
x

e y = 2x + 1
x

f
1

y = 1--2- x
x

g y = 8 2x
x

h y = 1 3x
1

Copy and complete the following tables using the rule provided.

ii Plot each set of ordered pairs on separate axes and draw the straight line
through the points.

215

216

a y=x+1
x

y=x+3

c y = x 1
x

y=4x

d
2

y
e y = 2x 2
x

y = 3 2x

f
1

## For the straight lines in questions 1 and 2:

a Write a list of the equations with a positive gradient.
b Write a list of the equations with a negative gradient.
c What is the difference between these groups of equations?
d Without drawing, state whether each of these equations has positive or negative slope.
i y = 2x 1
ii y = 3x + 4
iii y = 5 7x
iv y = 3 + 2x
v y = 7x 1
vi y = 5x + 2

Example 2
By using this table of values draw graphs of:
x

x+y=7

When x = 3
3 + y = 7
y =7+3
y = 10

x+y=7

xy=3

10

When x = 0
0+y=7
y =7

When x = 3
3+y=7
y =73
=4

b xy=3

When x = 3
3 y = 3
y = 3 + 3
y = 6
y = 6

When x = 0
xy =3
0y =3
y = 3

When x = 3
xy =3
3y=3
y = 0
y =0

## By using a table of values, draw on separate

number planes the graphs of:

y
a y=x4

b y=x+4

e y = 1--2- x

f
j

xy=8

m 3y 2x = 12

c y = 2x

d y=1x

2x + 3
y = ---------------4

g x + y = 3

h x+y=1

xy=6

k y = 4 + x

3x
n y = ------ 2
2

o 2x 3y = 6

p 5x + 3y = 30

x+y=8

Example 3
Does the point (2, 2) lie on the line y = 2x 1?
Draw a table of values for y = 2x 1.
x

## Plot these points and draw the line y = 2x 1.

Plot the point (2, 2).
The point (2, 2) does not lie on the line.

Using the graphs you drew in question 4, answer the following questions.
a Does the point (1, 3) lie on the line y = x 4?
b Does the point (1, 2) lie on the line y = x + 4?
c Does the point (0, 2) lie on the line y = 2x?

217

218

## d Does the point (3, 2) lie on the line y = 1 x?

e Does the point (4, 1) lie on the line y = 1--2- x?
2x + 3
Does the point (0, 2) lie on the line y = ---------------- ?
4
g Does the point (2, 1) lie on the line x + y = 3?
h Does the point (6, 2) lie on the line x y = 8?
i Does the point (2, 4) lie on the line x y = 6?
f

When making up a table of values from rules, I unfortunately mix them up. Can you sort out
which graph belongs to which table of values?
a
A y = 2x
x
4
2
0
2
4
y

b
x

B y = x

c
C y=

1
--2

d
D y=x+2

e
E y=2x

Example 4
You can check if a point lies on a line without drawing it. By substituting the
x value of the point (13, 25) and finding the corresponding y value, decide if
the point in brackets lies on the line y = 2x 1.
The x value is 13.

As y = 2x - 1
y = 2 (13) - 1
y = 25
Since the y values are equal the point lies on the line.

219

## Coordinate Geometry (Chapter 7) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.2

By substituting the x-value of the point given in brackets and finding the corresponding
y-value, decide if the point in brackets lies on the given line.
a y=4x
(2, 2)
b y=x+4
(1, 5)
c y = 2x
(3, 8)
d y=1x
(5, 4)
e y = 1--2- x
(3, 6)
f y = 2x + 3
(2, 1)
g y = 2x 3
(4, 11)
h y = 3 2x
(5, 4)
i y = 3x 2
(10, 28)

## Find five points that lie on these lines.

a y=x+3
b 2x + y = 5

c 3x 2y = 6

Investigation 4
WM: Applying Strategies, Communicating

Graphics calculator
1

## These instructions are for a CASIO CFX9850GB PLUS.

a Select GRAPH from the MAIN MENU.
b Enter the equation y = 2x + 3 by pressing
x,,T + 3 then EXE
2
c Press F6 to DRAW.
d The graph should appear on the screen. If the scale of the axes needs adjustment
VWindow

press

F3

## e Press F2 F1 to delete any graphs after choosing the equations.

f To have more than one graph at a time on the screen omit instruction e.
2

a Draw these graphs on the same screen. (Use different colours if you can.)
y = 2x +1, y = 2x 1 and y = 2x + 3
b What observation can you make?

a Graph: y = 3x 1, y = 3x and y = 3x + 2.
b Comment on these graphs.

a Graph: y = x + 2, y = x and y = x 5.
b Comment on these graphs.

a Graph: y = 3x 1, y = 2x 1 and y = 4x 1.
b What comment can be made?

## a Draw the graphs of y = x 2, y = x 2 + 1 and y = x 2 2 on the same axes.

b Comment on these graphs.

220

## a Graph y = 2 x, y = 3 x and y = 5 x on the same set of axes.

b Comment on the similarities in these graphs.

## Make up some of your own.

G. NON-LINEAR RELATIONSHIPS
Straight lines are one type of relationship that can be graphed. There are many relationships that, when graphed,
are not straight lines. This section examines some of these.
Note that graphics calculators are an excellent tool in this section.
The parabola is the name given to the graph relating y to x 2. The simplest parabola is y = x 2.
The exponential graph has x as a power. An example is y = 2x.

Exercise 7G
1

x

--12-

1
--2

## b Plot these points and draw a smooth curve through them.

2

By using a table with the same values as question 1, or a graphics calculator, graph on the
same number plane:
a y = x2, y = 2x2, y =

1 2
--- x
2

## b y = x2, y = 3x2, y = 4x2, y =

1 2
--- x
4

c y = x2, y = x2 + 1, y = x2 + 2, y = x2 1
3

Write some observations about each of the four groups of parabolas in question 2.

Example 1
Complete this table and sketch y = 3x.
x
y

x

0.04

0.1

0.3

27

## Extend the graph past the end points.

a By using the table, or a graphics calculator, graph on the same number plane:
y = 2x, y = 3x and y = 4x.
x

y
b What do you notice about all three graphs?

Language in Mathematics
Pierre de Fermat

(16011665)

## Pierre de Fermat was born in Beaumont-de-Lomagne in

France, near the border with Spain. He studied Latin and
Greek literature, ancient science, mathematics and modern
languages at the University of Toulouse, but his main purpose
was to study law.
In 1629 Fermat studied the work of Appollonius, a geometer
of ancient Greece, and discovered for himself that loci or sets
of points could be studied using coordinates and algebra. His
work Introduction to Loci was not published for another fifty
years, and together with La Geometrie by Descartes, formed
the basis of Cartesian geometry.

221

222

## Coordinate Geometry (Chapter 7) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.2

In 1631 Fermat received his degree in law, was later awarded the status of a minor nobleman, and
in 1648 became Kings Councillor,
Fermat was a man of great integrity who worked hard. He remained aloof from matters outside his
own jurisdiction, and pursued his great interest in mathematics. He worked with Pascal on the
theory of probability and the principles of permutations and combinations. He worked on a variety
of equations and curves and the Archimedean spiral. In 1657 he wrote Concerning the Comparison
of Curved and Straight Lines which was published during his lifetime.
Fermat died in 1665. He was acknowledged master of mathematics in France at the time, but his
fame would have been greater if he had published more of his work while he was alive. He became
known as the founder of the modem theory of numbers.
In mid-1993, one of the most famous unsolved problems in mathematics, Fermats Last Theorem
was solved by Andrew Wiles of Princeton University (USA). Wiles made the final breakthrough after
350 years of searching by many famous mathematicians (both amateur and professional). Wiles is
a former student and collaborator of Australian Mathematician John Coates.
Fermats Last Theorem is a simple assertion which he wrote in the margin of a mathematics book,
but which he never proved, although he claimed he could. The theorem is:
The equation xn + yn = zn, when the exponent n is greater than 2, has no solutions in
positive integers.
Wiles work establishes a whole new mathematical theory, proposed and developed over the last
60 years by the finest mathematical minds of the 20th century.
1

a How many years was Fermat alive?
b List four of Fermats achievements
c How many publications did Fermat have in his lifetime?
d Why was Fermat not as famous as he could have been?

a v__rt__c__l
b h__r__z__nt__l

gr__d__ __nt

d d__st__nc__

__bl__q__ __

l__n__ __r

sl__p__

## Rearrange these sentences, the first word has a capital letter.

a The equation y-axis x = 0 has the
b has The x-axis y = 0 equation the
c positive uphill gradient slope An is a
d in is a midpoint middle The the of line
e a the If gradient is goes downhill negative line
f interval Pythagoras found The is using an length of theorem

## Use every third letter to reveal the message.

AWIERNGHCUJOIKOOPRLKDNGISENRTAASTXCEVFGBGENHOMJM
NHEWETRTRGFYDCAESNEDIFGNJKTOPELKRJHVNBAGFLCDJESO
MTYAAXINKEDSJSMWLZFOGHPJKE

Glossary
coordinates
horizontal
negative
positive
triangle

decimal place
interval
non-linear
Pythagoras
vertex

endpoint
length
number plane
relationships
vertical

linear
oblique
right-angled triangle

halfway
midpoint
operations
slope

1

223

A (12, 5)
B (6, 5)

C (6, 10)

D (6, 0)

A (2, 3)
B (2, 6)

C (0, 6)

D (4, 6)

A (8, 2)
B (5, 2)

C (8, 4)

D (4, 2)

## The midpoint of the join of (6, 3) and (5, 7) is:

A (1, 4)
B ( 1--2- , 2)

C ( 1--2- , 2)

D (5 1--2- , 5)

The distance between the points (5, 3) and (0, 10) is:
A
12
B 144
C

24

74

A
290
B 48
C

170

7
A
--5
7
B -----5
5
C --7
5
D -----7

224

10
A -----7

10
B --------7

7
C -----10

A 7
B 7
C 1
D 1

10

11

## The gradient of the join of A(5, 7) and B(3, 5) is:

1
1
A --B -----4
4
Find the gradient of this line.
A +1
B 1
C +8
D 8

12

7
D -----10

A y=2
B x=2
C y = 2x
D x = 2y

C 4

D 4

13

225

## By using this table the graph of y = 2x +1 is:

x

y
A

14

A y = 3x 1
B y = 3x + 1
C y = 4x 1
D y = 4x 1

15

By completing this table of values for each equation, the equation of this graph is:

A y = 3x 8
B y = 3x 3

C y = 4x + 14

D y = 4x 11

226

16

## The equation of this graph is:

A y = 3x
B y = 2x
C y = x2
D y = x2 + 1

If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question

14

5, 6

7, 8

911

12

1315

16

Section

REVIEW SET 7A
1

By drawing a diagram and plotting the points, find the midpoint of the join of:
a (4, 3) and (10, 3)
b (2, 5) and (2, 9)
c (4, 1) and (8, 6)
d (4, 3) and (10, 1)

Using Pythagoras theorem, find the distance between these pairs of points:
a (4, 3) and (10, 7)
b (2, 5) and (2, 3)

In this diagram draw a right-angled triangle and find the gradient of the line.

## Coordinate Geometry (Chapter 7) Syllabus reference PAS5.1.2

Find the gradient of the line passing through these pairs of points.
a (5, 2) and (6, 3)
b (3, 6) and (7, 1)

## Draw a sketch of each of these lines.

a y=3

b y = 4

e x+y=5

c y=x+3

d y = 4 3x

xy=2

Does the point (4, 3) lie on the line y = 2x 11? Explain your answer.

REVIEW SET 7B
1

a
b

## a Find the distance between the two points in question 1 part b.

b Find the distance between the points (1, 8) and (5, 1).

## a Find the gradient of the line in question 1 part b.

b Find the gradient of the line passing through the points (4, 2) and (2, 3).

227

228

## Find the gradient of this line.

Complete this table for each relation and draw a sketch of each of the lines.
a y=x+4
b y = 2 3x
x
3
0
3
c x + y = 8
d xy=0
y

Does the point (1, 3) lie on the line x y = 4? Explain your answer.

## a Complete this table for the relation y = 2x.

b Draw a neat sketch of the relation y = 2x.

REVIEW SET 7C
1

By drawing a diagram and plotting the points, find the midpoint of the join of:
a (5, 3) and (11, 3)
b (2, 1) and (2, 9)
c (3, 1) and (8, 4)
d (5, 3) and (10, 4)

Using Pythagoras theorem, find the distance between these pairs of points:
a (4, 3) and (9, 8)
b (2, 7) and (3, 3)

## In this diagram draw a right-angled

triangle and find the gradient of the
line.

Find the gradient of the line passing through these pairs of points:
a (7, 2) and (6, 3)
b (3, 6) and (8, 3)

## Draw a sketch of each of these lines:

a y = 5
c y=x2
e y = 2x + 1
g xy=6

b x=2
d y = 5 4x
f x + y = 1

Does the point (2, 5) lie on the line y = 3x 1? Explain your answer.

a y = x2 + 2
b y = 3x

REVIEW SET 7D
1

a

## a Find the distance between the two points in question 1 part b.

b Find the distance between the points (3, 8) and (5, 4).

229

230

## a Find the gradient of the line in question 1 part b.

b Find the gradient of the line passing through the points (7, 2) and (2, 1).

## Find the gradient of this line.

Complete this table for each relation and draw a sketch of each of the lines.
x
y

a y=3x
c x + y = 1

b y = 2x 3
d xy=6

Does the point (1, 5) lie on the line x + y = 4? Explain your answer.

## a Complete this table for the relation y = 3x.

b Draw a neat sketch of the relation y = 3x.

x
y

## LEY_bk953_08_2ndpp Page 231 Wednesday, January 12, 2005 11:10 AM

Chapter 8
Polygons
This chapter deals with the development and application related to
the angle sum of interior and exterior angles for convex polygons.
After completing this chapter you should be able to:
find the interior angle sum of polygons
establish the result for the sum of the exterior angles of a polygon
apply angle sum results to find unknown angles.

WM: S5.2.1S5.2.4

232

Diagnostic Test

is:

2

A pentagon

B octagon

C decagon

D hexagon

## A regular polygon with 20 sides has

interior angle size of:
A 3240

B 162

C 3600

D 18

## A pentagon has one right angle and the

other angles are all equal. The size of the
equal angles is:
A 540

B 450

C 112.5

D 90

polygon is:
A 24

B 156

C 360

D 2340

## An irregular polygon has one exterior

angle of 100 and all others 10. The
number of sides of this polygon is:

A 25

A 26

B 27

C 36

D 37

B 65
C 205

120

85

D 115
x

130

If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
Section

15

6, 7

## A. INTERIOR ANGLE SUM OF A POLYGON

A polygon is a plane shape with straight sides. Polygons are named according to the number of sides.
The simplest polygon is a triangle, which has an interior angle sum of 180. A quadrilateral has four sides
and an angle sum of 360.

Example 1
Find the sum of the interior angles of a heptagon.
A heptagon is a polygon with seven
sides. Choose one vertex and draw
all the diagonals from that vertex.
There are five triangles in the
heptagon. The angle sum of each
triangle is 180.
interior angle sum = 5 180
= 900

3
2

Exercise 8A
1

a Draw any pentagon (5-sided polygon) and label one of its vertices A.
b Draw in the diagonals from A.
c Find the interior angle sum of the pentagon.

## Repeat question 1 with

different polygons, drawing
diagonals from one vertex
only.
Copy and complete the
table opposite.
Example 1 shows this
for the heptagon.

Polygon

Number
of sides

Number of
triangles

Angle sum of
polygon

2 180 = 360

pentagon
hexagon
heptagon
octagon

5 180 = 900

nonagon
decagon
n-gon
3

## Copy and complete the following statement:

The sum of the measure of the interior angles of any n-sided polygon is ______ 180.

233

234

## Polygons (Chapter 8) Syllabus reference SGS5.2.1

Example 2

A regular polygon
has all sides and
interior angles
equal.

## Find the size of each interior angle in a regular dodecagon.

A dodecagon has 12 sides.
The angle sum = (12 2) 180
= 10 180
= 1800
As there are 12 equal angles, the size of each
is 1800 12 = 150.

a pentagon
b hexagon
c heptagon
d octagon
e nonagon
f decagon

## A regular polygon has 24 sides.

a Find the sum of the interior angles.

## b Find the size of each interior angle.

Example 3
Find x giving a reason.

110

## The polygon is a pentagon.

The angle sum = (5 2) 180
= 540
x + 120 + 130 + 110 + 100 = 540 (angle sum of a pentagon)
x + 460 = 540
x = 540 460
x = 80

a
b
80

120

100
130

c
100

70

115
160

150

130

140
140
100

108

100
x

## a Find the angle sum of a hexagon.

b Find the value of x in these hexagons.
i
ii

iii

120

138

150
150

147

x
97

130
160

155

170

110

118

130
x

110

Example 4
Find x, giving brief reasons.

## The pentagon has 5 sides.

the sum of interior angles is 3 180 = 540
x + x + x + 132 + 90 = 540
3x + 222 = 540
3x = 318
x = 106

a

132

c
x
140

120
x

130

125

100

160

80

70

f
2x 2x

150

110

2x

2x
120
120
2x

x
x

235

236

## Polygons (Chapter 8) Syllabus reference SGS5.2.1

h
x

3x
6x 3x

2x

10

i
x

60

2x

3x

A pentagon has three right angles and two other equal angles. Find the size of each of the
two equal angles.
A hexagon has two right angles and all other angles equal. Find the size of each of the equal
angles.

Investigation 1
WM: Applying Strategies, Communicating

1

## The five exterior angles of a pentagon are shown.

As this is a regular pentagon all exterior angles
are equal.
a Measure the exterior angles.
b Find the sum of the five exterior angles.

## A non-regular pentagon is shown opposite.

a Measure the five exterior angles.
b Find the sum of the exterior angles.

a Draw a hexagon.
c Find the sum of the exterior angles.

## b Measure the exterior angles.

a Draw an octagon.
c Find the sum of the exterior angles.

## Copy and complete:

The sum of the exterior angles of any polygon is ______.

6
j

d
i

f
c h
g
b

## Copy and complete:

a i (a + f ) = ______
ii (b + g ) = ______
b The sum of the exterior and interior angle is
(a + f ) + (b + g ) + (c + h ) + (d + i ) + (e + j ) = 5 ______
c The sum of the interior angles
f + g + h + i + j = 3 ______
d The sum of the exterior angles is ______.

## B. EXTERIOR ANGLES OF POLYGONS

When the sides of a polygon are extended, the exterior angles are formed.
From investigation 1, the angle sum of the exterior angles of any polygon is 360.

Example 1
a Find the size of each exterior angle of a regular decagon.
b Hence, find the size of each interior angle.
c Find the angle sum of a decagon.

A decagon
has 10 sides.

## a The exterior angle sum of any polygon is 360.

360
Exterior angle = ---------10
= 36
b The interior and exterior angles make a straight line.
Interior angles = 180 36
= 144
c Angle sum = 144 10
= 1440

Exercise 8B
1

## a Find the size of each exterior angle of a regular octagon.

b Use the exterior angle to find the size of the interior angle, giving a reason.
c Hence, find the angle sum of an octagon.

237

238

## a Find the size of each exterior angle of a regular 20-sided polygon.

b Find the size of each interior angle.
c Hence, find the angle sum of a 20-sided polygon.

Example 2
a A regular polygon has exterior angles measuring 12. Find the number of sides.
b An irregular polygon has one exterior angle of 80 and all the others are 7.
How many sides in this polygon?
360
a Exterior angle = -----------where n is the number of sides
n
360
n = ------------------------angle size
360
= -----------12
= 30
The polygon has 30 sides.
b Since one angle is 80 the others add to
360 80 = 280
280
Then ------------ = 40
7
The polygon has 41 sides.

Why not
40 sides?

A regular polygon has each exterior angle measuring 15. Find the number of sides of the
polygon.

Find the number of sides in regular polygons with exterior angles of:
a 10
b 18
c 24

d 90

An irregular polygon has one exterior angle 100 and all others 13. How many sides?

## Find the number of sides in irregular polygons with:

a one exterior angle of 60 and the rest 10
b one exterior angle of 120 and the rest 12
c one exterior angle of 45 and the rest 15

An irregular polygon has two exterior angles twice the size of the rest. If the other exterior
angles are 15, find the number of sides.

An irregular polygon has two exterior angles twice the size of the rest. If the other exterior
angles are 20, find the number of sides.

## Polygons (Chapter 8) Syllabus reference SGS5.2.1

Investigation 2
WM: Applying Strategies, Investigating, Communicating

Tessellation
A tessellation is a pattern of shapes that fit exactly together. A regular tessellation is made up
of regular polygons of one type and size only.
You will need: square grid paper, triangular grid paper.
1

## A regular hexagon will tessellate as shown in this diagram.

a What is the size of each interior angle of a regular
hexagon?
b Look at the circled part of the tessellation. How many
hexagons meet at the point?
c What is the sum of the angles at the point circled?
d Copy and complete:
A regular polygon will tessellate if the size of the interior angles divides exactly into _____.

The size of the interior angles of a regular pentagon is 108. Explain why a regular pentagon
will not tessellate.

## a Copy and complete

this table.
b Which of these eight
regular polygons
will tessellate?
Give reasons.

Regular
polygon

Number
or sides

Triangle
Square
Pentagon
Hexagon
Heptagon
Octagon
Nonagon
Decagon

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Angle sum
= 180(n 2)

= angle sum n

540
720

108
120

## a On grid paper draw a tessellation of a square with side length 2 units.

b Draw a different tessellation using the same square.

a On a sheet of triangular grid paper draw a tessellation of equilateral triangles with side
length 2 units.
b Using a different colour show that this is a tessellation of regular hexagons.
c What other plane shapes can be seen in the tessellation?

239

240

## Polygons (Chapter 8) Syllabus reference SGS5.2.1

Investigation 3
WM: Applying Strategies, Investigating

Archimedes
Archimedes used polygons inside and outside a circle of given radius to give an approximation for .
C
Given that C = d, then = ---- .
D
This software investigation uses Archimedes theory to find an estimate for by drawing a regular
polygon inside a circle of constant radius (inscribed) and another polygon with the same number of
sides outside, but touching, the circle (circumscribed).
The estimate of is found by dividing the perimeters of the polygons by the radius of the circle.
perimeter of inscribed polygon
perimeter of circumscribed polygon

Investigation 4
WM: Reasoning

1

## Use a pencil to draw a starter circle of

to divide the circle into equal angles of 10.

At each of the 36 points around the starter circle, as centre, draw a circle of radius 2 cm.

## Polygons (Chapter 8) Syllabus reference SGS5.2.1

There are various ways in which you can colour your doughnut. Experiment with different
colour patterns. Three different ones are shown here.

## Can you find other ways to colour your doughnut?

Language in Mathematics

## Rearrange these words to form sentences relating to this chapter.

a sides A has five pentagon
b has sides equal A regular all polygon
c A eight octagon sides polygon an is with
d sum 360 is The polygon exterior a of angle

## Use every third letter to reveal the message.

EDTTHOFVFBNIWANSDDTTTUOHPLEJQIAVNCETRGEYJRMZIA
EOTERITAOUNTFGESLFGEBNSCWUQAMZSOAEFTRAUOPITOH
JLLPYOIGUCOSENQASQUUTFBWDTERRCVANKCLOTZATQWWE
ROTFFVIROWOASMCGTBYHJKELONPQUASMASBDEERFRTIOY
TFFVSBHITGDJKELOSPIAYTNEWDASMDCUFVLGBTHNIJMPKL
NQEDTUEOPIRZGCHHJOTPNYQRDTSEAEGASRFGEHJEUYS

Glossary
angle sum
exterior
nonagon
regular

concave
heptagon
pentagon
tessellate

convex
hexagon
polygon
tessellation

decagon
interior

241

242

1

A 540
B 720

C 900

A pentagon
B octagon

C decagon

## A regular polygon with 24 sides has interior angle size of:

A 3960
B 165
C 4320
The value of x in this figure is:
A 145
B 235
C 325
D 35

140
165

D 1080

D hexagon

D 180

A heptagon has three right angles and the other angles are all equal. The size of the equal
angles is:
A 900
B 112.5
C 157.5
D 247.5

## The exterior angle of a 30-sided regular polygon is:

A 12
B 168
C 360

D 5040

An irregular polygon has one exterior angle of 100 and all others 13. The number of sides
of this polygon is:
A 20
B 21
C 30
D 113

If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
Section

15

6, 7

## Polygons (Chapter 8) Syllabus reference SGS5.2.1

REVIEW SET 8A
1

a Draw a hexagon.
c Find the angle sum of a hexagon.

a

120
100

150
x

130

130
x

100

130

## For a regular octagon:

a What is the size of each interior angle?

## A regular polygon has exterior angles 10.

a How many sides does it have?

243

244

REVIEW SET 8B
1

## a Find the angle sum of a dodecagon (12 sides).

b Find the size of each interior angle of a regular dodecagon.

## Find x, giving a reason.

a

135

140

148

100

x
x

150
100
x

A nine-sided figure has three right angles and all other angles equal. What is the measure
of each of these equal angles?

## a Find the size of each exterior angle of a 25-sided regular polygon.

b Find the size of each interior angle.
c Hence, find the angle sum of a 25-sided polygon.

REVIEW SET 8C
1

## A regular polygon has 36 sides.

a Find the sum of the interior angles.

## Find x, giving a reason.

a

b
3x

120

115

2x

150
168
x
x

135

2x

A regular pentagon has two right angles and all other angles equal. Find the size of the equal
angles.

245

246

## Polygons (Chapter 8) Syllabus reference SGS5.2.1

REVIEW SET 8D
1

a Draw a pentagon.
c What is the angle sum of a pentagon?

a

## b Draw all diagonals from one vertex.

b
x

130
150

155

130

x
120

100

170

A hexagon has three right angles and all other angles equal. Find the size of the equal angles.

## LEY_bk9_09_2ndpp Page 247 Wednesday, January 12, 2005 11:16 AM

Chapter 9
Probability
This chapter deals with relative frequencies and theoretical probabilities.
After completing this chapter you should be able to:
conduct experiments to determine the relative frequency of an event
estimate the probability of an event from experimental data
express the probability of an event using the probability definition
calculate probabilities for simple events
simulate events using random number generators.

WM: S5.1.1S5.1.5

248

## Probability (Chapter 9) Syllabus reference NS5.1.3

Diagnostic Test
Use this table for questions 1 and 2. A tennis racquet is spun 100 times. It has rough on one side
and smooth on the other. The table shows the results.
Outcome

Frequency

Rough

81

Smooth

19

## The relative frequency for rough is:

81
19
81
A 81
B ---------- C -----D -----100
81
19

## Based on the table, the probability

that a spin of this racquet will result in
smooth is:
19
81
A 81
B 19
C ---------- D ---------100
100

Relative frequency

## A 52 card pack is shuffled and one card is

dealt. The probability that it is a diamond
is:
1
1
A --B -----C 52
D 13
4
52

## Which statement is true?

A There are 8 teams in our netball
competition so our probability of
winning the competition is 1--8- .

## A normal six-sided die is thrown once.

The probability of getting a 4 is:
1
4
1
A --B --C --D even
4
6
6

## B A coin has been tossed 8 times and all

8 have been heads, therefore the next
toss must be tails.
C Traffic lights can be red, amber or
green. Therefore the probability the
light is green is 1--3- .

## A hat contains 1 red, 5 white and 7 blue

tickets. A ticket is selected at random
from the hat. The probability that the
ticket is white is:
5
1
7
A 5
B -----C -----D -----13
13
13
A raffle has 100 tickets numbered from
1 to 100. The probability that the ticket
selected is a number between 8 and 15
inclusive is:
1
8
15
23
A ---------- B ---------- C ---------- D ---------100
100
100
100
A poker die has faces A, K, Q, J, 10, 9 and
is rolled once. The probability of getting a
K or a J is:
1
2
4
1
A --B --C --D --6
6
6
4

Percentage

## D There are 24 horses in the Slipper

Handicap horse race. Therefore the
probability that I will draw the
favourite out of a hat containing the
1
-.
names of all the horses is ----24
9

## A netball shooter has a 60% chance of

scoring a goal from just inside the goal
circle. To simulate the number of goals
from 50 shots at goal a table of random
numbers can be used by:
A assigning the digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
to scoring a goal
B assigning the digits 0, 6 to missing
C assigning the digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 to
scoring a goal
D assigning the digits 0, 1, 2, 3 to
missing

## Probability (Chapter 9) Syllabus reference NS5.1.3

If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
Section

1, 2

37

Investigation 1
WM: Communicating, Applying Strategies, Reasoning

Probability experiments
A normal coin has two sides, heads and tails. The theoretical probability of each event is 1--2- .
This experiment examines the probability of heads and tails.
1

## a Toss a coin 50 times and complete this table.

Result

Tally

Frequency

Fraction of total

Tails
b
c
d
e

## Toss the coin another 50 times and complete a second table.

Compare the results in the two tables and comment on any differences.
Combine your two tables and compare the results of the new table out of 100 trials.
Combine the tables of nine other people with yours. Comment on the fractions out of 1000
for each of the two events.
f The fraction for each should be 1--2- . Comment on the difference in results from the 50 trials
versus the 1000 trials.
g What would you expect if this experiment was repeated 1 000 000 times?
h Comment on the statement The more times the coin is tossed, the closer the fraction of
heads and tails gets to 1--2- each.
2

Chircop tossed a coin 100 times: heads came up 53 times and tails came up 47 times.
47
- . Is she correct? Comment.
a Chircop concluded that the probability of tails is --------100
b Should Chircop expect the same results if she repeats her experiment of tossing the coin
100 times? Explain.
c If Chircop tossed the coin 1 000 000 times, how many tails would she expect? Explain.

249

250

## When a die is thrown there are six equally likely outcomes: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6.

a Throw a die 120 times
Result
Tally
Frequency
Fraction
and complete the table.
(Probability)
1
2
3
4
5
6

## b How many of each

number did you expect?
c Explain any differences
Total
values and the results.
d Combine your results with the class and comment.
4

120

Rachel rolled a normal six-sided die twelve times. She did not throw a 6. Rachel concluded
that the probability of obtaining a 6 was 0. Why is she wrong? How many 6s would be
expected in twelve throws of the die?

Research Assignment
WM: Communicating, Reasoning

Chance statements
1

## A. THEORETICAL PROBABILITY VERSUS

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
From investigation 1 you would have concluded that the more trials conducted the closer the experimental
results are to the theoretical results. In fact, theoretical probability only makes predictions for overall results
in the long term. With experiments of a small number of trials, there may be little or no correlation between
expected results and experimental results.
In some instances it is either very complicated or impossible to calculate the theoretical probability of an event.
In this case the relative frequency gives an estimate for the probability.

## Probability (Chapter 9) Syllabus reference NS5.1.3

Example 1
A cylindrical can is tossed 200 times. The number of times it landed on its side
and on an end were recorded in this table.
Outcome

Frequency

Top end
Bottom end
Side

Relative frequency

Percentage

36
38
126

## a Complete the table.

b In future tosses of the can estimate the probability that it will land on its side.
a

Outcome

Frequency

Top end

36

Bottom end

38

Side

126

Relative frequency
36
---------200
38
---------200
126
---------200

Percentage
18%
19%
63%

## b P(lands on side) = 63%

Exercise 9A
1

A tennis racquet is spun 200 times. It has rough on one side and smooth on the other.
The table shows the results.
Outcome
Rough
Smooth

Frequency
86
114

Relative frequency

Percentage

## a Copy and complete the table.

b Estimate the probability that a spin will result in rough.
2

Four hundred car salespeople were randomly selected and asked the country in which their
car was manufactured. The results are shown in the table.
Country
Australia
Japan
Korea
Germany
Other

Frequency
146
128
56
48
22

Relative frequency

Percentage

## a Copy and complete the table.

b Use this data to estimate the probability that a salesperson chosen at random will have a
car manufactured in Australia.
c Estimate the probability that the salespersons car is manufactured in Germany.

251

252

## Probability (Chapter 9) Syllabus reference NS5.1.3

At a state wide teachers conference the colour of each teachers car was recorded; the
results appear in the table. There were 200 teachers cars.
Colour
White

Number
53

Red

48

Blue

27

Green

25

Yellow

21

Black

12

Silver

Other

Relative frequency
53
---------200
48
---------200

Percentage
26.5%

a Copy the table and complete the relative frequency and percentage columns.
b Using these results, how many red teachers cars would you expect in a school with
50 teachers? Explain.
c Complete a similar table for the teachers in your school. How do your schools results
compare? Explain any differences.
4

In a year, a restaurant served 4754 bottles of wine. Of these 86 were returned because the
wine was faulty. Based on this information, estimate the probability that a bottle of wine from
this restaurant is faulty when opened.

In a survey of 5000 marriages it was found that 1285 ended in divorce. Matt and Diane are
getting married. Based on this information, what is the approximate probability that their
marriage will end in divorce?

B. THEORETICAL PROBABILITY
In stage 4 we had the definition of the probability of an event A occurring. It was:
number of favourable outcomes
P(A) = ------------------------------------------------------------------------n
where n is the total number in the sample space.
In stage 4 the following probability properties were developed:
The probability of an event occurring is between 0 and 1.
If P(A) = 0 then the event A is impossible.
If P(A) = 1 then the event A is a certainty.
P(the event A does not occur) = 1 P(A).

## Probability (Chapter 9) Syllabus reference NS5.1.3

Example 1
A spinner is made from a regular pentagon with equal sections
containing the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
a
b
c
d

## List the sample space.

Find the probability of spinning a 3.
Find the probability of spinning an odd number.
Find the probability of not spinning a 3.

2
3

5
4

## a The five numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 comprise the sample space n = 5.

number of 3s
1
b P(3) = --------------------------------------------------------------- = --number in sample space 5
number of odd numbers
3
c P(odd number) = --------------------------------------------------------------- = --number in sample space 5
d The complementary event to spinning a 3 is not spinning a 3.
P(not a 3)
= 1 P(3)
Checking:
= 1 1--5The numbers that are not 3 are 1, 2, 4, 5
4
= --5 P(not a 3) = 4--5- .

Exercise 9B
1

A square spinner has the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 in equal sections. For one spin, determine the
probability of getting a:
a 1
b 3
c 5
d number less than 5
e number other than 1

A spinner in the shape of a regular hexagon has equal sections marked 1 to 6. For one spin,
determine the probability of getting a:
a 6
b 4
c 3
d odd number less than 6
e even number less than 7
f number less than 7
g 8
h number other than 4

A spinner is made from a regular decagon with 10 equal sections containing the numbers
1 to 10.
a List the sample space.
b Find the probability of spinning a 5.
c Find the probability of spinning an even number.
d Find the probability of spinning an odd number.
e Find the probability of not spinning a 10.
f Find the probability of spinning an 11.

253

254

## Probability (Chapter 9) Syllabus reference NS5.1.3

A bag contains 3 red, 4 white and 5 blue tickets. A ticket is selected at random from the bag.
Determine the probability that the ticket is:
a red
b white
c blue
d green
e not red
f not white
g red or blue
h not red or white
i red, white or blue

Adam has spread out a pack of playing cards. He picks a card at random.
Hearts and diamonds are red.
Picture cards are King, Queen, Jack.

means the
probability of
selecting a

Find:
d P(a black 10)
g P(a 5 or a 6)

b P(4 of hearts)
e P(ace)
h P(green card)

c
f
i

P(club)
P(picture card)
P(not a picture card)

## List the sample space for:

A card chosen at
a tossing a coin
random means each
card has the same
b the sexes of a 2-child family
chance of being
selected.
c tossing 2 coins at the same time
d rolling a die
e the order in which 3 people can stand in a line

## A fair die is rolled. Determine the probability of getting:

a a 2 or a 3
b a positive integer
c a result greater than 4
d a non-6
e a7

## A poker die has faces A, K, Q, J, 10 and 9, and is rolled once.

Determine the probability of getting:
a an A
b a number
c an A or a number

## A symmetrical octahedral (8-sided) die has numbers 1 to 8 marked on its faces.

It is rolled once. Determine the probability of throwing:
a a2
b a number less than 4
c a number less than 1
d a number between 0 and 9

## Probability (Chapter 9) Syllabus reference NS5.1.3

10

A regular pentagonal (5-sided) spinner has the numbers 1 to 5 marked on its partitions.
Determine the probability that after a spin the result will be:
a an even number
b a prime
c a factor of 6

11

A bag contains 3 red and 7 blue buttons, and one is randomly selected from the bag.
Determine the probability that the button is:
a red
b blue
c red or blue
d green

12

The \$2 lottery has 100 000 tickets. Find the probability of:
a winning first prize with one ticket
b not winning first prize with 50 tickets

13

One ticket is chosen in a lottery consisting of 100 tickets numbered 1 to 100, and the
choice is made randomly. Determine the probability that the ticket is:
a a two-digit number
b a multiple of 12
c a multiple of 7 or 11

14

Determine the probability that a person randomly selected in the street has his (or her)
birthday in September. (Dont forget leap years.)

15

## Many games require a 6 to start, when rolling a normal die.

a What is the probability of starting on the first roll of the die?
b Kristie says 3 is her lucky number. Is she more likely to start first roll if a 3 is required

Investigation 2
WM: Reasoning, Communicating, Applying Strategies

A pair of dice
From the illustration, we can
clearly see that when two dice
are rolled there are 36 possible
outcomes.
Of these {1, 3}, {2, 2} and {3, 1}
give us a sum of 4.
Consider the following question:
What is the likelihood of the sum
of the numbers being 4, when two
dice are rolled?

255

256

## Probability (Chapter 9) Syllabus reference NS5.1.3

The answer to this question lies in the fact that 3 out of the possible 36 outcomes give a sum of 4.
Hence the probability of a sum of 4 when two dice are rolled is

3
-----36

(or 8.333%).

## Using the illustration

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 11 12
Sum
above, copy and
complete the table.
3
1
----------Fraction of total
36
36
The figures listed in
this table are our
expected results for the experiment of determining the likelihood of a particular sum when
two dice are rolled.

## Now toss two dice 200 times and

record in a table the sum of the
two numbers for each toss.
Copy and complete the table
given opposite.

## Pool as much data as you can

with other students and find
the overall percentage of
each sum. Make a
comparison between
the results you have
obtained and the
expected results
from the previous
table.

Sum

Tally

Frequency

Fraction of total

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Total

200

C. CALCULATING PROBABILITIES
This section involves two groupwork activities designed to promote the understanding of probability concepts
relating to theoretical and calculated probabilities.

Groupwork 1
1

Each person designs their own spinner with four colours. Make the
spinner so that all colours are not equally likely but do not tell the
probabilities of each colour occurring.

Using the spinner you made, conduct a trial of 100 spins to see how closely the experimental
results match the probabilities.

## Probability (Chapter 9) Syllabus reference NS5.1.3

a Working in pairs, use another persons spinner. One person spins, the other person
records the results. The person recording cannot look at the spinner.
b The recorder decides on the number of trials and must estimate the probabilities of each
of the colours after the experiment.
c Compare your results and explain them.
d Swap over so you are recording and spinning with another spinner, and repeat parts a, b
and c.

What can you conclude about the number of trials compared with the accuracy of the results?

Groupwork 2
1

a Using between 20 and 52 cards, each person designs a deck with their
own probabilities for drawing a red or a black card.
b Swap decks around the group. To experimentally find the probabilities
of red or black cards, shuffle the deck then select a card and record its colour.
Replace the card, shuffle, then select another card.
c The challenge is to be the first to correctly identify the probabilities. You may not guess
and you are only permitted one answer. You must decide how many trials are enough.

The teacher prepares a number of bags with counters or marbles of two different colours in
each bag. Only the teacher knows the number of each colour.
a Students in their groups draw a counter or a marble, note its colour and replace it.
b They repeat this process until they are ready to answer with the probability of each colour.
Each group is allowed only one answer.
c The first correct group wins.
d Compare the experimental results of all groups. Does this provide a better estimate?

Investigation 3
WM: Applying Strategies, Reasoning, Communicating

Rectangular spinners
This investigation is suitable for four students. A rectangular spinner
can be made from cardboard using a match or toothpick for its
spindle.
You are to investigate the chances of the spinner finishing on
blackened edges on opposite sides of the spinner. The other
two sides are to be 4 cm long.

257

258

## Make eight different spinners for, say, x = 1 cm, 2 cm,

2.5 cm, 3 cm, 3.5 cm, 4 cm, 5 cm, 6 cm or other values of

4 cm
x cm

Each spinner is to be twirled several hundred times so that an estimate of the probability of
getting a black edge results for each of the spinners. Divide this task between the members

Collect the data and complete a table like the one given below.
x

2.5

3.5

P(black) estimate
4

Graph P(black) against x. Write about the shape of your graph and explain how it could be
used to estimate P(black) for various values of x.

a x, when P(black) = 0.1, 0.4, 0.8

b P(black) if x = 4.5

## D. EQUALLY LIKELY EVENTS

Equally likely events are events that have the same (equal) chance of occurring.
For example, when a coin is tossed, heads and tails are equally likely events. When selected at random, they
have an equal chance of occurring.
Sometimes events are not equally likely.

Example 1
Comment on these statements:
a My family has four boys so the next baby born will be a boy.
b There are ten teams in the football competition, therefore the probability that my
1
-.
team will win the competition is ----10
a The fact that four boys were born is a coincidence. The next baby has approximately
an equal chance of being a boy or a girl.
b Some teams are better than others, so the probability of each team winning is not
1
- , if it is poor the
equal. If your team is good the probability will be greater than ----10
probability could be very close to 0.

Exercise 9D
1

## Comment on these statements:

a There are 26 letters in the English alphabet. Therefore the probability that a persons
1
-.
name starts with Z is ----26
b There are 12 teams in my netball competition. Therefore the probability that my team will
1
-.
win the competition is ----12
c There are 128 players in the main draw of Wimbledon. Therefore the probability of picking
1
-.
the winner at the start of the tournament is --------128
d Traffic lights can be red, amber or green. Therefore the probability that a particular traffic
light is red is 1--3- .
1
-.
e There are 52 cards in a pack. Therefore the probability of selecting an ace is ----13
f I need a 6 on a normal die to start a game. Therefore the probability that I will start first
go is 1--6- .
g There are 24 horses in the Melbourne Cup field. Therefore the probability of selecting the
1
-.
winner from a list of their names is ----24
h A letter is chosen from the word INSIGHT. Therefore the probability that it is an I is 2--7- .

## What assumptions are made in these statements?

a 30% of the population do not work. Therefore the probability of being unemployed is 0.3.
b I asked five people leaving the corner store what drink they bought. Four of them bought
orange juice and one bought lemonade. Therefore the probability that someone buys
orange juice is 4--5- .
c Of the thirty students in 9 Red, only three watch the evening news. Therefore the
1
-.
probability that someone watches the evening news is ----10

Investigation 4
WM: Applying Strategies, Reasoning

## Instant money and bingo

Many sporting clubs and service clubs use instant money or
bingo type tickets to raise money. We will consider an instant
money type of game where amounts of \$1, \$2, \$5, \$10 and
\$25 can be won. A ticket will show five different amounts, and
if three of them are the same then that ticket will win.

\$5 \$2 \$1 \$25 \$10

## The second ticket wins \$2 because three \$2 symbols appear.

\$2 \$2 \$10 \$5 \$2

Losing ticket

Winning ticket

The social club is raising money for new clubrooms. They decide to sell 25 000 of these tickets at
20 cents each. They will distribute \$2500 in prizes. They decide to print:
5 prizes of \$25
25 prizes of \$10
125 prizes of \$5
250 prizes of \$2
and the remaining prize money is in \$1 tickets.

259

260

## Probability (Chapter 9) Syllabus reference NS5.1.3

Determine how many prizes of \$1 will have to be produced so \$2500 is given in prizes.

When all tickets have been sold, how much money does the social club expect to make?

Determine the probability that when buying one ticket you will win:
a a \$25 prize
b a \$10 prize
c a \$5 prize
d a \$2 prize
e a \$1 prize
f any prize

Investigation 5
WM: Applying Strategies, Reasoning, Communicating

Roulette
One game played extensively in casinos is roulette. The
game consists of a horizontal rotating wheel containing
38 equal slots and a steel marble that will spin into
one of them. The slots are numbered 00, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4,
5, up to 36. The slots are red or black for the
numbers 1 to 36. 0 and 00 are usually green.
(00 appears on the American version.)
Gamblers place their betting chips on the table as shown (International layout). They can bet on red
or black or single numbers or combinations of numbers.

a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h

Result

\$ won

## Individual number 5 (pleine)

Three numbers in a row (transversale pl.)
Four numbers in a square (carre)
First four numbers (0, 1, 2, 3)
Two rows, six numbers (transversale 6)
A vertical row of 12 numbers (colonne)
First twelve numbers 112 (12 p.)
Second twelve numbers 1324 (12 m.)
Third twelve numbers 2536 (12 d.)
All even numbers 2, 4, 6, 8 ... (pair)
All odd numbers 1, 3, 5, 7... (impair)
All red numbers 1, 3, 5, 7 ... (rouge)
All black numbers 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 11, ... (noir)
All numbers 118 (manque)
All numbers 1936 (passe)

35
17
11
8
8
5
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1

## Probability (Chapter 9) Syllabus reference NS5.1.3

In the result table, the \$ won shows how much can be won from a \$1 bet. A loss results in the casino
a win on number 17 pays \$35 (and you also get back your original bet of \$1)
a win on b above pays \$17 if an 8 or 9 occurs.
(Assume that we use the table as shown, i.e. no 00 slot.)
1

If you bet \$10 on number 23 and win, what will be your return?

If you bet \$1 on each number, how much does it cost you and what will be your return?

From your answer to question 2 determine what percentage profit the casino expects to
make.

## Your expected gain can be calculated using:

Expected gain = Possible \$ winnings P(winning) Amount bet P(losing)
and a negative answer means an expected loss.
Copy and complete the following table assuming that you bet \$1 each time.
Type of bet

Possible \$
winnings

P(winning)

P(losing)

Expected \$
gain or loss

6
-----37

31
-----37

0.027

a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
6

261

262

## Probability (Chapter 9) Syllabus reference NS5.1.3

Investigation 6
WM: Applying Strategies, Reasoning

## Concealed number tickets

Many clubs have ticket machines that contain sets of consecutive numbers from 0001, 0002,
0003, up 2000. These games are relatively inexpensive to play and are used as fundraisers
for the club (e.g. football club, golf club).
Tickets are ejected at random at a cost of 20 cents each. A small cardboard cover is removed to
reveal the concealed number.
Suppose a golf club can buy golf balls as prizes for \$2.50 each and a set of 2000 tickets for the
machine at \$30. One club shows the following winners table.
Winning numbers
777
1000, 2000
any multiple of 25

Prize

Cover
removed

4 golf balls
2 golf balls
1 golf ball

If all tickets are sold, how many balls are paid out as prizes?

Determine the total cost to the club for a complete round of 2000 tickets going through the
machine.

## What percentage profit is made by the club?

If you purchase one ticket, what is your chance of winning at least one ball?

What is your \$ expectation for the playing of one game, i.e. purchasing one ticket.

Design your own concealed ticket game for a club or group so that the customer receives
an expected payout of around 80% (and certainly not less than 80%).

## E. RANDOM NUMBER GENERATORS

A simulation is a simple mathematical model that allows us to investigate a more complicated, time-consuming
or costly situation. In some cases we can estimate the probability of events that are very difficult to determine
using the formal rules of probability.
This section uses tables of random numbers to model situations.

## This table of random numbers is to be used in this exercise.

0 8 2 1 3 2 9 7 8 4 7 6 5 6 1 4 6 6 3 5 1 0 1 9 5 1 0 0 1 2 4 9 3 3 8 4 0
6 3 3 1 4 5 8 0 2 9 6 2 5 7 2 3 9 9 6 7 5 5 3 6 1 9 6 0 9 3 0 6 4 8 6 7 9
8 6 7 1 5 5 5 2 9 3 1 5 8 0 0 2 1 7 6 0 0 4 9 3 3 3 4 7 5 4 5 8 6 4 0 6 9
3 3 0 1 7 9 2 6 3 0 5 1 5 1 4 8 2 6 8 4 4 7 2 9 8 8 1 9 5 4 0 6 9 3 4 1 2
7 0 2 5 5 3 4 4 9 2 0 3 4 4 7 7 4 7 4 0 4 5 9 3 4 6 8 2 4 4 7 2 3 8 2 5 5
3 5 7 9 9 7 4 5 3 9 4 2 7 9 6 9 0 3 1 4 9 5 9 2 9 9 1 8 3 3 3 2 5 1 4 5 6
8 2 7 0 9 2 2 0 9 3 4 6 5 6 8 1 3 7 7 1 1 9 8 8 5 0 5 5 7 1 7 9 7 8 3 6 9
2 3 3 5 2 3 4 1 6 1 7 6 5 6 8 1 3 7 7 1 1 9 8 8 5 0 5 5 7 1 7 9 7 8 3 6 7
4 6 3 1 0 3 0 7 8 6 4 6 7 8 4 9 8 9 6 8 0 2 9 2 0 8 9 4 3 1 1 7 0 5 0 1 3
9 1 7 0 5 8 7 6 4 6 4 8 9 4 1 0 6 3 0 3 9 0 0 3 8 9 0 5 9 4 6 5 7 1 3 9 8

Example 1
A football goalkicker has a 60% chance of kicking a goal from the sideline.
a Simulate five kicks, using a table of random numbers, to find the number of goals he
would score by:
i assigning digits to represent a goal and a miss
ii selecting five random one-digit numbers from the table
b Repeat the simulation to estimate the number of goals he would kick from 50 attempts.
c Compare your results with the expected probability.
a i

Let each digit in the table represent a kick. Let the six digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 signify
a goal, and the four digits 6, 7, 8, 9 signify a miss. Six out of ten digits or 60%
represent a goal, and four out of ten digits or 40% represent a miss.
ii Choosing any place in the table as a starting point, read off five digits representing the
five kicks at goal. If the starting point is the third row with the seventh digit in, shown
in bold, then the five digits are 5, 2, 9, 3, 1. This represents four goals and one miss.
b Starting at the same place the fifty digits are:
52931580021760049333475458640693301792630
515148268
representing 34 goals and 16 misses.
c The expected number of goals from 50 kicks would be 30; from the simulation it is 34.
Note:
Any six of the digits 09 could have been chosen to represent a goal.
Starting at a different place may give different results.
A calculator or spreadsheet could be used to generate random numbers.
If it is possible or practical to use technology to generate the numbers,
then use the technology rather than the table for questions 35.
This spreadsheet provides a random number generator.

263

264

## Probability (Chapter 9) Syllabus reference NS5.1.3

Exercise 9E
1

Repeat the question from the example starting with the first digit in the table.

## The probability that a particular soccer striker will score from

a penalty is 90%. Simulate 50 kicks, using a table of random numbers,
to find the number of goals he would score by:
a i assigning digits to represent a goal and a miss
ii selecting fifty random one-digit numbers from the
table starting with the first number in the fifth row.
b Compare your results with the expected number of 45 goals.
c Repeat, starting from a different position in the table, and
compare the results.

## The probability that a netball shooter will score a goal is 70%.

Simulate 50 shots at goal, using a table of random numbers, to
find the number of goals she would score by:
a i assigning digits to represent a goal and a miss
ii selecting fifty random one-digit numbers from the
table starting with the first number in the fifth row.
b Compare your results with the expected number of 35 goals.
c Repeat, starting from a different position in the table,
and compare the results.

A plant seedling has an 80% chance of surviving the first six weeks after planting.
Simulate the survival of 100 plants using a table of random numbers by:
a i assigning digits to represent the survival and death of the seedling
ii selecting 100 random one-digit numbers from the table.
b Compare your results with the expected number of 80 survivals.

The chance of a couple having a male child or a female child are each 1--2- . Simulate the number
of boys and girls in a family of four children, using a table of random numbers, by:
a i assigning even numbers to represent boys and odd numbers to represent girls
ii selecting four one-digit numbers from the table and recording the number of boys
and girls.
b Repeat the process until you have results for ten families.
c Combine the results of the class.
d Find the mean number of boys in a family of four, using the whole class results.
e From your results, what is the probability in a family of four children that there are 0, 1,
2, 3 or 4 boys?

## Probability (Chapter 9) Syllabus reference NS5.1.3

non-calculator activities

2.5 1.7 =

## Five more than three times the sum of 4 and 6?

7
9
10

11

1
Write 8 --- as a mixed fraction?
3
35.6543 1000 =

7
Change ------ to a percentage.
20
Find 20% of \$180.
1
How many minutes in 3 --- hours?
2
What is the value of (0.4)2?

Consider the 4 in the number 13 746 892. Its value would be:
A 4
B 4000
C 40 000

D 400 000

## Which of the following numbers is closest to 7?

A 6.9
B 7.01

D 7.1

C 6.93

12

What fraction is 4 days of 1 fortnight? Give your answer in simplest fraction form.

13

An urn contains 9 blue and 7 red marbles. If I withdraw one marble from the urn, what is the
probability that it will be blue?

15

20.4
Estimate the value of ----------------------- giving your answer as a whole number.
2.1 + 1.8
Write the number for 200 + 3 + 0.02 + 0.004.

16

If John earns \$140 for 7 hours work, how much will he receive for 5 hours work?

17

Rachel knows that 225 31 = 6975. Use this data to find the answer to Rachels question:
69 750 000 31 =

18

What is

19

## What is the next number in the sequence: 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, _____ ?

20

The average of ten numbers is 3. What is the total of all ten scores?

21

5+72+1=

23

2 1
--- + --- =
3 6

14

25

36 + 4 ?

## 22 Ken has finished reading 25% of a 40

page book. How many pages are left
24 What is the
length of the
side x in the
diagram?

x cm
6 cm
8 cm

265

266

## Probability (Chapter 9) Syllabus reference NS5.1.3

Language in Mathematics
Blaise Pascal (16231662)
Blaise Pascal was born in Clermont-Ferrand, France, in
1623. Pascals father was a judge in the tax court and his
mother died when he was only three years old. He began
showing a great insight and understanding of mathematics
at a relatively young age. When he was only 16, Pascal
wrote a paper on conic sections, the study of shapes
obtained when a right circular cone is cut at various
angles.
Before he turned 20, Pascal developed a calculating machine
(patented 1647) to assist his father with tax calculations.
This machine was, in a way, the first digital calculator.
Pascal conducted experiments with his father on vacuums,
and in 1647 described the effects of air pressure on tubes of
mercury, which led to the construction of barometers.
There appears very strong evidence that the theory and study
of probability originated in the gambling halls of France where players had little idea of odds or
percentages. However, Pascal is one of the main theorists in the development of the modem theory
of probability as it is known today.
Pascal is remembered not only for his contribution to mathematics, but also for his involvement in
physics and religious philosophy. His family originally held strong Catholic beliefs, but as a result of
the illness of his father he came into contact with people with an even stricter moral approach to
religion. As a result, Pascal became extremely interested in Christian beliefs and ethics, and
produced a large number of papers on these subjects.
Despite his great contributions to mathematical and religious thinking, the one criticism of Pascal
is that he was probably too concrete a thinkersome emotional problems he appeared to analyse
like a geometry problem. However, this minor criticism is far outweighed by the enormous
contributions he made in other areas.
1

a
b
c
d

## How many years did Pascal live?

Why is Pascal remembered?
What criticism is made of Pascal?
Why did Pascal become interested in Christian beliefs?

## Replace the vowels in these glossary terms.

a ch __ nc __
c pr __ b __ b __ l __ ty
e pr __ d __ ct __ __ n

b __ v __ nt
d r __ nd __ m
f th __ __ r __ t __ c __ l

## Rearrange these words to form a sentence:

a used estimate Relative to frequencies probability are
b are number simulate to used Random generators events

## Use every third letter to find the sentence.

DFPGYRTROEWBDFAGHBBVICDLXSIZATQAYWSEEESRTTYUII
OMPLAKJTKMEMRSFGBDSEERCGHOSCMEFERTMYGOVDRWAE
SDSRFTVFACSBAQLWEERTAGHSJHTEDHWSEESNDSUCDMVG
BMIEOURQWOESFAGTHPREMIHAAQRLCISPDIEFNHJCTRRAA
ESVABNSHYEFGS

Glossary
certainty
event
experimental probability
impossible
random
simulate

chance
equally likely events
fair
prediction
random number generator
theoretical

## Use this table for questions 1 and 2.

Three hundred car salespeople were randomly
selected and asked the country in which their car
was manufactured. The results are shown in the table.

complementary event
experimental data
favourable outcomes
probability
relative frequency
trial

Country

## The relative frequency for Korea is:

42
A 42
B ---------100

Frequency

Australia

125

Japan

103

Korea

42

Germany

24

Other
1

267

42
C ---------300

Based on the table, the probability that a car will be Australian is:
125
125
100
A ---------B ---------C ---------100
300
125
A normal six-sided die is thrown once. The probability of getting a 1 is:
1
4
1
A --B --C --4
6
6

42
D ---------125
125
D ---------175

D even

268

## Probability (Chapter 9) Syllabus reference NS5.1.3

A hat contains 7 red, 3 white and 1 blue ticket. A ticket is selected at random from the hat.
The probability that the ticket is red is:
7
1
7
A 7
B -----C -----D -----11
11
10

A raffle has 50 tickets numbered from 1 to 50. The probability that the ticket selected is the
numbers 7 or 13 is:
2
1
7
13
A -----B -----C -----D -----50
50
50
50

A poker die has faces A, K, Q, J, 10, 9, and is rolled once. The probability of getting an A or
a 10 or a 9 is:
1
2
3
1
A --B --C --D --6
6
6
3

A 52-card pack is shuffled and one card is dealt. The probability that it is a diamond is:
1
2
13
4
A -----B -----C -----D -----52
52
52
52

## Which statement is true?

A There are 12 teams in our netball competition, so our probability of winning the
1
-.
competition is ----12
B A coin has been tossed 5 times and all 5 have been heads, therefore the next toss must be
tails.
C A die has six sides with the numbers 1 to 6 on them. The chance that I will get a 6 to start
a game is 1--6- .
D There are 18 horses in the Slipper Handicap horse race. Therefore, the probability that
1
-.
the favourite will win is ----18

A plant seedling has an 80% chance of surviving the first six weeks after planting. To simulate
the survival of 100 plants a table of random numbers can be used by:
A assigning the digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 to survival
B assigning the digits 1, 8, 0 to not surviving
C assigning the digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 to survival
D assigning the digits 0, 1, 2 to not surviving

If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
Section

1, 2

37

## Probability (Chapter 9) Syllabus reference NS5.1.3

REVIEW SET 9A
1

A tennis racquet is spun 200 times. It has rough on one side and smooth on the other.
The table shows the results.
Outcome

Frequency

Rough

166

Smooth

34

Relative frequency

Percentage

## a Copy and complete the table.

b Estimate the probability that a spin will result in rough.
2

## A normal six-sided die is thrown once. Determine the probability of getting:

a a4
b a5
c an even number
d a 1 or a 6

Comment on the statement: There are 10 teams in our netball competition, so the probability
1
- .
that our team will win the competition is ----10

The probability that a particular super-12 kicker will score from a penalty is 80%. Simulate
50 kicks, using a table of random numbers, to find the number of goals he would score by:
a
i assigning digits to represent a goal and a miss
ii selecting fifty random one-digit numbers from the table starting with the first
number in the fifth row.
b Compare your results with the expected number of 40 goals.
c Repeat, starting from a different position in the table, and compare the results.

269

270

## Probability (Chapter 9) Syllabus reference NS5.1.3

REVIEW SET 9B
1

Kim rolled a normal six-sided die six times. She did not throw a 6. Kim concluded that the
probability of obtaining a 6 was 0. Why is she wrong? How many 6s would be expected in
six throws of the die?

A hat contains 3 red, 5 white and 9 blue tickets. A ticket is selected at random from the hat.
Determine the probability that the ticket is:
a red
b blue
c white
d not blue

A raffle has 100 tickets numbered from 1 to 100. Determine the probability that the ticket
selected is:
a number 12
b a number less than 10
c a number between 19 and 31

## Comment on the statement:

Traffic lights can be red, amber or green. Therefore the probability the light is green is 1--3- .

## Probability (Chapter 9) Syllabus reference NS5.1.3

REVIEW SET 9C
1

Four hundred car salespeople were randomly selected and asked the country in which their
car was manufactured. The results are shown in the table.
Country

Frequency

Australia

195

Japan

103

Korea

62

Germany

34

Other

Relative frequency

Perecentage

## a Copy and complete the table.

b Use this data to estimate the probability that a salesperson chosen at random will have a
car manufactured in Australia.
c Estimate the probability that the salespersons car is manufactured in Japan.
2

A poker die has faces A, K, Q, J, 10, 9 and is rolled once. Determine the probability of getting:
a aK
b a number
c an A and a J

## Comment on the statement:

I need a 6 to start a game. Therefore, the probability that I will start on my first roll is 1--6- .

A plant seedling has a 90% chance of surviving the first six weeks after planting. Simulate
the survival of 100 plants using a table of random numbers by:
a
i assigning digits to represent the survival and death of the seedling
ii selecting 100 random one-digit numbers from the table.
b Compare your results with the expected number of 90 survivals.

271

272

## Probability (Chapter 9) Syllabus reference NS5.1.3

REVIEW SET 9D
1

In a year, a restaurant served 5188 bottles of wine. Of these 74 were returned because the
wine was faulty. Based on this information, estimate the probability that a bottle of wine from
this restaurant is faulty when opened.

A 52 -card pack is shuffled and one card is dealt. Determine the probability that it is:
a an ace
b a red card
c a heart
d a picture card

Matthew and Melissa each tossed a coin 100 times. Matthew counted 53 tails and so stated
53
- . Melissa counted 46 tails and stated that the probability
that the probability of tails is --------100
46
- . Who is correct? Explain.
of tails is --------100

## Comment on the statement:

There are 24 horses in the Slipper handicap horse race. Therefore, the probability that the
1
- .
favourite will win is ----24

## LEY_bk9_c10_finalpp Page 273 Wednesday, January 12, 2005 11:19 AM

Chapter 10
Algebraic Techniques
This chapter deals with simplifying expressions, expanding binomial products,
After completing this chapter you should be able to:
simplify algebraic expressions, including those involving fractions
generate, evaluate and expand quadratic expressions
recognise perfect squares and complete the square
factorise expressions
simplify expressions involving algebraic fractions

WM: S5.3.1S5.3.5

274

## Algebraic Techniques (Chapter 10) Syllabus reference PAS5.3.1

Diagnostic Test
1

15a a =
A 15

10
B 14

C 7a 2b

D 14a

3a 2b + 4a =
A a 2b

C 15a

B a + 2b

11

D 5a b

5 (2x 3) =
A 8 2x

B 2 2x

C 2x 2

D 5+x

12

B y 2 15y

C 3y 2 15y

D 3y 2 y

t t
--- --- =
3 5
A 0
2t
C -----15
a
--- + a =
3
2a
A -----3
a2
C ----3

A 3x 2 + 12x 2

B 3x 2 + 12x 2

C 3x 2 + 3x + 2

D 3x2 + 2x + 2

(x 3)2 =
A x2 9

B x2 + 9

C x 2 6x + 9

D x 2 + 6x 9

(5 3x)2 =
A 25 3x 2

y(y 7) 2y(4 y) =
A y 2 15y

7x (3x 1)(x + 2) =

B 25 9x 2

C 25 15x + 9x 2 D 25 30x + 9x 2
13

(5x 1)(5x + 1) =
A 25x 2 1

B 25x 2 + 1

## C 25x 2 10x + 1 D 25x 2 + 10x 1

B 2
D 2t

4a
B -----3
2a 2
D --------3

2y 3x
3y 4x ------ + ------ =
3
4
5y + 5x
28y 39x
A ----------------------B ------------------------12
12
7y 13x
yx
C ---------------------D ----------12
12

14

15

16

)2 = x 2 8x + then:

If (x
A

= 8; = 64

= 4; = 16

= 2; = 4

When factorised, pq 5p 2 =
A 4p 2

B p(q 5p)

C pq(1 5p)

D cannot be
factorised

When factorised, 4x + 4t x 2 xt =
A (4 x)(x + t)

B (4 x)(4 t)

C x(4 x t) + 4t

D 3x 3t

(x 3)(x + 5) =
A x 2 15

B x 2 + 2x 15

C 2x + 2

D x 2 2x 15

17

When factorised, m 2 4n 2 =
A (m 4n)(m + 4n)
B (m 4n)2

(3x 5)(2x + 3) =
A 6x 2 x 15

B 6x 2 + 5x 15

C 6x 2 x 2

D 6x 2 + 5x 2

8; = 8

C (m 2n)2
D (m + 2n)(m 2n)

275

18

23

A (4x 1)(3x + 2)

B (12x + 1)(x 2)

C (4x + 1)(3x 2)

D (9x 4y)
19

20

21

D (12x 1)(x + 2)

24

## When factorised, x 3 + x 2 + 12x =

A (x + 9)(x 9)

B (x + 9)2

A x(x 2 + x + 12)

C (x 18)2

D (x 9)2

B x(x 3)(x + 4)
C x(x + 12)(x + 1)

## When factorised, 16x 2 40x + 25 =

A (16x 25)2

B (16x + 25)2

C (4x 5)2

D (4x + 5)2

D x 2(x + 1) + 12x
2

25

When factorised, x 2 7x + 10 =
A (x 5)(x 2)

B (x + 5)(x + 2)

C (x 10)(x 1) D (x + 10)(x + 1)
22

## When factorised, 12x 2 + 5x 2 =

26

When factorised, 3x 2 + x 10 =
A (3x + 1)(x 10)

x + 5x 14 =
When simplified, -----------------------------2x + 14
B x(x + 3)
A x 2 + 3x
2C x1
D x----------2
3
5
- ------------- =
When simplified, ----------------2
2
x + 2x x 4
2 ( x + 3 )
A ------------------------------------x(x + 2)(x 2)
2

B (3x + 5)(x + 2)

2x 10x 12
B -----------------------------------------2
2
( x + 2x ) ( x 4 )
2
--------------C
2x 4

## C (3x 1)(x + 10)

D (3x 5)(x + 2)

2
D -----------------------------2
2x + 2x 4
If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
Section

14

57

810

1114

15, 16

17, 18

19, 20

21

22, 23

24

25, 26

## A. SIMPLIFYING EXPRESSIONS (REVIEW)

Example 1
Simplify, where possible, by collecting like terms.
a 3a + 4a
b 11b b
c 2ab + 3ab

d 3x 2 + 2x

276

## Algebraic Techniques (Chapter 10) Syllabus reference PAS5.3.1

a 3a + 4a
= 7a

b 11b b
= 11b 1b
= 10b
d 3x 2 + 2x is in simplest form
(x 2 and x are unlike terms)

c 2ab + 3ab
= 5ab

Exercise 10A
1

a 4a + 5a
b 3x + 2x
e 2x + x
f x + 3x
i a2 + a2
j 7x + 3
m 17x x
n x2 + x
q 3b 2 b 2
r 2ba + 3ab
u xy + 2yx
v 3p 2p

c
g
k
o
s
w

5x 2x
3x 2x
x 2 + 10x 2
7b + b
11n 11n
15b 8b

d
h
l
p
t
x

b+b
3x x
17x 7
7b b
3ab + ba
7bca 5abc

Example 2

a 6d + 3d + 5
b 4x + 5 + 2

c 3x x 2 + 4x

a 6d + 3d + 5
= 9d + 5

c 3x x 2 + 4x
= 7x x 2

b 4x + 5 + 2
= 4x + 7

## Simplify, by collecting like terms.

a 6x 3x + 7x
b 7y 2y 3y
d 7ab 2ab + 11ab
e 4x 2y + 13x 2y 8x 2y
g 11xy 5xy 6xy
h 6ab 3ab 2ab + 7ab

c 9a 2 + 13a 2 17a 2
f 7q + q + 4q 10q
i 4p 2q + 3p 2q 5p 2q p 2q

## Simplify, where possible, by collecting like terms.

a 5x + 4x 2
b m+7+4
d 2y + y + 3
e p + 3p 5
g 6t + 4 3t
h 16n 16 + 5n
j 7k + k 8
k 4a2 a2 7a
2
2
m 2m m + 5n
n 3x + 2y + 5x
2
2
p 2ab + b + 2b
q 6x + 4x 10
t 5 + 2a 1
s n + n + 2n 2
v 5mn 8m 4mn
w a2b + 2ab 2 + 4a 2b

c
f
i
l
o
r
u
x

x+6+x
7 + 4x x
p 2 + p + 4p 2
5cd + 2dc 2
3a + 2b a
6a + 3a ab
x x 2 + 2x
5x 2 3x 2 + 6x 3

Example 3
Simplify, where possible, by collecting like terms.
a 4x 7x 5 + x
b 5 5a a + 7

c x 5 2x 1

a 4x 7x 5 + x
= 2x 5
(as 4 7 + 1 = 2)

b 5 5a a + 7
= 5 + 7 5a a
= 12 6a

c x 5 2x 1
= x 2x 5 1
= x 6

a 4x 7x
b 4x 7x
d 6d d
e 6d d
g 4n 11n
h 4n + 11n
j 3a + 2 6a
k 5d8
m 3g (g)
n 5a (a) 2a

c
f
i
l
o

4x + 7x
6d + d
4n 11n
x (2x)
4ac 5ca

## Simplify, where possible, by collecting like terms.

a a + 3 + 2a + 7
b 5 + 2a + 3 + 4a
d 2a + 3b + 3a + b
e 3a2 + a + a2 + 2a
g 3 + 6y + 1 + 2y
h n 2 + n n + n2
j x2 + 2x x2 + 5x
k 3x 5x 3 + 2x
m 7 5x 7x + 3
n 3p + 7p 8 + 4p
p 8 7x 5 + 3
q x 8 7x 5

c
f
i
l
o
r

3a + 2 + a + 4
ab + b2 + 2ab + 2b2
18c + 5 4 11c
7 5p + 3p 12
3x + 7x 2 x
x2 + x + 2 5x

## Simplify, where possible, by collecting like terms.

a 8l 4 + 3l 6
b x2 + 2x 5x x2
d ab + b 2ab 3b
e x 5 2x 3
g 3a 2 a + 3 a
h a2b + a2b 3a2b + 7b
j 4p5 + 5p4 p5 6p4
k 8m 2 5n2 + 3n2 4m2

c
f
i
l

3x 2y (x) + y
5t (t) + 6 t
5d c + d 2c + 2
6s2t + 5s2 8s2t 9s2

Example 4
Find an expression for the perimeter of this rectangle.

x+2
x

Perimeter = (x + 2) + x + (x + 2) + x
= 4x + 4

a
b
c

x
x+5

x3
x

y
y+3

277

278

## Algebraic Techniques (Chapter 10) Syllabus reference PAS5.3.1

x+1

x1
x

x+4

Example 5
A rectangular garden has one side 4 metres longer than the other. Write two
different expressions for its perimeter.
Method 1:
Let the shorter side be x metres, then
the longer side is (x + 4) metres.
The perimeter is given by
P = x + (x + 4) + x + (x + 4)
= 4x + 8 metres

Method 2:
Let the longer side be y metres, then the
shorter side is (y 4) metres.
The perimeter is given by
P = y + (y 4) + y + (y 4)
= 4y 8 metres

(y 4) m

xm
ym

(x + 4) m

Write down two expressions for the perimeter of a rectangular garden with one side
a 2 m longer than the other
c 5 m shorter than the other

## b 3 m longer than the other

A triangular fence has the longest side 4 metres longer than the second side which is 3 metres
longer than the smallest side. Write three expressions for the perimeter.

10

A rectangular garden has one side 1 metre longer than the other. Write two expressions for
its area.

Example 6
Expand and simplify:
a 2 (3 4x)

b 4 + 3(x 5)

2 (3 4x)
= 2 3 + 4x
= 1 + 4x
= 4x 1

4 + 3(x 5)
= 4 + 3x 15
= 3x 11

11

a 6 (3x + 5)
d 6x (3 4x)
g 3x (2x 1)
j 3(2 x) 11x

b
e
h
k

4 2(1 2x)
5x 3(2x + 1)
5 3(x 2)
2(x 3) + 1

c
f
i
l

19 (5x + 8)
7 5(1 2x)
7 6(3x 2)
3(x 2) 9x

Example 7

12

13

## Expand and simplify.

a 4(x + 2) + 3(5 x)

## b x(2 x) 3(4 3x)

4(x + 2) + 3(5 x)
= 4x + 8 + 15 3x
= 4x 3x + 8 + 15
= x + 23

## Expand and simplify.

a 2(x + 3) + 3(x 1)
d 2(1 x) 3(x 1)
g n(n + 2) + n(2n + 1)
j x(x + 7) 3x(2 x)
m 2x(x + 3) 5(5 + x)
p 2x(1 x) + 3(x 4)

b
e
h
k
n
q

## x(2 x) 3(4 3x)

= 2x x 2 12 + 9x
= 11x x 2 12

3(y + 1) + 2(y + 3)
d(d + 1) + d(d 1)
n(n + 2) n(2n + 1)
a(b + c) b(c + a)
(x 3) 2(2 x)
2(x + 3) 5x(x + 1)

c
f
i
l
o
r

## Write an expression for the area of the following shapes in:

i factorised form
ii expanded form.
a
b
c

4x

3
x+5

2(p + 1) 3(p 2)
d(d + 3) d(d 4)
4(2 + 3x) + 3(x + 5)
2x(x + 1) + 3(x + 2)
4x(1 x) + 2(x + 6)
x 5 8(x + 1)

3x + 1

2x + 7

x+y
6

2y

## B. EXPRESSIONS INVOLVING FRACTIONS

To add (or subtract) two or more algebraic fractions, we must first form a common denominator
and then add (or subtract) the numerators.
For example, just as

2 3
-- + -3 4
2 4 3 3
= -- -- + -- -3 4 4 3
8+9
= -----------12
17
= ----12

279

280

## Algebraic Techniques (Chapter 10) Syllabus reference PAS5.3.1

x 5x
to find -- + ----- we find the LCD and proceed in the
3
4
same way as for ordinary fractions.
x 5x
So,
-- + ----3 4
x 4 5x 3
= -- -- + ----- -3 4 4 3

LCD means
lowest common
denominator.

4x 15x
= ----- + -------12 12
19x
= -------12

Example 1
Simplify:
x 3x
a --- + -----2 4
a

a 2a
b --- -----3 5

x 3x
--- + -----2 4
x 2 3x
= --- --- + -----2 2 4

a 2a
--- -----3 5
a 5 2a 3
= --- --- ------ --3 5 5 3
5a 6a
= ------------------15
a
= -----15
a
= -----15

2x + 3x
= ------------------4
5x
= -----4

Exercise 10B
1

a --a- + --a2 3

bb --b- ----5 10

e --b- + --b3 4

5t--t- ---3 9

g m
---- + 2m
-------7 21

3r- + --r----7 5

2p p
------ -----5 15

--c- + 3c
-----4 2

6x
------ 2x
-----7
3

o 3m
-------- + m
---11 5

d --x- --x7 2
h 5d
------ --d6 3
l

4m
-------- m
---9
3

p 8d
------ 7d
-----5
4

## Algebraic Techniques (Chapter 10) Syllabus reference PAS5.3.1

Example 2
Write as a single fraction:
a --b- + 1
3
a

--b- + 1
3

--a- a
4
--= --a- a 4
4
4
a 4a
= --------------4
3a
= ---------4

= --b- + 3
--3 3
+3
= b
-----------3

--a- a
4

## Write as a single fraction:

x
a --- + 1
2
x
e --- 4
2
a
i --- + a
3
x
m --- 3x
3

y
b --- 1
3
x
f 2 --5
a
j --- a
2
m m m
n ---- + ---- + ---2 3 6

a
--- + 2
2
a
g a + --2
x
k x + --7
a a a
o --- --- + --2 3 6

b
d --- 3
4
b
h b + --3
x
2x + --2
x x x
p --- --- + --4 3 5
l

Example 3
Simplify:
2x 9a
2a 5x + ------ -----3
5
2x 9a
2a 5x + ------ -----3
5
15
15 2x 5 9a 3
= 2a ------ 5x ------ + ------ --- ------ --15 3 5 5 3
15
30a 75x 10x 27a
= ---------- --------- + --------- ---------15
15
15
15
3a 65x
= ---------------------15
3

Simplify:
x
a 3x 2a + 3a
------ --4 2
7p 4r
d ------ ------ + 2p r
3
5
3t
5m
g ----- -------- + m
---- 3t
4
3
4

b
e
h

3p
3m
-------- 2p + ------ 4m
2
5
6m
n
-------- --- + 4m 3n
5 2
5r
------ 3m
-------- + 3r
------ 7m
-------7
4
2
2

c
f
i

4a 7b + 3b
------ 4a
-----4
5
7a
3b
4a 5b ------ + -----4
5
7x 2y
------ ------ + 3x y
3
5

281

282

## Algebraic Techniques (Chapter 10) Syllabus reference PAS5.3.1

Quadratic expressions are of the form ax 2 + bx + c where x is a variable, and
a, b and c are constants, with a 0.

Example 1
A rectangle has length 4 cm more than its breadth. Write an expression for
the area.
Let the breadth be x cm.
Then the length is (x + 4) cm.
A = (x + 4) x
A = x(x + 4)
A = x 2 + 4x cm2

x+4
x

Exercise 10C
1

A rectangle has length 6 cm more than its breadth. Write an expression for the area.

A rectangle has length 5 cm more than its breadth. Write an expression for the area.

A rectangle has breadth 3 cm less than its length. Write an expression for the area.

A triangle has perpendicular height 3 cm more than its base length. Write an expression for
the area.

What is an expression for the area of the rectangle with sides (x + 3) and (x + 1)?

What is an expression for the area of the triangle with base (x + 7) and altitude (x + 2)?

Example 2
Expand and simplify the expression for the area of a rectangle with sides
(x + 3) and (x + 2).
x

+3

x2

+3x

+2

+2x

+6

Area = (x + 3)(x + 2)
A = x(x + 2) + 3(x + 2)
= x 2 + 2x + 3x + 6
= x 2 + 5x + 6

## Algebraic Techniques (Chapter 10) Syllabus reference PAS5.3.1

Example 3
Expand and simplify:
a (x + 3)(x 5)

b (x 2)(x 1)

c (x 5)(x + 7)

x + 3)(x 5)
= x(x 5) + 3(x 5)
= x 2 5x + 3x 15
= x 2 2x 15

(x 2)(x 1)
= x(x 1) 2(x 1)
= x 2 x 2x + 2
= x 2 3x + 2

(x 5)(x + 7)
= x(x + 7) 5(x + 7)
= x 2 + 7x 5x 35
= x 2 + 2x 35

Expand and simplify the expression for the area of a rectangle with sides:
a (x + 5) and (x + 1)
b (x + 7) and (x + 2)
c (x + 3) and (x + 8)

## Expand and simplify:

a (x + 4)(x + 2)
d (x + 4)(x 3)
g (x 10)(x + 3)
j (x 3)(x 2)

b
e
h
k

(x 3)(x + 2)
(x 5)(x + 3)
(x 4)(x 7)
(x 6)(x 9)

c
f
i
l

(x + 6)(x 2)
(x + 9)(x 5)
(x + 7)(x 1)
(x 12)(x 3)

Example 4
If x = 3 and y = 2, find the value of:
a 3x 2 2x + 5
b (x + 2)(y + 3)
a

3x 2x + 5
= 3(3)2 2(3) + 5
= 26

(x + 2)(y + 3)
= (3 + 2)(2 + 3)
= (5)(1)
=5

## If x = 4 and y = 3, find the value of:

a 2x 2 3x + 1
b 4x 2 + 2x 1
2
d 4y 7y 2
e 5x 2 7x + 1
g (x 5)(x + 2)
h (y 3)(y + 5)
j (4x + 1)(3y 2)
k (5x 2)(3x + 1)

c (3x 2)(x + 5)
c

(3x 2)(x + 5)
= (3(3) 2)(3 + 5)
= (7)(8)
= 56

c
f
i
l

y 2 3y + 5
(x + 3)(y 2)
(3x 7)(2x + 1)
(8y 2)(y + 1)

Example 5
Expand and simplify:
a (2x 5)(x + 3)
a

b (5x 7)(2x + 5)

c (3x + 2)(2x 1)

(2x 5)(x + 3)
b
(5x 7)(2x + 5)
c
(3x + 2)(2x 1)
= 2x(x + 3) 5(x + 3)
= 5x(2x + 5) 7(2x + 5)
= 3x(2x 1) + 2(2x 1)
= 2x 2 + 6x 5x 15
= 10x 2 + 25x 14x 35
= 6x 2 3x + 4x 2
= 10x 2 + 11x 35
= 6x 2 + x 2
= 2x 2 + x 15

283

284

10

11

a (2x + 3)(x 1)
d (3x + 2)(3x 5)
g (4x + 1)(3x 1)
j (7x 2)(7x + 2)

b
e
h
k

(2x 5)(x 8)
(2x + 9)(3x 2)
(2x 5)(3x 2)
(5x 3)(2x 5)

c
f
i
l

(3x 5)(x 5)
(4x 5)(4x + 5)
(2x + 3)(4x 5)
(4x + 1)(3x 5)

## Expand and simplify:

a 3x + (x 5)(x + 2)
d (x + 5)(x + 2) 5x
g 4 (x 3)(x + 2)

b
e
h

6x + (2x 1)(3x + 4)
(3x 7)(x 2) + 5x
7x (2x + 1)(x 5)

c
f
i

(x + 2)(x 7) 2x
(4x 2)(x + 3) 4x 2 + 2
6x (x 2)(2x 3)

12x 2 + 25x 14

Investigation 1
WM: Applying Strategies, Reasoning

Using substitution
Rachel and Diana have different answers to a question.
Rachel has (3x 2)(4x + 7) = 12x 2 + 13x 14 and
Diana has (3x 2)(4x + 7) = 12x 2 + 25x 14.
1

a (3x 2)(4x + 7)
b 12x 2 + 13x 14

## Who is correct, Rachel or Diana?

Robert substitutes x = 0 into the three expressions and says that both Rachel and Diana are
correct.
a Evaluate each expression when x = 0.
b Explain the flaw in Roberts reasoning.

## How can you ensure your substitution will work?

D. BINOMIAL PRODUCTS

## Perfect squares expansion

(a + b)2 = (a + b)(a + b)

a2

ab

ab

b2

= a(a + b) + b(a + b)
= a 2 + ab + ba + b 2
= a 2 + 2ab + b 2

So,

(a + b) 2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2

and similarly

(a b) 2 = a 2 2ab + b 2

## Difference of two squares expansion

(a + b)(a b) = a(a b) + b(a b)
= a 2 ab + ba b 2
= a2 b2

(a + b)(a b) = a 2 b 2

So,

Example 1
Expand and simplify:
a (x + 5)2
a

(x + 5)2
= x 2 + 2 x 5 + 52
= x 2 + 10x + 25

b (x 3)2
b

c (4x 5)2

(x 3)2
= x2 2 x 3 + 32
= x 2 6x + 9

(4x 5)2
= (4x)2 2(4x)(5) + (5)2
= 16x 2 40x + 25

Exercise 10D
1

a (x + 2)2
b (x + 6)2
e (2x + 3)2
f (4a + 5)2
2
i (4 + 3x)
j (1 + 2x)2

c (y + 10)2
g (5x + 4)2
k (5 + 2x)2

d (3x + 1)2
h (3y + 2)2
l (4 + 5x)2

a (x 2)2
b (x 6)2
2
e (2x 3)
f (5a 4)2
i (5 2x)2
j (1 3x)2

c (y 9)2
g (3x 4)2
k (5 3x)2

d (3x 1)2
h (4y 1)2
l (4 2x)2

## Expand these perfect squares.

a (x + 5)2
b (x 5)2
2
e (3x 5)
f (4x + 3)2

c (2x 7)2
g (5 + 2x)2

d (2x + 7)2
h (3 7x)2

Example 2
Expand the following using the difference of two squares.
a (x + 5)(x 5)
b (2x 3)(2x + 3)
a

(x + 5)(x 5)
= x 2 52
= x 2 25

(2x 3)(2x + 3)
= (2x)2 (3)2
= 4x2 9

a (x + 3)(x 3)
b (x + 4)(x 4)
c (x + 6)(x 6)
d (x 10)(x + 10)
e (x + 1)(x 1)
f (2x 5)(2x + 5)
g (3x 2)(3x + 2)
h (5x + 1)(5x 1)
i (7x + 8)(7x 8)

285

286

## Expand and simplify using one of the rules.

a (x 10)2
b (x + 7)2
d (x + 11)(x 11)
e (x + 4)(x + 4)
g (x 7)2
h (x 12)(x + 12)

c (x + 8)(x 8)
f (x 7)(x 7)
i (x + 12)(x + 12)

Example 3
Complete the following expressions.
a (x + 5)2 = x 2 + __ x + __ b (x __)2 = x 2 8x + __

c (y + __)2 = y 2 + 5y + __

## These expressions are based on the perfect square expansions

(x + y)2 = x 2 + 2xy + y 2 and (x y)2 = x 2 2xy + y 2.
a (x + 5)2 = x 2 + __ x + __
The coefficient of x is the twice the product term, i.e. 2 1 5 = 10.
The constant term is the second term squared, i.e. 52 = 25.
(x + 5)2 = x 2 + 10x + 25
b

(x __)2 = x 2 8x + __
The coefficient of x must be halved, i.e. 8 2 = 4.
The constant term is then (4)2 = 16
(x 4)2 = x 2 8x + 16

c (y + __)2 = y 2 + 5y + __
5
The coefficient of y must be halved, i.e. 5 2 = --- .
2
5 2 25
The constant term is then --- = ----- 2
4
25
2
5 2
(y + --2- ) = y + 5y + -----4

## Copy and complete the following expressions.

a (x + 3)2 = x 2 + __x + __
b (x 7)2 = x 2 6x + __
2
2
e (x __)2 = x 2 10x + __
d (x __) = x 6x + __
g (x + __)2 = x 2 __ __ + 49
h (x + __)2 = x 2 + 18x + __

c (x 2)2 = x 2 __ __ + __
f (x + __)2 = x2 + 12x + __

Example 4
What number needs to be added to complete the square?
a x2 + 4x
b x2 7x
a x 2 + 4x
x2 + 4x + __ = (x + __)2
constant = ( 4--2- )2 = 4

b x2 7x
x2 7x + __ = (x __)2
constant = ( 7--- )2 =
2

49

49
-----4

## Algebraic Techniques (Chapter 10) Syllabus reference PAS5.3.1

What number needs to be added to complete the square in the following expressions?
a x 2 + 6x
b x 2 + 10x
c x 2 8x
d x 2 4x
e x 2 + 12x
f x 2 18x
g x 2 + 7x
h x 2 + 15x
2
2
2
i x 3x
j x 9x
k x x
l x2 + x

## E. COMMON FACTORS (REVIEW)

Factorisation is the reverse process of expansion.
As 3(x + 2) = 3x + 6, the factorisation of 3x + 6 = 3(x + 2).
Remove the
highest common
factor.

Example 1
Factorise fully by removing the HCF.
a 10x + 5
b 4x 2 2x
a

10x + 5
= 5(2x + 1)

4x 2 2x
= 2x(2x 1)

c p 2q q 2p
c

p 2q q 2p
= pq(p q)

Exercise 10E
1

Factorise fully:
a 3a 3b
c pq qr
e 4x 2 + x
g pq 3q 2
i 6x2y 18xy 2
k 9x 2y + 27xy

b
d
f
h
j
l

5m + 10n
x 2 5x
15x + 3x2
2R 2r
28p 2a 21pa
3pqr 15p 2q

## Factorise fully, removing the negative factor.

a 3a 3b
b 4x 2 2x
c 8a + 4b
d 4 8b
e 3 x
f 18x 2 + 9x

Check factorising
by expanding

287

288

## Algebraic Techniques (Chapter 10) Syllabus reference PAS5.3.1

Example 2
Factorise fully:
a 6R + xR + yR
c 4(x 1) + y(x 1)

b 9x + 18xy + 12x 2
d x(y + 3) (y + 3)

6R + xR + yR
= R(6 + x + y)
c
4(x 1) + y(x 1)
= (x 1)(4 + y)

## Take care when

removing a
negative sign.

9x + 18xy + 12x 2
= 3x(3 + 6y + 4x)
d
x(y + 3) (y + 3)
= (y + 3)(x 1)

Factorise fully:
a 6B + aB + cB
b 4R xR + yR
2
d 8x 24xy + 16xyz
e 4(x 2) + y(x 2)
g a(x + 1) + 3(x + 1)
h x(x 4) (x 4)
j x(a + 1) (a + 1) y(a + 1)

c 6x + 14xy 3xz
f 3(x 1) + y(x 1)
i 3(p 3) + x(p 3) + y(p 3)

Example 3

Factorise fully:
a 3x + 6 + xy + 2y

b 4x 4 + xz z

3x + 6 + xy + 2y
= 3(x + 2) + y(x + 2)
= (x + 2)(3 + y)

Factorise fully:
a 4x + 2 + 2x 2 + x
d xy 2y + 4x 8
g xy + 3x 2y 6
j 3x + 3t x 2 xt
m 4 + 4y 3x 3xy

b
e
h
k
n

4x 4 + xz z
= 4(x 1) + z(x 1)
= (x 1)(4 + z)

3x 3 + xz z
x 2 7x + xy 7y
2xy 8x + 5y 20
3a + ac 3b bc
6a 5ay + 6b 5by

c
f
i
l
o

xy + 5y + 3x + 15
4x x 2 + 4y xy
3xy 7y + 12x 28
3x 2 + 3xy 2x 2y
4p 3p 2 4q + 3pq

## F. DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES FACTORISATION

Since (x + y)(x y) = x 2 y 2, the factorisation of x 2 y 2 is (x + y)(x y).
This is the difference of two squares factorisation, and can be shown in a diagram.

## Algebraic Techniques (Chapter 10) Syllabus reference PAS5.3.1

x
(x y)

(x y)

x
x

(x y)

Area = x 2 y 2

So, x 2 y 2 = (x + y)(x y)

Area = (x + y)(x y)

Example 1
Factorise:
a x2 9
a

b 4y 2 9

x2 9
= (x + 3)(x 3)

c 4x 2 25

4y 2 9
= (2y + 3)(2y 3)

4x 2 25
= (2x + 5)(2x 5)

Exercise 10F
1

Factorise fully:
a x2 4
e c 2 25
i 4x 2 1
m 25y 2 16x 2

b
f
j
n

y2 9
x2 y2
9x 2 4
100x 2 81y 2

c
g
k
o

z 2 16
a2 c 2
9x 2 1
64a2 25b 2

Example 2
Evaluate using the difference of two squares factorisation.
b (4.8)2 (2.8)2
a 1012 992
a

1012 992
= (101 + 99)(101 99)
= (200)(2)
= 400

(4.8)2 (2.8)2
= (4.8 + 2.8)(4.8 2.8)
= (7.6)(2)
= 15.2

## Evaluate using the difference of two squares factorisation.

a 3012 2992
b 2012 1992
c 1052 952
2
2
2
2
d (3.5) (2.5)
e (9.4) (9.3)
f 8562 8552

Factorise:
a x4 y4

b 16a 4 81b 4

c (p q)2 (p + q)2

d
h
l
p

a2 9
m 2 n2
16y 2 9
121r 2 9t 2

289

290

## G. PERFECT SQUARES FACTORISATION

Since (x + y)2 = (x + y)(x + y) = x 2 + 2xy + y 2, the factorisation of x 2 + 2xy + y 2 is (x + y)2.
(x y)2

Similarly

= (x y)(x y)
= x 2 2xy + y 2
So the factorisation of x 2 2xy + y 2 is (x y)2.
The sign of the coefficient of x is the sign inside the bracket.

The coefficient of
x must be double
this number.

Example 1
Factorise:
a x 2 + 4x + 4
a

x 2 + 4x + 4
= (x + 2)2

b x 2 6x + 9
b

x 2 6x + 9
= (x 3)2

Exercise 10G
1

Factorise:
a x 2 + 10x + 25
d x 2 16x + 64
g y 2 6y + 9
j p 2 8p + 16

b
e
h
k

x 2 20x + 100
x 2 14x + 49
y 2 + 2y + 1
m2 + 6m + 9

c
f
i
l

x 2 + 18x + 81
x 2 + 22x + 121
x 2 24x + 144
a2 10a + 25

Example 2
Factorise:
a 4x 2 + 12x + 9

9x 2 30x + 25

## 1 Square root the coefficient of x 2.

2 Square root the constant term. (Note it must be positive.)
3 Check that the product of these multiplied by 2 is the coefficient of x.
a 4x 2 + 12x + 9
4 = 2, 9 = 3
2 3 2 = 12
then 4x 2 + 12x + 9 = (2x + 3)2

9x 2 30x + 25
9 = 3, 25 = 5
2 3 5 = 30
then 9x 2 30x + 25 = (3x 5)2

constant term
first.

## Algebraic Techniques (Chapter 10) Syllabus reference PAS5.3.1

Factorise:
a 4x 2 + 20x + 25
d 9x 2 48x + 64
g 49x 2 + 140x + 100
j 49x 2 42x + 9

b
e
h
k

25x 2 + 60x + 36
121x 2 132x + 36
25x 2 20x + 4
9x2 30x + 25

16x 2 72x + 81
81x 2 + 90x + 25
4x 2 + 44x + 121
100x2 180x + 81

c
f
i
l

Example 3
Factorise:
a x 2 + 2xy + y 2
These are both perfect squares.
a
x 2 + 2xy + y 2
= (x + y)2

Factorise:
a p 2 + 2pq + q 2
d d 2 2dp + p 2

a 2 2ab + b 2

a 2 2ab + b 2
= (a b)2

b m 2 2mn + n 2
e n 2 2nt + t 2

c r 2 + 2rt + t 2
f r 2 + 2ry + y 2

Expand

(x + a)(x + b)
= x(x + b) + a(x + b)
= x 2 + bx + ax + ab
= x 2 + (a + b)x + ab
the sum of the numbers

## The sum of the

numbers is the
coefficient of x and the
product of the numbers
is the constant term.

## So, the factorisation of

x 2 + (a + b)x + ab
= (x + a)(x + b).

291

292

## Algebraic Techniques (Chapter 10) Syllabus reference PAS5.3.1

Example 1
Factorise:
a x 2 + 5x + 6

b x 2 + 7x + 10

c x 2 + 7x + 12

a x 2 + 5x + 6 Two numbers that add to give 5 and whose product is 6 are 3 and 2.
x 2 + 5x + 6 = (x + 3)(x + 2)
b x 2 + 7x + 10 Two numbers that add to give 7 and whose product is 10 are 5 and 2.
x 2 + 7x + 10 = (x + 5)(x + 2)
c x 2 + 7x + 12 Two numbers that add to give 7 and whose product is 12 are 4 and 3.
x 2 + 7x + 12 = (x + 4)(x + 3)

Exercise 10H
1

Factorise:
a x 2 + 8x + 7
e x 2 + 10x + 24
i x 2 + 9x + 20

b x 2 + 8x + 12
f x 2 + 13x + 30
j x 2 + 9x + 18

c x 2 + 13x + 12
g x 2 + 11x + 30
k x 2 + 19x + 18

d x 2 + 10x + 9
h x 2 + 12x + 20
l x 2 + 13x + 42

Example 2
Factorise:
a x 2 4x + 3

x 2 8x + 12

## a x 2 4x + 3 Two numbers whose sum is 4 and product is 3 are 3 and 1.

x 2 4x + 3 = (x 3)(x 1)
b x 2 8x + 12 Two numbers whose sum is 8 and product is 12 are 6 and 2.
x 2 8x + 12 = (x 6)(x 2)
2

Factorise:
a x 2 6x + 5
e x 2 9x + 8
i x 2 16x + 15

b x 2 8x + 7
f x 2 7x + 10
j x 2 9x + 14

c x 2 12x + 11
g x 2 11x + 10
k x 2 15x + 14

d x 2 6x + 8
h x 2 8x + 15
l x 2 11x + 24

Example 3
Factorise:
a x 2 3x 10

x2 + x 6

## a x 2 3x 10 Two numbers whose sum is 3 and product is 10 are 5 and 2.

x 2 3x 10 = (x 5)(x + 2).
b x2 + x 6
Two numbers whose sum is 1 and product is 6 are 3 and 2.
2
x + x 6 = (x + 3)(x 2).

## Algebraic Techniques (Chapter 10) Syllabus reference PAS5.3.1

Factorise:
a x 2 + 7x 8
e x 2 + 4x 12
i x 2 + 4x 21

b x 2 + 3x 10
f x 2 11x 12
j x 2 20x 21

c x2 + x 2
g x 2 5x 24
k x 2 + 17x 60

d x 2 + x 42
h x 2 + 5x 24
l x 2 + 3x 54

Factorise:
a x 2 + 19x + 18
e x 2 + 53x 54
i x 2 30x 64

b x 2 7x 18
f x 2 25x 54
j x 2 + 2x 35

c x 2 + 17x 18
g x 2 16x + 64
k x 2 + 7x 30

d x 2 + 15x + 54
h x 2 + 12x 64
l x 2 15x + 50

There are several methods for factorising trinomials of the form ax2 + bx + c where a 1.
One of these methods is given in the following example.

Example 1
Factorise:
a 2x 2 + x 3

a 2x 2 + x 3
( 2x + 3 ) ( 2x 2 )
= -----------------------------------------2

3x 2 + 16x + 5

c 5x 2 + 13x 6

2 3 = 6
need two numbers with a product of 6 and a sum of
+1. These are 3 and 2.

= (2x + 3)(x 1)
b 3x 2 + 16x + 5
( 3x + 15 ) ( 3x + 1 )
= --------------------------------------------3

3 5 = 15
need two numbers with a product of 15
and a sum of 16. These are 15 and 1.

= (x + 5)(3x + 1)
c 5x 2 + 13x 6
( 5x + 15 ) ( 5x 2 )
= --------------------------------------------5

5 6 = 30
need two numbers with a product of 30
and a sum of +13. These are 15 and 2.

= (x + 3)(5x 2)
Place the coefficient of
x2 together with x at the
beginning of each bracket and
divide the whole expression by
this coefficient to maintain
equality.

293

294

## Algebraic Techniques (Chapter 10) Syllabus reference PAS5.3.1

Exercise 10I
1

Fully factorise:
a 2x 2 + 5x + 3
e 2x 2 + 7x + 5
i 5x 2 14x 3

b 2x 2 9x 5
f 2x 2 + 3x 2
j 5x 2 + 2x 3

c 3x 2 + 5x 2
g 7x 2 + 9x + 2
k 5x 2 8x + 3

Fully factorise:
a 2x 2 + 5x 12
e 3x 2 + 13x + 4
i 3x 2 + 10x 8

b 3x 2 7x 6
f 3x 2 17x + 10
j 2x 2 + 17x 9

c
g
k

Fully factorise:
a 2x 2 + 9x 35
d 3x 2 x 2
g 11x 2 52x 15

3x 2 + 7x + 4
3x 2 + 8x + 4
2x 2 + 9x 18

b 3x 2 + 5x 12
e 5x 2 29x + 20
h 7x 2 61x + 40

d 3x 2 5x 2
h 2x 2 + 3x 5
l 11x 2 9x 2

d 2x 2 3x 9
h 5x 2 13x 6
l 2x 2 + 11x 21

c 5x 2 8x + 3
f 7x 2 + 15x + 2
i 5x 2 52x + 63

Example 2
Factorise:
a 6x 2 13x 5

b 12x 2 5x 2

a 6x 2 13x 5
( 6x 15 ) ( 6x + 2 )
= --------------------------------------------6
3 ( 2x 5 )2 ( 3x + 1 )
= ------------------------------------------------6
= (2x 5)(3x + 1)
b 12x 2 5x 2
( 12x 8 ) ( 12x + 3 )
= -----------------------------------------------12
4 ( 3x 2 )3 ( 4x + 1 )
= ------------------------------------------------12
= (3x 2)(4x + 1)

Fully factorise:
a 8x 2 + 14x + 3
e 6x 2 + 19x + 3
i 4x 2 + 4x + 1
Fully factorise:
a 6x 2 7x 3
d 12x 2 23x + 5
g 10x2 + 19x 15

6 5 = 30
need two numbers with a product of 30 and a
sum of 13. These are 15 and 2.
(factorise each bracket)
(cancel)
12 2 = 24
need two numbers with a product of 24 and a
sum of 5. These are 8 and 3.
(factorise each bracket)
(cancel)

b 15x 2 + x 2
f 10x 2 + 17x + 3
j 10x 2 + x 2

b 4x 2 23x + 15
e 12x 2 7x 10
h 20x 2 31x 7

c 21x 2 + 17x + 2
g 14x 2 + 37x + 5
k 9x 2 12x + 4

d
h
l

6x 2 + 5x + 1
21x 2 62x 3
3x 2 + 14x + 8

c 9x 2 6x 8
f 12x 2 79x 35
i 18x 2 + 19x 12

## Algebraic Techniques (Chapter 10) Syllabus reference PAS5.3.1

J. MISCELLANEOUS FACTORISATION

## Always look for

common factor first.

We suggest you use the following order of factorising. Follow these steps:
1 common factor
2 difference of two squares
4 grouping in pairs

Example 1
Factorise fully:
a 3x 2 12
a

b 2x 2 10x + 12

3x 2 12
= 3(x 2 4)
= 3(x + 2)(x 2)

c x 4 9x 2

2x 2 10x + 12
= 2(x 2 5x + 6)
= 2(x 3)(x 2)

x 4 9x 2
= x 2(x 2 9)
= x 2(x + 3)(x 3)

Exercise 10J
1

Fully factorise:
a 3x 2 + 2x
d 3b 2 75
g x 2 8x 9
j 2g 2 12g 110
m 12 11x x 2
p x4 x2
s a 3b 2 ab 2
v 9x 4 4x 2

b
e
h
k
n
q
t
w

x 2 81
2x 2 32
d 2 + 6d 7
4a 2 9d 2
5a 2 5a 10
d 4 + 2d 3 3d 2
x2 x 6
x 2 + 8x 9

c
f
i
l
o
r
u
x

2p 2 + 8
n 4 4n 2
3x2 108
4t + 8t 2
2c 2 8c + 6
b 2+ 3b 28
x 3 + 4x 2 + 4x
2a 2 12a 18

Fully factorise:
a 14 x 2 5x
d 18x 2x 3
g 4x 2 2x 3 2x
j (x + 2)2 4
m (x + 1)a + (x + 1)b
p x(x + 2) + 3(x + 2)

b
e
h
k
n
q

x 2 + 14x + 49
ab + ac 2a
x 3y 4xy
4x 4 64
x4 a4
x 3 + x2 + x + 1

c
f
i
l
o
r

4a3 4ab 2
a 2b 2 2ab
(a + b)2 9
(x 2)y (x 2)z
(x y)a + (x y)
x 3 + 2x 2 + x + 2

b 4x 2 1
c 5x 2 15x
a 3x 2 + 9x

295

296

d
g
j
m
p
s
v
4

3x 5x 2
x 3 + 2x 2
3x 2 12
x2 x 6
x 2 16x + 39
9x 18x 2
13x 2 52x

e
h
k
n
q
t
w

x 2 + 3x 40
x2 9
3x 3 + 6x 2
4x 2 + 8x
7x 2 21x
8x 2 12x
x 2 + 2x 3

f
i
l
o
r
u
x

x 2 16
3x 3 + 6x
x 2 + 10x + 25
9x 2 25
2x 2 50
4x 2 + 4x 3
x 3 9x

a x3 + x2 + x
b x 2 17x 60
c 3x 2 27
d x 2 2x 8
e x 2 + 4x + 4
f 6x 2 + 5x 6
2
2
g x 5x + 6
h 36x + 25
i 4x 2 8x 60
j 3x 2 42x + 99
k x 2 + 11x + 30
l 49x 2 1
2
2
m x 7x + 12
n x + 6x 16
o x 2 5x 24
p x 2 8x + 16
q x 2 9x + 14
r x 2 + 13x + 36
2
2
s x 9x 36
t x + 7x 18
u x 2 10x + 25
v 3x 2 + 6x 72
w 4x 2 4x 48
x (2x + 1)2 9

## K. FACTORISING MORE COMPLEX EXPRESSIONS

To simplify algebraic expressions with numerators and denominators, first factorise all expressions fully. Then
simplify the expression by cancelling as appropriate.

Example 1
Factorise and simplify:
x2 x 6
a ----------------------x3
a

x2 x 6
----------------------x3
(x 3)(x + 2)
= ---------------------------------x3

=x+2

x 2 16
------------------8x 32
x 2 16
------------------8x 32
(x + 4)(x 4)
= ---------------------------------8(x 4)
x+4
= -----------8

Exercise 10K
1

## Factorise and simplify:

x 2 + 2x
a ----------------2
x 4
2x 2 + 6x 8
e -----------------------------2
x x 20

3x + x 2
b ----------------9 x2
f

x 2 + 6x + 9
----------------------------x 2 5x 24

3x 2 9x
c -------------------------x 2 2x 3

x 2 + 2x + 1
d --------------------------x2 1

3x 2 12
g -----------------------------214 5x x

2x 2 + 6x 36
h ---------------------------------212 + 8x 4x

## Algebraic Techniques (Chapter 10) Syllabus reference PAS5.3.1

Example 2
Factorise and simplify:
2y 4
10y
a --------------- ---------------5
y 2 2y
a

2y 4
10y
--------------- ---------------5
y 2 2y

2
2(y 2)
10y
= -------------------- ------------------y
2)
5
y
(
1

x 2 9 x 2 + 4x + 3
-------------- --------------------------x + 5 x 2 + 6x + 5
x 2 9 x 2 + 4x + 3
-------------- --------------------------x + 5 x 2 + 6x + 5
(x + 3)(x 3) (x + 3)(x + 1)
= ---------------------------------- ----------------------------------(x + 5)
(x + 5)(x + 1)
(x + 3)(x 3) (x + 5)(x + 1)
= ---------------------------------- ----------------------------------(x + 5)
(x + 3)(x + 1)

=4

=x3

## Factorise and simplify:

3x 6
14x
a --------------- ----------------2
7
x 2x
2
2
x 16 x + 5x + 4
c ------------------- --------------------------4x 16
2x + 2

7x + 7
x +x6
- ----------------------e ---------------------2
x x 2 5x + 15
2
x 4
x+2
- -------------------------g -------------------------2
2
x + 2x 8 x + 3x 4

2x + 10x
6
------------------------- ------------------4x
3x + 15

f
h

x + 8x + 15 4x + 12
------------------------------ -----------------2
2
x 25
x 5x
2
2
2x 10x x 2x 15
----------------------- ----------------------------2
2
3x 9x
x 9
2
x + 2x
3x 15
------------------ ----------------------------2
x+4
x 3x 10

## Only cancel terms

in brackets or in
front of brackets

Example 3
Factorise and simplify:
3
2
- ------------a ----------------2
2
x + 2x x 4

3
4
----------------------------- + ------------------2
2x
10
x 3x 10

297

298

## Algebraic Techniques (Chapter 10) Syllabus reference PAS5.3.1

2
3
----------------- ------------2
2
x + 2x x 4
2
3
= -------------------- ---------------------------------x(x + 2) (x 2)(x + 2)

4
3
----------------------------- + ------------------2
2x
10
x 3x 10
4
3
= ---------------------------------- + -------------------(x 5)(x + 2) 2(x 5)

2
x2
3
x
= -------------------- ------------ ---------------------------------- --
x ( x + 2 ) x 2 ( x 2 ) ( x + 2 ) x

4
2
3
x+2
= ---------------------------------- --- + -------------------- ------------
( x 5 ) ( x + 2 ) 2 2 ( x 5 ) x + 2

2 ( x 2 ) 3x
= ------------------------------------x(x + 2)(x 2)

8 + 3(x + 2)
= -------------------------------------2(x 5)(x + 2)

2x 4 3x
= ------------------------------------x(x + 2)(x 2)

3x + 14
= ------------------------------------x(x 5)(x + 2)

x4
= ------------------------------------x(x + 2)(x 2)
3

## Factorise and simplify:

3
4
a ----------------- ------------2
2
x + 3x x 9
2
3
c ----------------------------- + ----------------2
2
x 4x 12 x 6x
2
1
e ---------------- -----------------------------2
2
x 2x x + 5x 14
1
3
g ----------------- + -------------------------2
2
x 25 x 6x + 5

2
5
b ----------------- + ------------------2
x 16 4x 16
4
2
d ------------------- -------------------------3x 12 x 2 3x 4
7
3
-----------------------------+ ----------------2
2
x 7x + 10 x 2x
4
2
h ---------------- ------------2
2
x 3x x 9
f

Many graphs are not straight lines. We see curved graphs in many real-life situations.
One of these graphs, a parabolic graph, occurs when we have a quadratic relationship.
The parabola is the basic shape used in headlight and torch reflectors, solar furnaces and satellite dishes. We
observe quadratic relationships in geometric patterns.

Example 1
Examine this pattern of squares and determine the relationship between the
width of each figure (W) and the total number of squares (S).
W

## a Complete the table, drawing extra

diagrams if necessary.

## c State the relationship between S and W as an algebraic formula.

a
W

10

17

26

Graph S vs W means
W on the horizontal
axis and S on the
vertical axis.

b
25

20
15
10
5

W
1 2

4 5 6

7 8

c S = W2 + 1

## The class could discuss the following questions.

1

What happens for values of W that are not integers, e.g. W = 1.5? What is the value of S?

Exercise 10L
1

## Examine this pattern of squares and

determine the relationship between
the width of each diagram (W) and
the total number of squares (S).
a Copy and complete the given table, drawing
extra diagrams if necessary.
b Graph S vs W on a number plane.
c State the relationship between S and W
as an algebraic formula.

a
W
W

299

300

## Algebraic Techniques (Chapter 10) Syllabus reference PAS5.3.1

Example 2
A rectangle has perimeter 24 cm.
a Complete this table comparing length (l), breadth (b) and area (A).
l

10

11

b
A
b
c
d
e

## Graph l vs A for this rectangle.

What is the maximum area? When does it occur?
Can l be 13 or 0?
Find the value of A when l = 3.5.

p = 2l + 2b
i.e. 2l + 2b = 24
2(l + b) = 24
l + b = 12

b = 12 l
If l = 1
b = 12 1
b = 11

10

11

11

10

11

20

27

32

35

36

35

32

27

20

11

b
c Maximum area = 36 cm2 when
l = 6 and b = 6, i.e. a square.
d If l = 13 then b = 1, and it is not
possible to have a side length
of 1. l 13.
If l = 0 then the side would be
zero, i.e. no rectangle at all.
e If l = 3.5, b = 12 3.5 = 8.5,
A = 3.5 8.5 = 29.75 cm2.

A
40
36
30
20
10
l
2

10

301

## A rectangle has perimeter 20 cm.

a Complete this table comparing length,
b Graph l vs A for this rectangle.
c Find the value of A when l = 3.5.

b
A

## Repeat question 3 using rectangles with the following perimeters.

i 18 cm
ii 28 cm
iii 22 cm
iv 26 cm

v 30 cm

Example 3
a Find an equation that describes y in terms of x for these tables of values.
b Draw a graph of y vs x for each table of values.
i
x
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4

27

18

11

11

18

27

29

20

13

13

20

29

ii

## The values are not increasing by a

constant value but starting from
x = 0 they increase by 1 then 3
then 5 then 7 and so on.
look for a squaring pattern:
If x = 1 then y = 3, y = (1)2 + 2
If x = 2 then y = 6, y = (2)2 + 2
If x = 3 then y = 11, y = (3)2 + 2
y = x2 + 2

y
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
6

ii a

## Look for a squaring pattern:

If x = 1 then y = 5, y = (1)2 + 4
If x = 2 then y = 8, y = (2)2 + 4
If x = 3 then y = 13, y = (3)2 + 4
y = x2 + 4

y
35

30
25
20
15
10
5

x
6

a
x

26

17

10

10

17

26

302

b
x

30

21

14

14

21

30

24

15

15

24

23

14

14

23

28

19

12

12

19

28

## The perimeter of a rectangle is 50 cm.

a Find an expression for the area, A cm2, of the rectangle.
b Sketch the graph of A against l, the length of the rectangle.

## The perimeter of a rectangle is 38 cm.

a Find an expression for the area, A cm2, of the rectangle.
b Sketch the graph of A against l, the length of the rectangle.

non-calculator activities

Evaluate 8 2.73.

Meat pies are \$2.80. On Sundays they cost 10% more. How much is a pie on Sunday?

1
Evaluate 1 --- .
4

## Insert grouping symbols to make this statement true: 10 3 + 4 3 = 33

The temperature at dusk was 3C. The temperature dropped 0.5C per hour. What was the
temperature after 9 hours?

## If 512 6284 = 3 217 408, what is 5.12 62.84?

Solve 5 3p = 7.

A bag contains 6 white, 5 green and 2 blue disks. What is the probability of not selecting a
green disk?

10

Sarah drives 350 km and uses 28 L of petrol. Express this rate in L per 100 km.

11

The mode of the data shown in this stem-and-leaf plot is 43. What is the value of ?
Stem

Leaf

7, 8, 9

0, 2, 3,  , 5, 6, 9

0, 2

12

13

## Between which consecutive whole numbers is the square root of 53?

14

1 3--Find -----------4- .
1 + 3--4

15

Andreas collects 15 cans of food from each of 8 friends. He then gives six cans to each home
room class. How many home room classes are there?

Language in Mathematics

## Sir William Rowan Hamilton (18051865)

William Rowan Hamilton was born in Dublin in 1805, the son of a
solicitor. His ability was evident at an early age, as by the age of 13
he had managed to learn thirteen different languages. This mastery of
languages helped him to become one of the few great mathematicians
with the facility for involved mental calculations.
In 1823 Hamilton entered Trinity College in Dublin and was appointed
to the post of Andrews Professor of Astronomy and Royal Astronomer
to Ireland while still an undergraduate. In 1827 he moved to Dunsink
Observatory just outside Dublin. Hamilton continued his work in
physics, astronomy and algebra and in 1835 was knighted for his

303

304

## Algebraic Techniques (Chapter 10) Syllabus reference PAS5.3.1

contribution to science. In the same year he discovered quaternionsa very important step in the
development of modern algebra. He continued to work on quaternion theory and spent the last
20 years of his life as a recluse.
The results of his research The Elements of Quaternions were published after his death in 1866. He
was honoured by many foreign academics for his contributions in each of his fields of interest.
1

a
b
c
d
e

## How old would Hamilton be in 2007?

For what was he knighted? When?
How old was Hamilton when he moved to Dublin?
What were Hamiltons main interests?
What is a recluse?

## Rearrange these words to form sentences.

a opposite Expanding is factorising of the
b highest Always factor factorise common possible the
c bracket bracket the the by in outside Multiply to term all terms the the

## Use every third letter to find a sentence.

HKTQTOFGCYUHFDESACEEKRRATLFACABTCIETQWOOPRDFI
ZTSNHAZYSKNOJTLPBUACTBEIRSOAANIOYPRODTUGTCHYAE
RNAXEVTINHTMOHQQEAERFEEGEXTTPHJAAANCVDBGYEDOY
HUKHRARATINOISBKWCDEXSRWEORGRHJSKMUNBBGFSDQTE
OFDTGHHTEEAEQSHUNYE FGSJKTERITHOASNFGAYUNIODLL
TASHCFEVYANUNMISOLWWCEEVRTNTYJOIESASEDFEGHIJKF
LOTTRHQAEZXYCVABNRMKEHJEGFQSAUQWAERL

## Give an algebraic example of five glossary terms.

Glossary
algebra
expand
perfect square
trinomial

binomial products
expression

common factor
grouping in pairs
solve

factorise
substitution

## Algebraic Techniques (Chapter 10) Syllabus reference PAS5.3.1

305

1

10

11

12

13

8z z =
A 8

B 7

C 7z

4x 3y + 5x 2y =
A 9x 5y

B x 5y

C x y

D 9x + 5y

2x (4 3x) =
A x 4

B 4 + x

C 5x + 4

D 5x 4

C 5m 2 + 25m

D 3m 2 + 25m

m(m + 3) 4m(7 m) =
A 3m 2 25m
B 5m 2 25m
p 3p
--- ------ =
4 7
2p
A ---------3
t
t + --- =
4
5t
A ----4
3x 3p
4p ------ + ------ 2x =
4
5
7p 5x
A ------ -----5
4

5p
B ---------28

2t
B ----4

C 5t

7p 5x
B ------------------20

(x + 7)(x 5) =
A x 2 35

B x 2 + 2x 35

C x 2 + 2x + 2

D 2x + 2

(4x 3)(2x + 5) =
A 8x 2 + 14x 15

B 8x 2 + 6x 15

C 6x + 2

D 8x 2 + 26x 15

4x (2x + 1)(x 3) =
A 2x 2 x 3

B 2x 2 x + 3

C 2x 2 + 9x + 3

D 2x 2 + 9x 3

(y 5)2 =
A y 2 25

B y 2 + 25

C y 2 5x + 25

D y 2 10x + 25

(5x 3)2 =
A 25x 2 9

B 5x 2 9

C 25x 2 30x + 9

D 25x 2 30x 9

(3x 2)(3x + 2) =
A 3x 2

9x2 4

2p
---------28

D 8z

92p + 55x
-------------------------20

9x 2 12x 4

4p
D -----28

3t
D ----4

92p 55x
D -------------------------20

D 9x 2 12x + 4

306

## Algebraic Techniques (Chapter 10) Syllabus reference PAS5.3.1

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

If (x )2 = x 2 x + 16 then:
A  = 4, = 8
B  = 16, = 8

## C  = 256, = 128 D  = 16, = 4

When factorised, 3x 2 6x =
A 3x
B 3x 3

3x(x 2)

D 3(x 2 2x)

When factorised, px + 3q 3p qx =
A (p q)(x 3)
B pq(3 x)

(p 3)(x q)

D cannot be
factorised

When factorised, x 2 y 2 =
A (x y)(x + y)
B (x y)2

(x + y)2

## When factorised, 4p 2 25q 2 =

A (2p 5q)2
B (2p 5q)(2p + 5q)

A (x + 5)(x 5)
B (x + 5)2

(x 10)2

## When factorised, 81x2 198x + 121 =

A (9x + 11)(9x 11) B (9x 11)2

(81x + 11)2

When factorised, x 2 + 4x 21 =
A (x + 7)(x 3)
B (x 7)(x + 4)

(x + 21)(x 1)

D (x 21)(x + 1)

When factorised, 5x 2 7x 6 =
A (5x 3)(x + 2)
B (5x + 1)(x 6)

(5x + 3)(x 2)

D (5x 1)(x + 6)

When factorised, 8x 2 + 5x 3 =
A (4x 1)(2x + 3)
B (8x + 3)(x 1)

(4x + 1)(2x 3)

D (8x 3)(x + 1)

## When factorised, 16x 2 4 =

A (4x 2)(4x + 2)
B 4(2x + 1)(2x 1)

4(4x2 1)

D 4(x + 1)(x 1)

x2 9x + 20

25

26

x 12x + 35
When simplified ---------------------------------- =
3x 15
2
x 4x + 7
x7
A --------------------------B -----------3
3
7
2
When simplified, ----------------------------- ----------------=
2
2
x 7x + 10 x 5x
2

5
A ---------------------------------------------------------2
2
( x 7x + 10 ) ( x 5x )

7x 33x 4
B ------------------------------------x(x 5)(x 2)

D 2(x y)

D (x 5)2

D (81x 121)2

x5
-----------3

5x + 4
C ------------------------------------x(x 5)(x 2)

7x 37x 4
------------------------------------x(x 5)(x 2)

If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
Section

14

57

810

1114

15, 16

17, 18

19, 20

21

22, 23

24

25, 26

1

## Expand and simplify:

a 4 (5x + 3)

c n(n + 2) 2n(n 1)

a
b a + --3

2x 2a
c 2a 3x + ------ -----5
3

3p 2p
a ------ -----7
5

b 3(x 5) 2

## Expand and simplify if possible.

a (x + 5)(x 3)
b (2x 7)(3x 8)
d (3x 4)2
e (x 2)(x + 2)

c (x 8)2
f (3x 5)(3x + 5)

a If x = 3, evaluate 3x2 5x + 8.
b Which number must be added to complete the square for:
i x 2 6x
ii x 2 + 11x?

Fully factorise:
a 7x + 14
d 4y 2 25
g x 4 16x2

b 8x 2y 20xy
e x 2 + 7x 8
h 2x 2 + 2x + 24

c 3x 9 + xy 3y
f 3x 2 + 11x 4
i 3x + 6y 9z

## Factorise and simplify:

2

x +x6
a ----------------------x2

x 9
2x + 4
b --------------------- ---------------------4x + 12 x 2 x 6

2
3
----------------+ ----------------2
2
x 4x x 16

307

308

1

## Expand and simplify:

a 3 2(3x 1)

c p(p + 7) 3p(4 p)

x
b --- + 2x
5

a 2x
c 3x --- + ------ 3a
4 3

4x 2x
a ------ -----3
5

b 4(2x 3) 5x

## Expand and simplify if possible.

a (x + 2)(x 11)
b (3x 8)(4x 3)
2
d (8x 5)
e (x 3)(x + 3)

c (x + 4)2
f (5x 3)(5x + 3)

a If x = 2, evaluate 2x 2 9x + 5.
b What number must be added to complete the square for:
i x 2 + 10x
ii x 2 9x?

Factorise fully:
a 3a 9
d 16y 2 25
g 9x 4 16x 2

b 12xy + 18x 2
e x 2 3x + 2
h x 3 + 3x 2 + x + 3

## Factorise and simplify:

2
x 9
a ------------------6x 18

x 3x 4 x 4x 5
b --------------------------- -------------------------2
8x 32
x 25

c 2xy 6x + 7y 21
f 6x 2 7x 5
i 3x + 2xy 4xz

1
3
------------------------------ ------------2
2
x + 7x + 10 x 4

1

## Expand and simplify:

a 4 (3x 2)

b 2(x + 3) 4

c y(y + 2) 3y(y + 4)

## Write as a single fraction:

p
4x 2x
a ------ -----b --- + p
3
3
5

x 3y
c 3x 4y + --- -----3 4

a (x 3)(x + 4)
b (2x 5)(3x 7)
d (4p 5)2
e (x 3)(x + 3)

c (x 4)2
f (4x 3)(4x + 3)

## a Use x = 3 to show that 6x 2 x 2 = (3x 2)(2x + 1).

b Copy and complete: x 2 4x +  = (x 2)2

Factorise:
a 5x + 10
d 9x 2 100
g x 3 16x

b 3x 2 6xy
e x 2 x 12
h 3x 2 21x + 24

Simplify:
2
x x 20
a -------------------------x5

x 4
3x 15x
b ---------------------- ----------------------------2
2
x + x 6 x 3x 10

c 2x 4 + 3xy 6y
f 3x 2 + 16x + 5
i 12x 9p + 6z

4
5
------------- ----------------2
2
x 9 x + 3x

309

310

1

a 2x 2(4x 7)

b 3(7 4x) 3x

## Write as a single fraction:

3z 4z
a ------ -----b
7
5

c m(m 4) 3m(6 m)

r
--- + 2r
4

2p 5x
c 2x 4p ------ + -----3
2

a (x 2)(x + 11)
b (3x 7)(4x + 2)
d (6z 5)2
e (x 9)(x + 9)

c (y + 3)2
f (6x 5)(6x + 5)

## a Use x = 1 to show that 10x 2 x 3 = (5x 3)(2x + 1).

b Copy and complete: x 2 +  + 9 = (x 3)2

Factorise:
a 3x 15
d 16x 2 25
g 6x 2 11x 10

b 12xy 8yz
e x 2 + 4x 21
h 2x 3 18x

c xp + 2x yp 2y
f 5x 2 + 7x 6
i 15x 20y + 10z

Simplify:
2

x + 5x 14
a -----------------------------2x + 14

x 25
x 4x 5
------------------------ -------------------------2
2
3x + 15x
x +x

2
3
c ---------------- ----------------2
2
x 5x x 25

## LEY_bk953_11_finalpp Page 311 Wednesday, January 12, 2005 11:36 AM

Chapter 11
Consumer Arithmetic
This chapter deals with solving consumer arithmetic problems involving
earning and spending money, simple interest and loans.
After completing this chapter you should be able to:
calculate weekly, fortnightly, monthly and yearly earnings for various types of income
calculate net income after considering common deductions
calculate simple interest using the formula
apply the simple interest formula to problems involving investing money
calculate and compare the cost of purchasing goods by different means

WM: S5.1.1S5.1.5

312

Diagnostic test
1

## Carol earns \$397.20 per week. This is

equivalent to a yearly salary of:
A \$19 860
B \$20 654.40
C \$10 327.20
D \$19 065.60

to:

## A \$804 per week

B \$3216 per fortnight

## Alex is a real estate agent. He charges the

following commission for selling home
units: 3% of the first \$150 000 and 1.5%
for the remainder of the selling price. His
commission for selling a home unit for
\$210 000 would be:
A \$6300

B \$3150

C \$4500

D \$5400

## Sam earns \$360 per week. This is

equivalent to a monthly income of:
A \$1440

B \$1260

C \$1560

D \$1594.29

B \$831.60

C \$920.70

D \$950.40

## Bettina earns \$680 per week. She is

entitled to 4 weeks annual recreation
for 4 weeks is:
A \$2720

B \$2839

C \$3196

D \$476

## Deborah is paid \$0.48 for each pair of

shorts that she sews. If she can sew an
average of 12 pairs of shorts per hour and
she works a 38-hour week, then her
average weekly earnings are:

Sun.

\$14.38

\$17.98

\$21.57

## The table shows the award wages for

a kitchen hand employed as a casual.
The wages of a casual kitchen hand
who works 10 hours Monday to Friday,
4 hours on Saturday plus 5 hours on
Sunday is:

## Chan works a 36-hour week and is paid

\$19.80 per hour. His total wages for a
week in which he works an additional
4 hours at time-and-a-half and 3 hours at
double time is:
A \$712.80

Sat.

Kitchen
hand

3

Mon.Fri.

10

11

A \$273.22

B \$323.57

C \$305.62

D \$337.93

## Simon earns \$465 per week. The

deductions from his salary each week
are tax \$140, superannuation \$32,
health insurance \$36.80. His net pay
for the week is:
A \$256.20

B \$673.80

C \$320.20

D \$536.20

## The simple interest on \$2490 at

4.5% p.a. for 5 years is:
A \$112.05

B \$2602.05

C \$560.25

D \$3050.25

## Michelle invested \$3000 for 4 years and

earned \$780 in interest. The annual rate
of interest was:

A \$5.76

B \$18.24

A 26%

B 6.5%

C \$218.88

D \$1094.40

C 1.04%

D 4%

12

13

## A camera store offers a discount of 12%

for paying cash. The cash price of a
camera marked as \$499 is:

## The following conditions for the deferred

payment scheme apply:
i

A \$439.10

B \$439.12

ii

C \$59 90

D \$59.88

## Balance plus interest to be repaid by

equal monthly instalments over the
two years following the interest free
period.

iii

## Simple interest of 16% p.a. is

charged for the 3-year period of
the agreement.

## The method of purchasing goods by which

a deposit is paid and the balance is paid
off over a short period of time with no
interest charged, but the goods cannot
be taken until full payment has been
A time payment

## The total amount you would have to pay

for the television under this scheme is:

B hire purchase

14

15

16

## A refrigerator costing \$1895 can be

bought on terms for \$295 deposit and
24 monthly instalments of \$84. The total
cost of buying the refrigerator on terms
would be:

17

A \$1498

B \$1737.68

C \$1977.36

D \$2217.04

## Using the table on page 344, the monthly

repayment on a loan of \$16 500 over
3 1--2- years at 12% p.a. is, to the nearest
cent:

A \$1895

B \$2016

A \$468.41

B \$548.04

C \$2311

D \$2190

C \$639.34

D \$483.05

## A television set costing \$1289 can be

bought on the following terms: deposit
\$289 and the balance to be repaid over
3 years by equal monthly instalments.
Simple interest is charged at 11% p.a.
If the TV is bought on these terms, the
monthly repayment would be:

18

A \$36.94

B \$47.62

19

C \$39.59

D \$30.83

## Which of the following is the best value?

A 350 mL for \$1.40
B 750 mL for \$2.85
C 2 L for \$6.40
D 5 L for \$16.50

## The price of a TV including GST is \$495.

The amount of GST included is:
A \$49.50

B \$45

C \$445.50

D \$450

98sit
\$N1o 4
depo
No repayments
for 12 months
(conditions apply)

If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
Section

13

4, 5

10, 11

12

13

14, 15

16

17

18

19

313

314

## Consumer Arithmetic (Chapter 11) Syllabus reference NS5.1.2

A. EARNING AN INCOME
There are a number of different ways in which people are paid for providing their labour, knowledge, skills and
services. If people work for themselves they charge a fee, some people rely on income from investments, but
most people work for an employer. By research and discussion, complete the table below that shows the ways
people are paid when they work for an employer.

Exercise 11A
Earning an income
Method of
payment

Description

Salary

## A fixed amount per year usually

paid weekly or fortnightly.

Wages

## Based on an hourly rate for an

agreed number of hours per
week. Usually paid weekly or
fortnightly.

Commission

## A percentage of the value of

goods or services sold is paid.
Sometimes a low wage, called
a retainer, is paid in addition
to this.

Piecework

## A fixed amount for each item

produced or completed.

Fee

provided.

Casual

## A fixed hourly rate for the

number of hours worked.

Examples of
occupations

## B. SALARIES AND WAGES

Example 1
Georgina earns a salary of \$670.85 per week. How much does she earn per:
a fortnight
b year?
a Fortnightly salary = \$670.85 2
= \$1341.70
b Yearly salary
= \$670.85 52
= \$34 884.20

## (using 1 fortnight = 2 weeks)

(using 1 year = 52 weeks)

## Consumer Arithmetic (Chapter 11) Syllabus reference NS5.1.2

Exercise 11B
1

Convert the following weekly salaries into the equivalent salary per:
i fortnight
ii year
a \$457
b \$1025.60
c \$1378.94

Example 2
Harry earns a salary of \$48 600 p.a. How much does he earn per:
a week

b fortnight

p.a. is short
for per annum,
which means
per year.

c month?

## a Weekly salary = \$48 600 52

(using 1 year = 52 weeks)
= \$934.62 to the nearest cent
b Fortnightly salary = \$48 600 26
(using 1 year = 26 fortnights)
= \$1869.23 to the nearest cent
c Monthly salary = \$48 600 12
(using 1 year = 12 months)
= \$4050

Convert the following yearly salaries into the equivalent salary per:
i week
ii fortnight
iii month
a \$52 400
b \$95 370
c \$82 900

Convert the annual salaries shown in the advertisements below to the equivalent:
i weekly
ii fortnightly
iii monthly salaries
a
b
Fashion
Girl's Surfwear Designer
\$80K
Exciting position for the
right person. Ph 9444 222

c
Cleaner/Housekeeper
\$40K Rare opportunity
to work in fine home.
Ph 9666 000

Foreman \$110K
Experienced foreman required
for city project. Ph 9333 000

\$80K is a
short way of
indicating
\$80 000.

315

316

## Consumer Arithmetic (Chapter 11) Syllabus reference NS5.1.2

Example 3
Brad earns \$288 per week. What is his monthly salary?
1 month 4 weeks, so we must calculate Brads yearly salary first.
Yearly salary = \$288 52
= \$14 976
Monthly salary = \$14 976 12
= \$1248
4

## Convert the following weekly salaries into monthly salaries:

a \$225
b \$196
c \$674

Example 4
Bruno earns \$3600 per month. What is his equivalent weekly salary?
Again, we must calculate the yearly salary first.
Yearly salary = \$3600 12
= \$43 200
Weekly salary = \$43 200 52
= \$830.77 to the nearest cent
5

## Convert the following monthly salaries to the equivalent weekly salaries.

a \$4200
b \$5635
c \$3599

Scott earns \$68 840 p.a., Lisa earns \$1350 per week and Paula earns \$5700 per month.
Who earns the most?

Example 5
Ella works a 35-hour week and is paid \$23.86 per hour. What are her weekly
wages?
Weekly wages = 35 \$23.86
= \$835.10
7

Calculate the weekly wages for a person who works a 35-hour week and is paid:
a \$18.90/h
b \$26.48/h
c \$84.50/h

## Consumer Arithmetic (Chapter 11) Syllabus reference NS5.1.2

Example 6
Yoshi earns \$1389.50 for working a 35-hour week. What is his hourly rate of pay?
Hourly rate = \$1389.50 35
= \$39.70
8

Calculate the hourly rate of pay for a person who works a 35-hour week and is paid weekly
wages of:
a \$994
b \$847
c \$626.50

Example 7
Sophie works a 38-hour week and is paid \$28.75 per hour. How much does she
earn in a:
a week

b fortnight

c year?

## a Weekly wages = 38 \$28.75

= \$1092.50
b Fortnightly wages = \$1092.50 2
= \$2185
c Yearly wages = \$1092.50 52
= \$56 810

How much does a person earn in a i week ii fortnight iii year if the person works a 38-hour
week and is paid:
a \$43/h
b \$52.90/h
c \$75.30/h

Example 8

Remember that
1 month is not
equal to 4 weeks!

## Fiona earns \$16.80 per hour and works a 36-hour week.

What are her average monthly wages?
Weekly wages = \$16.80 36
= \$604.80
Yearly wages = \$604.80 52
= \$31 449.60
Monthly wages = \$31 449.60 12
= \$2620.80

10

What are the average monthly wages for a person who works a 36-hour week and earns:
a \$18.20/h
b \$32.90/h
c \$76.50/h

317

318

## Consumer Arithmetic (Chapter 11) Syllabus reference NS5.1.2

Example 1
Ben normally works a 35-hour week and is paid \$18.90 per hour. Calculate his
total wages for a week in which he works an additional 5 hours overtime at
time-and-a-half.
Full-time employees who earn wages are expected to work a minimum number
of hours each day, or each week, as negotiated in their workplace agreement.
Overtime is paid to people who work hours in addition to those required by their
workplace agreement and it is paid at a higher rate. The most common rates of
overtime payment are:
a time-and-a-half, i.e. the employee is paid at 1 1--2- times the normal hourly rate
of pay, e.g. if the normal rate of pay is \$20/hour then the employee would be
paid (\$20 1 1--2- =) \$30/hour at time-and-a-half.
b double time, i.e. the employee is paid double the normal rate of pay, e.g. if the
normal rate of pay is \$20/hour then the employee would be paid (\$20 2 =)
\$40/hour at double time.
Normal pay = \$18.90 35
= \$661.50
Overtime = (\$18.90 1.5) 5
= \$141.75
Total wages = \$661.50 + \$141.75
= \$803.25

Exercise 11C
1

Dianne normally works a 35-hour week and is paid \$23.40 per hour. Calculate her total
wages for a week in which she works an additional 4 hours at time-and-a-half.

Rebecca normally works a 36-hour week and is paid \$17.20 per hour. Calculate her total
wages for a week in which she works an additional 3 hours at time-and-a-half.

Tim is paid \$18.60 per hour for a normal 35-hour week and time-and-a-half for any extra
hours worked. How much would he earn for a week in which he worked 40 hours?

Example 2
Ringo normally works a 35-hour week and is paid \$36.15 per hour. Calculate his
total wages for a week in which he works an additional 5 hours at time-and-ahalf and 3 hours at double time.
Normal pay = \$36.15 35
= \$1265.25
Overtime = (\$36.15 1.5) 5 + (\$36.15 2) 3
= \$488.03
Total wages = \$1265.25 + \$488.03
= \$1753.28

## Consumer Arithmetic (Chapter 11) Syllabus reference NS5.1.2

Jarrod normally works a 35-hour week and is paid \$31.20 per hour. Calculate his total wages
for a week in which he works an additional 5 hours at time-and-a-half and 3 hours at double
time.

Martha normally works a 35-hour week and is paid \$28.60 per hour. Calculate her total
wages for a week in which she works an additional 8 hours at time-and-a-half and 5 hours
at double time.

Dana normally works a 38-hour week and is paid \$36.15 per hour. Calculate her total wages
for a week in which she works an additional 4 hours at time-and-a-half and 2 hours at double
time.

Erin is paid \$24.70 per hour. She is paid the normal rate for the first 7 hours worked each
day, time-and-a-half for the next 2 hours and double time thereafter. Calculate her total
wages for a day on which she worked:
a 8 hours
b 9 hours
c 10 hours

Rob is paid \$26.30 per hour. He is paid the normal rate for the first 6 hours worked each day,
time-and-a-half for the next 2 hours and double time thereafter. Calculate his total wages for
a day on which he worked
a 8 hours
b 9 hours
c 10 hours

Example 3
Don works a 35-hour week and is paid time-and-a-half for any extra hours
worked. One week he worked 5 hours overtime and was paid \$969. What is his
hourly rate of pay?
Let the hourly rate of pay be \$y, then
y 35 + y 1.5 5 = 969
35y + 7.5y = 969
42.5y = 969
969
y = ----------42.5
= 22.8
i.e. Don earns \$22.80 per hour.

Angela works a 35-hour week and is paid time-and-a-half for any extra hours worked. One
week she worked 4 hours overtime and was paid \$1102.90. What is her hourly rate of pay?

10

Daniel works a 35-hour week and is paid time-and-a-half for any extra hours worked. One
week he worked 7 hours overtime and was paid \$982.80. What is his hourly rate of pay?

11

Pete works his normal 35-hour week plus 4 hours overtime at time-and-a-half and 3 hours at
double time. He was paid \$1576.38. What is his hourly rate of pay?

12

Glenda is paid \$17.90 per hour for working a 35-hour week and time-and-a-half for any extra
hours worked. One week she was paid \$733.90. How much overtime did she do?

319

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## Consumer Arithmetic (Chapter 11) Syllabus reference NS5.1.2

Example 4
Paul works for a builder and earns \$66 000 per year. At the end of the year the
builder decides to pay Paul a bonus equal to one months salary. Calculate Pauls
bonus.
A bonus is an extra payment made to employees, often as a reward for meeting
deadlines, exceeding profit targets, producing a high quantity of work etc.
Bonus = \$66 000 12
= \$5500
13

Jenni works as a secretary and earns \$58 600 per year. At the end of the year her employer
pays her a bonus of one months salary. Calculate Jennis bonus.

14

Abdul is paid \$23.50 per hour and works a normal 35-hour week. At the end of the year his
employer pays him a bonus of 5% of his yearly wages. Calculate Abduls bonus.

15

A company made a profit of \$194 000 for the year. The owner decided to share 60% of the
profit between her 80 employees as a bonus. Calculate the bonus paid to each of the
employees.

16

For completing a project ahead of schedule, each member of the project team was given a
bonus of 3% of the after-tax profit made. Calculate the bonus paid to each member of the
team if the after-tax profit was \$120 000.

17

An engineering design company decided to pay its 12 employees an equal share of 20% of the
profit on a special project, as a bonus. If each of the 12 employees received a bonus of \$1300,
how much profit did the company make on this project?

18

Marks total income for the year was \$57 337.28. This included a bonus of one months salary.
What is Marks normal annual income (i.e. his income without any bonus)?

Example 5
Tanya earns \$810 per week. She is entitled to 4 weeks annual recreation leave
b total pay for this holiday period.
they take their annual recreation leave. It is usually calculated as 17.5% of
4 weeks normal salary or wages.
a Normal pay for 4 weeks = \$810 4
= \$3240
= 0.175 \$3240
= \$567

## b Holiday pay = \$3240 + \$567

= \$3807
or Holiday pay = 117.5% of 4 weeks pay
or Holiday pay = 1.175 4 \$810
or Holiday pay = \$3807

## Consumer Arithmetic (Chapter 11) Syllabus reference NS5.1.2

19

Kylie earns \$760 per week. She is entitled to 4 weeks annual leave and receives an additional
b total pay for this holiday period

20

Vinh works a normal 35-hour week and is paid \$17.90 per hour. He is entitled to 4 weeks
b total pay for this holiday period

21

Sunny earns \$1230 per fortnight. She is entitled to 4 weeks annual leave and receives an

22

Wesley earns \$43 940 per year. He is entitled to 4 weeks annual leave and receives an

Example 6
Zoe works as a receptionist. She is entitled to 4 weeks annual leave and receives
a holiday loading of 17.5%. One year her total holiday pay was \$3092.60. What
is Zoes weekly salary?
Let the weekly salary be \$z, then
117.5% of 4 z = 3092.60
i.e. 1.175 4 z = 3092.60
4.7 z = 3092.6
3092.6
z = -----------------4.7
= 658
i.e. Zoe earns \$658 per week.

23

Tiffany is entitled to 4 weeks annual leave and receives a holiday loading of 17.5%. One year
her total holiday pay was \$4512. What is Tiffanys weekly salary?

24

Bin is entitled to 4 weeks annual leave and receives a holiday loading of 17.5%. One year his

321

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## Consumer Arithmetic (Chapter 11) Syllabus reference NS5.1.2

Investigation 1
WM: Reasoning, Applying Strategies

## Calculating total pay

Here is a spreadsheet to calculate the total pay for the employees of a factory.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

A
Employee

B
Rate (\$/h)

C
Normal time (h)

24.72
18.94
23.65
26.36
16.78
15.43

36
36
36
35
35
40

Bill
Sue
Alan
Gillian
Natasha
Eric

D
Overtime (h)
time-and-a-half
8
6
4
5

E
Overtime (h)
double time
4
1
2
3

F
Total pay

## To find the total pay for the other employees:

Highlight cells F3 to F8.
Go to Edit.
Select Fill Down.

Add some more employees, put in their rate and the number of hours worked. Calculate their
total pay.

D. PIECEWORK
Piecework is a method of earning money in which the employee is paid for the number of items (pieces)
produced or completed.

Example 1
Peta works at home sewing childrens tops. She is paid \$3.20 for each top she
produces. How much does she earn for a week in which she produces 120 tops?
Income = 120 \$3.20
= \$384

## Consumer Arithmetic (Chapter 11) Syllabus reference NS5.1.2

Exercise 11D
1

Kerry is paid \$0.83 per item for ironing shirts in a factory. How much does she earn for a
week in which she irons 240 shirts?

Patricia earns \$1.03 for each dress she finishes in a clothing factory. If, on average, she can
finish 7 dresses per hour and she works a 35-hour week, what are her average weekly
earnings?

Joe works for a mens hairdresser and is paid \$9 for each haircut he does. If he averages
16 haircuts per day for 6 days, how much does he earn?

Terry has a job assembling door locks. One week he assembles 450 locks and is paid \$216.
How much is he paid for assembling each lock?

Wayne works for Sparkler Lighting Co. assembling lamps. He is paid the following daily
piecework rates:
up to 50 lamps
\$1.45 /lamp
No. assembled
for each lamp over 50 and up to 70
\$1.60 /lamp
55
for each lamp over 70
\$1.90 /lamp Mon.
Tues.
48
Here is Waynes work card for the week.
Wed.
62
Calculate Waynes earnings for the week.
Thurs.
76
Fri.
52

E. COMMISSION
Commission is a method of earning income by which the employee is paid a percentage of the value of
their sales.

Example 1
Georgia works as a salesperson and is paid a commission of 6% of the value
of her sales. If Georgia sells \$12 000 worth of goods one week, what is her
commission?
Commission = 6% of \$12 000
= 0.06 \$12 000
= \$720

Exercise 11E
1

A real estate agent charges a commission of 1.5% of the value of any house he sells. Calculate
how much he will earn if he sells a house for:
a \$660 000
b \$320 000
c \$980 000

Joanne has a part-time job selling cosmetics. She is paid a commission of 18% of all sales.
Calculate how much she earns in one month if her sales are:
a \$9000
b \$5400
c \$2300

323

324

## Daina is a stockbroker. She receives a commission

of 2.5% of the selling price of any shares that she
sells. How much commission would she earn for
selling shares worth:
a \$15 000
b \$27 000
c \$243 000?

The commission
or selling shares is
called brokerage.

Example 2

In excess of
means
more than.

## Steve has a job selling clothing. He earns a commission

of 19.5% of all weekly sales in excess of \$5000.
How much commission does he earn on sales of:
a \$4800

b \$8650?

## a As Steves sales are not more than \$5000 he earns no commission.

b Excess = \$8650 \$5000
= \$3650
Commission = 0.195 \$3650
= \$711.75

Fiona has a job selling cleaning equipment. She earns a commission of 17.5% of all weekly
sales in excess of \$10 000. How much commission does she earn on weekly sales of:
a \$8000
b \$12 000
c \$24 000?

Example 3
Carol sells internet plans. She is paid the following rates of commission:
1.5% of the first \$20 000 worth of sales,
2.5% of any sales above \$20 000.
Calculate how much she earns in a week in which her sales are:
a \$16 000

b \$24 000

## a Commission = 1.5% of \$16 000

= 0.015 \$16 000
= \$240
b Commission = 1.5% of \$20 000 + 2.5% of (\$24 000 \$20 000)
= 0.015 \$20 000 + 0.025 \$4000
= \$400

## Harry sells internet plans. He is paid the following rates of commission:

2% of the first \$20 000 worth of sales,
3.5% of any sales above \$20 000.
Calculate how much he earns in a week in which his sales are:
a \$13 000
b \$19 990
c \$20 000
d \$25 000

## Zane has a job selling advertising. He is paid a commission on

his weekly sales as follows:
1% for the first \$50 000 worth of sales,
2% of the next \$30 000 worth of sales and
6% of the value of any remaining sales.

e \$38 000

Rate means
the percentage rate of
commission.

## How much would Zane earn in a week in which his

sales are:
a \$46 000
b \$50 000
c \$65 000
d \$80 000
e \$92 000
7

Marie is a real estate agent. She charges the following commission for selling home units:
3% for the first \$160 000 of the selling price of the unit,
2% for the next \$50 000 and
1.5% for the remainder of the selling price.
Calculate how much Marie would earn for selling a unit for:
a \$150 000
b \$180 000
c \$210 000
d \$280 000

e \$360 000

Example 4
Chad sells washing machines. He is paid a fixed wage of \$200 per week plus a
commission of 3% of sales. How much does he earn in a week in which his sales
are \$5480?
Commission = 0.03 \$5480
= \$164.40
Weekly earnings = Retainer + Commission
= \$200 + \$164.40
= \$364.40

## The fixed part of

(\$200) is called
a retainer.

Therese sells printers for computers. She is paid a retainer of \$250 per week plus a
commission of 4% of her sales. How much does she earn in a week in which she sells
\$14 970 worth of printers?

Michael works for a bookseller. He is paid a retainer of \$280 per week plus a commission of
2% of sales. How much does he earn in a week in which his sales are:
a \$7650
b \$3000
c \$12 000
d \$4700
e \$8260?

325

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## Consumer Arithmetic (Chapter 11) Syllabus reference NS5.1.2

10

Complete the following table to show the weekly earnings of the sales team for a
pharmaceutical company.
Employee
R. Roberts
H. Low
J. Thum
K. Trau
G. Flood

Retainer

Rate

Sales

Commission

\$200
\$150
\$100
nil
nil

2%
5%
6%
8%
9%

\$4 200
\$8 600
\$10 450
\$12 900
\$15 360

\$84

Weekly earnings

11

Jacqueline works as a sales representative for a hardware company. She is paid a retainer of
\$250 per week plus a commission of 3% of any sales in excess of \$6000.
How much would she earn in a week in which her sales were:
a \$4500
b \$6400
c \$7200
d \$8430
e \$10 960?

12

Hassan gets a job as a salesperson with a mobile phone company. He is offered two methods
of weekly payment:
A Retainer of \$200 plus commission of 3%, or
B No retainer, commission of 8%.
a How much would Hassan earn, using each method, if his weekly sales were:
i \$0
ii \$3000
iii \$4000
iv \$5000
v \$10 000?
b Which method of payment would you advise Hassan to choose? Give reasons.

13

## Phillipa works as a salesperson and is paid a commission of 5% of sales. If Phillipa earns a

commission of \$821 in one week, what was the value of the goods that she sold?

14

One week Alex sells two cars costing \$32 000 each. If he was paid a commission of \$1280,
what is the rate of commission that he is paid?

15

Joe is paid a retainer plus a commission of 4% of sales. If he receives \$980 for selling
\$18 000 worth of goods, what is the retainer that he is paid?

16

Sally is paid a retainer of \$220 per week plus a commission of 3% of sales. One week she
earned \$478. What was the value of the goods that she sold?

17

Sasha is paid a retainer of \$180 per week plus a commission of 6% of sales in excess of
\$5000. One week he earned \$858, what was the value of the goods that he sold?

18

## Jacques is paid the following commission for selling computers:

1.5% of the first \$25 000 worth of sales
2.5% of any sales in excess of \$25 000.
One week he earns a commission of \$750. What was the value of the computers he sold in
this week?

## F. CASUAL AND PART-TIME JOBS

Casual and part-time workers are paid for the number of hours worked. The hourly rate is higher than for
full-time workers because they may not be entitled to benefits such as holiday leave and sick leave. They
may also be paid special rates for weekends and public holidays. The difference between casual and
part-time workers is dependent on the number of hours worked.

Example 1
The table below shows part of an award agreement for tradespersons.
Bricklayer
Carpenter
Painter
Sign writer
Roof tiler

## Casual \$ per hour

15.90
16.08
15.63
15.89
15.79

19.08
19.30
18.76
19.07
18.95

a Tom is a full-time bricklayer who works a 35-hour week. Calculate his normal
weekly wages.
b Bob is a qualified bricklayer who is employed as a casual for 35 hours one week.
How much more than Tom does Bob earn?
a Toms wages = \$15.90 35
= \$556.50
b Bobs wages = \$19.08 35
= \$667.80
\$667.80 \$556.50 = \$111.30
i.e. Bob earns \$111.30 more than Tom for this week.

Exercise 11F
Use the table in example 1 above to do questions 14.
1

Emma is a sign-writer who does casual work. She works the following hours one week:
Monday 3 hours, Tuesday 4 hours, Wednesday 3 hours, Friday 5 hours. How much does
she earn?

a Matt is a full-time painter who works a 35-hour week. Calculate his normal weekly wages.
b During a busy period he employs a casual to work with him for the 35 hours. How much
extra does the casual earn for the weeks work?

Jack is a full-time roof tiler. Due to extra demand he employs two casuals to help him for
7 hours on each of 3 days. What is the wages bill for the two casuals?

Grant is a carpenter who is employed as a casual. One week he earns \$463.20. How many
hours did he work?

327

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## Consumer Arithmetic (Chapter 11) Syllabus reference NS5.1.2

Example 2
The table below shows part of the Restaurant Employees Award.
Casual \$ per hour

Kitchen hand
Waiter
Grill cook

Mon.Fri.

Sat.

Sun.

14.38
14.92
15.73
18.69

17.98
18.65
19.66
23.36

21.57
22.38
23.59
28.03

Calcuate the wages of a casual waiter who works 8 hours from Monday to Friday,
6 hours on Saturday and 4 hours on Sunday.
Wages = 8 \$14.92 + 6 \$18.65 + 4 \$22.38
= \$320.78

## Use the table in example 2 to do questions 58.

5

Emily is employed as a casual kitchen hand for 3 hours per day for each day Monday to Friday.
Calculate her wages.

Trent is a grade 6 chef who works as a casual on Saturday for 6 hours and Sunday for 6 hours.
Calculate his wages.

Calculate the wages of a casual grill cook who works the following hours:
M

3
8

Con is employed as a casual kitchen hand. One week he worked 3 hours on Saturday, 4 hours
on Sunday and the remaining hours were all worked in the period Monday to Friday. If he
received \$226.50 for the weeks work, how many hours did he work from Monday to Friday?

The table below shows the Restaurant Award rates for Grade 1 juniors.
Juniors: Casual \$ per hour
Age (years)

Mon.Fri.

Sat.

Sun.

17
18
19
20

8.92
10.07
11.51
12.95

11.15
12.58
14.38
16.18

13.38
15.10
17.26
19.42

## How much would a 17-year-old casual employee earn for working:

a 8 hours from Monday to Friday
b 4 hours on Saturday
c 6 hours on Sunday
d 6 hours Monday to Friday and 5 hours on Saturday
e 10 hours Monday to Friday, 4 hours on Saturday and 3 hours on Sunday?

10

a Ben is 18 years old and does casual work in a coffee shop. How much does he earn for
working 4 hours on Saturday and 6 hours on Sunday?
b Lara is 20 years old; how much would she earn for working the same hours as Ben?

11

Sarah and Ella work in a caf. Sarah is 17 years old and Ella is 18 years old. One week they
both work the same shifts, as shown below.
M

How much more than Sarah does Ella earn for this week?
12

Jenny is 19 years old and does casual work as a waitress on Friday, Saturday and Sunday
nights. One week she worked 5 hours on Friday night, 6 hours on Saturday night and was paid
\$204.24 for the week. How many hours did she work on Sunday night?

G. NET EARNINGS
The total amount earned by an employee is called gross income. However this is not the amount of money that
the employee actually takes home because deductions are made.
The most common deductions are federal income tax, health insurance and superannuation. The amount
actually received, after deductions, is called net earnings or take-home pay.
Net Earnings = Gross Income Deductions

Example 1
Julie earns \$890 per week. The deductions from her salary each week are:
tax \$265.83, health insurance \$43.59 and superannuation \$42.70.
Calculate her net earnings each week.
Total deductions = \$265.83 + \$43.59 + \$42.70
= \$352.12
Net Earnings = \$890 \$352.12
= \$537.88

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## Consumer Arithmetic (Chapter 11) Syllabus reference NS5.1.2

Exercise 11G
1

Patricia earns \$940 per week. The deductions from her salary each week are: tax \$280.78,
health insurance \$37.62 and superannuation \$56.40. Calculate her net earnings each week.

David earns \$760 per week. The deductions from his salary each week are: tax \$212.80,
health insurance \$32.40 and superannuation \$30.40. Calculate his net earnings each week.

Sue earns \$43.80 per hour and works a 36-hour week. The deductions from her wages each
week are: tax \$536.11, superannuation \$94.61 and health insurance \$51.25. She pays union
fees of \$7.60 and also has \$50 per week paid directly into an investment account. Calculate
her take-home pay each week.

Yuchen earns \$63.70 per hour and works a 38-hour week. The weekly deductions from her
wages include: tax \$871.42, superannuation \$217.85 and health insurance \$44.90. She also
pays \$5 per week to her favourite charity and has \$70 per week paid into a special savings
account. Calculate her take-home pay.

Jamess gross salary is \$1230 per week. His employer deducts 31% of his gross earnings for
tax and he contributes 9% of his gross income into a superannuation fund. His health fund
contributions are \$39.99 and professional association fees are \$13.20 per week. Calculate
his net weekly earnings.

H. BUDGETS
A budget is a financial plan for the future. It is a means by which you can save for future purchases and avoid
over-spending. To prepare a budget you need to determine your expected income and estimate your expected
expenses. Your income needs to be larger than your expenses if you are to live within your means.
To prepare a budget, for a given time period (e.g. week, month, year):
calculate income minus expenses
adjust income or expenses if necessary.

Example 1
Karen has just started work and still lives at home with her parents. Her weekly
take-home salary is \$480. Each week she pays \$110 for board, \$49 for fares and
\$35 for lunches. She spends \$120 per week on entertainment, \$95 per fortnight on
personal items and \$330 per month on clothes.
a Prepare an annual budget for Karen.
b Karen wants to go on an overseas holiday in 3 years time. The cost of the holiday
is \$7899. Determine whether or not Karen will be able to take her holiday.
c If Karen will not have sufficient money to take her holiday, how could she adjust
her budget so that she would be able to afford the holiday?

## Consumer Arithmetic (Chapter 11) Syllabus reference NS5.1.2

Salary
(\$480 52) = \$24 960
Board
(\$110 52) = \$5720
Fares
(\$49 52) = \$2548
Lunches
(\$35 52) = \$1820
Entertainment
(\$120 52) = \$6240
Personal items (\$95 26) = \$2470
Clothes
(\$330 12) = \$3960
Total
= \$22 758
Income Expenses = \$2202
Karen has an excess of income over expenses so she will be able to live
satisfactorily on this budget and save some money.
b If Karen saves all her money, then in 3 years she will have \$2202 3 = \$6606.
She is \$7899 \$6606 = \$1293 short of her target.
c Karen must either increase her income or decrease her expenses by at least
(\$1293 3 =) \$431 per year.
She could increase her income by finding employment with a higher salary or
getting a second job. She could decrease her expenses by, for example, reducing
her spending on clothes to \$290 per month. She would then save (\$40 12 =) \$480
per year on expenses. Or, if she reduced her spending on entertainment to \$110
per week, she would save (\$10 52 =) \$520 per year. She would then be able to
afford to take the holiday.
a Income
Expenses

Exercise 11H
1

Naomi lives at home with her parents. Her weekly take-home salary is \$590. Each week she
pays \$100 for board, \$53 for fares and \$42 for lunches. She spends \$150 per week on
entertainment, \$84 per fortnight on personal items, \$380 per month on clothes.
a Prepare an annual budget for Naomi.
b Naomi wants to go on an overseas holiday in 3 years time. The cost of the holiday is
\$12 550. Determine whether or not Naomi will be able to take her holiday.

Matthews net earnings are \$540 per week. He shares a house for which he pays \$120 per
week rent. Each week he spends \$110 on food, \$145 on entertainment and \$25 on personal
items. The loan repayments on his car are \$380 per month. He spends \$45 per week on petrol
and the six-monthly service is \$380. Annual registration and insurance amount to \$1148.
His mobile phone costs him \$24 per month.
a Prepare an annual budget for Matthew.
b How could Matthew adjust his budget so that he can live within his means?

George is a full-time TAFE student. He receives an allowance of \$320 per fortnight from the
government and averages earnings of \$120 per week from his part-time job. His expenses
are: rent \$320 per month, food \$90 per week, phone \$110 per quarter, entertainment
\$70 per week, books \$350 per year.
a Prepare an annual budget for George.
b George has already saved the money to buy a car. He estimates that it would cost him
\$30 per week for petrol, \$80 per month for maintenance and \$840 per year for
registration and insurance. Can George afford to own and run a car?

331

332

## Consumer Arithmetic (Chapter 11) Syllabus reference NS5.1.2

Kate and Robert want to prepare a budget for next year and have gathered the following
information.
Income:
Kates take-home pay is \$490 per week and Robert clears \$380 per week.
Interest of \$230 from investments is expected in February and August of next
year.
Expenses: Home loan repayments, \$980 per month
Food, \$160 per week
Electricity, \$480 each quarter
Telephone, \$110 per month
Council rates, \$340 each quarter
Water rates, \$186 per quarter
Car registration and insurance, \$780 per year
Comprehensive car insurance, \$810 per year
Car loan repayments, \$108 per week
Car running expenses, average \$190 per month
Clothing, average \$350 per month
Personal items, \$45 per week
a Prepare an annual budget for Kate and Robert.
b In order to reduce the cost of their loans, Kate and Robert wish to increase their loan
repayments. Can they afford to do this? What advice would you give Kate and Robert?

I. SIMPLE INTEREST
When investing money in a financial institution, such as a bank, the bank pays for the use of your money. This
payment by the bank is called interest and is calculated as a percentage of the amount invested. Similarly, when
you borrow money a charge is made for the use of the banks money. This charge is also called interest and is
calculated as a percentage of the amount borrowed.
There are two methods of calculating the interest: simple interest and compound interest. If the interest is
calculated as a fixed percentage of the original amount invested (or borrowed), then it is called simple interest.

Example 1
Calculate the simple interest if \$8000 is invested for 3 years at 4.5% p.a.
Interest for 1 year = 4.5% of \$8000
= 0.045 \$8000
= \$360
Interest for 3 years = \$360 3
= \$1080
If \$P is invested for T years at r % p.a. then the simple interest, I, can be found using the formula:
I = PRT

r
where P is called the principal, R is called the interest rate p.a. R = -------- and T is the time in years.

100

## Consumer Arithmetic (Chapter 11) Syllabus reference NS5.1.2

Example 2
Use the simple interest formula to calculate the simple interest earned on an
investment of \$10 800 at 3.9% p.a. for 5 years.
I = PRT
= \$10 800 0.039 5
= \$2106

Exercise 11I
1

## Calculate the simple interest if \$7000 is invested for 2 years at 5% p.a.

Calculate the simple interest if \$12 000 is invested for 4 years at 3% p.a.

Principal

## Time invested (years)

\$5 800
\$15 000
\$24 000
\$6 500
\$18 000
\$9 300
\$6 000

7%
3.5%
4.5%
5%
2.8%
3.4%
3%

4
3
5
6
2
4
3

Simple interest

Example 3
Calculate the amount to which \$7000 will grow in 3 years if invested at 6.5% p.a.
simple interest.
Interest = \$7000 0.065 3
= \$1365
Amount after 3 years = \$7000 + \$1365
= \$8365

Calculate the amount to which \$9000 will grow in 3 years if invested at 6.5% p.a. simple
interest.

Calculate the amount to which \$20 000 will grow in 5 years if invested at 4% p.a. simple
interest.

If I invest \$13 500 at 7.4% p.a. simple interest, how much will I have in 4 years time?

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## Consumer Arithmetic (Chapter 11) Syllabus reference NS5.1.2

Example 4
Calculate the simple interest earned on \$6000 at 8% p.a. for 16 months.
16
The number of years the money is invested = ------ , hence
12
16
Interest = \$6000 0.08 -----12
= \$640
7

## Calculate the simple interest earned on the following investments:

a \$5000 at 9% p.a. for 18 months
b \$7000 at 8% p.a. for 15 months
c \$12 500 at 10% p.a. for 9 months
d \$3800 at 12% p.a. for 27 months
e \$24 000 at 7.8% p.a. for 45 months

Example 5
Rene invested \$4700 at 6% p.a. simple interest and earned \$1128 in interest. For
how long did he invest his money?
Interest for 1 year = 0.06 \$4700
= \$282
No. of years invested = \$1128 \$282
=4
i.e. Rene invested his money for 4 years.
8

Harry invested \$13 000 at 6% p.a. simple interest and earned \$4680 in interest. For how long
did he invest his money?

Joy invested \$2800 at 3.5% p.a. simple interest and earned \$490 in interest. For how long
did she invest her money?

Example 6
Colin invested \$4000 for 5 years and earned \$700 in interest. What was the
annual rate of simple interest?
Interest for 1 year = \$700 5
= \$140

140
Annual interest rate = ------------- 100%
4000
= 3.5%

10

Kim invested \$6000 for 5 years and earned \$2100 in interest. What was the annual rate of
simple interest?

11

Lauren invested \$17 000 for 4 years and earned \$3128 in interest. What was the annual rate
of simple interest?

## J. PURCHASING GOODS BY CASH

When paying cash to purchase goods, the cost is rounded to the nearest 5 cents.

Example 1
How much would you actually pay in cash to purchase goods that cost:
a 87 cents

b \$2.43

c \$2.99?

## Rounding off to the nearest 5 cents, you would pay

a 85 cents
b \$2.45

c \$3.00

Exercise 11J
1

How much would you actually pay in cash to purchase goods that cost:
a 76c
b \$5.28
c \$2.79
d \$7.31
e \$3.97
g \$16.23
h \$21.99
i \$54.85
j \$39.14
k \$17.36
Calculate the change given when:
a \$10 is offered to pay for goods worth \$5.83
c \$10 is offered to pay for goods worth \$8.22
e \$20 is offered to pay for goods worth \$18.36
g \$50 is offered to pay for goods worth \$28.57

b
d
f
h

f
l

\$8.52
\$69.98

## \$10 is offered to pay for goods worth \$4.99

\$20 is offered to pay for goods worth \$12.84
\$20 is offered to pay for goods worth \$6.01
\$50 is offered to pay for goods worth \$48.19

Example 2
An electrical store offers a discount of 12% for cash purchases.
Find the cash price of a television set marked as \$799.
Discount = 12% of \$799
or
Price = 88% of \$799
= 0.12 \$799
= 0.88 \$799
= \$95.88
Price = \$799 \$95.88
= \$703.12
= \$703.12
Rounding the discounted price to the nearest 5 cents, the cash price is \$703.10.

An electrical store offers a discount of 12% for cash purchases. Find the cash price of a
sound system marked at \$479.

A builders hardware store offers a discount of 6% for cash purchases. Find the cash price
for goods worth:
a \$147
b \$463
c \$224
d \$180.56
e \$68.99

335

336

## K. USING CREDIT CARDS

A credit card is a convenient method for purchasing and paying for goods. You can pay for the goods later,
you dont need to carry large amounts of cash, you can take advantage of sales, and a monthly statement of
purchases is provided.
The financial institution issuing the card charges an annual fee and if the balance owing at the end of each
month is paid within the interest-free period (which varies from 0 to 55 days) then no further costs are involved.
However, if any balance is owing after the interest-free period has finished then there is an initial charge equal
to one months interest on the balance outstanding and, in addition, an interest charge compounded daily from
the end of the interest free period.
There is a minimum payment that must be made each month.
It is also possible to obtain cash advances up to a certain limit. In this case interest is charged daily from the
time the cash is withdrawn.

Exercise 11K

## Consumer Arithmetic (Chapter 11) Syllabus reference NS5.1.2

Use the statement on the previous page to answer the following questions.
1

What is the:
a date the statement period starts and ends
c daily interest rate for purchases
e available credit
g minimum payment that must be made

## b annual interest rate for purchases

d credit limit
f date by which payment must be made

Calculate the:
b total credits (CR)
c Opening Balance + Purchases + Financial Institution Tax Credits. Is this the closing
balance?

## What percentage is the minimum repayment due of the closing balance?

List some advantages and disadvantages of using credit cards to purchase goods.

L. LAY-BY
Some retail stores allow customers to purchase goods by a method called lay-by. Under a lay-by agreement a
deposit is paid and the goods are put aside. The remainder of the cost price must be paid off within a given period
of time. The customer cannot collect the goods until the balance is completely repaid, but no interest is charged.

Example 1
Nick decides to lay-by a tool set costing \$849 and pays a deposit of \$100. Over
the next 3 months he makes repayments of \$150, \$85, \$90, \$160, \$120 and \$70.
How much more does he have to repay to be able to collect the tool set?
Total amount repaid = \$100 + \$150 + \$85 + \$90 + \$160 + \$120 + \$70
= \$775
Balance = \$849 \$775
= \$74
Nick still has \$74 to pay before he can collect the tool set.

Exercise 11L
1

Ben decides to lay-by an electric saw costing \$569 and pays a deposit of \$120.Over the next
3 months he makes repayments of \$60, \$45, \$90, \$70, \$70 and \$80. How much more does
he have to repay to be able to collect the saw?

Zoe lay-bys a bike costing \$225 for her sons birthday and pays a deposit of \$60. Each week
for the next 5 weeks she makes payments of \$25. How much more does she have to repay to
be able to collect the bike?

337

338

## Consumer Arithmetic (Chapter 11) Syllabus reference NS5.1.2

Example 2
Isabella lay-bys a dress costing \$324 and pays a deposit of \$50. She wants to
collect the dress in approximately 3 months time to wear to a wedding. If she
pays off the balance by making 3 equal monthly instalments, calculate:
a the balance to be repaid

= \$174

## b Monthly instalment = \$174 3

= \$58

Martine lay-bys a dress costing \$485. She pays a deposit of \$80 and pays off the balance
by making 4 equal monthly instalments. Calculate:
a the balance to be repaid
b the amount of each monthly instalment

Yvonne lay-bys a new electric oven costing \$778. She is required to pay a 10% deposit and
repay the balance by 12 equal weekly instalments. Calculate the:
a deposit
b balance to be repaid
c amount of each weekly instalment

Josh lay-bys a new DVD player costing \$456. He is required to pay a 15% deposit and repay
the balance by 6 equal fortnightly instalments. Calculate the:
a deposit
b balance to be repaid
c amount of each fortnightly instalment

List some advantages and disadvantages of using the lay-by method to purchase goods.

is sometimes
called hire
purchase.

## When an item is bought on terms a deposit is paid and the item

is received immediately. The balance of the price is borrowed
and this balance plus simple interest is repaid by equal
instalments over a fixed term.

Example 1
A refrigerator costing \$2998 can be bought on terms for \$299 deposit and
24 monthly instalments of \$139.45.
a Calculate the total cost of buying the refrigerator on terms.
b How much would you save by paying cash?
a Total cost = \$299 + 24 \$139.45
= \$3645.80
b Amount saved by paying cash = \$3645.80 \$2998
= \$647.80

## Consumer Arithmetic (Chapter 11) Syllabus reference NS5.1.2

Exercise 11M
1

A refrigerator costing \$2599 can be bought on terms for \$399 deposit and 24 monthly
instalments of \$115.50.
a Calculate the total cost of buying the refrigerator on terms.
b How much would you save by paying cash?

A laptop computer costing \$2298 can be bought on terms for \$229 deposit and 18 monthly
repayments of \$135.60.
a Calculate the total cost of buying the computer on terms.
b How much would you save by paying cash?

A home theatre system costing \$1598 can be bought on the following terms: 10% deposit and
48 weekly instalments of \$37.15.
a Calculate the total cost of buying the system on terms.
b How much would you save by paying cash?

A hi-fi sound system costing \$879 can be bought on the following terms: deposit 15% and
26 fortnightly repayments of \$39.98.
a Calculate the total cost of buying the system on terms.
b How much would you save by paying cash?

Example 2
A computer costing \$3498 can be bought on terms for \$300 deposit and
36 monthly repayments of \$124.17.
a
b
c
d
e

## Calculate the total cost of buying the computer on terms.

Find the total amount of interest charged.
Calculate the amount of interest paid annually.
What was the amount of money borrowed?
Calculate the annual rate of interest charged.

## a Total cost = \$300 + 36 \$124.17

b Interest = \$4770.12 \$3498
= \$4770.12
= \$1272.12
c Annual interest = \$1272.12 3
= \$424.04
d Amount borrowed = Balance owing after paying the deposit
= \$3498 \$300
= \$3198
e Annual interest rate =
=

annual interest
100%
amount borrowed
\$424.04
100%
\$3198

= 13.3%

339

340

## Consumer Arithmetic (Chapter 11) Syllabus reference NS5.1.2

A camera costing \$1499 can be bought on terms for \$200 deposit and 24 monthly repayments
of \$74.69.
a Calculate the total cost of buying the camera on terms.
b Find the total amount of interest charged.
c Calculate the amount of interest paid annually.
d What was the amount of money borrowed?
e Calculate the annual rate of interest charged.

A television costing \$5890 can be bought on terms for \$300 deposit and 36 monthly
repayments of \$199.53.
a Calculate the total cost of buying the computer on terms.
b Find the total amount of interest charged.
c Calculate the amount of interest paid annually.
d What was the amount of money borrowed?
e Calculate the annual rate of interest charged.

A dining room suite was advertised for \$5990 or \$500 deposit and 48 monthly repayments
of \$187.58.
a Calculate the total cost of buying the dining room suite on terms.
b Find the total amount of interest charged.
c Calculate the amount of interest paid annually.
d What was the amount of money borrowed?
e Calculate the annual rate of interest charged.

Example 3
A wide-screen plasma TV set can be bought for \$7998 cash or on the following
terms: deposit \$799, the balance to be repaid over 2 years by 24 equal monthly
repayments. Simple interest is charged on the balance at 12% p.a. If the TV is
bought on terms calculate:
a the balance owing after the deposit is paid
b the interest charged on the balance owing
c the monthly repayment
a Balance owing = \$7998 \$799
b Interest = \$7199 0.12 2
= \$7199
= \$1727.76
c Balance owing + Interest = \$7199 + \$1727.76
= \$8926.76
Monthly repayment = \$8926.76 24
= \$371.95 (to the nearest cent)
8

Peter buys a second-hand car advertised for \$9600 on the following terms: deposit \$2000,
the balance to be repaid over 2 years by equal monthly repayments. Simple interest is
charged at 12% p.a. Calculate:
a the balance owing
b the interest charged on the balance owing
c the monthly repayment

## Consumer Arithmetic (Chapter 11) Syllabus reference NS5.1.2

Angela buys a car advertised for \$12 900 on the following terms: deposit \$3000, the balance
to be repaid over 3 years by equal monthly repayments. Simple interest is charged at 9% p.a.
Calculate:
a the balance owing
b the interest charged on the balance owing
c the monthly repayment

10

and the balance repaid over 2 years by equal monthly repayments. Simple interest is charged
at 15% p.a. Calculate:
a the deposit
b the balance owing
c the interest charged on the balance owing
d the monthly repayment

11

Robin buys a new car advertised for \$19 900 on the following terms: deposit 15%, the
balance to be repaid over 4 years by equal monthly repayments. Simple interest is charged at
11.9% p.a. Calculate:
a the deposit
b the balance owing
c the interest charged on the balance owing
d the monthly repayment

12

Investigation 2
WM: Applying Strategies, Reasoning

Monthly repayments
The spreadsheet below calculates the monthly repayment when an item is bought on terms.
A
1 Item

Cash
Deposit Interest
Repayment
Balance Interest on Monthly
price (\$)
rate (% p.a.) period (years) owing
balance
Repayment

2 Computer

2998

298

12

3 TV

1899

189

15

4 Furniture

4672

250

11.6

5 Air
conditioner

7659

1000

14.2

6 Refrigerator

3628

628

9.9

In Cell F2 type the formula = B2 C2. This is the balance owing after the
deposit is paid.

## In Cell G2 type the formula = F2*D2/100*E2. This is the amount of interest

charged on the balance.

341

342

## Consumer Arithmetic (Chapter 11) Syllabus reference NS5.1.2

In Cell H2 type the formula = (F2 + G2)/(E2*12). This is the monthly repayment.

## If the computer was paid off over 3 years instead of 2:

a What would be the monthly repayment? b How much more interest would be paid?
(Hint: Change repayment period to 3 and use the arrow key to move right.)

Try changing the repayment period and/or the interest rate for the other items to investigate
the effect on the monthly repayment and the amount of interest paid.

repayment for several items. If there is a difference, investigate for hidden charges.

N. DEFERRED PAYMENT
Many advertisements make statements such as No repayments for 12 months or Pay nothing until next June.
Under these arrangements the goods may be taken immediately the finance contract is approved and no
payment needs to be made for the agreed period of time.
This type of financial arrangement is known as a deferred payment scheme.

Example 1
Michael sees a television set
When Michael approaches the
retailer to buy the television, he
is given the conditions opposite
for the deferred payment scheme.
a Calculate the total amount Michael
would have to pay for the television
under this scheme.
b Calculate the monthly instalments.

\$2498

NO
DEPOSIT
NO DEPOSIT
NO REPAYMENTS
NO
REPAYMENTS
FOR 1212
MONTHS
FOR
MONTHS
(Conditions apply.)

## Conditions: (i) Pay nothing for 12 months.

(ii) Balance plus interest to be repaid by
equal monthly instalments over the
two years following the interest-free period.
(iii) Simple interest of 16% p.a. is charged for
the 3-year period of the agreement.
(iv) Establishment fee of \$110.
(v) Account service fee of \$2.95 per month
for the 3-year period of the agreement.

## a Michael must pay interest on \$2498 for 3 years.

Interest = \$2498 0.16 3
= \$1199.04
Total cost = Price + Interest + Establishment fee + Account service fee
= \$2498 + \$1199.04 + \$110 + \$2.95 36
= \$3913.24
b Michael has to repay this amount by 24 equal instalments.
Monthly instalment = \$3913.24 24
= \$163.05

Exercise 11N
1

\$2999

## A computer is advertised as shown opposite.

a Calculate the total amount you
would have to pay for the computer
under this scheme.
b Calculate the monthly instalments.

NO DEPOSIT
NO REPAYMENTS
FOR 12 MONTHS
(Conditions apply.)

## Conditions: (i) Pay nothing for 12 months.

(ii) Balance plus interest to be repaid by equal monthly instalments
over the two years following the interest-free period.
(iii) Simple interest of 16% p.a. is charged for the 3-year period of the
agreement.
(iv) Establishment fee of \$110.
(v) Account service fee of \$2.95 per month for the 3-year period of
the agreement.

## A second-hand car is advertised as follows.

\$8599
No Deposit
No Repayments for 12 Months

## a Calculate the total amount you

would have to pay for the car
under this scheme.
b Calculate the monthly
instalments.

(Conditions apply.)
Conditions: (i) Pay nothing for 12 months.
(ii) Balance plus interest to be repaid by equal monthly instalments over the
three years following the interest-free period.
(iii) Simple interest of 15% p.a. is charged for the 4-year period of the agreement.
(iv) Establishment fee of \$125.
(v) Account service fee of \$2.55 per month for the 4-year period of the agreement.

A sofa bed is advertised for \$1598 with no deposit and no repayments for 6 months. The
conditions of the agreement are: (i) Pay nothing for 6 months. (ii) Balance plus interest to be
repaid by equal monthly instalments over the 12 months following the interest free period.
(iii) Simple interest of 1.5% per month is charged for the 18 months of the agreement.
(iv) Establishment fee of \$135. (v) Account service fee of \$2.85 per month, for the 18 month
period of the agreement
a Calculate the total amount you would have to pay for the bed under this scheme.
b Calculate the monthly instalments.

343

344

## Consumer Arithmetic (Chapter 11) Syllabus reference NS5.1.2

O. LOANS
To purchase expensive items some people prefer to organise a personal loan through a bank, credit union or
other financial institution. Personal loans often cost less than other forms of payment, such as buying on terms
or deferred payment schemes, because of lower interest rates and lower fees. Banks have tables from which
the monthly repayments can be determined. For example, the table below shows the monthly repayments of
principal plus interest on each \$1000 borrowed for various interest rates.
Monthly repayments on each \$1000 borrowed
Annual interest rate
Loan term
(months)

10.0%

10.5%

11.0%

11.5%

12.0%

12.5%

13.0%

13.5%

14.0%

12

18

24

30

36

42

48

54

60

## 21.2470 21.4939 21.7424 21.9926 22.2444 22.4979 22.7531 23.0098 23.2683

Example 1
Use the table above to calculate the monthly repayments on a loan of \$8300 for
4 years at 13%.
From the table, the monthly repayment for each \$1000 borowed = \$26.8275
Monthly repayments for \$8300 = \$26.8275 8.3
= \$222.67 to nearest cent

Exercise 11O
1

Use the table above to calculate the monthly repayments on a loan of \$9000 for 3 years
at 12%.

Use the table above to calculate the monthly repayments on loans of:
a \$85 000 for 2 1--2- years at 10.5%
b \$67 000 for 5 years at 11%
c \$14 600 for 3 1--2- years at 13.5%
e \$12 450 for 42 months at 11.5%

## Consumer Arithmetic (Chapter 11) Syllabus reference NS5.1.2

Example 2
a Use the table to calculate the monthly repayments on a loan of \$6900 for 3 years
at 12.5%.
b Calculate the total cost of the loan if there is a loan application fee of \$180.
a Monthly repayment = \$33.4536 6.9
= \$230.83
b Total cost of loan = \$230.83 36 + \$180
= \$8489.87

a Use the table to calculate the monthly repayments on a loan of \$7000 for 3 years at 11%.
b Calculate the total cost of the loan if there is a loan application fee of \$180.

a Use the table to calculate the monthly repayments on a loan of \$15 500 for 4 years
at 13.5%.
b Calculate the total cost of the loan if there is a loan application fee of \$250.

Calculate the cost of the following loans. (Calculate the monthly repayment first.)
a \$5000 for 3 1--2- years at 12%, loan application fee \$300
b \$12 000 for 4 1--2- years at 14%, loan application fee \$200
c \$8500 for 2 years at 10.5%, loan application fee \$260
d \$9400 for 60 months at 11.5%, loan application fee \$210
e \$18 000 for 42 months at 10%, loan application fee \$190

## Use the table given for questions 68.

6

Terry borrowed \$20 000 at 11.0% p.a. His monthly repayments were \$654.77. Over what
period of time did he borrow the money?

Natasha borrowed \$18 000 over 4 1--2- years. The monthly repayments were \$446.59. What was
the interest rate charged?

Bill took out a loan over 3 years at 12.5% p.a. His monthly repayments were \$802.89. How
much money did Bill borrow?

345

346

## Consumer Arithmetic (Chapter 11) Syllabus reference NS5.1.2

P. COMPARING PRICES
Example 1
Which is the better buy, 3 kg of apples for \$13.38 or 5 kg for \$21.60?
Method 1

Method 2

## Find the cost per kilogram:

3 kg for \$13.38 = (\$13.38 3) per kg
= \$4.46 per kg
5 kg for \$21.60 = (\$21.60 5 ) per kg
= \$4.32 per kg
5 kg for \$21.60 is the better buy because the cost per kilogram is
cheaper.
Find the amount of apples per dollar:
3 kg for \$13.38 = (3 13.38) kg for \$1
= 0.224 kg for \$1
5 kg for \$21.60 = (5 21.6) kg for \$1
= 0.231kg for \$1
5 kg for \$21.60 is the better buy because you get more apples per dollar.

Exercise 11P
1

## Which is the better buy:

a 3 kg of oranges for \$4.00 or 5 kg for \$6.60?
b 2 kg of meat for \$15.96 or 3 kg for \$23.97?
c 1.5 litres of soft drink for \$2.70 or 2 litres for \$3.50?
d a 350 g packet of cereal for \$2.20 or a 575 g packet for \$3.69?
e a 150 mL bottle of sauce for \$2.29 or a 750 mL bottle for \$10.99?

## Which of the following is the best value?

a Tuna: 95 g tin for \$1.33, 185 g tin for \$2.17, 425 g tin for \$3.50
b Cordial: 750 mL for \$1.12, 2 L for \$3.10, 4 L for \$6.06
c Sandwich spread: 115 g jar for \$1.43, 175 g jar for \$1.96, 235 g jar for \$2.49
d Chocolate: 55 g block for \$0.98, 250 g block for \$2.58, 375 g block for \$3.94
e Milk Flavouring: 375 g tin for \$2.69, 750 g tin for \$5.29, 1.25 kg tin for \$8.28

Harrys Car Hire charges \$28 per day with no limit on the number of kilometres travelled to
hire a new Toyota Corolla. Rays Car Rental charges \$20 per day plus 8 cents per kilometre
travelled to rent the same car. Which company is cheaper if you are likely to travel, each day:
a 80 km
b 100 km
c 150 km?

To hire a new Holden Commodore each day, Bobs Rentals charges \$45 plus 7 cents per
kilometre travelled. Sophies Rentals charges \$48 per day plus 5 cents per kilometre
travelled. Which company is cheaper if you are likely to travel, each day:
a 100 km
b 300 km
c 150 km?

## Consumer Arithmetic (Chapter 11) Syllabus reference NS5.1.2

On savings accounts, Bobs Bank charges a management fee of \$5.50 per month. The first
five transactions are free and then a fee of 28 cents per transaction is charged. Bills Bank
charges a monthly management fee of \$6.00 plus 9 cents per transaction. Which bank is
cheaper to use if your average number of monthly transactions is:
a 5
b 10
c 15?

The Mobile Phone Company offers two plans. Plan A has a connection fee of \$12 per month
and calls cost 21 cents/30 seconds. Plan B has a connection fee of \$15 plus call charges of
16 cents/30 seconds. Which plan would be cheaper, and by how much, if your expected calls
per month were:
a 20 minutes
b 30 minutes
c 50 minutes?

Terrys Telecommunications has two mobile phone plans. The Starnet Plan has a monthly fee
of \$25, 50 free calls then 45 cents/call. The Supernet Plan has a monthly fee of \$35, 100 free
calls and then 35 cents/call. Which plan is cheaper, and by how much, if the expected number
of calls per month total:
a 50
b 100
c 200?

## Q. GOODS AND SERVICES TAX (GST)

A federal tax, known as the GST, is applied to most goods and services in Australia. It is calculated at the rate of
10% of the purchase price of the goods or services. The price excluding the GST (i.e. the price before the GST is
added) is written price excluding GST and the price including the GST (i.e. the price after the GST is added) is
written price including GST.

Example 1
Calculate the GST and the price including GST on a camera with a listed price of
\$710, price excluding GST.
GST = 10% of \$710
= 0.1 \$710
= \$71
Price including GST = \$710 + \$71
= \$781

Exercise 11Q
1

Calculate the GST and the price including GST on the following items:
a microwave oven \$440, price excluding GST
b computer \$3690, price excluding GST
c TV repairs \$258, price excluding GST
d DVD player \$397, price excluding GST
e plumbers bill for services \$1800, price excluding GST

347

348

## Consumer Arithmetic (Chapter 11) Syllabus reference NS5.1.2

Example 2
Calculate the price including GST on a mobile phone listed as \$299, price
excluding GST.
Price including GST = list price + 10% of the list price
= 110% of the list price
= 1.10 \$299
= \$328.90

Calculate the price including GST on the following items whose price, excluding GST, is given.
a car battery \$95, price excluding GST
b ticket to Rugby Final \$225, price excluding GST
c bottle of wine \$17, price excluding GST
d printer repairs \$336, price excluding GST
e electricians bill \$457, price excluding GST

Example 3
Calculate the GST included on a television set advertised for \$899, price
including GST.
Price excluding GST + GST = \$899
i.e. price excl. GST + 10% of price excl. GST = \$899
i.e. 110% of price excl. GST = \$899
1.1 price excl. GST = \$899
price excl. GST = \$899 1.1
= \$817.27
GST = \$899 \$817.27
= \$81.73

## Calculate the GST included in the price of the following items:

a TV \$1189, price including GST
b lounge suite \$4970, price including GST
c BBQ chicken \$10.89, price including GST
d perfume \$148, price including GST
e dress \$124, price including GST

## Consumer Arithmetic (Chapter 11) Syllabus reference NS5.1.2

Example 4
Calculate the GST included on a television set advertised for \$899, price
including GST.
Note that example 3 above could have been calculated as follows.
110% of price excl. GST = \$899
11
i.e. ------ price excl. GST = \$899
10
11
 price excl. GST = \$899 -----10
10
= ------ \$899
11
1
Hence GST = ------ \$899
11
= \$81.73
This leads to the GST Rule of Thumb which
1
states that GST = ------ of price including GST.
11

## Find the missing amounts in the following.

a

Tax Invoice
Services rendered = \$850
GST
=
Total including GST =

c Tax Invoice
Services rendered =
GST
= \$48.80
Total including GST = \$536.80

Tax Invoice
Taxable items
Shirt
\$69.95
Tie
\$29.95
Total including GST = \$99.90
GST included in total =

d Tax Invoice
Taxable items
5 CDs @ \$32.90 including GST =
GST included in total
=

349

350

## Consumer Arithmetic (Chapter 11) Syllabus reference NS5.1.2

non-calculator activities
1

David earns \$300 per week. How much does he earn per:
a fortnight
b year
c month?

Convert a salary of \$43 800 p.a. to the equivalent salary per month.

Alice works a 35-hour week and is paid \$20 per hour. How much does she earn for a week in
which she works an additional 4 hours at time-and-a-half and 1 hour at double time?

Katya earns \$1.20 for each lamp she makes. If on average she can finish 10 lamps per hour
and she works a 36-hour week, calculate her average weekly earnings.

Maria sells household cleaners. She is paid a commission of 5% of sales. How much does she
earn in a week in which her sales are \$8000?

Jacks gross weekly income is \$847. The deductions from his salary each week are:
tax \$206, superannuation \$51.60 and health insurance \$26.53. Calculate his net earnings
each week.

A sports goods store offers a discount of 10% for cash purchases. Find the cash price of a

Alex lay-bys a tool set costing \$638 by paying a deposit of \$125. Over the next 3 months he
makes repayments of \$100, \$120 and \$185. How much more does he have to repay in order
to collect the tool set?

A sound system can be bought for \$589 cash or on the following terms: deposit \$189 and
24 equal monthly repayments of \$23.
a What is the total cost of the sound system if it is bought on terms?
b How much interest would be paid?

10

Calculate the GST included in the price of a DVD player costing \$187, price including GST.

Language in Mathematics

List four different ways in which people are paid for providing their labour or services.

a overtime

b bonus

## Use the following words or phrases in a sentence:

gross income, deductions, net earnings

What is the difference in meaning between the words principal and principle?

The following words have a mathematical meaning as well as other meanings in ordinary
English. Use a dictionary to complete the table.
Word

Mathematical meaning

351

Other meaning

credit
deposit
balance
6

Complete the following words from this chapter by replacing the vowels.
a f rtn ghtly
b rtnr
c b dg t

d d sc nt

Three of the words in the following list have been spelt incorrectly. Rewrite them with the
correct spelling: peacework, purchase, cash, survice, loan, invesment.

Glossary
balance
cash
deductions
excluding
gross income
including
labour
overtime
repayment
simple interest

bonus
commission
deferred payment
expenses
GST
income
lay-by
piecework
retainer
take-home pay

budget
compare
deposit
flat interest
instalment
loan
principal
salary
time-and-a-half

credit
discount
fortnight
hire purchase
investment
net earnings
purchase
service
wages

Samantha earns \$326.80 per week. This is equivalent to a yearly salary of:
A \$15 686.40
B \$16 340
C \$16 993.60
D \$17 320.40

## A salary of \$33 228 p.a. is not equivalent to:

A \$639 per week
B \$2556 per fortnight
C \$2769 per month
D \$8307 per quarter

352

## Consumer Arithmetic (Chapter 11) Syllabus reference NS5.1.2

Garry earns \$342 per week. This is equivalent to a monthly income of:
A \$1368
B \$1470.60
C \$1482

D \$1539

Sally works a 36-hour week and is paid \$14.80 per hour. Her total wages for a week in which
she works an additional 5 hours at time-and-a-half and 3 hours at double time is:
A \$732.60
B \$651.20
C \$710.40
D \$769.60

Bianca earns \$560 per week. She is entitled to 4 weeks annual recreation leave and receives
A \$2240
B \$392
C \$2338
D \$2632

David is paid \$0.37 for each tree that he plants. If he can plant an average of 18 trees
per hour and he works a 36-hour week, then his average weekly earnings are:
A \$6.66
B \$13.32
C \$239.76
D \$479.52

Tony is a real estate agent. He charges the following commission for selling home units:
3% of the first \$150 000 and 1.5% for the remainder of the selling price. His commission
for selling a home unit for \$220 000 would be:
A \$6600
B \$5550
C \$3300
D \$9900
Casual \$ per hour

8
Waiter

Mon.Fri.

Sat.

Sun.

14.92

18.65

22.38

The table shows the award wages for a waiter employed as a casual. The wages of a casual
waiter who works 10 hours Monday to Friday, 4 hours on Saturday plus 5 hours on Sunday is:
A \$335.70
B \$283.48
C \$317.05
D \$350.62
9

10

Stephen earns \$487 per week. The deductions from his salary each week are tax \$139,
superannuation \$42, and health insurance \$31.80. His net pay for the week is:
A \$699.80
B \$421.80
C \$358.20
D \$274.20
The simple interest on \$3480 at 5.5% p.a. for 4 years is:
A \$7656
B \$191.40
C \$765.60

D \$4245.60

11

Michelle invested \$5000 for 3 years and earned \$825 in interest. The annual rate of interest was:
A 5.5%
B 16.5%
C 33.3%
D 3.33%

12

A camera store offers a discount of 12% for paying cash. The cash price of a camera marked
as \$459 is:
A \$55.08
B \$55.10
C \$403.92
D \$403.90

13

The method of purchasing goods by which a deposit is paid, the balance is paid off over a
short period of time, no interest is charged but the goods cannot be taken until full payment
A time payment
B hire purchase
C deferred payment D lay-by

## Consumer Arithmetic (Chapter 11) Syllabus reference NS5.1.2

14

A refrigerator costing \$1395 can be bought on terms for \$295 deposit and 24 monthly
instalments of \$61. The total cost of buying the refrigerator on terms would be:
A \$2859
B \$1759
C \$1464
D \$2564

15

A television set costing \$1089 can be bought on the following terms: deposit \$289 and the
balance to be repaid over 2 years by equal monthly instalments. Simple interest is charged
at 13% p.a. If the TV is bought on these terms, the monthly repayment would be:
A \$42
B \$57.17
C \$37.67
D \$51.27

16

## A television set is advertised as shown

opposite.
The total amount you would have to pay
for the television under this scheme is:
A \$1598
B \$1853.68
C \$2365.04
D \$2109.36

\$1598

NO DEPOSIT
NO REPAYMENTS
FOR 12 MONTHS
(Conditions apply.)

## Conditions: (i) Pay nothing for 12 months.

(ii) Balance plus interest to be repaid by equal monthly instalments
over the two years following the interest free period. (iii) Simple interest
of 16% p.a. is charged for the 3-year period of the agreement.

17

Using the table on page 344, the monthly repayment on a loan of \$24 000 over 2 1--2- years at
11.5% is, to the nearest cent:
A \$38.51
B \$924.30
C \$696.82
D \$1124.17

18

## Which of the following is the best value?

A 350 mL for \$2.80
B 750 mL for \$5.25

19

C 2 L for \$15.00

D 5 L for \$39

The price of a TV, including GST, is \$583. The amount of GST included is:
A \$58.30
B \$53
C \$524.70

D \$530

If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
Section

13 4, 5
B

353

10, 11 12
I

13 14, 15 16

17

18

19

354

## REVIEW SET 11A

1

David earns \$463.90 per week. How much does he earn per:
a fortnight
b year
c month?

## Convert a salary of \$56 000 p.a. to the equivalent salary per:

a week
b fortnight
c month

Alice works a 35-hour week and is paid \$18.70 per hour. How much does she earn for a week
in which she works an additional 4 hours at time-and-a-half and 3 hours at double time?

Michelle works a 35-hour week and is paid time-and-a-half for any extra hours worked. One
week she worked 4 hours overtime and was paid \$746.32. What is her hourly rate of pay?

Travis earns \$560 per week. He is entitled to 4 weeks annual leave and receives an additional
holiday loading of 17.5%. Calculate his total pay for this holiday period.

Sharon is entitled to 4 weeks annual leave and receives a holiday loading of 17.5%. One year
her total holiday pay was \$2641.40. What is Sharons weekly salary?

Nerida earns \$0.98 for each dress she finishes in a clothing factory. If on average she can
finish 12 dresses per hour and she works 8 hours per day for 4 days, calculate her average
weekly earnings.

Cass sells computers. She is paid a retainer of \$220 per week plus a commission of 2% of
sales. How much does she earn in a week in which her sales are \$12 800?

Jim is paid a retainer plus a commission of 4% of sales. If he receives \$800 for selling
\$13 000 worth of goods, what is the retainer that he is paid?

10

Sam works as a casual in a fruit shop. He gets paid \$11.60 for any hours worked from Monday
to Friday, \$12.90 per hour for Saturdays and \$13.60 for Sundays. Calculate how much he
earns for a week in which he works 6 hours between Monday and Friday, 5 hours on Saturday
and 4 hours on Sunday.

11

Jacks gross weekly income is \$768 per week. The deductions from his salary each week are:
tax \$224, superannuation \$38.40 and health insurance \$33.76. Calculate his net earnings
each week.

12

## Calculate the simple interest on \$3600 if invested at 9% p.a. for:

a 4 years
b 20 months

13

A sports goods store offers a discount of 16% for cash purchases. Find the cash price of a
pair of running shoes marked as \$179.

## Consumer Arithmetic (Chapter 11) Syllabus reference NS5.1.2

14

List two advantages and two disadvantages of using a credit card to purchase goods.

15

Melanie lay-bys a swing set costing \$524 by paying a deposit of \$150. Over the next 3 months
she makes repayments of \$100, \$120 and \$85. How much more does she have to repay in
order to collect the swing set?

16

A car costing \$10 999 can be bought on the following terms: deposit \$3000, the balance to
be repaid over 4 years by 48 equal monthly repayments. Simple interest is charged on the
balance at 12% p.a. Calculate:
a the balance owing
b the interest charged on the balance owing
c the monthly repayment

17

Use the table on page 344 to calculate the monthly repayments on a loan of \$7800 for
3 1--2- years at 12.5% p.a.

18

Terry borrowed \$20000 at 11.5% p.a. His monthly repayments were \$770.25. Over what
period of time did he borrow the money? (Use the table on page 344.)

19

## Which is the better buy: 3 kg of tomatoes for \$8.97 or 5 kg for \$14.80?

20

Calculate the GST included in the price of a bottle of wine costing \$18, price including GST.

355

356

## REVIEW SET 11B

1

Dan earns \$368.54 per week. How much does he earn per:
a fortnight
b year
c month?

## Convert a salary of \$45 600 p.a. to the equivalent salary per:

a week
b fortnight
c month

Olivia works a 36-hour week and is paid \$21.36 per hour. How much does she earn for a week
in which she works an additional 6 hours at time-and-a-half and 2 hours at double time?

Stephanie is paid \$21.30 per hour for working a 35-hour week and time-and-a-half for any
extra hours worked. One week she was paid \$873.30. How much overtime did she do?

Terry earns \$680 per week. He is entitled to 4 weeks annual leave and receives an additional
holiday loading of 17.5%. Calculate his total pay for this holiday period.

Nick is entitled to 4 weeks annual leave and receives a holiday loading of 17.5%. One year

Joanne sews buttons on shirts in a clothing factory. She is paid \$0.38 per shirt. Calculate her
income for a week in which she completed the following number of shirts: Mon 165, Tues 189,
Wed 212, Thurs 194, Fri 176.

Benita sells printers. She is paid a retainer of \$260 per week plus a commission of 1.5% of
sales. How much does she earn in a week in which her sales are \$22 400?

Sally is paid a retainer of \$220 per week plus a commission of 3% of sales. One week she
earned \$598. What was the value of the goods that she sold?

10

Dennis works as a casual in a coffee shop. He gets paid \$10.90 for any hours worked from
Monday to Friday, \$13.64 per hour for Saturdays and \$14.28 for Sundays. Calculate how
much he earns for a week in which he works 10 hours between Monday and Friday, 4 hours
on Saturday and 6 hours on Sunday.

11

Johns gross weekly income is \$683 per week. The deductions from his salary each week are:
tax \$216, superannuation \$36.78, health insurance \$41.20 and savings \$50. Calculate his
take-home pay each week.

12

a 3 years
b 15 months

## Consumer Arithmetic (Chapter 11) Syllabus reference NS5.1.2

13

An electrical goods store offers a discount of 14% for cash purchases. Find the cash price of
a toaster marked as \$89.

14

## List the advantages and disadvantages of using a lay-by to purchase goods.

15

An outdoor furniture setting costing \$1889 can be bought on terms for \$300 deposit and
24 monthly instalments of \$90.04.
a Calculate the cost of buying the furniture on terms.
b How much interest is paid?

16

A washing machine costing \$1655 can be bought on the following terms: deposit \$200, the
balance to be repaid over 2 years by 24 equal monthly repayments. Simple interest is charged
on the balance at 15% p.a. Calculate:
a the balance owing
b the interest charged on the balance owing
c the monthly repayment.

17

Use the table on page 344 to calculate the monthly repayments on a loan of \$12 000
for 5 years at 10.5% p.a.

18

Sam borrowed \$24000 over 4 years. The monthly repayments were \$614.48. What was the
interest rate charged? (Use the table on page 344.)

19

A-One Car Hire Co. charges \$34 per day with unlimited kilometres to rent a new Corolla.
B-One Car Rentals charges \$26 per day plus 6 cents per kilometre travelled. Which company
is cheaper if you are likely to travel each day:
a 60 km
b 100 km
c 150 km?

20

Calculate the GST included in the price of a pair of shoes costing \$128, price including GST.

357

358

1

a week
b fortnight
c month

## Convert a salary of \$365 per week to the equivalent monthly salary.

Alice works a 38-hour week and is paid \$19.20 per hour. How much does she earn for a week
in which she works an additional 3 hours at time-and-a-half and 1 hour at double time?

Kim works a 35-hour week and is paid time-and-a-half for any extra hours worked. One week
she worked 5 hours overtime and was paid \$1140.70. What is her hourly rate of pay?

Kelly earns \$632 per week. She is entitled to 4 weeks annual leave and receives an additional
holiday loading of 17.5%. Calculate her total pay for this holiday period.

Karen is entitled to 4 weeks annual leave and receives a holiday loading of 17.5%. One year
her total holiday pay was \$5931.40. What is Karens weekly salary?

Peta earns \$538 per week. At the end of the year her employer pays her a bonus of 5% of her
annual salary. Calculate Petas bonus.

Cameron sells real estate. He charges the following commission for selling home units:
3% of the first \$150 00
2% of the next \$50000
1% of the remainder of the selling price.
Calculate how much Cameron would earn for selling a home unit for:
a \$145 000
b \$185 000 c \$220 000

Mick is paid a retainer plus a commission of 7% of sales. If he receives \$992 for selling \$9600
worth of goods, what is the retainer that he is paid?

10

James works as a casual in a bar. He gets paid \$15.20 for any hours worked from Monday to
Friday, \$17.68 per hour for Saturdays and \$19.32 for Sundays. Calculate how much he earns
for a week in which he works 12 hours between Monday and Friday, 6 hours on Saturday and
6 hours on Sunday.

11

Joshs gross weekly income is \$940 per week. The deductions from his salary each week are:
tax \$312, superannuation \$56.30 and health insurance \$41.22. Calculate his net earnings
each week.

12

a 5 years
b 21 months

## Consumer Arithmetic (Chapter 11) Syllabus reference NS5.1.2

13

A sports goods store offers a discount of 18% for cash purchases. Find the cash price of a
tennis racquet marked as \$279.

14

## List the advantages and disadvantages of using cash to purchase goods.

15

Sylvie lay-bys a dress costing \$465 by paying a deposit of 10%. Over the next 4 weeks she
makes repayments totalling \$320. How much more does she have to repay in order to collect
the dress?

16

A car costing \$12 000 can be bought on the following terms: deposit \$2000, the balance to
be repaid over 3 years by 36 equal monthly repayments. Simple interest is charged on the
balance at 8% p.a. Calculate:
a the balance owing
b the interest charged on the balance owing
c the monthly repayment

17

Use the table on page 344 to calculate the monthly repayments on a loan of \$24 000 for
4 years at 13% p.a.

18

Lenny borrowed \$35 000 at 10.5% p.a. His monthly repayments were \$999.41. Over what
period of time did he borrow the money? (Use the table on page 344.)

19

Which is the best value? Chocolate: 55 g block for \$1.10, 250 g block for \$4.88, 375 g block
for \$7.35.

20

Calculate the GST and the price including GST on a pair of boots costing \$498, price
excluding GST.

359

360

1

## Convert a salary of \$56 000 p.a. to the equivalent salary per:

a week
b fortnight
c month

Holly earns \$528 per week. How much is this per month?

Alice works a 35-hour week and is paid \$24.10 per hour. How much does she earn for a week
in which she works an additional 5 hours at time-and-a-half and 4 hours at double time?

Gayatri is paid \$36.90 per hour for working a 35-hour week and time-and-a-half for any extra
hours worked. One week she was paid \$1734.30. How much overtime did she work?

Ken earns \$720 per week. He is entitled to 4 weeks annual leave and receives an additional
holiday loading of 17.5%. Calculate his total pay for this holiday period.

Ray is entitled to 4 weeks annual leave and receives a holiday loading of 17.5%. One year his

Isabella earns \$0.71 for each part she builds in a factory that produces electrical appliances.
If on average she can finish 15 parts per hour and she works 6 hours per day for 5 days,
calculate her average weekly earnings.

Kate sells mobile phone plans. She is paid a retainer of \$180 per week plus a commission of
6% of sales. How much does she earn in a week in which her sales are \$9200?

Olivia is paid a retainer of \$250 per week plus a commission of 6% of sales. One week she
earned \$768.40. What was the value of the goods that she sold?

10

Ann works as a casual in a cafe. She gets paid \$12.34 for any hours worked from Monday to
Friday, \$13.85 per hour for Saturdays and \$15.98 for Sundays. Calculate how much she earns
for a week in which she works 8 hours between Monday and Friday, 6 hours on Saturday and
3 hours on Sunday.

11

Philss gross weekly income is \$895 per week. The deductions from his salary each week are:
tax \$291, superannuation \$42.81 and health insurance \$38.26. He also deposits \$100 a
week into a special savings account and has \$10 per week donated directly to a charity.
Calculate his take-home pay each week.

12

## Calculate the simple interest on \$11 400 if invested at 8% p.a. for:

a 3 years
b 15 months

13

A store offers a discount of 12% for cash purchases. Find the cash price of a pair of sun
glasses marked as \$189.

## Consumer Arithmetic (Chapter 11) Syllabus reference NS5.1.2

14

List the advantages and disadvantages of using a deferred payment option to purchase goods.

15

A car costing \$10 999 can be bought on the following terms: deposit \$3000, the balance to
be repaid over 4 years by 48 equal monthly repayments. Simple interest is charged on the
balance at 12% p.a. Calculate:
a the balance owing
b the interest charged on the balance owing
c the monthly repayment
No Deposit

\$3999

16

## A computer is advertised as shown opposite.

a Calculate the total amount you would have
to pay for the computer under this scheme.
b Calculate the monthly instalments.

No Repayments
for 12 months
(Conditions apply.)

## Conditions: (i) Pay nothing for 12 months.

(ii) Balance plus interest to be repaid by
equal montly instalments over the two
years following the interest free period.
(iii) Simple interest of 15% p.a. is charged
for the 3-year period of the agreement.
(iv) Establishment fee of \$110.

17

Use the table on page 344 to calculate the monthly repayments on a loan of \$15 500 for
4 1--2- years at 14% p.a.

18

Will borrowed \$28000 over 5 years. The monthly repayments were \$651.51. What was the
interest rate charged? (Use the table on page 344.)

19

On savings accounts, Bobs Bank charges a management fee of \$5.50 per month. The first
5 transactions are free and then a fee of 26 cents per transaction is charged. Bills Bank
charges a monthly management fee of \$7.00 plus 9 cents per transaction. Which bank is
cheaper to use if your average number of monthly transactions is:
a 10
b 15
c 20?

20

Calculate the GST in the price of a cooked chicken costing \$9.90, price including GST.

361

## LEY_bk953_12_2ndpp Page 367 Wednesday, January 12, 2005 12:04 PM

Chapter 12
Right-angled Trigonometry
This chapter deals with the solution of right-angled triangles.
After completing this chapter you should be able to:
identify and label sides of a right-angled triangle
define sine, cosine and tangent ratios
use a calculator to find trigonometric ratios and angles
use trigonometry to find unknown sides and angles in right-angled triangles
solve problems involving trigonometry and angles of elevation and depression.

WM: S5.1.1S5.1.5

368

Diagnostic test
1

is:
A
B AR
C DR
R
D
D the hypotenuse

A MT
B MV
C TV
T
D m

9
M

r
A t

b
B --t

t
C r

t
D --b

A -------DR

DR
B -------- A

AR

DR
D -------AR D

11

A 52
23 cm
B 38
C 1

18.2 cm
D 51

12

A 62

B 28
1.9 m
C 33
3.5 m
D 57

13

A 68

B 70
16.2 cm
C 32
43.9 cm
D 22

## The value of cos 53 is closest to:

A 53
B 0.6018
C 0.8192 D 0.9848

## The value of in the expression

tan = 3.466 is closest to:
A 74
B 0.0606
C 19
D 3

## The value of angle A in the expression

11.5
cos A = ----------- is closest to:
25
A 0.9799 B 0.99996
C 62
D 63

A 27.2
14 cm
B 12
C 23.3
59
x cm
D 7.2

A 375
72
B 40
x mm
C 128
122 mm
D 116

x mm

10

is:

A 14.3
32.6 mm
B 74.4
C 29.3
26
D 15.9

369

14

## The diagram shows that the angle of

elevation of the top of a cliff from a boat
1500 m out to sea is 6. The height of the
cliff above the boat is closest to:
A
B
C
D

150 m
14 272 m
160 m
1492 m

15

## The angle of depression from the top of a

cliff 300 m above sea-level to a boat is
76. The distance of the boat from the cliff
is closest to:
A 1203 m
76
B 75 m
300 m
C 73 m
Dm
D 1240 m

hm
6
1500 m

If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
Section

14

57

810

1113

14, 15

Trigonometry is a branch of mathematics that combines arithmetic, algebra and geometry. The word
trigonometry is derived from Greek and means triangle measurement. The study of trigonometry enables
us to compare similar triangles so that lengths that are difficult or impossible to measure directly can
be calculated.
Greek, Persian and Hindu astronomers first developed trigonometry around 200 BC. Hipparchus is credited
with being the originator of the science at that time. Today trigonometry is used by astronomers, architects,
surveyors, engineers and navigators of both planes and ships.

Investigation 1
WM: Reasoning, Applying Strategies, Communicating

Ratios of sides
1

a
b
c
C

C
40

A
C

40

40

370

## Copy and complete this table.

Triangle

AB

BC

AC
-------BC

AC

AC
-------AB

BC
-------AB

a
b
c

Compare your answers in the last three columns. What do you notice?

Draw a triangle ABC with base AB of length 6 cm, angle A of measure 30 and angle B
of measure 90.

Draw a second triangle ABC with AB of length 10 cm and angles A and B as before.

Draw a third triangle ABC with AB of length of your choosing and again angles A and B are
the same as before.

Clearly the triangles are equiangular. Measure the lengths of the unknown sides and complete
a table like the one below.
Triangle

AB

6 cm

10 cm

BC

AC
-------AB

AC

BC
-------AB

c
8

What do you notice about the answers in the last two columns?

G
F
E

40
6 cm

B 4 cm

5 cm

## Copy and complete this table:

Triangle
ABE

AB

EB

AE

EB
-------AB

AB
-------AE

Triangle ACF

AC

FC

AF

FC
------AC

AC
------AF

Triangle

GD

AG

GD

-------AG

What do you notice about the answers in the last two columns?

## A. DEFINING TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS

For convenience, we give special names to the sides of a right-angled triangle. The side opposite the right angle
is known as the hypotenuse. It is the longest side of the right-angled triangle.
In this triangle the hypotenuse is AC.
Theta () and
phi () are
Greek letters
often used for
angles.

hypotenuse

## The side BC is opposite the angle at A (angle ).

The side AB is adjacent or next to the angle at A (angle ).
If we look at the angle at C (angle ), AB is now the opposite
side, and BC is the adjacent side.

371

372

## Right-angled Trigonometry (Chapter 12) Syllabus reference MS5.1.2

Example 1
In this triangle, what is the:
a hypotenuse
b side opposite angle P
c side adjacent to angle P
d side opposite angle R
e side adjacent to angle R?

## a The hypotenuse is PR.

c PQ is the side adjacent to angle P.
e QR is the side adjacent to angle R.

## b QR is the side opposite angle P.

d PQ is the side opposite angle R.

R

## Label the side opposite

T as t, R as r, and S as s.

t
S

Exercise 12A

## In the diagrams below, find:

i the hypotenuse
ii the side opposite the angle marked
iii the side adjacent to the angle marked
a
b
c
A

h
z
x

k
m

## The triangle opposite has hypotenuse of length a units

and other sides of length b and c units. and are
the two acute angles.

Find the:
a side opposite
b side opposite

Example 2
Using the given
triangle, write
expressions to q
complete the
table.

p
r

opposite

opposite
----------------------------hypotenuse

----------------------------hypotenuse

## The hypotenuse is p, the side opposite is q and the side adjacent to is r.

opposite

opposite
----------------------------hypotenuse

q
--r

q
--p

----------------------------hypotenuse
r
--p

## Complete this table for the triangles in question 1.

opposite

opposite
----------------------------hypotenuse

----------------------------hypotenuse

## The ratios from question 3 are given names.

opposite
opposite
The ratio ------------------ is the tangent of the angle and is abbreviated to tan = -----------------.
opposite
opposite
The ratio ------------------------- is the sine of the angle and is abbreviated to sin = ------------------------- .
hypotenuse
hypotenuse
The ratio ------------------------- is the cosine of the angle and is abbreviated to cos = -------------------------.
hypotenuse
hypotenuse
The trigonometric ratios can be remembered using a mnemonic.
SOH
sin

CAH
opp
= -------hyp

cos

TOA
= ------hyp

tan

opp

373

374

## Right-angled Trigonometry (Chapter 12) Syllabus reference MS5.1.2

Example 3
In the triangle ABC, find tan , cos , and sin .
B

tan

opp
BC
= ------AC

opp
= --------hyp
BC
= ------AB

sin

i tan

## In the following diagrams, find:

a

cos

ii sin

= --------hyp
AC
= ------AB

iii cos
c

s
u

Find:

i sin A

ii cos A

iii tan A
T

in these diagrams.
V

## B. TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS AND THE

CALCULATOR
This section uses the calculator to find approximations for trigonometric ratios and angles from decimals.

Example 1
Find, correct to 4 decimal places:
a sin 41
b cos 78
a sin 41
 0.6561

b cos 78
 0.2079

sin 41 =

cos

tan 15

tan 15
 0.2679

78 =

tan

15 =

Exercise 12B
1

## Find, correct to 4 decimal places:

a sin 24
b cos 65
e cos 81
f tan 5
i sin 54
j sin 85

c tan 35
g tan 75
k tan 55

d sin 14
h cos 38
l cos 11

Example 2
Find the value of , correct to the nearest degree if:
a sin = 0.4718
b tan = 3.624

cos = 0.7

a sin = 0.4718
 28.151202
 28
b tan = 3.624
 74.57378579
 75
c cos = 0.7
 45.572996
 46
2

-1

sin

0.4718

Check your
calculator steps.

tan-1 3.624

cos--1 0.7

a sin = 0.2431
b cos = 0.1251
d cos = 0.4
e tan = 0.5
g tan = 0.041
h sin = 0.552
j sin = 0.3004
k tan = 25.3715
m cos = 0.5484
n sin = 0.7474

c
f
i
l
o

tan = 3.2415
sin = 0.7
cos = 0.044
cos = 0.8844
tan = 0.3333

375

376

## Right-angled Trigonometry (Chapter 12) Syllabus reference MS5.1.2

Example 3
Find the value of A correct to the nearest degree
5
a sin A = --7

7.3
b cos A = -------12

25
tan A = -------8.7

5
a sin A = --7
A  45.5846914
 46

sin-1

( 5 7 )

## The fraction button

may be used if both
numerator and
denominator are
whole numbers.

7.3
b cos A = -------12
A  52.53091057
 53

cos-1

( 7.3 12 )

tan-1

( 25 8.7 )

25
c tan A = -------8.7
A  70.8121034
 71

With DAL
calculators enter the
trig ratio first.

## Find angle B to the nearest degree.

17
a tan B = -----5

8
b sin B = -----11

12
c cos B = -----17

8.3
d sin B = -------15

7.1
e cos B = ----------11.2

8.4
f tan B = -------3.9

0.7
g cos B = -------1.2

6.3
h tan B = -------7.1

0.05
i sin B = ----------0.13

## a If cos E = 0.52, find the size of E.

b If sin P = 0.1352, find the size of P.
c If tan R = 5.31, find the size of R.
11.3
d If cos M = ----------- , find the size of M.
15.8

Investigation 2
WM: Reasoning, Communicating

Comparing ratios
1

Use your calculator to complete the table below correct to three decimal places.
the tan column compared with the
sin
-------------- column?
cos
sin
complete -------------- =
cos
c From the table above, between which
values do:
i sin
ii cos
iii tan lie?

0
10
20
30
40
.
.
.
90

sin

cos

tan

sin cos
-------------- -------------cos sin

377

378

## C. USING TRIGONOMETRY TO FIND SIDES

Example 1
Use the sine ratio to find the value of x correct to one decimal place.
a

b
xm

20 cm
x cm
27

68
50 m

b
xm

20 cm
x cm
27

68
50 m

opp
sin = --------hyp

opp
sin = --------hyp

x
sin 27 = -----20

x
sin 68 = -----50

x = 20 sin 27

x = 50 sin 68

x  9.1
20

sin

x  46.4
27 =

50

sin

68 =

Exercise 12C
1

Use the sine ratio to find the value of the unknown correct to one decimal place.
a
b
c
t cm
a cm
68

18 cm
x cm
37

43

3 cm

16.5 cm

48
11.7 cm

x cm

y cm
35

15.2 cm

xm
43
2.5 m

## Right-angled Trigonometry (Chapter 12) Syllabus reference MS5.1.2

x cm

67

zm
73

16.2 cm 53

y mm

11.5 mm

13.1 m

Example 2
Use the sine ratio to find the value of the unknown correct to one decimal place.
a

b
ym

4m

18

6.2 m
xm

65

opp
sin = --------hyp

6.2
sin 18 = -------y

4
sin 65 = --x
x sin 65 = 4

opp
sin = --------hyp

y sin 18 = 6.2

4
x = ------------------sin 65

6.2
y = ------------------sin 18

x  4.4

y  20.1

sin 65 =

6.2

sin 18 =

Use the sine ratio to find the value of the unknown correct to one decimal place.
a

b
ym

27
8 cm

14

x cm

6.2 mm

43

53.2 cm
28
41

z cm

a mm

11.2 m

ym

115 mm

a mm
48

6.2 m

379

380

## Right-angled Trigonometry (Chapter 12) Syllabus reference MS5.1.2

Find the value of x, giving your answer correct to one decimal place.
a
b
c
10 cm

x cm

50

xm

x cm

35

72
50 cm

2m

4.3 m
173 cm

x cm

x cm

xm

43
30

100 cm
60

Example 3
Use the cosine ratio to find the value of x correct to one decimal place.
a
b
23 m
52 cm
32

51

xm

xm

cos 32 = --------hyp

23 m

x
cos 32 = -----23
x = 23 cos 32
 19.5
b

52
cos 51 = -----x
52
x = -------------------cos 51
 82.6

xm

( 23

32
cos

( 52

32 )

52 cm is opposite.

52 cm
51

xm
cos

51 )

## Right-angled Trigonometry (Chapter 12) Syllabus reference MS5.1.2

Use the cosine ratio to find, correct to one decimal, the value of x.
a

x km
66

12 m
x cm

8 cm

200 km

50

33
xm

x cm

6 cm

x cm

48

xm

24

x cm

3m

119 mm

16.8 cm

64

53

x mm
71

xm

25.2 cm

48
16.2 m

Find the length of the hypotenuse using the cosine rule. Give answers correct to one decimal
place.
a

53 cm
71

c
3.8 m

143 mm 39

25

x cm
a mm

ym

21

310 mm
39 cm

3.2 m
43

When finding
the hypotenuse
you will divide
by the angle.

xm

z mm
31

a cm

Use the cosine ratio to find, correct to one decimal place, the value of x.
a
b
c
xm
15

43 cm
40

x cm

15 m
x cm

60
8.64 cm

381

382

## Right-angled Trigonometry (Chapter 12) Syllabus reference MS5.1.2

f
16

x cm

x cm
15 cm

15.8 cm
40
11.7 cm

x cm

41

Example 4
Use the tangent ratio to find the value of x correct to one decimal place.
a

16 cm

b
xm
x cm
31

53

8m

opp

opp

16
tan 53 = -----x

x
tan 31 = --8

16
x = -------------------tan 53

x = 8 tan 31
x = 4.8
8

tan

x = 12.1

31 =

16

tan

53 =

Use the tangent ratio to find the value of x, correct to one decimal place.
a

c
x cm

xm

23

12 cm

34

x km

40

20 km

4m

58
x cm
49
18.7 cm

x mm

91.3 cm

x cm

61
210 mm

## Right-angled Trigonometry (Chapter 12) Syllabus reference MS5.1.2

Use the tangent ratio to find the value of x, correct to one decimal place.
a
b
c
16.5 cm

x mm

18

xm

43
214 mm

x cm
67
4.3 m

f
x cm

24 m

42
x km

16.9 km

40 cm
58

48
xm

Use the tangent ratio to find the value of x, correct to one decimal place.
a

52.9 cm

15.3 cm
28
137 mm

x cm

x cm
41
75
x mm

10

Use one of the sine, cosine or tangent ratios to find the value of the pronumeral, correct to
one decimal place.
a

15 cm

x cm

29.3 cm
41

x m 40
11

14.2 m

xm

18 m

f
17

48.3 mm
x cm

14.3 m
28

16

y mm

i
8.3 cm
50

15

x cm
83 cm

x cm

18.3 m
21
xm

xm

383

384

## D. USING TRIGONOMETRY TO FIND ANGLES

Example 1
Use the sine ratio to find the value
of correct to the nearest degree.

40 cm

28 cm

opp
sin = --------hyp

40 cm

 44.43
 44

sin

( 28 40

28 cm

Exercise 12D
1

Using the sine ratio, find to the nearest degree, the value of .
a

32 cm

8m

5m

8.7 km

3.5 km

50 cm

11 cm

16 cm

15 cm

22.3 cm
33.6 cm

28 cm

423 mm

i
6.25 m

0.81 m

1.2 m

312 mm

4.37 m
R

## RQ is half as long as PR. Using the sine ratio, find

the measure of angle RPQ to the nearest degree.

385

## Right-angled Trigonometry (Chapter 12) Syllabus reference MS5.1.2

Example 2
Use the cosine ratio to find the value
of correct to the nearest degree.

12 m

cos =
12 m

4m

cos = --------hyp

R 4m

4
-----12

cos

( 4 12 )

 70.528
 71

Using the cosine ratio, find to the nearest degree, the measure of the unknown angle.
a
b
c
18 km

10 cm

9m

4 cm

12 m

10 cm

12 km

f
14 cm

21 cm

18 cm

11.3 cm

41.2 cm

671 mm

258 mm

2.4 m

7.62 m

0.92 m

3.47 m

## AC is three times longer than BC. Using the cosine ratio,

find the measure of angle BCA to the nearest degree.

386

## Right-angled Trigonometry (Chapter 12) Syllabus reference MS5.1.2

Example 3
Use the tangent ratio to find the value
of correct to the nearest degree.

R
5 cm

opp

tan =

5 cm
P

7 cm

7 cm

5
--7

tan

( 5 7

 36

Using the tangent ratio, find the measure of the angle marked to the nearest degree.
a
b
c
12 cm

52 cm
26 cm

4.2 m

18.1 cm
8.35 m

e
12 cm

10.8 cm

12.1 cm

18 cm

8 cm

7 cm

h
8.9 cm

7.13 m

235 mm

15.6 cm

118 mm

9.26 m

Use one of the sine, cosine or tangent ratios to find the unknown angle to the nearest degree.
a
b
c
8.2 m
11 m

6.2 cm

6.3 m

18 m

14.9 cm

e
46.9 cm

41 cm

3.1 m

18.3 cm

11.1 cm

13.9 m

4.3 cm

6.2 cm

1.9 cm

11.8 m

16.8 cm
1.9 m

14.2 cm

l
1200 mm

16.1 cm

1.1 m
4300 mm

3.2 m

## E. ANGLES OF ELEVATION AND DEPRESSION

When an object is higher than an observer, the angle of elevation is the angle from the horizontal up to the
object.
object

observer

angle of elevation

horizontal

angle of depression

object

When an object is lower than an observer, the angle of depression is the angle from the horizontal down to the
object.

387

388

## Right-angled Trigonometry (Chapter 12) Syllabus reference MS5.1.2

Example 1
The diagram shows the angle of elevation of the
top of a flagpole, as observed from a point 15 m
from its base, is 63. Find the height of the flagpole.

hm
63
15 m

opp
h
tan 63 = -----15
h = 15 tan 63
h  29.4 m

Exercise 12E
1

## The diagram shows the angle of elevation of the top

of a flagpole, as observed from a point 20 m from its
base, is 48. Find the height of the flagpole.

hm
48
20 m

The top of a tree, when viewed 50 m from its base, has an angle
of elevation of 23. Find the height of the tree.

2
hm
23
50 m

## A person is 250 m from a cliff. The angle of elevation

of the to of the cliff is 61. Find the height of the cliff.
hm
61
250 m

Example 2

The angle of depression from the top of a cliff 180 m above sea level to a boat is
48. How far is the boat from the base of the cliff?
48
180 m

dm

48

Alternate
angles are
equal.

180 m
48
dm

## This means that the angle in the bottom corner

is also 48.
180
Now tan 48 = ---------d
180
d = -----------------tan 48
d = 162 m (to nearest metre)

## The angle of depression from the top of a cliff 200 m

above sea level to a boat is 57. How far is the boat
from the base of the cliff?

57
200 m

dm

33

## When looking down to a person standing in a park 180 m from the

base of a building, the angle of depression is 33. How high is the
h m building?

180 m

Example 3
A ladder leaning against a vertical wall reaches 3.5 m up the wall and makes an
angle of 55 with the ground. Determine the length of the ladder.
3.5
sin 55 = -------x
x sin 55 = 3.5
3.5 m

3.5
x = -----------------sin 55

55

x  4.273
the ladder is 4.273 m long.

( 3.5

sin

55 =

389

390

## Right-angled Trigonometry (Chapter 12) Syllabus reference MS5.1.2

Example 4
Determine the length of the roofing
beam required to support the roof
of pitch 14 as shown in the diagram.

8.2 m
14

x
cos 14 = -------8.2

8.2 m
xm
14

xm

x = 8.2 cos 14
( 8.2
x  7.956

cos 14 =

6

## The diagonal of a rectangle is 12 cm in length and the longer

side is 9 cm. Determine the measure of the angle between the
diagonal and the shorter side. Answer to the nearest degree.

12 cm

9 cm

## A see-saw has length 5.2 m. When one end is resting on the

ground it makes an angle of 23 with the ground. Find the
height of the other end above ground level.

7
23

## The diagonal of a rectangle is 13.5 cm in length and the

angle between the diagonal and the longer side is 23.
Find the length of the rectangle.

9
6.4 m

13.5 cm
23

A 6.4 m long ladder leaning against a wall has its base 3.6 m
from the foot of the wall. Find the angle between the ladder
and the ground.

3.6 m

10

## A rectangle has sides of length 12 cm and 8 cm. Determine

the measure of the angles between the diagonal and each of
the sides, correct to the nearest degree.

12 cm
8 cm

11
1m

72
25 m

## A young boy, with eyes 1 m above ground level, stands 25 m from

the base of a tall building. If he looks up to the top of the building
at an angle of elevation of 72, find the height of the building.

12

## When the sun is at an angle of elevation of 63, a tree

casts a shadow of length 6.2 m. Find the height of
the tree.
63
6.2 m

13

A boat has an anchor rope of length 55 m. Due to the ocean current, the boat drifts so that
the rope makes an angle of 63 with the surface of the water. Find the depth of the water at
the position where the anchor lies on the bottom.

14

## A ski slope falls 115 m over a 415 m run. What is the

angle of depression from the top of the slope?

415 m

15

## Determine the length of roofing beam, l, required to support a

roof of pitch 16 as shown.

6.7 m
16
l

Find half
first.

Language in Mathematics

115 m

## Add vowels to complete these words.

a tr__g__n__m__try
b
d __ngl__ __f d__pr__ss__ __n e
g s__n__
h

__pp__s__t__
c__s__n__
__dj__c__nt

c hyp__t__n__s__
f t__ng__nt

Rearrange these words to form a sentence, the first word has a capital letter.
a measured degrees are Angles in
b tangent all cosine ratios and Sine are
c of the depression down Look for angle
d opposite hypotenuse The angle right is the
e side Cosine the the divided adjacent hypotenuse by is

391

392

## Use every third letter to reveal a sentence about trigonometry.

AATERHFGEHHONBRVFIAWGEEISSNDROTYFHJTOPHMAEASWWEO
RERFRDYGCUJOSESFGINJNOIEPOIOISASFXCRFGOR EMWQTZCHV
GENHWKOOLIRJYDHTSDECAQOSWMDEPRFLTHEUJMIKEOPNNGTR
DOGAFJKSWEIGYNTHEDESTYOASTXDHFVABNTMKTLOHIUEUICYU
OYTSRTITENEREWQOSDFFTAASNDEARGNHJGKILOLEEFEDFQEFU
SDACFLVGSBHTDWHASEDGSJNITVNUREBHOPQFJLNOOICVNIGEH
JTKLYOMUYITRNEWUQASZSTERHFVEBGAYHNJUGIKLGFE
4

Investigate the origin of the terms sine, cosine, tangent and trigonometry. Write a report.

(19031987)

## Andrey Nikolayevich Kolmogorov was born in 1903 in

Tambov, Russia. At the age of 17 he enrolled in Moscow
State University where his initial interest was in ancient
Russian arts; an interest he maintained throughout
his life.
He began his first productive mathematical research
in 1921 with research on trigonometrical series and
operations on sets. In the following years he made
considerable contributions to the areas of differentiation,
integration and measurable sets. He continued to expand
his fields of interest to include mathematical logic. In 1925
he graduated, was appointed a research associate and
began to work in the field of probability theory.
He later used this work to study the motion of the planets and the turbulent flow of air from
a jet engine.
After being appointed a professor of the university in 1931 and subsequently a director of the
Institute of Mathematics, he continued to work in the field of stochastic processes and probability
theory. He extended this theory to incorporate what are now known as Markov processes, related
the theory to physics and the areas of Brownian motion and diffusion.
He also developed two systems of equations (that now have his name), which describe Markov
processes. Throughout his research, Kolmogorov was surrounded by young mathematicians
who wished to learn. In his later years he became interested in the mathematical education of
school-children and was appointed chairman of the Commission for Mathematical Education in
the USSR. He was recognised as the 20th centurys most influential Soviet Mathematician, both
in his own country and abroad. He received a number of prizes and was elected a member of
numerous scientific academies as well as holding honorary doctorates from Paris, Stockholm
and Warsaw universities.
5

a
b
c
d

## How old was Kolmogorov when he died?

What did he research after graduating?
What are the Markov processes?
What interested Kolmogorov in his later years?

## Right-angled Trigonometry (Chapter 12) Syllabus reference MS5.1.2

393

Glossary
approximation
opposite
ratio
theta

alternate angles
cosine
parallel
right angled
triangle

angle of depression
degree
phi
sine
trigonometry

A MB
C TB

A LM
C MN

A -------AR
AR

DR
DR
D -------AR

B 0.8829

C 0.1392

D 0.1736

A 77

A 28
6

g
B --a
g
D --x

B LN
D m

## The expression for sin in this triangle is:

B BT
D the hypotenuse

a
A --g
a
C --x

angle of elevation
hypotenuse
pitch
tangent

B 0.075

C 13

0.56
The value of angle A in the expression sin A = ----------- is closest to:
1.8
A 53
B 0.0098
C 34

D 4

D 18

394

A 82
C 47

67 mm

B 55
D 96

35
x mm

A 151
B 160
C 49
D 55

9
x cm

52 cm
71

10

x mm 44

A 82
C 41

B 57
D 85

A 36
B 54
C 47
D 43

11
15 cm

20.6 cm

12

59 mm

A 23
B 67
C 26
D 64

12 m

5.2 m

13
61 cm

14

15

38 cm

A 38
B 51
C 32
D 58

## The diagram shows that the angle of elevation

of the top of a cliff from a boat 1000 m out to
sea is 4. The height of the cliff above the boat
is closest to:
A 23 m
B 1000 m
C 14 300 m
D 70 m

hm

4
1000 m

## The angle of depression from the top of a cliff

200 m above sea level to a boat is 67. The
distance of the boat from the cliff is closest to:
A 85 m
B 471 m
C 78 m
D 184 m

67

200 m

Dm

If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question

14

57

810

1113

14, 15

Section

## REVIEW SET 12A

1

Write down expressions for sin , cos , tan , sin , cos and tan in each of the following.
a
b
c
d

Find the length of the side marked x correct to one decimal place.
a

c
11.2 cm

x cm

xm

18 cm
63

38

21 m

14

x cm

a

8.7 cm

c
15 cm

12.8 cm
65 m

108 m

28 cm

## Solve the following problems involving trigonometry.

a The shadow of a tree is 40 m in length and the angle of
elevation from the end of the shadow to the tree top is 33.
1
- of a metre.
Find the height of the tree to the nearest ----10
33
40 m

b
80 m

## A kite string is pinned to the ground. The string makes an

angle of 55 to the ground and is 80 m long. How high is
the kite above ground level?

55

c Find the measure of all angles of a triangle that has sides 3 cm, 4 cm and 5 cm.

395

396

## REVIEW SET 12B

1

Write down expressions for sin , cos and tan in each of the following.
a
b
c
d
y

p
x

a
b
c
33.1 cm
x cm

75

18.3 cm
73

58
16 cm

a

11.5 cm

c
11.9 cm

17.6 m
18.3 cm

x cm

x cm

15.3 m

## Solve these problems using trigonometry.

a The angle of elevation of the top of a tree from a
point 15 m from the base of a tree is 38.
Find the height of the tree.

28.3 cm

Hm
38
15 m

b An aeroplane takes off at a constant angle of 20. When it has flown 1000 m, what is its
altitude to the nearest metre?
c A ladder is 5 m long and makes an angle of 75 with the ground. How far up the wall does
it reach (to the nearest 10 cm)?

## REVIEW SET 12C

1

Write down expressions for sin , cos , tan , sin , cos and tan in each of the following.
a
b
c
d
p

a
b
c

8m

x cm

48
10 cm

xm
54

20 cm

x cm

x km

57

48

a
b

9 km

12 m
3 cm

9m

9 km

5 km

7 cm

a

57

36 m

## b The diagram shows that the angle of elevation

of the top of a cliff from a boat 100 m out
to sea is 8. Calculate the height of the cliff
above the boat.
50

c
150 m

Dm

Hm
8
100 m

## The angle of depression from the top of a

cliff 150 m above sea level to a boat is 50.
Calculate the distance of the boat from the cliff.

397

398

## REVIEW SET 12D

1

Write expressions for sin , cos and tan in the following diagrams.
a
b
c
d
P

T L

a
b
c

d
x cm

3.2 m

xm

x cm

68

5.1 cm

28

6.2 cm 34

4.1 cm
53

x cm

a

40 km

20 m

25 cm

23 km

48 m

7 cm

## Solve the following problems using trigonometry.

a To measure the width of a river a surveyor finds
a point B directly opposite a landmark T, such
as a tree, on the bank on the other side of the
river. He then moves 20 m along the bank at
right angles to BT to a point A. With a theodolite
he measures angle BAT as 66. Calculate the
width of the river to the nearest metre.

T
xm
66
A

20 m

b An isosceles triangle has sides 7 cm, 7 cm and 8 cm long. Find the measure of the base
angles of the triangle to the nearest minute.
c From the top of a vertical
cliff 50 m high, the angle of
depression of a boat straight
out to sea is 15. How far
is the boat from the foot of
the cliff, to the nearest metre?

15
50 m

## LEY_bk953_13_2ndpp Page 399 Wednesday, January 12, 2005 12:05 PM

Chapter 13
Equations and Inequalities
This chapter deals with the solution of linear equations and
inequalities, and the solution of simple quadratic equations.
After completing this chapter you should be able to:
solve linear equations
solve word problems using linear equations
substitute into formulas and solve
explain why a particular value could be a solution to an equation
solve linear inequalities.

WM: S5.2.2S5.2.4

400

Diagnostic Test
1

A x = 2
C x=

B x=5

----- 16
5

10

D x = 1

-----B 14
5

17
-----2

D 6

## A man is currently three times as old as

his son. In 12 years from now he will be
twice as old as his son will be then.
An equation to find the sons age now is:
B 2(x + 12) = 3x + 12
C x + 12 = 3x

A x = 1

B x = 5

D 3(x + 12) = 2x + 12

C x=5

D x=1

11

A solution to x2 = 16 is:

## x = 3 is not a solution of:

A x=8

B x = 32

A 5x + 2 = 26 3x

C x = 4

D x = 256

D 5x 3 = 4x

12

13

C 3x = 2
2
--3

5x + 2
The solution to ---------------- = 4 is:
3
-----A x = 6--5B x = 10
3
-----C x = 14
5

B 8x = 15
C x=
D x=

15
-----8
1 7--8-

14

D x=2

## The line without an error in the solution

4x x
1
of ------ --- = --- is:
5 3
2
A 12x 5x = 15

5
--2

C x = 2.4

B 3x + 1 = 3
D x=

A x=

## The first line with an error in solving

5(x + 1) 2(x 2) = 3 is:
A 5x + 5 2x 4 = 3

C 5

## The solution to 15 3x = 5 + x is:

C 2x 1 = 7

B 4

A x + 12 = 2(3x + 12)

D 4

B 4 3x = 2x 11

## When half a number is added to one-third

of a number, the answer is 5. The number
is:
A 3

## If y = 3 5x and y = 17 then x is:

A 88

D x=2

x
The solution to --- 2 = 1 is:
3
A x=3
B x=9
C x=1

15

-----B x = 25
4

D x=

5
--4

## The area A of a circle is given by A = r 2.

The value of r when A = 100 is closest to:
A 17.7

B 31.8

C 10

D 5.6

## In symbols four times a number plus

eight is always less than 90 is:
A 4 8 < 90

B 4n + 8 90

C 4n + 8 > 90

D 4n + 8 < 90

A x = 4

B x = 3

C x = 2

D x = 1

16

## The number that is not a solution of

2x + 1
---------------- 5 is:
2
A 5
B 4
C 3
D 2

## A solution to 5 2x > 11 + 3x is:

17

A x = 16

-----B x = 16
5

C x = 6--5-

D x = 4--5-

If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
Section

13

46

7, 8

9, 10

11, 12

13

14, 15

16, 17

A. LINEAR EQUATIONS
Linear equations are equations of the form (or can be simplified to the form) ax + b = 0,
where a and b are constants and x is the unknown (or variable).

Example 1
Solve:
a 7x 9 = 5
a

b 17 = 8 4x

7x 9 = 5
7x 9 + 9 = 5 + 9
7x = 4
7x
4
------ = --7
7
x =

b
(+9)
(7)

17 = 8 4x
17 8 = 8 8 4x
9 = 4x
9
4x
------ = --------4
4

(8)
( 4)

9--4- = x

4
--7

x = 9--4 x = 2 1--4-

Exercise 13A
1

Solve for x :
a x + 3 = 10
e 5x + 8 = 2
i 6 + 7x = 2
m 6 x = 5
q 3 7x = 2
u 8 = 3 2x

b
f
j
n
r
v

3x = 9
4x 9 = 1
5 = 3x + 7
4x = 15
17 2x = 1
6 = 1 7x

c
g
k
o
s
w

3x + 6 = 0
8x 6 = 10
6x 7 = 1
3 2x = 7
11 = 3 2x
15 = 3 6x

d
h
l
p
t
x

3x 4 = 6
3x + 6 = 7
1 = 2x + 6
5 4x = 7
15 2x = 1
11 = 4 3x

401

402

## Equations and Inequalities (Chapter 13) Syllabus reference PAS5.2.2

Example 2
Solve:
m
---- 5 = 2
3
m
---- 5 = 2
3
m
---- 5 + 5 = 2 + 5
3

m
---- = 3
3
m
---- 3 = 3 3
3

## (multiplying both sides by 3)

m=9

Solve for x:
x
a --- + 3 = 8
2
x
d --- + 3 = 4
6

x
b --- 1 = 4
3
x
e --- 2 = 4
7

c
f

x
--- + 2 = 3
5
x
------ 6 = 1
10

Check the given solution by substitution and say whether or not it is correct.
a 2x + 8 = 15
(x = 7)
b 7 + 5x = 9
(x = 2)
x
c 15 = 6 7x
(x = 3)
d --- 3 = 6
(x = 9--5- )
5

Example 3
If y = 5x 3 find x when y = 18.
y = 5x 3

18 = 5x 3

15 = 5x

## (add 3 to both sides)

3 = x
x = 3

(divide by 5)

a If y = 3x 5, find x when y = 5

b If y = 4x + 2, find x when y = 11

## e If y = 5 7x, find x when y = 5

If y = 3x 5, find x when y = 8

## B. PRONUMERALS ON BOTH SIDES OF AN

EQUATION
When you are solving equations with pronumerals on both sides, as well as adding and subtracting numbers
from both sides, you may have to add and subtract pronumerals from both sides.
The first step to adding or subtracting pronumerals is to move them to one side. It does not matter which side.
Next add or subtract to move the numbers to the other side of the equation.

Example 1
Solve:
a 5x + 2 = 3x 5
a

b 15 2x = 11 + x

5x + 2 = 3x 5
5x + 2 3x = 3x 3x 5 ( 3x)
2x + 2 = 5
2x = 7
( 2)
x = 7--2( 2)
x = 3 1--2-

15 2x = 11 + x
15 2x + 2x = 11 + x + 2x
15 = 11 + 3x
15 11 = 11 11 + 3x
4 = 3x

Always do the
same thing to
both sides.

4--3- = x
x = 1 1--3-

Exercise 13B
1

## Solve the following equations with integer solutions.

a 5x + 2 = 2x + 14
b 3x + 7 = 11 x
d 3x 4 = 5x 2
e 3x=x+7
g 2x 3 = x + 6
h 5x 9 = 1 + 6x

c 5 + x = 8 2x
f 4 2x = 3 x
i 3x 5 = 7 x

Solve:
a 8x + 7 = 4x 2
d x 3 = 5x + 7
g 2x + 5 = 9 2x
j 5a + 3 = a 1
m 11a 7 = 5a + 12

c
f
i
l
o

b
e
h
k
n

7x + 3 = 2x + 7
3 + x = 17 + 4x
3x 5 = 5x + 9
4 3s = 2s + 17
3y 5 = 14 2y

5 + 2x = 11 x
15 3x = 2 x
5 7x = 3x + 2
9x 4 = 3 + 4x
7p = 15 3p

(+ 2x)
( 11)
( 3)

403

404

## Equations and Inequalities (Chapter 13) Syllabus reference PAS5.2.2

Example 2
By substituting, check the solutions to the following equations.
a 2x 5 = 10 3x
a

(x = 3)

Is 2x 5 = 10 3x ?
Is 2(3) 5 = 10 3(3)
1=1
x = 3 is the solution

b 5x + 2 = 2x 7
b

(x = 2)

Is 5x + 2 = 2x 7 ?
Is 5(2) + 2 = 2(2) 7
12 3
x = 2 is not the solution

## By substituting, check the solutions of the following equations.

a 3x + 9 = 4 + 2x
(x = 1)
b 9a + 2 = 7a 4
c 7a 5 = 3 a
(a = 2)
d 15 2x = 6 + x
5
e 2x 3 = 7 4x
(x = --3- )
f 5x 7 = 3 + x

Example 3
Solve:
a 5(x + 1) 2(x 2) = 7
a 5(x + 1) 2(x 2) = 7
5x + 5 2x + 4 = 7
3x + 9 = 7
3x + 9 9 = 7 9
3x = 2
x = 2--3b

3(x + 1) = 5x + 3(2x 1)
3x + 3 = 5x + 6x 3
3x + 3 = 11x 3
3x 3x + 3 = 11x 3x 3
3 = 8x 3
6 = 8x
6 8x
--- = -----8
8
3
--4

=x

x=

3
--4

b 3(x + 1) = 5x + 3(2x 1)
(expanding the brackets)
(collecting like terms)
(subtracting 9 from both sides)

## (expanding the brackets)

(collecting like terms)
(subtracting 3x from both sides)
The number and its
brackets are multiplied
by each term within the
brackets.

(a = 3)
(x = 3)
(x = 3 1--2- )

## Solve for x given that all answers are integers.

a 3(x + 1) 2(x 4) = 13
c 4(x 5) + 5(x + 1) = 12
e 4(x 2) = 3x + 4(x 2)
g 4 x = 2 3(x + 2)

b
d
f
h

2(x 5) + 3(x + 2) = 9
2(x 1) = 3(x + 5) 22
2(x 1) = 4(2x + 1) 9x
6 2(x + 5) = 2(2x 1) 5x

Solve for x :
a 2(x + 1) 1 = 8
c 3(x + 2) 7 = 11
e 4(2x 1) + 7 = 0
g 3 2(x + 1) = 4
i 5x 4(4 x) = x + 1
k 2(x 1) = 1 (3 x)

b
d
f
h
j
l

5(1 3x) = 4
2(x + 1) + 3(x 1) = 6
11 2(x 1) = 7
7 (2 x) = 2x
3 x = 5 2(x + 1)
x + 7(4 x) = 2x + 3(x 1)

Example 4
If y = 3 5(x + 4), find x when y = 32.
y = 3 5(x + 4)
32 = 3 5(x + 4)
32 = 3 5x 20
32 = 17 5x
32 + 17 = 17 + 17 5x
15 = 5x
3=x
x=3

a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h

(substituting y = 32)
(collecting like terms)
(dividing by 5)

## If y = 7 3(x + 2), find x when y = 5.

If y = 5 4(x 3), find x when y = 37.
If y = 4 5(2x 5), find x when y = 12.
If y = 14 3(2x 8), find x when y = 0.
If y = 3x 2(5x + 1), find x when y = 16.
If y = 4x 3(5 2x), find x when y = 8.
If y = 3(2x 1) 4(x + 2), find x when y = 3.
If y = 4(1 3x) 2(1 x), find x when y = 2.

405

406

## Equations and Inequalities (Chapter 13) Syllabus reference PAS5.2.2

Example 5
The equation 3(x 4) = 5 (2x + 3) has solution x =

14
-----5

## Change one term or sign to make the solution x = 3.

3(x 4) = 5 (2x + 3)
For x = 3 to be a solution, both sides of the equation must be equal.
LHS = 3(x 4)
RHS = 5 (2x + 3)
= 3(3 4)
= 5 (2(3) + 3)
= 3(1)
= 5 (9)
= 3
=4
To make LHS = RHS, we add 1 to the RHS.
the equation becomes 3(x 4) = 6 (2x + 3) where the 5 becomes a 6.

Change one term or sign so that each of the following equations has solution x = 2.
a 2(x 3) = 1 (2x 5)
b 3(x 1) = 4 (3x 2)
c 5(2x + 3) = 2 (5x + 1)
d 6x 5 = 5(3x 1)

Write three equations of your own (with at least four terms) that have solution x = 3.

Investigation 1
WM: Reasoning, Applying Strategies

Use a spreadsheet program to solve the equation 3x 7 = 9 x given that the solution is an integer.
The spreadsheet needs to have three columns labelled x, 3x 7, and 9 x.
In cell A1 enter x, in cell B1 enter 3x 7,
in cell C1 enter 9 x, in cell A2 enter 0,
in cell B2 enter = A2 * 3 7, in cell C2
enter = 9 A2.

3x 7

9x

expressions.

11

## Use the fill down command to find the

values for each side of the equation.
The answer is the value of x that
gives the same value in each column.

## Equations and Inequalties (Chapter 13) Syllabus reference PAS5.2.2

Change the spreadsheet to solve the following equations with integer solutions.
a 5x 3 = 53 2x
b 3x + 5 = 35 2x
c 19 2x = 7x 44
d 6x + 11 = 41 4x
e 3x 17 = 33 7x
f 9x + 15 = 79 7x

Change the spreadsheet to solve the following equations with negative integer solutions.
a 4x 3 = 13 + 6x
b 7x 3 = 25 + 5x
c 8 7x = 2 8x
d 3 5x = 39 3x

## Explain how to modify the spreadsheet to solve equations that do not

have integer solutions.

Solve:
a 3x 7 = 6 9x

b 5x + 23 = 2x 8

c 8 7x = 4x + 59

## C. EQUATIONS WITH FRACTIONS

To solve equations involving algebraic fractions, multiply both sides by the lowest common denominator.

Example 1
Solve for x:
x
2
a --- = --3
5
a

x
2
--- = --3
5
x
2
15 --- = --- 15
3
5
5x = 6
6
x = --5

4
x
b --- = --7
3
b

4
x
--- = --7
3
4
x
21 --- = --- 21
7
3
12 = 7x
12
x = -----7

## Our first step is to

eliminate the fraction
by multiplying both
sides by the LCD.

c
c

x
--- = 4
2
x
--- = 4
2
x
2 --- = 4 2
2
x=8

407

408

## Equations and Inequalities (Chapter 13) Syllabus reference PAS5.2.2

Example 2
Solve for x:
4x + 3
a ---------------- = 2
5
a

4x + 3
2
---------------- = -----5
1
4x + 3
2
5 ---------------- = ------ 5
5
1
4x + 3 = 2 5
4x + 3 = 10
4x + 3 3 = 10 3
4x = 13
----- x = 13
4

1
--3

(2x 1) = 4
1
--3

(2x 1) = 4

Do the same
to both sides.

3 1--3- (2x 1) = 4 3
2x 1 = 12
2x 1 + 1 = 12 + 1
2x = 11

(subtracting 3
from both sides)

----- x = 11
2

## (dividing both sides by 4)

Exercise 13C
1

Solve for x:
x
a --- = 5
3
x
d --- 2 = 1
4
2x + 7
g ---------------- = 0
3
1 2x
j --------------- = 3
2

2x
b ------ = 4
5
x1
e ------------ = 6
2

c
f

1
--2

(3x + 1) = 1

1
--5

(4 3x) = 1

x
--- + 1 = 5
2
x+5
------------ = 1
3
1 + 2x
---------------- = 6
7
1
--4

(5 2x) = 2

Example 3
Solve for x:
3x + 1
a ---------------- = 2
3
a

3x + 1
---------------- = 2
3
3x + 1
3 ---------------- = 2 3
3
3x + 1 = 6
3x = 5
x = 5--3-

3x 1
2x
b --------------- = -----5
7
b

3x 1
2x
--------------- = -----5
7
3x 1
2x
35 --------------- = ------ 35
5
7
7(3x 1) = 5(2x)
21x 7 = 10x
21x 10x 7 = 10x 10x
11x 7 = 0
11x = 7
7
x = ----11

## Equations and Inequalties (Chapter 13) Syllabus reference PAS5.2.2

Solve for x :
2x + 1 1
a ---------------- = --3
2
c

4x + 1
b ---------------- = 2
5

3x 2
--------------- = 2
4

## When multiplying both

sides of an equation by
the same number we
sometimes need to
use brackets.

2x + 1
d ---------------- = 3
4

3x + 1
e ---------------- = 3
2

3x + 2 x 1
---------------- = -----------5
4

1x x+2
g ------------ = -----------2
3

x+1 x
h ------------ = --2
3

2x 1 3x
--------------- = -----7
5

x + 1 2x 3
------------ = --------------2
3

2x + 5
---------------- = x + 4
3

2x + 7
---------------- = x 5
3

When either the LHS or RHS of a fractional equation has more than one term, we solve it
by multiplying both sides of the equation by the lowest common denominator (LCD).

Example 4
Solve for x:
2x x
a ------ --- = 5
3 2

2x x
a ------ --- = 5 has LCD of 6
3 2
2x
x
6 ------ 6 --- = 6 5
3
2
2(2x) 3(x) = 30
4x 3x = 30
x = 30

Solve for x :
x
x
a --- + --- = 2
2 5
x 5x
e --- + ------ = 14
3
6

x 2x 5
b --- ------ = --2
3
6
x 3x
f --- + ------ = 6 1--23
4

x
3x
--- 3 = -----5
8

x
3x
b --- 3 = -----has LCD of 40
5
8
x
3x
40 --- 40 3 = 40 ------
5
8

by the LCD.

## 8(x) 120 = 5(3x)

8x 120 = 15x
120 = 15x 8x
120 = 7x
--------- x = 120
7

3x x
------ --- = 11
2
8
2x x
g ------ --- = 2
5
2
c

x
x
d --- + --- = 5
2 4
x
7x
h --- 2 = -----3
12

409

410

## Equations and Inequalities (Chapter 13) Syllabus reference PAS5.2.2

Investigation 2
WM: Applying Strategies

Equation solver
1

## Use a graphics calculator to solve the equation 3x + 8 = 6 2x.

Instructions for a Casio CFX9850 GB Plus follow.
1 Select EQUA from MAIN MENU.
Use brackets to
2 Select type solver by pressing F3.
enter fraction
3 Enter equation
parts.
3 x,,T

= . 6

x,,T

## 4 Press EXE to store.

5 Press F6 to solve.
6 Use F2 to delete the equation.
2

Solve:
a 4x 5 = 7 3x
c 6 5x = 3 + 2x
4 5x
e --------------- = 8
3

b 6 2x = 5x + 3
d 4(x + 3) = 7(4 3x)
6 2x 4x + 1
f --------------- + ---------------- = 3
5
2

## Solve other equations.

D. PRACTICAL EQUATIONS
Example 1
If twice a certain number is subtracted from 11, the result is 4 more than the
number. Find the number.
Let x be the number,
2x is twice the number and 11 2x is twice the number subtracted from 11.
Also x + 4 is 4 more than the number.
Thus 11 2x = x + 4
11 = 3x + 4
7 = 3x
--73- = x
the number is 7--3- (or 2 1--3- )

Exercise 13D
1

## Solve the following problems.

a When a number is trebled and then increased by 7,
the answer is 19. Find the number.
b When a number is subtracted from 11, the result is
5 more than the number. Find the number.
c When a number is decreased by 3 and the result
is doubled, the answer is equal to the original
number. Find the number.
d When half a number is added to one-third of a
number, the answer is 30. Find the number.

## Write the statement as

an equation and then
solve the equation.

Example 2
The sum of three consecutive even numbers is 132. Find the smallest one.
Let x be the smallest even number.
(x + 2) and (x + 4) are the other two even numbers.
Now x + (x + 2) + (x + 4) = 132
3x + 6 = 132
3x = 126
x = 42
Thus 42 is the smallest even number.

Consecutive integers
are whole numbers
another.

## a If two consecutive integers have a sum of 127, find the numbers.

b If three consecutive integers add to 27, find the smallest of them.
c Four consecutive integers have a sum of 6. Find the largest of them.

Example 3
If five more than a number is one more than twice the number, find the number.
Let n be the number, then 5 + n = 2n + 1
4 + n = 2n
4=n
the number is 4.
3

(subtracting 1)
(subtracting n)

## Solve the following problems.

a If seven more than a number is three more than twice the number, find the number.
b If four more than a number is eight more than three times the number, find the number.
c If six more than twice a number is four more than four times the number, find the number.
d If nine less than five times a number is three less than twice the number, find the number.

411

412

## Equations and Inequalities (Chapter 13) Syllabus reference PAS5.2.2

Example 4
The sum of two numbers is 14. When one number is added to twice the other
the result is 25. Find the numbers.
Let n be one number.
Since the numbers add up to 14, the other number is (14 n), and
n + 2(14 n) = 25
n + 28 2n = 25
n + 28 = 25
n = 3 (subtracting 28 from both sides)
n=3
and since 14 n = 14 3 = 11, the numbers are 3 and 11.
4

## Solve the following problems.

a The sum of two numbers is 10. When one number is added to twice the other, the result
is 16. Find the numbers.
b The sum of two numbers is 12. When one number is subtracted from three times the
other, the result is 4. Find the numbers.
c Two numbers differ by 2. Twice the smaller number is added to the larger number and the
result is 14. Find the numbers.
d Three consecutive even integers are such that the sum of the smaller two is equal to six
more than the largest one. Find the integers.
e Three consecutive integers are such that three times the sum of the larger pair is equal to
five times the sum of the smaller pair. Find the numbers.

Example 5
Apples cost 13 cents each and oranges cost 11 cents each. If I buy 5 more
apples than oranges, and the total cost of the apples and the oranges is
\$2.33, how many oranges and apples did I buy?
Let x be the number of oranges bought.
Type
Number
apples
x+5
oranges
x

Cost/unit
13 cents
11 cents
Total

## Thus 13(x + 5) + 11x = 233

Setting up a table
13x + 65 + 11x = 233
may help in solving
money problems.
24x + 65 = 233
24x = 168
x=7
7 oranges and 12 apples were bought.

Total value
13(x + 5) cents
11x cents
233 cents

10 5

## Solve these problems using a table to assist you.

a I have 30 coins in my pocket. The coins are either 5-cent or
10-cent pieces and their total
value is \$2.10. How many 5-cent coins do I have?
b Bananas cost 12 cents each and grapefruit cost 23 cents each.
If I buy 3 more bananas than grapefruit, the total cost will be \$2.81.
How many bananas do I buy?
c If I have 10-cent and 20-cent coins only with a total
value of \$6.90 and I have 36 coins altogether,
how many 10-cent coins do I have?
d Joe has a collection of 5-cent and 20-cent pieces that
have a total value of \$3.85. He has
two less 20-cent coins than 5-cent coins. How many
5-cent coins has he?
e I wish to blend brand A coffee at \$7 a kilogram with
brand B coffee at \$11 a kilogram.
If the total weight of the mixture is 10 kg and
the total cost of blended mixture is \$86, how
many kilograms of A are mixed with B?

Example 6
At the moment Jack is 5 years older than Mim. In 7 years Mims age will be threequarters of Jacks age. How old are they at present?

Age now

Age in 7 years

Mim

x yr

(x + 7) yr

Jack

(x + 5) yr

(x + 12) yr

## Thus x + 7 = 3--4- (x + 12)

4(x + 7) = 3(x + 12)
(multiplying both sides by 4)
4x + 28 = 3x + 36
x + 28 = 36
(subtract 3x from both sides)
x=8
Mim is 8 years old and Jack is (x + 5) = 13 years old.
6

## Solve the following problems.

a A man is currently 3 times as old as his son. In 11 years from now he will be twice as old
as his son will be then. How old is his son now?
b At present Guido is 8 years older than Bob. If Guido was one year younger his age would
be double Bobs age. How old is Bob?
c In 5 years time Pam will be twice as old as Sam was two years ago. Pam is 8 years older
than Sam. How old is Sam?
d The sum of Peters and Susans ages is 20 years. If Peters age is doubled, it will be five
more years than Susans age trebled. How old is Susan?

413

414

## Equations and Inequalities (Chapter 13) Syllabus reference PAS5.2.2

Investigation 3
WM: Reasoning, Applying Strategies, Communicating

Square numbers
1

## Find 3 3 and 3 3. Compare the answers.

Find:
a 4 4 and 4 4
c 6 6 and 6 6

b 5 5 and 5 5
d 10 10 and 10 10

## What do you notice about the answers to each part in question 2?

The solution to the equation x2 = 49 is found by finding a number that when multiplied by
itself gives 49. What are the two answers?

## Are there always two answers to x2 = c where c is a number? Explain.

From investigation 3 there are two solutions to the equation
x2 = c
This equation is called a quadratic equation because the variable x has a power of 2.

Example 1
Solve:
a x2 = 25

b x2 = 169

a x2 = 25
x = 25 (square root both sides)
x = 5

b x2 = 169
x = 169
x = 13

is the symbol
for plus or minus.

## Equations and Inequalties (Chapter 13) Syllabus reference PAS5.2.2

Exercise 13E
1

Solve:
a x2 = 9
f x 2 = 121

b x 2 = 16
g x 2 = 36

c x 2 = 64
h x 2 = 81

d x 2 = 144
i x 2 = 100

e x 2 = 49
j x2 = 4

Example 2
Solve:

a x 2 = 10

b x 2 = 43

a x 2 = 10
x = 10
x = 3.16 (2 d.p.)

b x 2 = 43
x = 43
x = 6.56 (2 d.p.)

## Solve, giving answers to 2 decimal places.

a x 2 = 12
b x 2 = 51
c x 2 = 19
f x 2 = 28
g x 2 = 68
h x 2 = 91

d x 2 = 47
i x 2 = 193

e x 2 = 83
j x 2 = 200

Example 3

Solve:
a 5x 2 = 80
a

5x 2 = 80
2

5x
80
--------- = -----5
5
2
x = 16

b 3x 2 = 75
b 3x 2 = 75
2

3x
75
--------- = -----3
3
2
x = 25

x = 16

x = 25

x = 4

x = 5

Solve:
a 2x 2 = 18
e 7x 2 = 175

b 5x 2 = 180
f 10x 2 = 160

c 8x 2 = 72
g 7x 2 = 252

d 3x 2 = 48
h 6x 2 = 294

Example 4
Solve:
a 9x 2 = 25

b 81x 2 = 49

415

416

## Equations and Inequalities (Chapter 13) Syllabus reference PAS5.2.2

9x 2 = 25

81x 2 = 49
2

9x
25
--------- = -----9
9
25
x 2 = -----9

81x
49
------------ = -----81
81
49
x 2 = -----81

25
x = ---------9
5
x = --3
4

Solve:
a 4x 2 = 49
e 49x 2 = 144

49
x = ---------81
7
x = --9

b 100x 2 = 81
f 121x 2 = 64

c 25x 2 = 16
g 144x 2 = 49

d 81x 2 = 16
h 81x 2 = 100

Example 5
Solve:
a

3x 2 = 21

5x 2 = 12

3x 2 = 21

5x 2 = 12

3x
21
--------- = -----3
3

5x
12
--------- = -----5
5
12
2
x = -----5

x2 = 7

x= 7

12
x = -----5

x = 2.65 (2 d.p.)

x = 1.55 (2 d.p.)

a 7x 2 = 56
b 4x 2 = 12
2
d 13x = 47
e 7x 2 = 18

Example 6
Solve 4x2 5 = 20
4x 2 5 = 20

4x = 25
25
x 2 = -----4
x=
5
x = --2

25
-----4

c
f

11x 2 = 66
5x 2 = 23

## Solve, giving answers to two decimal places if necessary.

a 9x 2 8 = 56
b 4x 2 + 3 = 52
c 81x 2 + 7 = 107

d 49x 2 20 = 5

Investigation 4
WM: Applying Strategies, Communicating, Reflecting

Square roots
Suppose the square root key is the only key on your calculator that does not work. How can
5 be determined? Heres a method.
Step 1:
Step 2:
Step 3:
Step 4:

Make an estimate of

5
Find the average of a and --- , and call it b.
a
5
Find the average of b and --- , and call it c.
b
And so on.

## For example, suppose

b=
c=

5 and call it a.

5  2 i.e. a = 2

1
5
--- (2 + --- ) = 2.25
2
2
1
5
--- (2.25 + ----------- ) 
2
2.25

2.2361

d = _____
e = _____
f = _____
1

Find

## Can you explain why the method works?

5 is a solution of the equation x 2 = 5, and notice that as the process continues
Hint:
5
b  c, c  d, d  e, , i.e. x  1--2- (x + --- ).
x

a
7
b
k

5 result?

417

418

## F. SUBSTITUTION INTO FORMULAS

A formula is an equation that connects two or more variables.

## It is normal for one of the variables to be expressed in terms of the other(s).

The subject of the formula is the variable that is written in terms of the other variables.

Formula substitution
If a formula contains two or more variables and we know the value of all but one of them, we can use the formula
to find the value of the unknown variable. Follow the method below.
1

## Solve the equation for the unknown variable.

Example 1
The area of a triangle is given by A = 1--- bh, where A is the area, b is the base of
2
the triangle, and h the height.
a Find the area of a triangle with b = 8 m and h = 7 m.
b Find the height when A = 30 cm2 and b = 5 cm.
a A = 1--2- bh
A=

1
--2

87

A = 1--2- bh
30 =

= 28
2

The area is 28 m .

1
--2

5h

60 = 5h
60 5h
------ = -----5
5
h = 12
The height is 12 cm.

Exercise 13F
1

The area of a rectangle is given by A = lb, where A is the area, l the length and b the breadth.
a Find the area of a rectangle with length 16 cm and breadth 5 cm.
b Find the length of a rectangle with area of 30 cm2 and breadth 5 cm.

## The formula for finding the circumference (perimeter) C

of a circle of diameter d is C = d. Find:
a the circumference of a circle of diameter 11.4 cm
b the diameter of a circle with circumference 250 cm

The formula for calculating the circumference C of a circle of radius r is C = 2r. Find:
a the circumference of a circle of radius 8.6 cm
b the radius of a circle of circumference 100 m

When a car travels a distance of d km in time t h, the average speed, s kmph, for the journey
d
is given by the formula s = --- . Find:
t
a the average speed of a car that travels 200 km in 2 h
b the distance travelled by a car in 3 1--4- h if its average speed is 80 kmph
c the time taken for a car to travel 865 km at an average speed of 110 kmph

Example 2
When a stone is dropped down a well the total distance
fallen, D metres, is given by the formula D = 1--- gt 2,
2
where t is the time of fall (in seconds) and g is the
gravitational constant of 9.8 m s1. Find:

## a the distance fallen after 5 s

1
- th s) taken for the stone to
b the time (to the nearest --------100
fall 100 m
a

## D = 1--2- gt 2 where g = 9.8 m s1 and t = 5 s

D=

1
--2

9.8 52 m

Calculator:

0.5
D = 122.5 m
the stone has fallen a distance of 122.5 metres.
b D = 1--2- gt 2 where D = 100 m, and g = 9.8 m s1
100 = 1--2- 9.8 t 2
100 = 4.9t 2
100
---------- = t 2
4.9
100
t = ---------- (as t > 0)
4.9
t  4.5175
the time taken is 4.52 seconds.

9.8

x =
2

Calculator:
100

4.9

When a cricket ball is dropped from the top of a building the total distance fallen is given by
the formula D = 1--2- gt 2 where D is the distance in metres and t is the time taken in seconds.
Find, given that g  9.8 m s1,
a the total distance fallen in the first 3 s of fall
b the height of the building when the time of fall to hit the ground is 5.13 s

419

420

## A circles area A is given by A = r 2 where r is its radius length. Find:

a the area of a circle of radius 5.6 cm
b the radius of a circular swimming pool that must have an area of 200 m2

## A cylinder of radius r and height h

has volume given by V = r 2 h. Find:
a the volume of a cylindrical tin can of
radius 12 cm and height 17.5 cm
b the height of a cylinder of radius 4 cm
given that its volume is 80 cm3
c the radius of copper wire of volume
100 cm3 and length 2 km

8
h

Earth

## The formula D  3.56 h gives the approximate

distance (D km) to the horizon that can be seen by
a person with eye level h metres above the level of
the sea. Find:
a the distance of the horizon when a persons
eye level is 10 m above sea-level
b how far above sea-level a persons eye must be
if the person wishes to see the horizon at a
distance of 30 km

## The formula for calculating the total surface area of a

sphere of radius r is given by A = 4r 2. Find:
a the total surface area of a sphere of
b the radius of a spherical balloon that is to have
a surface area of 1 m2. (Answer in cm.)

10

point of support

.
11

pendulum

## The time taken for one complete swing of a simple

pendulum is given by T = 1--5- l where l is the length
of the pendulum (in cm) and T is the time (called
the period) in seconds. Find:
a the time for one complete swing of the
pendulum if its length is 50 cm
b the length of a pendulum if it is to have a
period of exactly 1 s

## To find the area of a triangle with sides a, b and c units

long we find s, its semi-perimeter, using the formula
a+b+c
s = ---------------------- , and then use A = s ( s a ) ( s b ) ( s c ) .
2
A triangle has sides of length 5 cm, 6 cm and 7 cm.
Find its semi-perimeter and hence its area.

12

## The formula for energy given speed and mass is E = 1--2- mv 2.

a Calculate E if m = 100 and v = 5.
b Calculate m given E = 1400 and v = 18.
c Calculate v if E = 5000 and m = 200. Note v > 0.

13

## The volume of a sphere radius r is given by V = 4--3- r 3.

a Find V when r = 2.5.
b Find r when V = 1000.

14

## The surface area of a closed cylinder is given by

A = 2r 2 + 2rh. Find h when A = 1800 and r = 3.

15

y2 y1
-.
The formula for gradient, m, is given by m = --------------x

x
2
1
Find:
a y2 when x1 = 5, x2 = 3, y1 = 2 and m = 2
b x1 when x2 = 7, y1 = 3, y2 = 4 and m = 1

G. INEQUALITIES
These symbols are convenient devices for representing inequalities.
Symbol

Meaning

<

less than

>

greater than

## greater than or equal to

not equal to

Example 1
Write in algebraic form:
a Three times a number is always smaller than ten.
b Twice a number is larger than or equal to eight.
c Four more than three times a number is greater than fifteen.
Let the unknown number be x. Then,
a 3x < 10
b 2x 8
c 3x + 4 > 15

the 3 button.

421

422

Exercise 13G
1

## Write in algebraic form:

a Four times a number is always smaller than thirteen.
b Five times a number is always greater than fifty.
c Ten times a number is greater than or equal to eighty.
d Two more than three times a number is less than thirty-five.
e Three more than four times a number is more than seventy.
f Eight less than a number is less than or equal to thirty.
g Thirteen less than twice a number is greater than twenty.
h Nine less than twenty times a number is more than ten.
i Ten more than half a number is less than nineteen.
j Five more than one-third of a number is greater than six.

Example 2
a Is x = 3 a solution to the inequality 3x 2 > 5?
b Is x = 5 a solution to the inequality 5 2x 6?
c Is x = 7 a solution to the inequality 3 5x > 2x + 1?
Check by substituting.
a
3x 2 > 5
Is 3(3) 2 > 5?
Is 9 2 > 5?
7 >5
which is true
x = 3 is a solution

5 2x 6
c
3 5x > 2x + 1
Is 5 2(5) 6?
Is 3 5(7) > 2(7) + 1?
Is 5 + 10 6?
Is 32 > 15?
15 6
which is false
which is false
x = 5 is not a solution x = 7 is not a solution

## Check if the value in brackets is a solution to the inequality.

(x = 4)

b 3 4x 13

(x = 5)

c 5x + 1 < 11 (x = 2)

x
d --- + 3 > 0
2
3x 1
f --------------- 3
4
x3
h ------------ <7
2

(x = 10)

a 3x 2 > 7

e 7x 8 5

(x = 10)

g 7 4x 3

(x = 2)

(x = 0)

(x = 3)

3x + 7 < 11 2x

(x = 3)

k 4x + 1 6

(x = 1)

7x + 3 < 5 x

(x = 3)

m 2>5x

(x = 3)

x+6>0

(x = 7)

(x = 1)

## Equations and Inequalties (Chapter 13) Syllabus reference PAS5.2.2

Example 3
Find a solution to these inequalities using the guess-and-check method.
a 5 7x 10

b 3x 5 < 8 5x

a Try x = 0
5 7(0) 10
5 10 false
x = 0 is not a solution
Try x = 5
5 7(5) 10
30 10 false
x = 5 is not a solution
Try x = 10
5 7(10) 10
75 10 true
x = 10 is a solution

b Try x = 4
3(4) 5 < 8 5(4)
7 < 12 false
x = 4 is not a solution
Try x = 0
3(0) 5 < 8 5(0)
5 < 8 true
x = 0 is a solution

Find three solutions to each of the following inequalities, using the guess-and-check method.
4x
a 3x 9
b ------------ 3
c 2x 5
5
d 4 + 3x 7 + 2x
e 5 6x 7
f 3x 4 > 5x 2
x
g 2>4x
h 4 2x 3 x
i --- > 2
3

## How many solutions are there to the inequality:

a 5x 12 > 3
b 5 2x 3 + 4x ?

Investigation 5
WM: Reflecting, Reasoning

Inequalities
Example 1
Change both sides of the inequality 5 < 7 by the operation [x(3)]
and insert a sign to make the new inequality true.
5<7
15 21
Thus 15 > 21

## (multiply each number by 3)

(insert the inequality sign)

423

424

## Equations and Inequalities (Chapter 13) Syllabus reference PAS5.2.2

Both sides of the inequality 6 > 4 are changed by the operation in brackets. Insert > or < signs
to make the new inequality true.
a 12 8
[2]
b 3
2
[2]
c 9
7
[+3]
d 1
1 [5]
e 12 8 [(2)]
f 3
2 [(2)]
g 4
2
[+2]
h 8
6
[(2)]

Both sides of the inequality 8 < 4 are changed by the operation in brackets. Insert < or >
signs to make the new inequality true.
a 2
1
[4]
b 24
12 [3]
c 1
13
[+9]
d 15 3 [7]
e 4
2 [(2)]
f 24
12 [(3)]
g 2
2 [(4)]
h 12
0 [+(4)]

Using your answers to questions 1 and 2 write a set of rules for working with inequalities.

Inequalities may be written in equation form, as a number line graph, or in words. Copy and
complete this table.
Inequality
x >3
x 3
4 < x 2
x < 0 or x > 4

Graph
1

Description

than 3

or equal to 3

4 3 2 1

## all numbers between 4

and 2, including 2

3 2 1

## all numbers greater

than 4 or less than 0

x 2
3

## all numbers between 3

and 8, including 3

## all numbers greater

than or equal to 8
x 3 or
x 2

## Equations and Inequalties (Chapter 13) Syllabus reference PAS5.2.2

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

## all numbers less than 0

all numbers less than 2
or greater than 3
4>x
5 x
5 4 3 2 1

a
b
c
d

## What does the filled in dot mean?

What does the open dot mean?
Can x < 0 and x > 4 both be true at the same time?
Why does 0 < x > 4 not make sense?

H. SOLVING INEQUALITIES
Inequalities are algebraic sentences containing at least one of
the symbols >, <, or .

## For example, 3x + 2 7 is an inequality.

To solve inequalities, we handle the situation as if they are ordinary equations and carry out the same operation
to each side of the inequality.
3x + 2
Left Hand Side (LHS)

7
Right Hand Side (RHS)

Rules

Note:

## The reverse of > is <.

The reverse of is .

## If we add or subtract from both sides of an inequality the

inequality sign is maintained.
If we multiply or divide both sides of an inequality by:
a positive number, we maintain the same inequality sign
a negative number, we reverse the inequality sign.

425

426

## (dividing both sides by 3)

but, if 3x 18 then x 6

## (dividing both sides by 3)

Example 1
Solve for x, graphing the solution on the number line.
b 3 4x 15

a 3x 16 > 8
a

3x 16 > 8
3x > 24
x >8
5

c 2 > 5 2x

## (adding 16 to both sides)

(dividing both sides by 3)
7

3 4x 15
4x 12
----- x 12
4

10

11

## (subtracting 3 from both sides)

( both sides by 4 and reversing the inequality)

x 3
6

2 > 5 2x
2 5 > 5 5 2x
3 > 2x
3
------ < x
2
x>

## (subtracting 5 from both sides)

(dividing by 2 and reversing the inequality)

3
--2

1

Exercise 13H
1

a x+3>5

b x23

e 2x 12

x3>4

3x 9

x+5>0

c 3x 18
x
g --- > 4
4
k 2x 6

x
d --- < 2
3
h x + 4 < 3
l

5x < 10

m 2x + 1 > 13

n 3x 2 7

o 4x + 1 6

p 3x<0

q 5 2x 0

r 2>5x

s 3 4x 13

5 6x 7

## Solve for x and graph the solutions on the number line.

x
x
a --- > 3
b ------ 4
2
3
2x + 1
3x 1
d ---------------- 5
e --------------- 3
2
4
x3
4x
g ------------ < 7
h ------------ 2
2
5

c
f
i

x
--- + 3 > 0
2
1
--- (3 2x) 1
2
3 5x
--------------- > 1
4

Extension

Example 2
Solve for x:
a 3 + 2x < 13 3x
a

b 5 3x x + 7

3 + 2x < 13 3x
3 + 2x + 3x < 13 3x + 3x
3 + 5x < 13
3 3 + 5x < 13 3
5x < 10
x<2

5 3x x + 7
5 3x x x x + 7
5 4x 7
5 5 4x 7 5
4x 2
x 1--2

Solve for x.
a 4 + 3x 5 + x
c 3x 4 > 5x 2
e 3x + 7 < 11 2x
g 3x + 2 > x 5
i 5 2x x + 4
k 3(x 1) > x + 2
m 3x 2 > 2(x 1) + 5x
o 5 (x + 2) 2(2x 1)
q 3 x 5 2(x + 1)

b
d
f
h
j
l
n
p
r

Solve for x.
3+x
2x
a ------------ -----------4
3
7x 5 3x 1
c --------------- --------------5
4
5x 3 4 x
e --------------- > -----------2
3
3 2x 7x + 1
----------------------------g
<
4
5
11 4x
i ------------------- 3 > 5
7
4x 3 7x 5
k --------------- + --------------- 1
2
3

6x 5
b --------------2
4x + 3
d ---------------3
5 3x
f --------------7
9 2x
--------------h
3
2x 7
j --------------4
8 3x
l --------------2

3 + 3x < 13 + x
x 3 5x + 7
4 2x 3 x
2x 3 < 5 7x
7 3x 5 x
5 2x 2(x + 2)
1 (x 3) 2(x + 5) 1
3(x + 1) 2 > 5 2(x 1)
x + 7(4 x) < 2 5(1 x)

3x + 1
< ---------------4
1x
> -----------5
2+x
-----------4
2x + 1
--------------
4
3<7
4x + 1
---------------- 1
3

427

428

## Equations and Inequalities (Chapter 13) Syllabus reference PAS5.2.2

non-calculator activities

21
Write ------ as a mixed numeral,
2

If 20 5 =

## How many fortnights are there in two years?

1
Write 5 --- as a mixed fraction.
5

2367.5 10 =

10

1
A --3

3
B -----10

C 0.03

D none of these

11

5

12

## What fraction is 3 kg of 9 kg? Give your answer in simplest fraction form.

13

The temperature at 6 p.m. at Perisher was 4C but it fell 2C each hour for the next 6 hours.
What was the temperature at midnight?

14

9.9
Estimate the value of ----------------------- giving your answer as a whole number.
3.1 + 1.8

15

## Find the missing number in the box.

143.6508 = 143 + 0.6 + 0.05 +

16

If Kritizia earns \$250 for 10 hours work, how much will she receive for 3 hours work?

17

Jade knows that 26 156 = 4056. Use this data to find the answer to Jades question
4056 156 =
2

18

What is

25 + 4 ?

19

What is the next number in the sequence 2, 10, 18, 26, __?

20

## What is the average of 8, 10 and 12?

21

2+63=

22

Stuart solved the equation 2x + 2 = x + 5 and got the answer x = 3. Is Stuart correct?

23

The product of two numbers is 12. If one number is 2, what is the other number?

24

What is the area of a triangle with a base of 12 cm and a perpendicular height of 10 cm?

25

Jasmine reverses the digits in the number 4683 and subtracts them from the original number.

Language in Mathematics

## Paul Erdos was born in Budapest, Hungary, in 1913. He is

known as one of the greatest modern-day mathematicians as
a result of his considerable contribution in the areas of
algebra, analysis, combinatorics, geometry, topology, number
theory and graph theory.
By the age of three he was able to mentally multiply three-digit
numbers. With his mothers encouragement Erdos read many
scientific books from an early age and developed an interest
in mathematics, which he pursued. When he began to travel
and present papers, his mother went with him. Erdos was
extremely depressed when she died.
Erods has continued to work in mathematics and travels around the world talking at universities
and meeting other mathematicians. He has written many scientific papers of great importance and
is renowned for being able to solve problems that confuse others. The Prime Number Theorem was
stated as conjecture in 1792, and it was Erdos along with Selberg who gave the first non-integral
calculus proof in 194849.
Despite his fame, Erdos is known for his cosmopolitan lifestyle and stimulating conversation as
much as for his mathematical contributions. He has very little personal property as he places no
value on material goods. With no family commitments, he is able to give all his time to pursuing his
own interests in mathematics and helping others to develop their understanding and knowledge of
the subject.

429

430

a
b
c
d
e

## How old would Paul Erdos be today?

When could he mentally multiply three-digit numbers?
What does Paul Erdos do with his time?
For what is he most famous?
Write the three most important points from the article.

a l __ n __ __ r

b p r __ n __ m __ r __ l

c q __ __ dr __ t __ c

d s __ l __ t __ __ n

e s __ b s t __ t __ t __

v __ r __ __ bl __

Glossary
consecutive

equation

formulae

formulas

fractions

inequalities

like terms

linear

pronumeral

solution

solve

substitute

unknown

value

variable

subject

431

1

A x=

1
-----3

C x=

1
-----2

7
--5

B x=

5
--7

## x = 2 is not a solution of:

A 3x + 5 = 3 + 2x
C 4x + 1 = 7 5x

11
--------3

1
--2

D x=

11
-----3

C x = 25

## If y = 7 2x and y = 8, then x is:

A x=
5

1
--3

x
The solution to --- + 3 = 2 is:
5
1
A x = ----B x=1
5

A 7 1--24

B x=

C x=

D x = 5

D 7 1--2-

5
--3

D x=

5
-----3

D x=

5
-----12

B 7 2x = 3x + 17
D 6x + 4 = 2x 4

x 3 4 2x
The first line with an error in solving ------------ --------------- = 2 is:
2
3
A 3(x 3) 2(4 2x) = 12
B
3x 9 8 4x = 12
C
x 17 = 12
D
x = 29
6 5x
The solution to --------------- = 2 is:
3
A x = 2 2--5B x=0

C x=

8
--5

3x x + 1 1
The line without an error in the solution of ------ ------------ = ------ is:
2
3
5
A 15 (3x) 10 (x + 1) = 1
B
45x 10x + 10 = 1
C
35x = 11
-----D
x = 35
11

When one-third of a number is added to twice a number, the answer is 10. The number is:
-----A 1 3--7B 10
C 3 1--3D 4 2--77

10

A woman is currently twice as old as her son. In 5 years time the sum of their ages will be
70 years. An equation to find the sons age now is:
A n + 2n = 5
B n + 2n = 70
C (n + 5) = 7 + (2n + 5)
D (n + 5) + (2n + 5) = 70

11

A solution to x2 = 64 is:
A x=4

B x=8

C x = 32

D x = 128

432

12

## A solution to 9x2 = 49 is:

7
A x = ----B x=
9

C x=

7
-----3

D x=

49
-----9

+ 49--------9

13

The surface area of a sphere is given by A = 4r2. The value of r when A = 200 is closest to:
A 4
B 14
C 50
D 64

14

In symbols five times a number minus three is always greater than the number plus one is:
A 5n 3 >1
B 5(n3) > n + 1
C 3 5n > 1
D 5n 3 > n + 1

15

## A solution to 6 7x > 8 is:

A x=1
B x=5

16

17

C x=3

4 3x
The number that is not a solution of --------------- > 1 is:
5
A 3
B 2
C 1
A solution to 7 3x < 4 + 2x is:
3
A x = ----B x=0
5

C x=

D x=4

D 0

3
--5

D x=1

If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question
Section

13

46

7, 8

9, 10

11, 12

13

14, 15

16, 17

## REVIEW SET 13A

1

Solve for x:
a 2x + 5 = 3

b 4x = 2x + 11

x
d --- + 9 = 3
7

e 2 x = 3x + 7

4 2x
If x = 3, find y if y = --------------- .
5

## If y = 3(2x 1) (x 5), find x when y = 7.

Solve for x:
a 3(2x + 1) = 4
d 3(x 2) + 5(x + 1) = 15
2x 1
g --------------- = 4
3

b 2(3 x) = 3(x + 5)
x 3
e --- = --5 2
x x
h --- --- = 4
3 6

x 1
--- = --3 6
x5
------------ = 7
4

c 4 3(2 x) = 7
(2x + 1) = 3

1
--2

x 3
x + --- = --3 4

## Solve the following problems.

a Five times a certain number is equal to 12 more than the number. Find the number.
b When three consecutive integers are added the result is 48. Find the largest integer.
c One side of a rectangle is 2 cm shorter than the other side and its perimeter is 96 cm.
Find the length of the longer side.
d Peter has 48 coins. He has three times as many 10-cent coins as 20-cent coins and the
remainder are 5-cent coins. Determine the number of each coin type if their total value
is \$5.10.

The period of a pendulum (the time for one complete swing) is given by T =
where l cm is the length of the pendulum. Find:
a the period if the pendulum has length 74 cm
b the length of the pendulum if its period is 2.5 seconds.

Solve:
a x+5<3
2x 3
d --------------- > 1
4

x
b --- 3
2
4 2x
e --------------- 3
5

1
--5

c 4x + 1 2
f

3 2x < 14 + 5x

l seconds,

433

434

## REVIEW SET 13B

1

Solve for x:
a 3x 1 = 2

b 6x = 11 3x

x
d --- 3 = 6
5

e 4 3x = 2x + 1

5a 4
If a = 2, find t if t = ---------------- .
3

## If y = 2(3x 4) 5(3 x), find x when y = 3.

Solve for x:
a 2(4x + 1) = 3
d 4(x 5) + 3(2x + 1) = 3
3x 5
g --------------- = 8
2

x 5
e --- = --7 3
x x
h --- --- = 4
5 2

2x
------ = 5
3
x3
------------ = 2
4

c 5 2(5 2x) = 3
(4 5x) = 2

1
--3

x 2
x --- = --4 3

## Solve these problems.

a Four times a number is equal to 15 more than the number. Find the number.
b When four consecutive integers are added, the result is 54. Find the smallest integer.

## The surface area of a sphere is given by A = 4r2. Find r when A = 400.

Solve:
a 2x 8
d 4 3x < 5

b x 5 < 3
3x 1
e --------------- 2
4

c 8x > 16
6x
f ------------ > 4
2

## REVIEW SET 13C

1

Solve for x:
a 4x + 5 = 12

b 5 3x = 7

x
d --- 5 = 7
3

e 3x 2 = x + 6

2x 3
If y = --------------- find:
5
1
a y when x = --2

x
--- = 4
3
2x + 5
---------------- = 1
4

b x when y = 3

## If y = 5 2(x 3), find x when y = 3.

Solve:
a 3(2a + 5) = 15
c 3(2p 3) = 4(p + 1)
x 4
e --- = --2 3
2x + 3 3x 2
g ---------------- = --------------4
5
x+1
1x
i ------------ + x = -----------5
2

b 2(3a 4) = a + 9
d x + 5(3 x) = 2x + 4(x 1)
f

1
--3

(2x + 1) = 4

2x + 3 3x + 1
h ---------------- ---------------- = 2
3
4

## Solve the following problems.

a I think of a number, double it and add 7. The answer is 4. Find the number.
b An apple costs twice as much as a banana. The two of them cost me a total of 48 cents.
Find the cost of the apple.
c If a number is increased by 5 and then trebled, the result is six more than two-thirds of
the number. Find the number.
d An athlete can run at 15 kmph and cycle at 48 kmph. In his total training he runs and
cycles the same distance. If his training time is 3 hours and 9 minutes, what distance does
he cycle and run?

The value \$V, of precious opal is given by the formula V = 20w2 dollars, where w is the weight
in grams.
a Find the value of an opal weighing 23.8 grams.
b Find the weight of an opal valued at \$2300.

Solve:
x
a ------ > 2
3
x+1
d ------------ < 2
3

b 6x<1

c 4x + 1 7

4 3x
e --------------- 1
5

5 3x 2(1 x)

435

436

## REVIEW SET 13D

1

Solve for x:
a 3x 2 = 5
x
d --- + 3 = 2
7
3x 5
If y = --------------- find:
3
a y when x =

b 4 7x = 3

e 4x 7 = 3x + 5

b x when y =

1
--3

## If y = 7 5(4 x), find x when y = 0.

Solve:
a 2(4x + 3) = 15
d x 5(2x + 1) 3 = 4
3 4x x + 5
g --------------- = -----------2
5

b 4(3t + 1) = t 2
4 x
e --- = --3 4
3x 4 2 4x
h --------------- --------------- = 1
5
3

x
--- = 4
5
3x 2
--------------- = 2
5

7
--3

c 4(3p 7) = 5(1 p)
(3x 1) = 5

1
--4

x+1
3x
------------ + x = ------------ + 1
2
3

## Solve these problems.

a When 12 is added to twice a number, the answer is 8. Find the number.
b If a number is decreased by 3 then multiplied by 4, the result is 7 more than five times the
number. Find the number.

## The velocity of an object is given by v 2 = u 2 + 2as.

a Find v when u = 10, a = 5 and s = 3.
b Find u when v = 20, a = 3 and s = 12.

Solve:
a x4>3
x
d --- + 2 0
3

b 3x > 9
4 3x
e --------------- 1
2

c 4 3x 14
f

3 x 2 4(x 1)

## LEY_bk9_c14_finalpp Page 437 Wednesday, January 12, 2005 11:47 AM

Chapter 14
Straight Lines and Regions
This chapter deals with the use and application of various standard forms of the equation
of the straight line and the graphing of regions on the number plane.
After completing this chapter you should be able to:
find the equation of a straight line
rearrange equations of straight lines into various forms
sketch straight lines given their intercepts
demonstrate that two lines are perpendicular if the product of their gradients is 1
find the equation of a line parallel or perpendicular to a given line
graph a variety of regions of the number plane involving straight lines.

WM: S5.3.1S5.3.5

438

Diagnostic Test
1

## The equation of the line passing through

(2, 3) with gradient 2 is:
A y = 2x + 3

B y = 2x 7

C y = 2x 2

D y = 2x + 7

## The equation of the line passing through

K (3, 2) and L (4, 5) is:

## When written in gradientintercept form

the equation 3x 2y + 8 = 0 is:
A 2y = 3x + 4
3
C y = --- x + 4
2

B 3x 2y = 8
3
D y = --- x + 8
2

are:

A y = x 1

B y=x+5

A 4 and 3

B 3 and 4

C y = 3x 7

D y = x + 1

C 4 and 3

D 3 and 4

## The equation of the line cutting the

y-axis at 4 and the x-axis at 5 is:
4
--- x + 4
A y= 4
B y = --- x + 4
5
5
5
5
C y = --- x + 4
D y = --- x + 4
4
4

10

## The line perpendicular to 3x 5y + 7 = 0

is:
A 3x + 5y 2 = 0 B 3x 5y 7 = 0
5
C 3x 5y + 7 = 0D y = --- x + 2
3

y
3
2

11

1
3 2 1

--- x + 1
--- x + 1
A y= 1
B y= 1
2
2
C y = 2x + 3
D y = 2x + 1

x
1

--- x 1
A y= 2
3

3
B y = --- x 1
2

C y = x + 3

D y = 2x 1

12

## The triangle ABC with vertices A (1, 0),

B (1, 4) and C (5, 2) is:
A scalene

B isosceles

C equilateral

D right angled

A
y
4

## The value of a if (a, 2) lies on the line

y = 3x 2 is:

A 0

B 1

C 2

D 3

--- x 2
In general form y = 1
--- is:
2
3
A 6y 3x + 4 = 0 B 3x 6y 4 = 0
--- x y 2
--- = 0
C 3x + 2y 2 = 0 D 1
2
3

3 2
2 1
1

x
1
2
3

3 4

14
y

A

2 y

4 3 2
2 1
1

1
3 2
2 1
1

x
1

3 4

2
3

3 4

2
3

5
5
6
7

8
9

4
3
2
1
3 2
2 1
1

x
1

2 y

3 4

x
4 3 2
2 1
1

2
3

5
5
6

8
9

x
1

3 4

2
3

13

3 4

y
4

2
3

3 2
2 1
1

2 y

x
4 3 2
2 1
1

y
4

2
3

3
2

1
4 3
3 2
2 1
1

x
1

3 4

2
3

A x 3 and y < 2

5
5
6
8
9

3 4

439

440

## Straight Lines and Regions (Chapter 14) Syllabus reference PAS5.3.3

If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question

15

68

9, 10

11

12, 13

14

Section

A and B

A. EQUATIONS OF LINES
The equation of a line is the simplest relationship that connects the x and y values for
every point on the line.

## For example, this line contains infinitely many points.

Some of these are (1, 0), (0, 1), (1, 2), (2, 3), (3, 4), (4, 5).

2
1
3 2 1

x
1
2
3

3 4

## Notice that the y-coordinate is always 1 more than the x-coordinate.

This is summarised by writing y = x + 1.
Thus y = x + 1 is the equation of all points on this line.

4
y

Similarly, this line contains the points (5, 1), (4, 0), (3, 1), (2, 2), (1, 3),
(0, 4), (1, 5) and so on.

## Notice that the sum of the x and y coordinates is always 4.

3
1

i.e. x + y = 4
Thus the equation of the line is x + y = 4.

2 1

x
1
2

3 4

## The equation of a line

The equation of a line can be determined if we know:
the gradient of the line, and
the coordinates of a point on the line.

If a straight line has gradient m and passes through the point with coordinates (x1, y1),
yy
x x1

Proof:

y
P(x2,y2)
Q(x1,y1)
x

## Equating the slopes gives

y y1
------------ = m
x x1
or
y y1 = m(x x1).

Example 1
Find the equation of the line through (1, 2) having a gradient of 4.
The equation of the line is y y1 = m(x x1) where (x1, y1) = (1, 2) and gradient m = 4.
y 2 = 4(x (1))
y 2 = 4(x + 1)
y 2 = 4x + 4
y = 4x + 6

Exercise 14A
1

## Find the equation of the line through:

a (2, 3) with gradient 3

1
--3

( 1--2

1 1--2-

j

441

442

## Straight Lines and Regions (Chapter 14) Syllabus reference PAS5.3.3

Example 2
Find the equation of the line that passes through the points A(1, 5)
and B(2, 3).
First we find the gradient of AB using
y2 y1
m = --------------y2 x1

[use (1, 5) for (x1, y1) and (2, 3) for (x2, y2)]

35
m = -------------------2 ( 1 )
8
m = --3
Second, find the equation of the line using
y y1 = m ( x x1 )
8
y 5 = --- ( x ( 1 ) )
3
8
y 5 = --- ( x + 1 )
3
8
8
y = --- x --- + 5
3
3
8
7
y = --- x + --3
3

1
8
or y = --- x + 2 --3
3

Find the equation of the line passing through the following pairs of points.
a A(2, 3) and B(4, 7)
b A(0, 2) and B(2, 4)
c A(1, 3) and B(5, 5)
d A(6, 3) and B(4, 1)
e A(5, 2) and B(2, 5)
f P(0, 0) and Q(3, 5)
g P(3, 5) and Q(1, 2)
h L(3, 2) and M(0, 4)
i X(2, 2) and Y(3, 1)
j X(0, 6) and Y(4, 0)

Example 3
Find the equation of the line that cuts the y-axis at 3 and the x-axis at 2.
The y-axis is cut when x = 0, i.e. (0, 3) is one point.
The x-axis is cut when y = 0, i.e. (2, 0) is the other point.

## B(2, 3) could have

been used as (x1, y1 ),
giving the same
equation.

y2 y1

## [using (x1, y1) = (0, 3) and (x2, y2) = (2, 0)]

03
= ----------------20
3
= -----2
3
= --2
But, y y1 = m(x x1)
3
y 3 = --- (x 0)
2
3
y 3 = --- x
2
3
i.e. y = --- x + 3
2

## Find the equation of the line

a cutting the y-axis at 4 and the x-axis at 2
b cutting the y-axis at 7 and the x-axis at 2
c cutting the y-axis at 5 and the x-axis at 3
d with y-intercept 3 and x-intercept 2

If a straight line has gradient m, and y-intercept b, then it has equation y = mx + b.

Proof:
Since the y-intercept is b, the point (0, b) lies on the line.

## Thus the equation is y b = m(x 0)

i.e. y = mx + b
b

Example 1
Find the equation of the line with gradient 3 and y-intercept 2.
Since m = 3 and b = 2, the equation is y = 3x + 2.

443

444

Exercise 14B
1

## Find the equation of the line with:

a gradient 2 and y-intercept 7

## c gradient 3 and y-intercept 1

2
e gradient --- and y-intercept 6
3

## gradient 4 and y-intercept 6

1
2

d
f

Example 2
Find the equation of the line below.
(0, 2) and (4, 3) lie on the line
32
1
gradient is = ------------ = --40
4
1
i.e. m = --- and b = 2
4
1
equation is y = --- x + 2
4

y
4
3

(4, 3)

2
1

x
1

a
b

c
y

4
3

(2, 3)

(3, 3)

x
1

x
1

y
3

x
x

(2, 3) 2

4 3 2 1

x
2 1

3 2 1

(4, 3)

a
b

c
G

slope 13

1
1

x
1

2 1

t
2 1

1
2

e
M

F
5

2
1

g
1

1
1

(10, 2)
x2
1

10

f
p

n
1

1
2
3

(6, 3)

Check the
variable on each
axis.

5
6

## An alternative method to find the equation

of a line is to use y = mx + b.

Example 3
Use y = mx + b to find the equation of the line passing through (3, 5) with
y = mx + b
i.e. y = 3x + b
We substitute x
5
5
14
i.e. y

=
=
=
=
=

3 and y = 5
3 ( 3 ) + b
9+b
b
3x + 14

## [as the gradient m = 3]

[as (3, 5) lies on the line]

445

446

## Find the equation of the line through

a (3, 4) with gradient 2
c (8, 2) with gradient 3
e (3, 0) with gradient 5

b
d
f
h
j

## (5, 2) with gradient 1

Example 4
Find a given that (a, 1) lies on the line y = 2x + 3.
Substitute x = a and y = 1 into the equation y = 2x + 3.
1 = 2(a) + 3
1 = 2a + 3
4 = 2a
a = 2

Find a given that each point below lies on the line with the given equation.
a (a, 3)
y = 2x 1
b (a, 2)
y=4x
c (4, a)
y= x+3
d (2, a)
y = 1 3x

Example 5
Draw the graph of the line with equation y = 2x + 1.
Method 1
Table of values:
x

Method 2
2
y-intercept is 1 and gradient is -----1
start at 1 on y-axis, x-step of 1,
then y-step of 2.

y
y=
2x
+1

2
1

1
4 3 2 1

x
1
2
3

3 4

4 3 2 1

1
2
3

x
2

3 4

1
a y = --- x + 2
b y = 2x + 1
2
1
d y = 3x + 2
e y = --- x
2
3
2
g y = --- x
h y = --- x + 2
2
3

c y = x + 3
f y = 2x 2
3
i y = --- x 1
4

## C. GENERAL FORM OF A STRAIGHT LINE EQUATION

The general form of the equation of a straight line is Ax + By + C = 0 where A, B and C
are all integers and A 0.

Example 1
Write, in general form, the equations
a y = 3x 1

y = 3x 1
0 = 3x y 1 (subtracting y)
(swapping sides)
3x y 1 = 0

2
y = --- x + 4
3
2
y = --- x + 4
3
2
0 = --- x y + 4
3
0 = 2x 3y + 12
2x 3y + 12 = 0
2x + 3y 12 = 0

(subtracting y)
(multiplying by 3)
(swapping sides)
(multiplying by 1
so that A 0)

Exercise 14C
1

## Write the following equations in general form.

a y = 2x + 1

b y = 5x 2

d y = 2x 5

e y = 3x + 4

1
g y = --- x 5
2
2
1
j --- y = --- x + 1
3
4

2
h y = --- x 3
3
1
3
k y = --- x --2
4

c y = 2x + 5
1
f y = --- x + 2
2
3
2
i y = --- x --4
3
1
1
l --- y = x + --5
2

447

448

## Straight Lines and Regions (Chapter 14) Syllabus reference PAS5.3.3

Example 2
Rewrite the equation 4x 3y 12 = 0 in the form y = mx + b and hence find the
4x 3y 12 = 0
4x 12 = 3y
3y = 4x 12 (swapping sides)
4
(dividing by 3)
y = --- x 4
3
4
gradient is --- m = and y-intercept is 4.
3

Rewrite the following equations in y = mx + b form and hence find the gradient and
y-intercept.
a x + 2y 4 = 0
b 3x + 2y 24 = 0
c 2x y + 4 = 0
d 4x 2y 6 = 0
e 5x + 2y + 10 = 0
f 3x + 2y 8 = 0
g 4x y 6 = 0
h 3x 2y + 17 = 0
i 8x 2y 7 = 0

Find b if each point below lies on the line with the given equation.
a (2, b)
x + 2y = 4
b (1, b)
3x 4y = 6
c (b, 4)
5x + 2y = 1
d (b, 3)
4x y = 8

Example 3
Find the x- and y-intercepts of the line with equation 4x 3y 12 = 0.
x-intercept when y = 0

y-intercept when x = 0

4x 3(0) 12 = 0

4(0) 3y 12 = 0

4x 12 = 0

3y 12 = 0

4x = 12

3y = 12

x =3
i.e. x-intercept is 3
4

y = 4
i.e. y-intercept is 4

## Find the x- and y-intercepts of the following lines.

a x + 2y 8 = 0
b 3x + 2y 12 = 0
d 3x 2y 36 = 0
e 5x + 2y + 20 = 0
g 4x y 5 = 0
h 3x 2y + 15 = 0

c 2x y + 6 = 0
f 3x + 2y 5 = 0
i 9x 2y 5 = 0

## Straight Lines and Regions (Chapter 14) Syllabus reference PAS5.3.3

Example 4
Draw the graph of the line with equation 5x 3y 15 = 0.
Find the x-and y-intercepts
If x = 0

5(0) 3y 15 = 0

If y = 0

5x 3(0) 15 = 0

3y 15 = 0

5x 15 = 0

3y = 15

5x = 15

y = 5
y-intercept is 5

x=3
x-intercept is 3

## Use a third point as a check. Try x = 1.

5(1) 3y 15 = 0

5 3y 15 = 0

2
1

3y 10 = 0
3y = 10
10
y = -----3
10
(1, ------ ) is on the line.
3

4 3 2 1

x
1

3 4

2
3
4
5

## Draw the graph of the line with equation

a x + 2y 8 = 0
b 3x y 6 = 0
d 4x + 3y 8 = 0
e x+y5=0
g 3x 4y 12 = 0
h 5x + 2y + 10 = 0

c 2x 3y 4 = 0
f xy+5=0
i x 2y = 0

Investigation 1
WM: Reasoning, Communicating, Applying Strategies

Graphs of lines
1

a On the same number plane draw the straight lines with equations
y = 2x, y = 2x + 1, y = 2x 3, y = 3x + 1
b What do you notice about these lines?

449

450

## Straight Lines and Regions (Chapter 14) Syllabus reference PAS5.3.3

a On the same number plane draw the straight lines with equations
y = 3x + 1, 3x + y 2 = 0, 6x + 2y + 3 = 0.
b What do you notice about these three lines?
c Rewrite the second two lines in y = mx + b form and find their gradients.

## Copy and complete:

Straight lines are _____ if their _____ are equal.

a On the same number plane draw the straight lines with equations
1
y = 2x + 1 and y = --- x + 2.
2
b What do you notice about these lines?

## a On the same number plane draw the straight lines with

equations y = 3x 1 and x + 3y 6 = 0.
b What do you notice about these lines?
c Rewrite x + 3y 6 = 0 in y = mx + b form and find the gradient.

## Copy and complete:

Straight lines are ____ if the product of their gradient is ____.

## D. PARALLEL AND PERPENDICULAR LINES

From Investigation 1:
If two straight lines have gradients m1 and m2 then:

## the lines are perpendicular if m1 m2 = 1.

Example 1
a Find the equation of the line parallel to the line y = 5x 7 passing through the
point (2, 3).
b Find the equation of the line parallel to the line 3x 6y + 8 = 0 passing through the
point (1, 2).

Use a graphics
calculator.

## a The gradient is 5, since the lines are parallel.

i.e. equation is

y
3
3
13
y

=
=
=
=
=

5x + b
5 ( 2 ) + b (substituting (2, 3))
10 + b
b
5x + 13 is the equation of the line.

## b 3x 6y + 8 = 0 must be rearranged into y = mx + b form to find the gradient.

3x 6y + 8 = 0
3x + 8 = 6y
3x 8
------ + --- = y
6 6
1
4
y = --- x + --2
3

1
2
1
Use y y1 = m(x x1) with m = --- and (1, 2) for (x1, y1)
2
1
y (2) = --- (x (1))
2
1
1
1
y + 2 = --- (x + 1) = --- x + --2
2
2
1
1
y = --- x 1 --2- is the equation of the line.
2

Exercise 14D
1

## Which of the following pairs of lines are parallel?

a y = 3x + 1,
y = 3x 5
b y = 2x 1,
c y = 5x + 3,
y = 3x + 5
d y = 4x 3,
e y = 2x 5,
2x y + 4 = 0
f y = x 5,
g 4x 3y + 5 = 0, 3x + 4y + 2 = 0
h 2x + 3y 2 = 0,

y = 2x
y = 4 3x
x 2y + 3 = 0
2x + 3y 5 = 0

## Find the equation of the line:

a parallel to the line y = 2x 5 passing through the point (1, 4)
b parallel to the line y = 7x 2 passing through the point (5, 2)
1
c passing through the origin parallel to y = --- x + 5
2
d parallel to the line 5x 7y + 3 = 0 passing through the point (2, 3)
e passing through (1, 3), parallel to the line passing through the points (1, 5) and (3, 6)
f

with y-intercept 2, that is parallel to the line segment joining (7, 5) and the origin

451

452

## Straight Lines and Regions (Chapter 14) Syllabus reference PAS5.3.3

Example 2
a Is the line y = 3x 5 perpendicular to the line 2x + 6y + 9 = 0?
b What is the gradient of the line perpendicular to the line 5x 2y + 4 = 0?
c Find the equation of the line passing through (6, 3) perpendicular to the line
2
y = --- x + 4.
3
a y = 3x 5 has gradient m1 = 3
We rearrange 2x + 6y + 9 = 0 to find its gradient.
6y = 2x 9
2x 9
y = --------- --6
6
1
1
3
y = --- x ---, and so had gradient m2 = --3
3
2
1
Now m1 m2 = 3 --- = 1 the lines are perpendicular.
3
b Rearrange 5x 2y + 4 = 0 into y = mx + b form.
5x 2y + 4 = 0
5x + 4 = 2y
5x 4
------ + --- = y
2 2
5
y = --- x + 2
2
2
the gradient of the perpendicular line is --5
2
2
c y = --- x + 4 has gradient m1 = --3
3
3
the gradient of the perpendicular line is --2
3
y = --- x + b and so we substitute (6, 3)
2
3
3 = --- (6) + b
2

5
2
(since --- --- = 1)
2
5
2 3
(since --- --- = 1)
3 2

3 = 9 + b
12 = b
3
y = --- x 12 is the equation.
2
3

## Which of the following pairs of lines are perpendicular?

a y = 2x 5,
y = 2x
b y = 3x + 5,
c y = 4x + 7,

y = 4x + 3

e 3x 4y + 5 = 0, 4x + 3y 2 = 0

1
y = --- x 2
3
2
5
d y = --- x 1,
y = --- x 1
5
2
f 7x + 5y + 3 = 0, 5y 7x = 0

3
a y = --- x + 2
b y = 7x 2
5
4
d y = --- x 7
e 3x 2y + 1 = 0
5

3
c y = --- x 5
2
f

5x 7y + 7 = 0

## Find the equation of the line:

a perpendicular to y = 5x 2 passing through (3, 2)
1
b perpendicular to y = --- x + 7 passing through (0, 5)
4
3
1
c passing through the origin perpendicular to y = --- x + --4
3
d passing through (2, 5) perpendicular to 3x 4y + 12 = 0
e with y-intercept 7 perpendicular to 5x + 2y 7 = 0
f

passing through (2, 5), perpendicular to the line segment joining (2, 3) and (5, 3)

g passing through the origin, perpendicular to the line segment joining (3, 0) and (0, 5)
6

1
a Find the equations of five lines that are perpendicular to y = --- x 3.
2
b Find the equations of five lines that are parallel to y = 3x 2.
c Write the equation of all lines parallel to 3x 5y + 6 = 0.
d Write the equation of all lines perpendicular to 5x 3y + 7 = 0.

## a Find the equations of three lines that are perpendicular to 3x 4y + 8 = 0.

b Write the equations of these lines in general form.
c What do you notice?

## a Find the equations of three lines that are parallel to 2x 7y + 3 = 0.

b Write the equations of these lines in general form.
c What do you notice?

## Write the equation of all lines:

a parallel to 7x 5y + 6 = 0

b perpendicular to 7x 5y + 6 = 0

Investigation 2
WM: Communicating, Reasoning

Transformation of lines
1

## a On the same number plane, sketch the graphs of y = 3x and y = 3x + 1.

b Which transformation, rotation, reflection or translation, would be used to superimpose
the graph of y = 3x over that of y = 3x + 1?
c Describe a transformation that would superimpose the graph of y = 3x over the graph
of y = 3x 5.

453

454

## a On the same number plane, sketch the graphs of y = 2x and y = 2x.

b Describe a transformation that would superimpose the graph of y = 2x on the graph of
y = 2x.
1
a On the same number plane, sketch the graphs of y = 3x and y = --- x.
3
b Describe a transformation that would superimpose the graph of y = 3x over the graph of
1
y = --- x.
3

Describe a transformation that would superimpose the graph of y = 4x over the graph:
1
a y = 4x
b y = 4x 7
c y = --- x
4

## Describe the transformations needed to map:

1
1
a y = 3x to y = 3x to y = 5 3x
b y = 4x to y = --- x to y = --- x 2
4
4
1
1
1
c y = --- x to y = --- x to y = 5 --- x
d y = 3x 5 to y = 3x to y = 3x
2
2
2
Use a graphics
calculator here.

## E. FURTHER COORDINATE GEOMETRY

This section uses some coordinate geometry aspects from Chapter 7 in conjunction with aspects of this chapter.
Remember
x1 + x2 y1 + y2
Midpoint formula: ---------------, ---------------
2
2
Distance formula: d =

( x2 x1 ) + ( y2 y1 )

Exercise 14E
1

## Line segments AB and CD bisect each other at T.

Find the coordinates of C.

A(5, 3)

C
T

B(3, 1)

D(2, 0)

A(3, 2)

B(8, 4)

## ABCD is a parallelogram. Use the fact that the

diagonals of the parallelogram bisect each
other to find the coordinates of D.

C(6, 1)

Triangle ABC has A(1, 4), B(2, 1) and C(5, 2) as vertices. Find the length of the line
segment from A to the midpoint of BC.

For the points P(2, 3), Q(0, 0), R(7, 4), S(a, 1), find a if:
a PQ is parallel to RS
b PR is parallel to QS
c PQ is perpendicular to RS
d PR is perpendicular to QS

The triangle ABC has vertices A(2, 0), B(2, 1) and C(1, 3).
a Find the length of the sides AB, BC and AC using the distance formula.
b Classify ABC as scalene, isosceles or equilateral. Give a reason.

The triangle PQR has vertices P(1, 0), Q(3, 1) and R(7, 3).
a Find the lengths of each of the sides.
b Classify PQR as scalene, isosceles or equilateral. Give a reason.

Classify LMN with vertices L(2, 1), M(0, 3) and N(4, 1) as scalene, isosceles or
equilateral. Give a reason.

The triangle XYZ has vertices X(1, 2), Y(2, 5) and Z(4, 1).
a Find the length of each of the sides XY, YZ and XZ.
b Use Pythagoras rule to decide if XYZ is right angled. Give a reason.
c Find the gradient of the sides XY, YZ and XZ.
d Use the gradients to decide if XYZ is right angled. Give a reason.

9
10

Is the triangle with the vertices D(2, 1), E(1, 1) and F(2, 3) right angled? Give a reason.
The triangle PQR has vertices P(2, 5), Q(3, 1) and R(4, 7).
a Find the coordinates of S, the midpoint of PQ.
b Find the coordinates of T, the midpoint of PR.
c Show that the length of QR is twice the length of ST.
d Show that ST is parallel to QR.

11

The quadrilateral PQRS has vertices P(2, 4), Q(5, 1), R(1, 2) and S(4, 1).
a Prove that PQRS is a parallelogram by showing that:
i the opposite sides are equal
ii the opposite sides are parallel
iii the diagonals bisect each other
iv one pair of opposite sides are equal and parallel.

455

456

## b Is PQRS a rectangle? Explain.

c Is PQRS a rhombus? Explain.
12

ABC is a triangle with vertices A(4, 4), B(3, 2) and C(2, 3).
a Show that ABC is isosceles with AC = AB.
b Find the midpoint D of the base BC.
c Find the length of AD.
d Prove that AD is perpendicular to BC.

13

Triangle XYZ has vertices X(1, 3), Y(4, 1) and Z(3, 3).
a Show that XYZ is right angled. Do this in two ways.
b Find the equation of the perpendicular bisector of XY.
c Find the equation of the side YZ.
d Show that the point of intersection of the perpendicular bisector of XY and the side
YZ is ( 1--2- , 1).
e Show that the perpendicular bisector of XZ also passes through the point ( 1--2- , 1).
f

14

Explain why ( 1--2- , 1) is the centre of a circle with X, Y and Z on its circumference. What
names are given to this point and the circle?

The triangle STU has vertices S(2, 5), T(2, 3) and U(4, 1).
a Find the equation of the perpendicular bisectors of each side.
b Hence, find the circumcentre of STU.

15

The quadrilateral WXYZ has vertices W(2, 3), X(4, 4), Y(3, 2) and Z(2, 4). The points A,B,
C, D are the midpoints of each of the sides WX, XY, YZ and ZW.
a Find the coordinates of A, B, C and D.
b What type of quadrilateral is ABCD?

16

THE AXES
y

## We know that the solution to the inequality x 1 can be drawn

on the number line as shown.

4
3

x=1

2
3 2 1

1 2

3 4

## The graph of x = 1 on the number plane is a line parallel

to the y-axis passing through x = 1 as shown.

1
4 3 2 1

x
1
2
3
4

1 2

3 4

457

## Combining these two graphs gives the graph of x 1

on the number plane. It includes all x-values to the right of x = 1.

2
1
This line is the
boundary of the
region.

4 3 2
2 1

x
1

1 2

3 4

2
3
4

y
4

## The dotted line indicates that x = 1 is not included, which is

similar to the open circle on number lines.

3
2
1
4 3 2
2 1

x
1

1 2

3 4 5

2
3
4

Example 1
Sketch the regions defined by:
a x2

y<3

458

a x2

y<3

2
1

1
4 3 2
2 1

x
1

3 4

4
4 3 2
2 1
1

2
3

4
4

3 4

## Line is parallel to the y-axis.

The line is solid and included

## Line is parallel to the x-axis.

Since y < 3 the shading is below the line
which is not solid.

Exercise 14F
1

## Sketch the following regions.

a x2
d y4
g y > 5
1
j x < 1 --4

b
e
h
k

x 1
x>3
y<7
3
y --2

c
f
i
l

y 2
x<1
x 4
y<1

Example 2
Sketch the region defined by the intersection of:
a x < 3 and y 1
b x 1 and y 2
y

4
3
y1
4 3 2
2 1

## The solution is the region that is shaded by both

graphs as shown opposite.

2
1

x
1
2
3
4

3 4

x<3

## Note: If one or more graphs are dotted lines then the

point of intersection is not included.

3
An open circle
shows that the
point (3, 1) is not
included.

y1

4 3 2
2 1

x
1

2
3

3 4

x<3

4

y
x1

3
y2

2
1

4 3 2
2 1

x
1

3 4

2
3
4

graphs.

y
x1

are solid lines.

y2
4 3 2
2 1

2
1

x
1

3 4

2
3
4

## Sketch the regions defined by the intersection of these regions.

a x 2 and y 2
b x > 1 and y 3
d x > 3 and y < 1
e x 4 and y 5
Shade the region defined by the intersection of these regions.
a x 2 and x < 4
b y > 3 and y 2
c x 4 and x < 1
d y 0 and y < 4

f x 2 and y > 4

459

460

## a Shade the region defined by x 3, y 2, x 1 and y 2.

b Describe the region.

Write inequalities that would result in a region that is a rectangle 4 6 units on the number
plane.

## G. REGIONS IN THE NUMBER PLANE

In the previous section all the lines were parallel to one of the axes. In this section regions involving any straight
line are considered.

Example 1
Sketch the region defined by:
a x+y3

b 2x y > 6

## a First, sketch the graph of the line x + y = 3.

Here the x intercept is 3 and the y intercept is 3.
4

Draw an unbroken
line because the
inequality contains
an equals sign.

3
2
1
4 3 2 1

x
1

3 4

2
3
4

Second, decide which side of the line to shade. In the previous section this was easy,
but here it may not be as clear.
To decide where to shade, choose a point on one side of
the line and test to see if it satisfies the inequality.

## To decide where to shade, choose a point on one side of

the line and test to see if it satisfies the inequality.

+
y

## For example, test (0, 0).

x+y 3
0+03
0 3 is true.
shade on the side of the line containing (0, 0).

4 3 2 1

1
2
3
4

3 4

## Always test (0, 0)

when possible as it is
easy to substitute.

b Step 1: 2x y = 6
Sketch 2x y = 6

## Step 2: Test (0, 0)

2x y > 6

x intercept when y = 0 is x = 3

2(0) 0 > 6

y intercept when x = 0 is y = 6

0 > 6 is false
shade the opposite side of the line
to (0, 0).

y
4
3

x
2

>6

3 4 5

2
3

2x

1
5 4 3 2 1

1
5 4 3 2 1

x
1

2
3

3 4 5

## The line is dotted as the inequality

does not contain an equals sign.

Exercise 14G
1

a x+y2
b x+y4
e xy5
f x y 3

c x+y>3
g yx<3

d x + y < 2
h yx>2

a 2x y 4
b 2x 3y > 6
e y 2x < 4
f 4x y < 3

c 4x y > 4
g 6x 5y 15

d 3x + 5y 15
h 3x + 5y 15

461

462

## Straight Lines and Regions (Chapter 14) Syllabus reference PAS5.3.3

Example 2
Sketch the region defined by:
b y 4x

a y > 3x
a y > 3x

y

y = 3x

y = 3x

3
2

1
4 3 2 1

x
1

4 3 2 1

3 4

2
3

2
3

3 4

## Step 2: Choose a point on one side of the line,

say (1, 0). Any point may be used.

(0, 0) cannot be
used as the line
passes through
the origin.

Test (1, 0)
y > 3x
0 > 3(1)
0 > 3 is false

## shade the opposite side of the line to (1, 0)

b y 4x
Step 1: Sketch y = 4x using an unbroken line.
4

y
y = 4x

## Step 2: Use the point (0, 2) to test.

2
1
4 3 2 1

x
1
2
3
4

3 4

y 4x

2 4(0)

2 0 is false

side of the line to
4 3 2 1
(0, 2).

x
1
2
3
4

3 4

## Sketch these regions on the number plane.

a y 2x
b y < 3x
e y > 5x
f y > x

d yx
h y 3x

c y<x
g y 2x

Example 3
Write an equation to describe the region.
a
4

6
5
y
4

3
2

1
4 3 2 1

(2, 6)

x
1

3 4

1
x

2
3

4 3 2 1

3 4

2
3
4
5
6

## a Step 1: Find the equation of the line.

rise
m = --------y intercept is 2.
run
2
= + --3
2
equation is y = --- x + 2
3
3y = 2x + 6

## b Step 1: Find the equation of the line

rise
m = --------- y intercept is 0.
run
6
= --2
=3
equation is y = 3x

3y 2x = 6
Step 2: Substitute a point in the
region, not on the line, e.g. (0, 0).
3y 2x = 6
Test 3(0) 2(0) = 6
0 = 6 is false

## Step 2: Substitute a point in the

region, e.g. (1, 0).
y = 3x
Test 0 = 3(1)
0 = 3 is false

## Use an inequality to make the

statement true, e.g. use <.

## Use an inequality to make the

statement true, e.g. use <.

inequality is 3y 2x < 6

inequality is y < 3x

463

464

a
4

1
4 3 2 1

x
1

4 3 2
2 1

3 4

x
1

2
3

2
3

3 4

d
4

1
4 3 2 1

x
1

3 4

5
5 4 3 2
2 1

x
1

2
3

2
3

3 4

f
y
(2,
2 8)

5
5 4 3 2
2 1

(4, 2)
x

2
3

1
4 3 2 1

x
1
2
3
4

3 4

4
5

3 4

## Straight Lines and Regions (Chapter 14) Syllabus reference PAS5.3.3

non-calculator activities
1

Evaluate 8 2.63.

## Convert 5.23 cm to mm.

Peter buys a pair of jeans marked at \$75.00. If he received 10% discount, how much does he
pay for the jeans?

Red and blue lollies are sold in the ratio 2 : 5. If there are 16 red lollies in a bag, how many
are blue?

Solve 5 2x = 9.

## Find d in this triangle.

5 cm

13 cm

d cm

10

Al works in a shoe store and notes that the mode female shoe size sold is 7 1--2- . Explain the
term mode.

11

12

## 1 1--What is the value of -----------51- ?

1 + --5-

13

My car uses 15 L of petrol per 100 km. Find the number of litres of petrol needed to travel
350 km.

14

Between which two consecutive whole numbers is the square root of 67.3?

15

465

466

## Straight Lines and Regions (Chapter 14) Syllabus reference PAS5.3.3

Language in Mathematics

Pierre de Fermat

(16011665)

## Pierre de Fermat was born in Beaumont-de-Lomagne in

France, near the border with Spain. He studied Latin and
Greek literature, ancient science, mathematics and modern
languages at the University of Toulouse, but his main purpose
was to study law.
In 1629 Fermat studied the work of Appollonius, a geometer
of ancient Greece, and discovered for himself that loci or sets
of points could be studied using coordinates and algebra. His
work Introduction to Loci was not published for another fifty
years, and together with La Geometrie by Descartes, formed
the basis of Cartesian geometry.
In 1631 Fermat received his degree in law, was later awarded the status of a minor nobleman, and
in 1648 became Kings Councillor,
Fermat was a man of great integrity who worked hard. He remained aloof from matters outside his
own jurisdiction, and pursued his great interest in mathematics. He worked with Pascal on the
theory of probability and the principles of permutations and combinations. He worked on a variety
of equations and curves and the Archimedean spiral. In 1657 he wrote Concerning the Comparison
of Curved and Straight Lines which was published during his lifetime.
Fermat died in 1665. He was acknowledged master of mathematics in France at the time, but his
fame would have been greater if he had published more of his work while he was alive. He became
known as the founder of the modem theory of numbers.
In mid-1993, one of the most famous unsolved problems in mathematics, Fermats Last Theorem
was solved by Andrew Wiles of Princeton University (USA). Wiles made the final breakthrough after
350 years of searching by many famous mathematicians (both amateur and professional). Wiles is
a former student and collaborator of Australian Mathematician John Coates.
Fermats Last Theorem is a simple assertion which he wrote in the margin of a mathematics book,
but which he never proved, although he claimed he could. The theorem is:
The equation x n + y n = z n, when the exponent n is greater than 2, has no solutions in positive
integers.
Wiles work establishes a whole new mathematical theory, proposed and developed over the last
60 years by the finest mathematical minds of the 20th century.
1

## Answer these questions based on the biography of Pierre de Fermat.

a How old was Fermat when he studied Appollonius?

## Straight Lines and Regions (Chapter 14) Syllabus reference PAS5.3.3

467

b When was his work Introduction to Loci published? What was it about?
c Who solved Fermats last theorem?
d Explain Fermats last theorem. Research this theorem and write a one-page report.
2

## Use every third letter to find a sentence.

DFTEDWVGOHULIOIKJNHGEFDSASAERRTGEBNPMIEKJRGTP
HRKIOLODPOUTUCXYTTTORRFEETDDHFFEXFIVHRNPGOIRYT
AEDDSVIHUEKANEDTASSCFIVGSFDNESEAEGAEAAETDRIFGV
HNEMJOTGNAXEHUAJKNUPDZCTVBHMKELPYIOAUYRUIEIJPH
GAIERETARELETLRTEASLCVIBHFNGTDSHFGEHNIMJRIKGUY

Glossary
boundary
linear relationship
product
translation

equation
inequality
parallel
reflection
y-intercept

1

general form
inequation
perpendicular
region

line
point
sketch

The equation of the line passing through (2, 6) with gradient 2 is:
A y = 2x + 3
B y = 2x 7
C y = 2x 2

D y = 2x + 7

The equation of the line passing through A(4, 5) and B(2, 13) is:
A y = x 1
B y=x+5
C y = 3x 7

D y = x + 1

The equation of the line cutting the y axis at 4 and the x axis at +5 is:
4
4
5x
A y = --- x 4
B y = --- x 4
C y = ------ 4
5
5
4

5x
D y = ------ 4
4

A y = 3x 3
B y = 3x 3
C y = x + 3
D y = 2x 3

y
3
2
1
3 2 1

x
1
2
3

468

## The value of a if (a, 1) lies on the line y = 3x 2 is:

A 0
B 1
C 2

D 3

1
In general form y = --- x
2
A 6y 3x + 8 = 0

4
--- is:
3
B 3x 6y 8 = 0

C 3x + 2y 4 = 0

1
4
--- x y --- = 0
2
3

3x
3x
A 2y = 3x + 4
B 3x 2y = 8
C y = ------ + 8
D y = ------ 4
2
2

A 4 and 3
B 3 and 4

10

11

12

## The line parallel to y = 3x + 1 is:

1
1
A y = --- x + 1
B y = --- x + 1
3
3
The line perpendicular to 3x + 5y + 7 = 0 is:
A 3x + 5y 2 = 0
B 3x 5y 7 = 0

C 4 and 3

D 3 and 4

C y = 3x + 3

D y = x + 3

C 3x + 5y + 7 = 0

5x
D y = ------ + 2
3

The triangle ABC with vertices A(2, 0), B(1, 4) and C(6, 3) is:
A scalene
B isosceles
C equilateral
The region defined by y 3 is:
A
4

1
4 3
3 2
2 1
1

x
1

4 3
3 2
2 1
1

3 4

1
2
3

2
3

D
4

1
4 3
3 2
2 1
1

1
2
3

3 4

3 4

x
1

D right angled

4 3
3 2
2 1
1

x
1
2
3

3 4

13

A x 3 and y 2
B x > 3 and y 2
C x < 3 and y 3
D x 3 and y 2

469

3
2
1
4 3
3 2
2 1
1

x
1

3 4

2
3

14

## The region defined by 3x y 6 is:

A

1
4 3 2 1
1

x
1

3 4

4 3 2 1
1

2
3
3

3 4

3 4

2
3
3

D
y

1
4 3 2 1
1

y
3

x
1

3 4

4 3 2 1
1

2
3
3

1
2
3
3

7
8

If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question

15

68

9, 10

11

12,13

14

Section

A and B

470

1

## For the points A(3, 1) and B(5, 0) find:

b the equation of the line through A and B
c the x- and y-intercepts of the line AB
d the equation of the line perpendicular to AB passing through A
e the equation of the line parallel to AB passing through the point (3, 0)

## a Write 3y = 4x 7 in general form.

b Find the equation of the line passing through (4, 7) and (2, 6) in general form.
c Sketch the line 3x 4y + 12 = 0.

a Find the fourth vertex of the parallelogram ABCD for A(7, 11), B(6, 5) and C(3, 8).
b Find the equation of the line from A(7, 2) to the midpoint of the line segment joining
B(6, 4) to C(3, 1).

## a Find k if 2x + ky = 5 is perpendicular to x 3y = 11.

b A(1, 3), B(2, 4) and C(t, 1) are collinear. Find t.

a
b
4

2
1

1
4 3 2 1

x
1

3 4

6
6 5
5 4 3 2 1

2
3

2
3
3

3 4

## REVIEW SET 14B

1

Find the equation of the line passing through M(4, 2) and N(3, 7).

## Find the equation of the line passing through (4, 5) perpendicular to 3x 2y + 7 = 0.

2
Write y = --- x 4 in general form.
3

Find the equation of the perpendicular bisector of the join of (2, 3) and (4, 5).

a y < 1

xy>6

c 2x 3y 12.

1

## For the points P(6, 3) and Q(1, 5) find:

b the equation of the line through P and Q
c the x- and y-intercepts of the line PQ
d the equation of the line perpendicular to PQ passing through Q
e the equation of the line parallel to PQ passing through the origin

## a Write 4x 7y + 8 = 0 in gradientintercept form.

b Find the equation of the line passing through (4, 2) and the origin in general form.
c Sketch the line 6x 7y + 9 = 0.

## a Determine z if 2x + 5y = 11 and zx 3y = 9 are perpendicular.

b A(2, 4), B(3, 7) and D(1, d) lie on the same straight line. Find the value of d.
c Find the coordinates of D for parallelogram ABCD if A(2, 3), B(1, 7) and C(5, 1)
are vertices.

Sketch x 3y = 7.

a x 1

b 2x y > 4

471

472

## REVIEW SET 14D

1

a Find the equation of the line with gradient 3 passing through (2, 4).
b Find the equation of the line parallel to 3x 5y = 8 passing through the origin.

3x
Write y = ------ + 2 in general form.
4

Find the area of the triangle formed when 2x 3y = 6 cuts the coordinate axes.

## Does (1, 4) lie on the line 3x 5y + 2 = 0? Explain.

Sketch:
a the intersection of y 2 and x < 1
b 3x y > 6
c y 4x

## LEY_bk9_15_finalpps Page 473 Wednesday, January 12, 2005 12:08 PM

Chapter 15
Surds and Indices
This chapter deals with defining the system of real numbers, distinguishing between rational
and irrational numbers, performing operations with surds, using integers and fractions for
index notation, and converting between surd and index form.
After completing this chapter you should be able to:
define real numbers and distinguish between rational and irrational numbers
simplify expressions involving surds
expand expressions involving surds
rationalise the denominators of simple surds
use the index laws to define fractional indices
translate expressions in surd form to expressions in index form and vice versa
evaluate numerical expressions involving fractional indices
use the calculator to evaluate fractional powers of numbers
evaluate a fraction raised to the power of 1
prove some general properties of real numbers.

WM: S5.3.1S5.3.5

474

Diagnostic Test
1

correct?

10

4 = 2

4 = 2

12

B 225

C 15

30

40
---------- =
5
A 8

13

32 =

180

10 2 6

2( 5 2 3) =

150 D

900
14

1
B --8

C 2 2 D

D 2 1--9-

B 10 10 2 5

C 8 5

D 2 15 + 6 10
17
B 4 2

C 2 3+ 2

D 2 5

10 4 3

D 10 2 6

( 5 + 2) =
B 7 + 2 10
14

D 2 7

## Expressed with a rational denominator,

15
---------- C
6

5
------3

10
---------6

1
--2

10 =
1
B --5

In index form,
B k

1
10 D ---------10

C
4

4
--3

k =
C k

3
--4

D k7

2
--3

When evaluated, 27 =
A 18

18 + 2 =
20

A k12
16

A 8 15

10 2 3

A 5

35
15

C 4 1--3-

5
----------- =
2 3
5
A ------6

4 10 2 5 + 6 10 =

D 9 5

n, 5 6 =

180 C

1
4 --- =
9
37
A ---------- B 2 1--33

C 10 30

A 7

(3 5 )2 =

B 30 2

11

A 2 8 B 8 2 C 16 2 D 4 2
5

A 30 6

C 4 = 2

## Which of the following is not a rational

number?
9
A
11 B
------ C 2 3--4D 4.7
16
A 45

2 35 6 =

3
---
5

B 9

C 6

D 40.5

3
B --5

5
C --3

A 1 2--3-

=
1
-----15

If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question

37

8, 9

1012

13

1416

17

Section

## A. THE SQUARE ROOT OF A NUMBER

The square root of a number, x, is that number which when multiplied by itself is equal to x.
For example, the square root of 9 is 3 or 3, since 32 = 9 and (3)2 = 9.
x is the positive square root of x, e.g.,

## 9 = 3. x is then the negative square root of x.

Example 1
Write down:
a the square root of 81

81

c 81

## a the square root of 81 = 9 or 9

81 = 9

c 81 = 9

Exercise 15A
1

Write down:
a the square root of 4
d the square root of 25
g the square root of 49
j the square root of 64

4
25
49
64

b
e
h
k

c
f
i
l

4
25
49
64

Example 2
Find, where possible:
a

9 =3

c
b

9 = 3

## c Since there is no number which multiplied by itself is equal to 9, it is not possible

to find 9 . We say that 9 is undefined.
d The square root of 0 is 0, since 0 0 = 0. Zero is neither positive nor negative but
we define 0 = 0.
2

a
4
b 4
f 16
g
16
k 25
l
81

c
h
m

x = 0 for x = 0

4
36
64

d
0
i 36
n 100

e
j
o

16
36
1

475

476

## B. THE REAL NUMBER SYSTEM

Real numbers are those that can be represented by points on a number line. Real numbers are either rational or
irrational.
a
A rational number is one that can be expressed as the ratio - of two integers, where b 0.
b
An irrational number is a real number that is not rational.

Example 1
Show that the following are rational numbers:
3
a 2 --b 0.637
c 3
4

d 0. 4

e 3.1

3
11
a 2 --- = -----4
4
a
3
This is in the form --- , where a and b are integers, hence 2 --- is a rational number.
b
4
637
b 0.637 = ------------1000
a
This is in the form --- , where a and b are integers, hence 0.637 is a rational number.
b
3
c 3 = --1
a
This is in the form --- , where a and b are integers, hence 3 is a rational number.
b
4
d 0. 4 = --- (You learnt how to convert recurring decimals into fractions in chapter 5.)
9
a
This is in the form --- , where a and b are integers, hence 0. 4 . is a rational number.
b
1
e 3.1 = 3 ----10
31
= -----10
a
This is in the form --- , where a and b are integers, hence 3.1 is a rational number.
b
From Example 1 we note that:
Any terminating or recurring decimal is a rational number.

Exercise 15B
1

a
Show that the following are rational numbers by expressing them in the form --- .
b
a 4 2--3b 0.91
c 5
d 0. 7
e 5 1--2f
4
16
--g 0. 5 3
h 2.6
i
j
k 30%
l
9

2.84

## Convert the following rational numbers to decimals.

3
5
-----a --b 1 5--8c 4 2--3d
5
12
g 6.5%
h 17 2--3- %

69%

1
--7

7.3%

477

## From question 2 we note that:

When a rational number is converted to a decimal, the decimal either terminates or recurs.

Example 2
Convert the following real numbers to a decimal and discuss whether they are
rational or irrational.
a

Using a calculator
a
2 = 1.414 213 562
b
5 = 2.236 067 978
Since neither decimal terminates or recurs (although we have only been able to show
an answer to 9 decimal places, the limit of the calculator display) these numbers
cannot be expressed as the ratio of two integers and hence are not rational. They are
irrational numbers.

Example 3
Determine whether the following real numbers are rational or irrational.
16
a
6
b
-----49
a

6 = 2.449 897 43
Since the decimal neither terminates nor recurs, it cannot be expressed as the
ratio of two integers, hence 6 is an irrational number.
4 4 16
16 4
------ = --- (since --- --- = ------ )
7 7 49
49 7
a
This is in the form --- , where a and b are integers, hence
b

16
------ is a rational number.
49

## Determine whether the following real numbers are rational or irrational

4
a
8
b
c
d
-----9
11
25

5
-----16

Example 4
Using a calculator
statements:
a

6 = 2.44

b

6 = 2.449

6 = 2.4494

478

## a 2.442 = 5.9536 The statement is false.

b 2.4492 = 5.997 601 The statement is false.
c 2.44942 = 5.999 560 36 The statement is false.
Because 6 is irrational its exact value cannot be written as a decimal. The values
given in parts a, b and c are rational approximations for 6 .
4

Using a calculator
a
2 = 1.41

## Write rational approximations, correct to 3 decimal places, for:

a
11
b
15
c
37
d
99

2 = 1.414 213 562 Write true or false for the following statements:
b 2 = 1.414
c
2 = 1.4142

151

a Using a ruler and set square, copy the diagram below into your exercise book.
P1
1
3

O
0

1 Q 2

## b Use Pythagoras theorem to calculate the length of the interval OP1.

c Using a pair of compasses as shown, accurately mark the position of
line.
7

2 on the number

P2
1
P1
2
3

O
0

1
1 Q 2

## b Calculate the length of OP2.

c Mark the position of 3 on the number line.
8

## Extend the diagram in question 7 to show the position on a number line of

4,

5,

6,

Extension:
Proof that

2 is irrational

In example 2 we cannot be certain that the decimal form of 2 does not terminate or recur after some large
number of decimal places, hence it is not a proof that 2 is irrational. Work through the following proof with
a
Assume that 2 is rational. That is, assume that 2 can be written in the form -- , where a and b are integers
b
and the fraction is written in its simplest form (i.e. a and b have no common factors).
a
If
2 = -b
2

and

a
2 = ----2b
a 2 = 2b 2 . (1)

## Hence a 2 is even (any multiple of 2 is even) and therefore a is even.

If a is even, then a may be written in the form 2k, where k is an integer.

i.e. a
a2
4k 2
b2

= 2k
= 4k 2
= 2b 2
= 2k 2

## Hence b 2 is even and therefore b is even.

a
But if a and b are both even then the fraction -- cannot be in its simplest form, which contradicts our original
b
statement.
a
Therefore 2 cannot be written in the form -- where a and b are integers with no common factor, i.e. 2 is
b
not rational.

C. PROPERTIES OF SURDS
In section B we distinguished between rational and irrational numbers. The set of irrational numbers contains
numbers such as 2 , 3 2 , etc. Irrational numbers that contain the radical sign
are called surds.
When working with surds we may use the
following properties:
If x > 0 and y > 0,
2

1 ( x) = x =

A set is a group
of objects
(numbers, letters,
names ).

xy = x y
x
x
- = -----y
y

2
3

Example 1
Simplify:
2

( 5)

## 5 is the positive number which

multiplied by itself is equal to 5.
2
Hence ( 5 ) = 5

c (3 5 )2 = 3 5 3 5
= 9 ( 5 )2
=95
= 45

c (3 5)
b

5 = 25
=5

479

480

Exercise 15C
1

Simplify:
a ( 11 )2
f (3 2 )2

c ( 8 )2
h (5 2 )2

b
11
g (2 3 )2

d
8
i (10 7 )2

e ( 6 )2
j (4 5 )2

Example 2
Simplify:
a

5 3

## Using property 2 from above:

a
5 3 = 53
= 15

Simplify:
2 7
a
d
7 11
g
7 5 10

b
e

6 7

6 7 =
=

67
42

3 10
13 17

c
f

5 2
3 2 5

Example 3
Simplify:
a

28

45

Using property 2:
a
28 = 2 14 or 4 7
= 2 14 or 4 7
Since 4 is a perfect square, 4 simplifies to 2 and we choose the second product.
i.e.
28 = 4 7
= 2 7
= 2 7
b We look for factors of 45, one of which is a perfect square.
45 = 9 5
= 3 5

Simplify:
a
12
f
90
k
24

b
g
l

20
50
32

c
h
m

18
75
48

d
i
n

27
200
72

e
j
o

8
98
128

## Surds and Indices (Chapter 15) Syllabus reference NS5.3.1

Example 4
Simplify:
a

3 12

2 6

3 12 = 36
= 6

2 6 =

12
4 3

= 2 3
4

Simplify:
a
8 2
f
14 2

b
g

2 32
8 5

c
h

5 20
15 3

d
i

2 10
15 5

10 5
3 8

e
j

Example 5
Express 3 5 in the form
3 5 =
=

n.

9 5
45

## Express in the form n .

a 3 2
b 2 3

c 4 5

5 2

10 7

Example 6
Simplify:
16
a
-----25

Using property 3:
16
16
a
------ = ---------25
25
4
= --5

Simplify:
9
a
-----16
f

21
-----9

11
-----25

21
---
4

11
11
------ = ---------25
25
11
= ---------5

c 21
--- =
4

9
--4

1
3
= --- = 1 --2
2

9
-----25

17
-----25

5
-----16

11
-----16

61
---
4

17
---
9

13
---
4

25
---
9

481

482

## Surds and Indices (Chapter 15) Syllabus reference NS5.3.1

Example 7
Simplify:
12
a ---------3

15
---------5

15
---------- =
5

40
---------5

40
---------- =
5

Using property 3:
12
a ---------- =
3

12
-----3

= 4
= 2
7

40
-----5
8

= 2 2

Simplify:
24
a ---------6

18
b ---------2

30
---------6

24
g ---------3

24
h ---------2

f
8

15
-----5

18
---------3

20
d ---------10
i

24
e ---------8

32
---------2

54
---------3

Determine whether the following statements are true or false. Give a reason.
2

a ( 5) = 5
e

20 5 = 10

b 3 7 =
f

12
---------- =
2

c (4 2) = 8

21
6

18 = 2 3

1
1
1 --- = 1 --4
2

Example 1
Simplify:
a 3 2+5 2

8 52 5

a 3 2+5 2 = 8 2

8 52 5 = 6 5

Exercise 15D
1

Simplify:
a 5 3+4 3

b 7 11 + 6 11

c 7 53 5

e 6 3+4 3+5 3

8 3+5 37 3

g 15 6 3 6 4 6

5 10 7 10

8 53 5+2 5

3 58 5+2 5

d 9 74 7

## Surds and Indices (Chapter 15) Syllabus reference NS5.3.1

Example 2
Simplify:
a 4 2+5 3+3 2

7 6+4 73 65 7

7 6+4 73 65 7 = 4 6 7

## Collect like surds.

a 4 2+5 3+3 2 = 7 2+5 3

Simplify:
a 5 2+4 3+6 2

b 7 3+4 5+3 5

c 6 2+5 2+2 3

d 5 7 2 10 + 3 7

e 6 5 + 2 11 3 5

7 10 4 6 6 10

g 5 2+6 33 2+ 3

6 3+2 75 34 7

4 11 3 10 6 11 2 10

10 5 4 3 5 3 + 2 5

Example 3
Simplify:
a

18 + 2

50 18

18 + 2 = 3 2 + 2

50 18 = 5 2 3 2
= 2 2

= 4 2

Simplify:
a

18 + 4 2

12 + 5 3

20 2 5

45 + 20

54 24

48 12

24 + 3 6 4 6

75 48 27

6 2 18 2 2

d 6 2 8

Simplify:
a 5 6 + 24 3 5

e 7 5 20 + 45 5 6

28 + 27 + 63 + 12

50 + 6 3 8

c 8 10 + 4 5 90

Determine whether the following statements are true or false. Give reasons.
a

5+ 3 =

d 4 3 + 2 7 = 6 10

b 3 52 5 = 1
e 6 2 =

72

24 6 =

483

484

## Surds and Indices (Chapter 15) Syllabus reference NS5.3.1

E. MULTIPLICATION OF SURDS
Example 1
Simplify:
a 43 7

b 3 52 3

6 23 8

d 5 84 3

b 3 5 2 3 = (3 2) ( 5 3)

a 43 7 = 43 7

= 6 15

= 12 7

d 5 8 4 3 = (5 4) ( 8 3)

c 6 2 3 8 = (6 3) ( 2 8)

= 20 24

= 18 16
= 18 4
= 72

= 20 2 6
= 40 6

Exercise 15E
1

Simplify:
a 52 3

b 26 2

e 3 36 2

f
j

6 2 3 18

m 5 32 8

c 4 7 10

d 2 65

10 5 3 7

g 6 77 6

h 5 12 2 3

2 32 5 2

o 6 62 2

5 3 20

3 64 3

p 3 10 2

Example 2
Simplify:
a 3( 7 + 2 6)
a

2( 7 3 5)

3( 7 + 2 6) = 3 7 + 3 2 6

4 3(2 5 + 3 2)

2( 7 3 5) =
=

= 3 7+6 6

2 7 23 5
14 3 10

c 4 3 (2 5 + 3 2) = 4 3 2 5 + 4 3 3 2
= 8 15 + 12 6

Simplify:
a 5( 6 + 3)
d

3( 5 + 2)

g 3 2( 7 4 3)
j

2 10 ( 6 2 3 10 )

b 2( 5 + 4 3)

c 4 ( 2 10 3 2 )

5( 6 4 3)

2(3 5 + 2 7)

h 4 3 ( 2 5 + 5 10 )

3 5(2 3 + 4 5)

k 5 2(3 5 2 6)

3 6(4 3 + 2 8)

485

## Surds and Indices (Chapter 15) Syllabus reference NS5.3.1

Example 3
Simplify:
a ( 5 + 3)( 5 4)

b (2 3 2 5)(4 3 + 5)

a ( 5 + 3)( 5 4) =

( 7 + 3)

5( 5 4) + 3( 5 4)

= 5 4 5 + 3 5 12
= 7
b

## (2 3 2 5)(4 3 + 5) = 2 3(4 3 + 5) 2 5(4 3 + 5)

= 24 + 2 15 8 15 10
= 14 6 15

( 7 + 3) = ( 7) + 2 7 3 + ( 3)

= 7 + 2 21 + 3
= 10 + 2 21

Simplify:
a ( 3 + 5)( 3 + 2)

b ( 7 + 3)( 7 4)

c ( 10 6 ) ( 10 1 )

d ( 5 3)( 5 + 3)

e (2 3 + 5)( 3 + 1)

(3 2 + 4)(2 2 7)

g (2 5 3)(4 5 + 3)

h (5 2 2 3)(3 2 + 4 3)

(3 7 + 5 2)( 7 4 2)

k (3 5 + 4 2)(3 5 3 2)

(2 7 + 5)(2 7 5)

(2 6 4 3)(3 6 3)

m (4 5 3 2)(4 5 + 3 2) n ( 3 + 6)
p ( 10 5 )
4

o ( 5 + 2)

q (2 5 + 3)

r (3 7 2 5)

Determine whether the following statements are true or false. Give reasons.
a 2 33 2 = 6 6
d

7( 2 3) =

14 3

b 4 3 5 = 12 60

c 3 12 5 3 = 90

e ( 5 + 3) = 8

## F. RATIONALISING THE DENOMINATOR OF A SURD

Example 1
Rationalise the denominator of:
1
5
a ------b ------7
7

3
------7

5 3
----------7

486

## Rationalise the denominator of a fraction means to convert it to an equivalent fraction

with a rational denominator. Since a a = a , we proceed as follows.
5
7
5
b ------- = ------- ------7
7
7

1
7
1
a ------ = ------- ------7
7
7

7
= ------7

5 7
= ----------7

3
7
3
------- = ------- ------7
7
7

5 3
7
5 3
d ----------- = ----------- ------7
7
7
5 21
= -------------7

21
= ---------7

Exercise 15F
1

## Rationalise the denominator of:

1
a ------5

1
b ------3

8
------7

3
g ------5

7
h ------3

3 2
----------5

3 7
m ----------6

5 5
n ----------2

4 3
----------10

1
---------10

5
d ------2

3
e ------6

11
---------6

2
------7

4 10
o -------------3

Example 2
Rationalise the denominator of:
1
5
a ----------b ----------4 7
4 7

1
7
1
a ---------- = ----------- ------4 7
7
4 7

5
7
5
----------- = ----------- ------4 7
7
4 7

7
= ------28

5 3
----------4 7
5 3
7
5 3
----------- = ----------- ------4 7
7
4 7

5 7
= ----------28

5 21
= -------------28

## Rationalise the denominator of:

a

1
----------2 3

1
----------3 5

4
----------5 2

8
----------3 7

5
----------3 2

10
----------4 3

5 7
-------------3 10

6 2
----------5 3

3 5
-------------2 11

2 7
----------5 6

## Surds and Indices (Chapter 15) Syllabus reference NS5.3.1

Extension

Example 3
a Expand and simplify ( 5 + 3 ) ( 5 3 ) .
1
b Hence rationalise the denominator of
i --------------------5+ 3

1
ii --------------------5 3

a ( 5 + 3 ) ( 5 3 ) = 5 15 + 15 3
= 2

b i

1
5 3
1
--------------------- = --------------------- --------------------5+ 3
5 3
5+ 3

ii

1
5+ 3
1
--------------------- = --------------------- --------------------5 3
5+ 3
5 3
5+ 3
= --------------------2

5 3
= --------------------2
3

## a Expand and simplify ( 7 + 2 ) ( 7 2 ) .

1
i -------------------------( 7 + 2)
a Expand and simplify ( 10 + 3 ) ( 10 3 ) .
1
b Hence rationalise the denominator of
i ----------------------------( 10 + 3 )
a Expand and simplify ( 5 + 2 ) ( 5 2 ) .
1
b Hence rationalise the denominator of
i ---------------------( 5 + 2)
a Expand and simplify ( 6 + 3 ) ( 6 3 ) .
5
b Hence rationalise the denominator of
i ---------------------(6 + 3)
a Expand and simplify ( 2 3 + 2 ) ( 2 3 2 ) .
5
b Hence rationalise the denominator of
i -----------------------------(2 3 + 2)
a Expand and simplify ( 3 2 + 5 ) ( 3 2 5 ) .
( 2 + 3)
b Hence rationalise the denominator of
i ------------------------(3 2 + 5)
Rationalise the denominator of:
b Hence rationalise the denominator of

Remember that
2
2
(a + b)(a b) = a b

1
a --------------------( 6 2)

3
b ----------------------------( 10 + 2 )

( 10 2 )
d ------------------------10 + 2

(2 5 + 3 2)
e --------------------------------(2 5 3 2)

1
ii ------------------------( 7 2)
1
ii -----------------------10 3
1
ii --------------------( 5 2)
10
ii --------------------(6 3)
7
ii ----------------------------(2 3 2)
ii

( 5 + 1)
c ---------------------3 2

(3 2 4)
------------------------(3 2 5)

487

488

## Surds and Indices (Chapter 15) Syllabus reference NS5.3.1

G. FRACTIONAL INDICES
Example 1
1 4

--4-
a Use the index laws to simplify a .

4

b Simplify ( 4 a ) .
a

1 4

--4-
a

= a
= a

c
b

1
--- 4
4

1
--4

## Hence show that a =

4

(4 a) =

a.

a4 a4 a4 a

= a
1

= a
1 4

--4-
c Since a

1
--4

= ( 4 a ) = a , then a =

Exercise 15G
1 2

--2-
a Use the index laws to simplify a .
2

b Simplify ( a ) . 1--2
c Hence show that a = a .
1 3

--3-
a Use the index laws to simplify a .
3

b Simplify ( 3 a ) . --13
c Hence show that a = 3 a .

Example 2
Write in surd form:
a k
a

1
--5
1
--5

k =

1
-----10
1
-----10

10

a m

1
--4

e 17

1
--6

b y
f

1
--2

25

c p
1
--4

1
--3

g 62

d t
1
--3

1
--8

h a

1
--n

## Surds and Indices (Chapter 15) Syllabus reference NS5.3.1

Example 3
Evaluate:
a 25

1
--2

25 = 25
= 5

1
--4

256

256 = 4 256
= 4 ( since 4 4 4 4 = 256 )

1
--4

Evaluate:
a 49
f

1
--2

1
--2

b 27

1
--3

1
--3

h 121

c
1
--2

625
81

1
--4

d 32

1
--4

64

1
--5

e 1000 000

1
--3

k 1

1
-----10

## Use your calculator to evaluate, correct to 2 decimal places:

a 5

1
--3

b 2

1
--4

c 298

1
--5

d 41

1
--2

e 831

Example 4
Write in index form:
a
a

7
7 = 7

1
--3

## Write in index form:

a
10
6
e
56

b
f

3
3

m = m

1
--5

c
g

7
y

Example 5
Write in index form:
a ( m)

3
1
--3 2

1 3

--2-
( m) = m

3

= m
= m

1
--- 3
2
3
--2

m = (m )
= m
= m

1
3 --2
3
--2

4
5

5
k

d
h

38
m

1
--6

1
--6

489

490

## Write in index form:

5
a ( m)
b
f

m
4

c (3 m)

e ( a)

(4 t)

Example 6
Write down the meaning of:
a k

3
--4

--4-
k = k

1
--3 4

1 3

3
--4

5
--3
1 5

5
--3

1
--5 3

--3-
b w = w

or ( k )

= ( 4 k ) or

= (3 w)

or ( w )
5

or

a

2
--3

4
--3

3
--2

3
--5

Example 7
Evaluate:
a 8

5
--3

5
---

a 83 = ( 3 8 )

25

25 = ( 25 )

3
--2

= 5
= 125

Evaluate:
a
e

10

= 2
= 32

3
--2

9
4

3
--2

5
--2

8
8

2
--3

c 16

4
--3

g 49

3
--4

d 27

3
--2

h 32

4
---

a 729 3

3
---

b 16 807 5

13
------

c 1024 10

4
--3
3
--5

5
--2

Exercise 15H
1

## Use the fraction key on your calculator to evaluate (as a fraction):

a

5
---
2

6
---
5

9
---
7

2
---
3

3
---
4

a 1
b
Show that --- = --- .
b
a

If a and b are real numbers, determine whether the following statements are true or false. If
false give a counter example.
A counter example
(Hint: Try several different pairs of real
is an example that
numbers to test the truth of the statements.)
demonstrates the
statement is false.
a i a + b is a real number
ii a b is a real number
iii a b is a real number
iv a b is a real number
b i a+b=b+a
ii a b = b a
iii a b = b a
iv) a b = b a
c i (a + b) + c = a + (b + c)
ii (a b) c = a (b c)
iii (a b) c = a (b c)
iv (a b) c = a (b c)
d i a0=0
ii a + 0 = a
iii a 1 = a
iv a a = 1

If m and n are rational numbers, determine whether the following statements are true or
false. If false give a counter example.
a m + n is always rational
b m n is always rational
c m n is always rational
d m n is always rational

## Find a pair of surds which satisfy the condition:

a the product of the surds is irrational b the product is rational
c the quotient is irrational
d the quotient is rational

## a Write down three consecutive integers starting with y.

b Hence show that the sum of any three consecutive integers is divisible by 3.

a Show that any even number can be written in the form 2k, where k is an integer.
b Show that any odd number can be written in the form 2k + 1, where k is an integer.
c Hence prove the following properties of numbers:
i the sum of any two even numbers is even
ii the sum of any two odd numbers is even
iii the sum of an even number and an odd number is odd
iv the product of two even numbers is even
v the product of an odd number and an even number is even
vi the product of two odd numbers is odd.

491

492

## Surds and Indices (Chapter 15) Syllabus reference NS5.3.1

Language in Mathematics
1

## a Explain, in words, how to calculate:

i the square of a number
ii the square root of a number.
b Write down the:
i square of 9
ii square root(s) of 9.
c Which of the following numbers are perfect squares: 1, 4, 12, 25, 27, 200?
d Write in words:

m2

a real number

ii

iii m

b rational number

1
---

iv m 2

What is a:

c irrational number?

Use words from the list below to complete the following statements.
a Every rational number can be expressed as a ___ or ___ decimal.
b Converting the denominator of a fraction into a rational numbers is called ___ the
denominator.
c The mathematical sign
is called the ___ sign.
d A counter example is an example which demonstrates that a statement is ___ .

## Write down an example of three consecutive integers.

a Find the
i sum and
b What is the quotient when 13 is divided by 5?

Use a dictionary to write down two meanings of each of the following words:
general, property, index

Three of the words in the following list have been spelt incorrectly. Rewrite them with the
correct spelling.
ratio, convurt, indixes, recur, fractional, intejer

ii product of 5 and 9.

Glossary
approximation
fractional
integer
property
rational
recurring

consecutive
general
irrational
quotient
rationalise
square

convert
index
perfect square
real
square root

counter example
indices
product
ratio
recur
surd

493

1

## Which of the following statements is not correct?

A the square root of 25 is 5 or 5 B
25 = 5
Which of the following is not a rational number?
A

10

11

12

9
-----16

C 3 3--4-

=
B 36

## In its simplest form,

A 10 8
Written in the form
A
14
50
---------- =
5
A 10

80 =
B 8 10
n, 2 7 =
B 28

10

C 6

25 = 5

D 21

C 2 20

D 4 5

98

196

C 2 5

D 5 2

B 3 1--2-

C 3 1--4-

D 9 1--2-

6 52 3+3 5 =
A 7 7

B 9 52 3

C 7 2

D 4 2+3 5

12 + 27 =
A
39

B 5 3

C 5 6

D 3 5

4 35 2 =
A 20 6

B 60 2

C 5 24

D 120

5(3 2 3) =
A 3 10 3 5

C 3 10 15

D 3 10 3 5

C 5 2 14

D 9 2 14

1
9 --4
A

17

(2 3)
A 12

C 25 = 5

37
---------2

30 15

( 7 2) =
A 5

B 25

494

## Surds and Indices (Chapter 15) Syllabus reference NS5.3.1

13

3 2
Expressed with a rational denominator, ----------- =
2 5
3 2
3 2
A ----------B ----------10
5

3 10
-------------10

12

6
-------------2 10

1
---

14

15

12 2 =
A 6
In index form,
A k

16

1
B --6
3

k =

12

B k

When evaluated, 16

3
--4

4
---
3

4
--3

C k

3
--4

B 21 1--3-

C 8

1
B -----12

3
C --4

1
D --8

4
A --3

D k

A 12
17

1
D ---------144

3
D --4

If you have any difficulty with these questions, refer to the examples and questions in the sections
listed in the table.
Question

37

8, 9

1012

13

Section

1416

17

1

## Find, where possible:

a the square root of 16 b

a ( 2)

b (5 2)

Simplify: a

18

2 32 = 8

c
b

a 2 5

16
-----25

1
--3

d 3 1--2-

17
-----25

20
---------5

6 7
20

3 12

1
2 --4

4
1 --9

24
g ---------3
15

45 = 5 3

20
---------- =
2

1
1
4 --- = 2 --4
2

b 8 26 6+4 6

a
6+ 3 = 9

c 5 74 7 =

Simplify:
a 2 85 2

b 6 82 3

27 6 =

21

50 18

c 4 5 10

f ( 6 + 3)( 6 2)

## Rationalise the denominator of:

1
a ---------10

8 3

b 5 2

b 3 5 =
e

16
-----9

d 3 52 7

Simplify:
a 5 3+7 32 3

e 3 2(2 5 3 3)
13

n:

15
e ---------3
Write true or false.
2
a
7 = 7
d

12

16

3
a 3
b
5
c
9
d
--4

11

## Convert the following rational numbers to decimals.

3
a --b 23%
c
8

Simplify:

10

c 16

a
Show that the following are rational numbers by expressing them in the form --- .
b
a 3 1--4b 5
c 0.83
d 0. 5

16

g (3 7 + 4)

3
-------------2 10

d 2 5 + 20

d
2

5( 7 + 2)

495

496

14

15

## a Expand and simplify ( 2 + 1)( 2 1).

1
b Hence rationalise the denominator of ----------------- .
2+1
Write as a surd:
a k

16

17

1
--3

## Write in index form:

a
z

1
--5

c k

3
--4

d k

2
--3

Evaluate:
a 25

18

1
--2

b 8

5
Write as a fraction ---
4

4
--3

c 343

2
--3

1

## Find, where possible:

a the square root of 36

36

c 36

36

5
a --b 49%
c
8

## Determine whether the following real numbers are rational or irrational.

5
a 5.2
b
c
d
7
--36
8

a
Show that the following are rational numbers, by expressing them in the form --- .
b
1
a 3 --b 4
c 0.27
d 0. 3
3

Simplify:
2
a ( 3)

b (5 3)

## Express in simplest form:

a
b
8
Express in the form
a 2 7

45

n:
b 4 3

2
--3

1
d 4 --2

16
-----9

5 6

d 2 76 2

8 2

8 6

10

11

12

13

14

15

Simplify:
9
a
--4
18
e ---------6

17

1
3 --4

10 = 10

b 5 3 =

15

54 = 6 3

2 18 = 6

20
---------- =
4

1
1
9 --- = 3 --4
2

Simplify:
a 4 2 + 5 2 10 2

b 5 36 54 5

## Write true or false.

a
7 + 5 = 12

27 12 =

Simplify:
a 2 12 5 3

e 2 5(2 3 3 5)

f ( 7 + 3)( 7 2 3)

45 20

15

4 62 3

d 3 6 + 24

c 6 65 6 = 1

c 37 2
g (2 6 5)

3 ( 10 3 )

## Rationalise the denominator of:

1
2
a ------b ----------3 5
5
a Expand and simplify ( 3 + 2 ) ( 3 2 ) .
1
b Hence rationalise the denominator of --------------------- .
3 2
Write as a surd:
1
--2

b n

a
m

1
--4

c n

4
--3

d n

Evaluate:
a 49

18

7
1 --9
24
g ---------2

11
-----4
24
---------6

## Write true or false.

a n
16

1
--2

3 1
Write as a fraction --- .
5

b 16

3
--4

c 324

3
--2

3
--5

497

498

1

## Find, where possible:

a the square root of 9 b

c 9

a
Show that the following are rational numbers by expressing them in the form --- .
b
7
a 1 --b 2
c 0.314
d 0. 6
8

1
a --b 137%
c
8

7
a 17
b
11
c
100
d
--9

10

11

12

Simplify:
2
a ( 7)

b (2 7)

## Express in simplest form:

a
60
b
Express in the form
a 10 2

54

5
--9

2
d 5 --3

5 11

d 3 62 5

20 5

24 2

5
1 -----16

n:

Simplify:
9
a
-----16
30
e ---------10
Write true or false.
2

b 3 7

b
f

9
1 -----16
48
g ---------6

17
-----16
27
---------3

3 = 3

b 4 3 =

12

63 = 7 3

27 3 = 9

40
---------- =
4

10

4
2
1 --- = 1 --9
3

Simplify:
a 2 5+8 5 5
Write true or false.
a
10 + 10 = 20
Simplify:
a 2 85 8
e 5 2(3 5 2 2)

16
-----25

b 6 35 3+2 7

12 3 = 3

b 4 82 6
f ( 10 + 5 ) ( 10 6 )

32 18

3 + 27

c 9 58 5 = 1
c 32 7
2
g ( 5 + 2 3)

3( 6 + 5)

13

14

15

## Rationalise the denominator of:

2
1
a ------b ----------3 7
7
a Expand and simplify ( 5 + 2 ) ( 5 2 ) .
1
b Hence rationalise the denominator of ----------------5+2
Write as a surd:
a w

16

17

1
--3

## Write in index form:

a
n

c w

3
--2

d w

2
--3

Evaluate:
a 16

18

b w

1
--6

1
--2

b 25

3
--2

c 9261

4
--3

3 1
Write as a fraction --- .
8

1

## Find, where possible:

a the square root of 81 b

81

c 81

81

## Convert the following rational numbers to decimals.

13
a ---------b 174%
c
100

## Determine whether the following real numbers are rational or irrational.

17
a 7
b
c
d
15
36
-----36

a
Show that the following are rational numbers by expressing them in the form --- .
b
7
a 4 --b 6
c 0.09
d 0. 2
8

Simplify:
2
a ( 11 )

b ( 3 11 )

## Express in simplest form:

a
b
12
Express in the form
a 6 2

48

n:
b 3 3

5
--6

3
d 3 --4

25
-----36

8 7

d 4 29 5

2 18

21 3

499

500

## Surds and Indices (Chapter 15) Syllabus reference NS5.3.1

Simplify:
25
a
-----36
21
---------3
Write true or false.
e

10

11

12

14

15

17

45
---------5

13
1 -----36

14

72 = 2 6

20 5 = 10

48
e ---------- =
8

1
1
6 --- = 2 --4
2

Simplify:
a 6 3+2 35 33 3 b 5 32 6+3 68 3
Write true or false.
a
1+ 5 = 6
Simplify:
a 5 72 7

20 10 =

b 2 15 3 3
f

17
1 -----36

60
---------5

b 2 7 =

50 8

d 5 3 + 27

c 2 11 11 = 1

10

c 72 3

( 3 + 2 2)(2 3 2)

2 ( 10 + 6 )

g ( 5 + 3 7)

## Rationalise the denominator of:

1
2 5
a ------b ----------5 3
3
a Expand and simplify ( 5 + 2 3 ) ( 5 2 3 ) .
1
b Hence rationalise the denominator of -------------------- .
52 3
Write as a surd:
1
--2

b z

## Write in index form:

a
y

1
--3

c z

5
--2

d z

Evaluate:
a 8

18

5 = 5

a z
16

29
-----36

e 3 5(2 3 5)
13

1
--3

1
Write as a fraction 1 ---
2

b 4
1

5
--2

c 1296

3
--4

5
--3

504

5 a
c

deposit of \$1
debt of \$6

CHAPTER 1

6 a

+ 1 km

Exercise 1A

7 a

1 a
b
c

## 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36

9, 18, 27, 36, 45
7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77

12 1110 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

2 a

28
6, 12, 18, 24
c 6, 12, 18, 24
d 6

b
3 a
b

## 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 48

1, 3, 9, 27
c 3

4 a

54 = 2 33

c
5 a
c

84 = 22 3 7

240 = 24 3 5

144 = 24 32
80 = 24 5

2 km

5 4 3 2 1 0
2 2--3- , 2--3- , 0,

8 a
9

2
--3

deposit of \$5

, 1 1--3-

5 km

35 = 5 7, 60 = 22 3 5
5
c 420

7 a
b

140 = 2 5 7, 84 = 2 3 7
28
c 420

8 a

84 = 22 3 7, 56 = 23 7, HCF = 28,
LCM = 168

3 > 4

5 < 5

5 < 0

10 a

13

11 a

50

30

24

12 a

11

13 a
d

11
18

b
e

2
21

c
f

13
10

Exercise 1C
1

LCM = 300

## 175 = 52 7, 200 = 23 52, HCF = 25,

LCM = 1400
4
5

b
e

11
6

c
f

10 a

MMMCDXVI

11 a
c

2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12
b
2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 11, 12

11
-----20

3 13

5 100

13
11

3
--8

3
-----11

35
-----48

29
-----8

4
--5

10 a

3, 9, 11

\$120

\$400

2
-----15

12 8.307

13 4 1--5-

14 3.375
17 4

16 3.85

18 a

4.64

1 a

19 a

30.6

5.2

20 a

\$48.30

\$152 040

2 3

4 5

2 3

4 5

2 3

4 5

2<6

6>2
b

8
-----15

\$80

11 hundredths

15 0.17

2 a

9 222 kg

Exercise 1B

2
--3

## 110 101 011 000

12 4488

600 = 23 3 52

6 a
b

9 a
d

3, 4

e
c

332.4

11.9

21

3 1--2-

3 a

4 a
b
c

deposit of \$15
decrease of 30 cm in length
loss of 8 kg
d fall of 15C

4 1--2-

,5

37
---------100

22 48%

23

25 380%

26 62.5%

27 0.65, 70%,

24 0.57

4
--5

28 27%

29

3
-----20

30 4.25

31 \$54

32 12 m

33 25%

34 \$130

35 \$240

Exercise 1F

e.g. 30 km/h.

1 a

22, 27, 32

13, 11, 9

2 a

3, 6, 12, 24

3, 5, 9, 17

37 13 : 15
38 a

3 : 10

39 x = 24

3 a

5 : 18

40 \$375, \$625
b

42 \$9.31
44 a

No. of matches

10 15 20 25

43 315.25 km

3300 cm

4740 cm

45 12.5 m

## (red, blue, green, yellow)

1
--4

2 a

(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10)

1
-----10

3 a

7
-----10

, 70%

1
--4

, 0.25

4 a

20

9
-----20

5 a

1
--4

1
--2

1
-----13

6 a
b

## tossing a coin and getting a 1

50%
c high probability

7 a
b
c

## getting a number from 1 to 6

getting a 7
getting an even number

8 a

1
--5

4
--5

2
--5

3
--5

20
15
10
5

1 2 3 4 5
No. of pentagons
ii The number of matches increases by 5,
and points lie in a straight line.
c The number of matches needed is five times
the number of pentagons.
d y = 5 x, y = 5x
e 1000
4 a

0.625, 62.5%

25

Exercise 1D
1 a

No. of matches

## 41 15.6, 23.4, 7.8

No. of pentagons

,
b Multiply the shape number by 5 and add 1.
c 501
5 a 13
b 23
c 103
6 5, 7, 9, 11, 13
Exercise 1G
1 a

14x

6y

7a 2

6ac

Exercise 1E

2 a

60n

10a

24m

35p

1 a

p+1

3 a

5a

4m

bc

4m

2 a

6p

4 a

wx 3y

5 a

5a
-----7

2a
-----15

q2
-----5

6 a

a2 an

d
3 a
d

3p
b

2p + 2 d

gr

c
2

3p + 3

5m

8ab

3m

5a + 3q

3p
5xx

b
e

ab
6pq

mm
c

2mn2 5mn

12p + 8p

8py + 4pw

23xy 12x 8y

4 a

3p

5y

3pq e

5 a

12

60

16

64

7 a

31a 23

3
-----2x

8 a

mn(n + 1)

t
--2

6 a
7 a
d

g
--r

r
--g

k3
3e 4

b
e

4w
------7

4m
mn t

e
pq

24

12

42

10 a

4(p 3d)

9 a

3(k 3)

10 a

b
11 a
c

q(p a)

5(5f 3)

4(p + 3d)

## A pronumeral is a letter that stands for a

number.
A coefficient is a number in front of a
pronumeral.
24

59

28
7
--------- = -----8
2
51

505

## LEY_bk953_answers_finalpp Page 506 Thursday, January 13, 2005 3:23 PM

506

Exercise 1G continued

13 a

m3

1
--3

2
--3

4
--3

11 14 17 20

6d + 23

3 a

(3, 0)

Exercise 1H
1 12, 4
2 a x=6
c x=9
11
e y = -----3
g d = 20

b
d

x = 15
x = 7

p = 13

m = 20

15
p = -----2
4 a No
5 x + 23 = 114, x = 91
6 a x 12

14
7
c = ------ = --10
5
10
q = -----17
x = 24

No

m < 28

3 a

D (3, 2)

3 2 1 0
1
2

No. of matches

14
12
10
8
6
4

2 3 4 5 6 7
No. of pattern
(6, 11), (7, 13)
(0, 0), (1, 4.5), (2, 9), (4, 18), (5, 22.5),
(10, 45), (20, 90)

e
4 a
b

100
95
90
85
80
75
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5

5
4
3
2
1

E (2, 5)

5 4 3 2 1
1 2 3 4 5
1
2
3 A (0, 3)
C (3, 4)
B (2, 3)
4
5
2 a

Cost (\$)

5
4
3
2
1

Exercise 1I
1

## Number of matches equals the number of

patterns multiplied by two minus one.
y = 2x 1

c
d

3(x 7)
-------------------8

No. of patterns

No. of matches

12 a

C
x
1 2 3 4 5

c
5

\$38.25

10 12 14
No. of kg

2 1

7 5 3 1

16 kg

16

18

20

8 a

Score

3
2
1
3 2 1 0
1

2 3x

2
3

Tally
|||| |||| |||| |

|||| ||||

14

|||| |||| ||

12

|||| |

|||

18

16

2 1

12

Frequency

10
8

y = 3x + 6

6
4

1 a
b

5 minutes
c twice

2 a

jogging

3 a
4 a

\$4
23 p.m.

1
-----18

c
b
b

2
0

200

50 g
40 km

i 60

2 3
Score

Kebab

Hot chips

## Distance from home (km)

ii 14

5 Favourite snacks

7 a
c

60

14
12

Exercise 1J

Winning margins in a
series of soccer matches

16

Total

6 a

Frequency

Hamburger

Jacks journey

9 a

Chicken

Score

Tally

Pie

Frequency

125

|||

100

||||

75
50

|||

|||

|||| ||

||||

|||

||||

10

|||

25
. . . .
m m m m m m m m
a. a. a. a. a. p. p. p.
7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2
Time
.

nominal
numerical

numerical

Total
b

10

36

507

## LEY_bk953_answers_finalpp Page 508 Thursday, January 13, 2005 3:23 PM

508

Exercise 1J continued
10

Stem

## 3 You would use a sample of people that like or do

skateboarding.
4 a 16.5
b 19
c 17
d 10
5 a 41.48 b 44
c 41
d 36
6 a Class A: mode = 28 and 46, range = 39,
mean = 43.13, median = 42.
Class B: mode = 51, range = 46,
mean = 40.67, median = 41.
b Class A

Leaf

12
13
14
15
16

8
1228
2245555689
0013
1

11 a

Choice of drink
20
18

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

14
12
10
8
6
4

a 270 mm
b 4000 mm
a 34 cm
b 7000 m
76.4 cm
a 174.7 cm
b 102.94 cm
126.52 cm
x = 9.12 cm, y = 12.6 cm, w = 7.2 cm,
z = 12.6 cm, perimeter = 90.2 m
180 mm2

9 a

er

nk

at

r
td

So

lw

il

St

ce

Ju

er

ee

ff

o
/c

c
11 a
12 a
c
e

Soft drink
Still water
Juice
Tea/coffee
Other

g
i
13 a
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

Price (\$)

10 m

10 a

Frequency

12

th

a
Te
Drink

Drink

7.80
7.75
7.70
7.65
7.60
7.55
7.50
7.45
7.40
7.35
7.30
7.25
7.20
7.15
7.10
7.05
7.00

21

104 cm2

F
M
Day

49 cm2

44 cm2

5400 mm2

22 m2
50 mm
64 cm
438 mm

b
b
d
f

2100 cm2
8m
1160 cm
84 m

800 mm2

72 000 cm2

243 m

90 cm

ii b2 = a2 + c2

i b

b i PR
a No
a 81
a 7.5 cm
a 6.0 cm
a 14.4 cm
50.91 cm
a diameter
3
-----10

27 a
T

24 C = 2 r
M

208

8 29 units2

Exercise 1L

16

Frequency

13
-----50

7 a

153.9 cm

ii
b
b
b
b
b

Yes
8.4
17.1 cm
38.7 cm
27.2 cm

chord

22 C = d

23 35.8 cm

25 42.73 cm

26 A = r 2

11.9 cm2

28 96.8 cm

Exercise 1K

Exercise 1M

## 1 Only a part of the whole population.

2 Sample, as a census is too costly and time
consuming.

1 a
c

DCGH
AEHD, BFGC

ABCD, EFGH

2 a

86.64 cm2

3.8 cm
3 a
4 a

338.72 cm2

b
b

492 cm2
6 a

FE, DE, BE

FE

FD, CA

Exercise 1P

5 a

6 a

3163.5 cm3

3469.44 cm3

7 27 946 cm3
8 a

3546.86 cm3

793.27 cm3

9 a

1000 mm3

1 000 000 mL

## 1 000 000 cm3

1 kL

1000 L

c
e

Exercise 1N
1
2
3
4
5
7

48 hours
a 4 min
3 h 30 min
a 9 h 23 min
7.17 a.m.
2 h 20 min

5 hours

b 1 h 39 min
6 3 h 48 min
8 317

Exercise 1O
1 a
b
c
d
2 a

3 a

rectangular prisms
rectangular prism and triangular prism
cylinder and cone
cube and square based pyramid
i
ii
iii

ii

iii

## 1 a EBD, GEB, alternate

b EJO, NOR, corresponding
3 a acute
b right-angled
c obtuse
d right-angled
4 a Two or more angles that share a common
vertex and arm and add to give 90.
b

5 a 45
b 120
c 108
d 47
6 vertically opposite angle
7 i 55 straight angle
ii 55 vertically opposite QRU
8 a k = 65, co-interior angles, supplementary,
parallel lines
b n = 107, straight line is 180
9 a x = 83 vertically opposite
b x = 142 angles at a point
10 a Yes
b Yes, corresponding angles equal and
parallel to a third line.
Exercise 1Q
2

## 3 a x = 56, base angles of isosceles

b x = 56, exterior angle of
4 x = 180 120 40 10, x = 10, angle sum of
5 u = 38 (supplementary angles), v = 99 (angle
sum of ), w = 85 (angle sum of ), x = 85
(vertically opposite w), y = 81 (supplementary
angles), z = 14 (angle sum of )
6 a
b 2 axes of symmetry
4 sides equal
diagonals bisect each
other at right angles
opposite angles equal
opposite sides parallel

509

## LEY_bk953_answers_finalpp Page 510 Thursday, January 13, 2005 3:23 PM

510

Exercise 2B

Exercise 1Q continued
8 a
b

b 77
c Yes
2 a i 5555
ii 5 5
iii 5 5 5 5 5 5

Exercise 1R
1 a

i 777
ii 7 7 7 7
iii 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

1 a
1 diagonal inside
1 diagonal outside

56
c Yes
i 666
ii 6 6 6 6 6
iii 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

b
3 a

1 right-angled
triangle

trapesium

68

Yes

4 a

39

212

710

59

416

613

109

220

530

318

b
10 a
f

5
b 3
c 2
d 5
e 712
i 3333344
ii 12 12 12 12 12 12 12
No, bases are different.
i 55522222
ii 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
No, bases are different.
i 3333333
ii 9 9 9 9 9 9 9
No, bases are different.
i 22222222
ii 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
No, bases are different.
T
b F
c F
d T
e F
F
g T
h F
i F

11 a

213

5 a
6 a
b
7 a

and

3
--8

3 a
4
5
6
7

,x=9

1
--5

,x=

y = 24
a ST
b SU
6.75 m

9
--5

, y = 20
TU

CHAPTER 2
Diagnostic Test
1
5
9
13

B
A
C
B

2
6
10
14

45

b
a

10

318

514

410

510

56

212

315

720

412

621

324

14

Exercise 2C
D
D
B
D

3
7
11
15

D
B
D
A

4
8
12
16

B
A
C
B

i 4

1 a
f
2 a
f

Exercise 2A
1 a

36

1010 g
11

18

b
g

17

14

17

d
i

270

19

716

28

922

3
3

Exercise 2D
b

4 to the power 5

ii 5

## 2 a 109 b 10 to the power of 9 or to the ninth

c i 10 ii 9
3 a 37
b 210
4 a i 3
ii 5
b i 2
ii 4
c i 7
ii 3
d i 9
ii 6
e i 5
ii 8
5 a 1024
b
d 1 000 000 e
g 216
h
j 390 625

c 43
d 56
e 24
iii 3 3 3 3 3
iii 2 2 2 2
iii 7 7 7
iii 9 9 9 9 9 9
iii 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
2401
c 243
625
f 6561
729
i 32 768

1 a
b
2 a
b
3 a

3333333
------------------------------------------------------------- = 3 3 3 3 3
33
35

Yes

77777
----------------------------------------- = 7 7
777
72

Yes

22222222
---------------------------------------------------------------------- = 2 2 2 2 2
222
b
4 a
f
k

25
32
64
34

b
g
l

23
22
55

c
c 56
h 32
m 26

Yes
d 44
i 41
n 103

e
j
o

105
51
78

5 a
e
6 a
r
i
m

T
F
35
43
29
26

b
f
b
f
j
n

F
F
27
38
510
53

c
g
c
g
k
o

F
F
72
59
23
35

d
h
d
h
l
p

F
F
58
37
37
710

1
m --------10 5

55

54

3125 625

53

52

51

50

125

25

1
-----36

1
-----28

1
-------5 10

1
-------4 15

1
-----51

1
--9

1
-----32

1
-----64

1
---------625

1
------------1024

1
---------216

1
-----81

1
-----81

1
------------3125

6 a

Exercise 2E
1

1
-----73

25

24

23

22

21

20

1
---------512

1
---------343

1
---------256

32

16

1
m ---------729

1
2 --2

4
--7

73 3 = 70

3 a

70 = 1

55

4 a

=9

9 =1

5 a
d
6 a
d

1
1
1
1

b
e
b
e

32
1

16

1
1
1
1

c
f
c
f

1
--2

1
--4

104

## 103 102 101 100 101 102 103

1
-----10

1
---------100

1
------------1000

1
1
= ------------- = --------1000
10 3

c
4 a
c
5 a
e

34
5

m 7

22 5 = 23

1
23 = -----23

22
1
----------------------------------------- = -----3
22222
2
1
1

1
--------12 1

25

43

56

310

61

10

1 a

2 a

3 a

13

27

69

47

195

c
f

10
10

43

12 3

13

31

j
a
d

7
3

52

23

29

1 a
f
2

29
3

278

1
--1
---

1
-----92

1
-----61

Yes

Yes
0

b
e

2
5

32

10 2

No

g
1

No
2

10 10 10

555
1
53 7 = 54 b ------------------------------------------------------------- = -----4
5555555
5
1
1 1
1
4
5 = -----54
1
1
1
1
-----b -----c -----d -----31
43
25
82
1
-----54

28

22

1
--1
---

1
--1
---

Exercise 2H
1

3 a

1
--8

1
1
1
101 = --------- , 102 = ---------- = --------- ,
100
10 1
10 2
10

Exercise 2G

1
1
1
1

## 100 000 10 000 1000 100 10 1

1
1
1
1
1
= ------ , 22 = --- = ------ , 23 = --- = -----4
8
21
22
23

105

21

Exercise 2F
5

7 a

99999
----------------------------------------- = 1
99999

777
---------------------- = 1
777

10

No

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

10

106

10

3 a
d
4 a

3 106

7 104

6 10

5 10

4.8 103

3.92 105

8 103

6.4 10

2.18 106

e
5 a

7.6 10
30 000

7000

4
2

511

## LEY_bk953_answers_finalpp Page 512 Thursday, January 13, 2005 3:23 PM

512

Exercise 2H continued
c
e
g
i
6

9 000 000
800
6710
83 600

d
f
h
j

400 000
460 000
3 900 000
520 000

1
---------100

1
------------1000

1
-----------------10 000

1
--------------------100 000

7 a

3 10

d
8 a
c
e

2 105
e
0.06
0.002
0.000 009

9 a

3 104 = 30 000, 34 = 81

7 10

5 102 = 0.05, 52 =

2 103 = 2000, 23 = 8

## 4 106 = 4 000 000, 46 = 4096

10 a

3.72 10

2.98 10

6.09 10

7.698 10

i
11 a

1
-------------------------1 000 000

5 10

9 102
b 0.000 003
d 0.0005

6 1015

2.0 1012 f

3 1010

3 1010

2 1012

8 1015

4.9 10

2.7 10

6.4 1019

17

2.43 1019

9 10

2.7 1018

8 10

7.5 1019

2.5 1021

1.4 1012

1.6 10

2.704 1011

2.16 1038

3.125 1037

3.7 1012

5 105

8
6

33

m 2.5 10

1
-----25

1
-----32

3 106

3 a
c

3.11 10
Bigger

Positive

4 a
c

2.5928 108
Smaller

Negative

5 a
c

4.37 104
Bigger

Positive

6 a

5.4 10

3.4 10

8.75 10

3.61 10

8.0 10

5.6 10

5.7 104

7.8 105

5
6
5
6

4
3
4
8

6.1 10

2.96 10

8.01 104

5 107

4.39 10

2.8 10

i
12 a
c
e
g
i
13 a
c
e
g
i

9 105
7 320 000
567 000
92 700 000
3 275 000
200 000 000
0.000 003 98
0.000 070 9
0.000 005 9
0.000 6
0.000 027 1

j
b
d
f
h
j
b
d
f
h
j

4.9 109
52 000
3800
69 140
700 000
308 000
0.000 53
0.008 8
0.000 000 307
0.000 003
0.000 000 000 36

14 a

1.29 105

1.52 108 km

2.6 107 m

c
e
15 a
c
d
e

2.54 10

cm

## 1.07 105 km/h

78 300 000 km
b 1 400 000 000
0.000 028 m
0.000 000 002 5 hours
10 000 000 000 000

7 1.08 109 km
8 Alpha Centauri
9 2.54 103 cm or 0.002 54 cm
10 400 days
11 a 0.000 000 3 s
b

1.2 1015 b

2.4 1022 c

4.2 109

0.3 0 s

## 12 350 000 m /person

Non-calculator Activities
1 a
2 a
b
3 a
4 a

b 177
94
base = 3, index = 11
base = 5, index = 9
888888
32
b 81

5 a

612

d
6 a
7 a

19

3
F
1
-----74

8 a

1
--8

9 a

3.6 10

Exercise 2I
1 a

19

1.536 1020

2 a

1
-----10

b
e
b
b
b
5

340

777

86

10

120

2
F

3
c

6.5 10

10 a

700 000

b
5

1.5 1015

12 a

9 10

12

3 1023

2 10

12 a

1.19 1014

2.43 1047

## 6.7 1012 < 3.5 1013

13 a

5.3 10

16

< 4.2 10

10

13 a
b

Language in Mathematics
three to the power of five
eight squared
two cubed
the square root of seven
the cube root of nine

2 a

72

43

d
3 a
4 a

24
index
base

e
b
b

6
f 35
exponent
power, index or exponent

65

5 23 24 = 27 = 128; 47 = 16 384
6 Scientific notation is also known as index
notation.
7 Scientific notation is a way of writing the
repeated product of numbers,

## 9 3 104 = 30 000 while 34 = 3 3 3 3 = 81.

2
6
10
14

D
C
C
B

3
7
11
15

D
B
D
C

4
8
12
16

B
B
B
D

Review Set 2A
1 a
2 a
b
3 a
4 a
5 a

24
b 57
base = 7, index = 9
base = 3, index = 10
33333
b 777777
6561
b 15 625
F
b F
32

6 a

7 a

1
-----46

8 a

1
---------125

15

7
c

< 3.8 10

## 7.7 1016 < 3.1 1012

b 97
75
base = 3, index = 8
base = 5, index = 2
6666
b
512
b 729

5 a
6 a

313
F

7 a

1
-----75

8 a

1
-----36

15

712 c 45
b F
b
b

777
d

611

230

e
3

3 104
b 0.000 001 8

12 a
c
13 a
b

1.56 109 b

5 1015

2.43 1028

1.4 105

4.1 10 < 5 10
9

## 3.1 1015 < 4.5 1011

Review Set 2C
1 a
2 a
b
3 a
4 a

b 103
28
base = 8, index = 4
base = 3, index = 6
66
b 5555555
625
b 2187

5 a
6 a

919
F

7 a

1
-----48

8 a

1
-----64

215 c 58
b F
b
b

610

3
c

12 a

1.59 1013

9 106

5.329 1031

5 103

13 a

11 3 104 = 30 000, 34 = 81

2.95 10

15

246

b 3.5 107
b 0.000 306

9 a 1.7 1010
10 a 286 000

e
3

1 a
2 a
b
3 a
4 a

b
b

1.5 106
15

9 a 4.6 104 b
10 a 40 000 000

## e.g. 3 3 3 3 = 34. Write down the base (3),

i.e. the number being repeated, and then the
index, i.e. the number of times the base is
repeated.
8 a The number is not between 1 and 10.
b The second number is not written as a power
of 10.

A
B
A
C

4.6 10

13

4 105

Review Set 2B

1 a
b
c
d
e

1
5
9
13

b 5 105
b 0.000 037

9 a 2.3 107
10 a 98 000

0.000 12

11 2 10 = 200 000, 2 = 32
5

513

## LEY_bk953_answers_finalpp Page 514 Thursday, January 13, 2005 3:23 PM

Review Set 2D

3 a

b 5
6
base = 6, index = 8
base = 3, index = 10
44444
2222222
1296
b 4096

1 a
2 a
b
3 a
b
4 a

40

5 a
6 a

5
F

7 a

1
-----65

8 a

1
-----32

cf

70

c 5
b F
b

22

45

34

19

14

51

23

23

54

25

33

59

26

40
45

51

47
b

10

b 3.56 104
b 0.000 09

2.25 1025

6.5 1022

1.6 1073

7 103

13 a

4 a
5 a

 4.2

Diagnostic Test

2 C
6 C
10 B

3
7
11

C
C
A

fx

43.6

cf

b
c

10

10

13

18

20

26

30

Total

30

2
i 18
ii 20
12

10
9

fx

fx

7
6

51

80

33

90

164

60

209

336

85

80

387

18

42

440

3
2

35

22

315

138
96
b

19

44

5
4

94

16

2 a

19

4 A
8 B
12 B

Exercise 3A
1 a

CHAPTER 3

1 B
5 C
9 D

cf

c

43

34

9 a 2.05 108
10 a 42 100 000
12 a

cf

19

Frequency

514

6 a&b

1 2 3 4 5
No. of glasses

Days absent

Freq.

cf

17

20

21

23

28

Total

28

c
d

9
19

## LEY_bk953_answers_finalpp Page 515 Thursday, January 13, 2005 3:23 PM

c
Number of days Freq.

cf

13

16

20

26

29

30

Total

30

c
d

Cumulative frequency
90

8
4

1 a

52
37

Cumulative frequency

44

40
29

30

11
6
2

43

19

2 a

13

88

70 80
Class

## 97 106 115 124 133

Class

90 100

53
43

45

26
20
7
25

30

35 40
Class

27

6
79

55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
20

34

60

Cumulative frequency

26

23

50

Cumulative frequency

70

50

40

44

## 140 147 154 161 168 175 182 189

Class

45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5

56

60

10

Cumulative frequency

Cumulative frequency

Cumulative frequency

70

20 16

Exercise 3B

55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5

82
77

80

Cumulative frequency

7 a&b

45

50

Cumulative
frequency

Class

Frequency

2024

2529

12

3034

21

3539

12

33

4044

38

4549

40

Class

Frequency

Cumulative
frequency

7078

7987

10

16

8896

11

27

97105

31

106114

39

115123

45

515

## LEY_bk953_answers_finalpp Page 516 Thursday, January 13, 2005 3:23 PM

Exercise 3B continued

5 a

Class

Frequency

Cumulative
frequency

4049

5059

11

6069

16

7079

24

8089

30

9099

39

Class

Frequency

Cumulative
frequency

2024

2529

12

21

3034

28

3539

32

4044

20

52

4549

16

68
d

26
34

b
b

27
18

c
c

44
56

d
d

65
17

3 a

27

28

83

24

55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5

6 a

cf

51

60

3039

277

cf

380

2
5
15
31
7
60

2
7
22
53
60

509
603
688
761
783
792

Cumulative frequency
60
53

50
40
30
22
20

## Age last birthday

Cumulative frequency

3039

33

31 41
Class

165

Frequency

10

21

09
1019
2029
3039
4049
Total

0
d

Cumulative frequency

Score

60

3140

3
20
47
52
55

11

1 a
2 a

b
c

Exercise 3C

4 a

cf

Cumulative frequency

Cumulative frequency

516

800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100

2
10

20 30
Class

40

49

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Age range
d

31

## LEY_bk953_answers_finalpp Page 517 Thursday, January 13, 2005 3:23 PM

Exercise 3D
1 a

Group

Tally

1019

|||| |

2029

|||| |

3039

|||| |||| |

4049

|||| ||

Frequency
6

Exercise 3E

1 a

11
7

Frequency

Frequency histogram
15
11

10
6

Classes

Tally

Frequency

410
1117
1824
2531

||||
|||| ||||
|||| |||| ||
||||

4
10
12
5

3238
b

|||| ||||

Total

40

Frequency

10

10

12
9
5

5
4

3 a

2
3
4
5

Frequency histogram
15

11

18 25
Classes

32

Tally

Frequency

|||| ||
|||| |||| |||
|||| ||||

7
13
9

|||| |||| |

11

Total

40

Frequency

10

b
7 a

11

5
13

22 31
Classes

8
9
10
11
12
T

1
6
5
10
3
25

8
54
50
110
36
258

39

fx

121
122
123
124
125
T

4
11
11
3
1
30

484
1342
1353
372
125
3676

Mean = 122.5

fx

85
86
87
88
89
T

1
10
8
4
16
39

85
860
696
352
1424
3417

20.5

13

fx

Mean = 87.6
11
b 122 and 123
65.3
b 31.8
c 45.3
64
b 30
c 55
15
b 25
c
25.5
e 28
f
54.5
h 18
i

38

412
1321
2230

15

a
a
a
a
d
g

6 a

Classes

3139

Mean = 10.32

5
10 20 30 40 50
Class boundaries

2 a

## Scores are not so spread out but the classes

are closer in number.

c 89
d 867
d 840
37
37.5
20

Class

Class centre

Frequency

610
1115
1620
2125
2630

8
13
18
23
28

7
8
16
12
4

3135

33

1620

18.7

No. of
items

Class
centre

Frequency

1120
2130
3140
4150

15.5
25.5
35.5
45.5

3
18
26
6

5160

55.5

111

55

1813.5

32.95

fx
46.5
459
923
273

517

## LEY_bk953_answers_finalpp Page 518 Thursday, January 13, 2005 3:23 PM

518

Exercise 3E continued

8 31.73 32
Tally

c.c. Frequency

cf

11
10
8
2

11
21
29
31

35

1625
2635
3645
4655

|||| |||| |
|||| ||||
|||| |||
||

20.5
30.5
40.5
50.5

5665

||||

60.5

Class
intervals

Tally

Class
centre

Freq.

cf

1625
2635
3645
4655
5665

|||
|||| |
|||| |||| |
|||| ||||
||||

20.5
30.5
40.5
50.5
60.5

3
6
11
10
5

3
9
20
30
35

Frequency

20

## Ages of a ICDL class

Class
Tally C.c.
intervals

15
11
10

10

8
4

5
0

2
16

26 36 46 56
Class intervals

Class
Tally C.c. Frequency
intervals
1620
2125
2630
3135
3640
4145
4650
5155
5660
6165

||||
|||| |
||||
|||| |
||||
|||
|
|
||
||

18
23
28
33
38
43
48
53
58

5
6
4
6
5
3
1
1
2

63

65

cf
5
11
15
21
26
29
30
31
33

35

cf

1620
2125
2630
3135
3640
4145
4650
5155
5660

||
|
|||
|||
|||| ||
||||
||||
|||| |
||

18
23
28
33
38
43
48
53
58

2
1
3
3
7
4
4
6
2

2
3
6
9
16
20
24
30
32

6165

|||

63

35

ii

Histogram 1:
Age of next ICDL class
12

11
10

10

Frequency

9 a

Class
intervals

8
6

Frequency

6
4
2

## Ages of a ICDL class

6
6
5
4
3
1

0 16 21 26 31 36 41 46 51 56 61 65
Class intervals
c

## The first gives a downward trend while the

second one is more even in height.

16

26 36 46 56
Class interval

66

g
ii

## Age of next ICDL class

Frequency

7
6

6
4

16 21 26 31 36 41 46 51 56
Class interval

## iii The first class has a greater number of

younger students.
iv The second histogram shows that there are
two classes that are bigger than the others,
while the first shows them as about the same.
e
f
g
10 a
c
11 a
d
12 a
c
13 a

i 34.2 ii 34.3
iii 42.8
iv 42.7
i 1626
ii 2125, 3135
iii3645
iv 3640
i 33
ii 33
iii 41
iv 41
60
b 104.4
3144 km
d \$185 604
9
b 15
c 15
11
e 37
17.25
b 25.3 (1 d.p.)
8.7 (1 d.p.)
17.7 (1 d.p.)
14 10.1
15 12 and 6

## The grouped data is used to estimate mean

for the ogive.
4 The mean, mode and median are central to the
study of statistics.
1
5
9
13

C
C
B
B

1 a
b
2 a

3 16 290

5 60

6 7--8-

0.015

104

9 3417.86

10 D

11 36

12

1
--3

13 9C

14 10

15 0.0007

16 \$60

17 76

18 25

19 53

20 50

21 5

22 Yes

23 8

24 24 cm2

d
e

cf

26
29
30
32
33
34
b

Language in Mathematics
cumulative b median
c ogive
histogram e frequency f estimate
The mean is the average.
The median is the middle score.
The centre is used to calculate the mean
class.
The modal class is the class with the highest
frequency.
The ogive is another name for cumulative
frequency polygon.

## mean = 24.98, mode = 26, median = 26

21

25 4905

2 a
d
3 a
b
c

4 D
8 B
12 A

12

Cumulative frequency

2 45.88

4 \$693

3 A
7 C
11 B

Review Set 3A

Non-calculator Activities
1 3 2--5-

2 C
6 A
10 D

## No. of time students of 9 Red

ate take-away
33 34
32
29 30

34
32
30
28
26
26
24
21
22
20
18
16
14
12
12
10
8
6
4
2
0

04

5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
No. of days
d 10.1
e 8

Review Set 3B
1 a
b

519

2 a

b
c
d

2 a&b

b
2 a

2025

17

2631

13

24

3237

12

26

3843

14

27

4449

30

5055

5662

cf
14

1.6

CHAPTER 4
Diagnostic Test
1
5
9
13
17
21

A
B
A
C
C
C

2
6
10
14
18
22

C
D
C
A
C
A

3
7
11
15
19

B
C
A
C
D

4
8
12
16
20

C
A
D
D
A

1 a

6y
-----15

8m
-------- c
6

35k
---------- d
20

30t
---------- e
100

30a
---------12

2 a

x
--2

m
---3

t
--4

2y
-----3

3b
-----4

6
--7

3
-----10

2
--3

2b

4p
-----3

3 a

7x
-----10

15b
---------- c
11

a
--3

3m
-------- e
10

2k
-----3

4 a

11x
--------- b
12

19k
---------- c
12

5b
-----8

7a
-----10

2z
-----15

47t
--------- g
90

5w
------4

17v
--------- i
6

e
--2

11x
--------24

2pq
---------15

26
29
29
30
b

## Height of Year 9 Red students

29

30

29

30

26
25
20
15
10
5

163

160

km
-------15

12a
---------35b

10bd
------------21ce

6 a

6mn
-----------7

4km
----------15

3wz
----------2

3ab
---------2

2t
-----3u

7 1--2-

3
--4

2a

40n
---------9

10p

Review Set 3D
mean = 22, mode = 22, median = 22

mn
-------12

5 a

14

## 140 150 160 170 180 190 200

Class

1 a
b

24

Exercise 4A

cf

Frequency

Review Set 3C
1 a

Score Frequency

Class

28
It is within a group and individual scores are
not known in this case.
39
e 37.7
f 3843

Cumulative frequency

520

7 a

7a
-----5b

w
-----3z

pq
-----20

24
-------- e
mn

-----bc

8 a

5x
--------- b
12y

7a
-----4b

3p
-----2q

4 2--3-

2
--3

12
-----35

3 1--3-

28
------m2

10y
--------- j
3

3
-----4k

## LEY_bk953_answers_finalpp Page 521 Thursday, January 13, 2005 3:23 PM

521

Exercise 4E

Exercise 4B
1
2
3
4

a i 512
ii 512
a i 15 625 ii 15 625
a i 6561
ii 6561

b
b
b

Yes
Yes
Yes

m9

q15

t 19

b 20

v 13

6 a

10

7 a

b8

h15

k16

z 60

n8

8 a

24

n
g b
h y
Bases are different.
Bases are different.
T
b F
c F
T
g F
h T
T
l F

25

f
9 a
b
10 a
f
k

d
i

d
i

m
t

31

T
F

70

a6

e
j

F
F

Exercise 4C
x

a32

1 a

t 20

m y5

k
k

m11

a5

b40

2 a

12m12

10p10

18t12

70a16

24w 19

30b9

17

24z

18d18

3 a

2m5

2a5

3w 2

4z 4
--------3

4k 6
--------3

3e 4
--------2

m5
------3

a5
-----2

3t 7
-------4

3b 5
--------4

18

80q

12 2 c

5k 2 g

6y 2 h

1
---

4 a

1
---

1
---

13

1
---

23

w3

5 k

4 t

1
---

93

( 5y ) 3

( 9m ) 3

9m 3

8 a

12

7v

73 v

1
---

1
---

9 a

47

1
--2
1
---

5x 2
3

10 a
e

f
b

5p

1
---

c3

5y 3

35

6m

63 m

1
---

1
---

1
---

1
--2

1
---

x3

6x 3

4x 2

6r

1
---

1
---

( 5k ) 2

m2

( 6y ) 2

e
f
3z
2m
7 a

1
---

x2

1
---

1
---

32

5 a

13

1
---

3 a

1
---

8p 3

3r 3

5xy

1
---

1
---

Exercise 4F
6 a

1
-----y2

1
--k

1
------m3

k 2

x 11 d

1
----x6

1
------t 10

n 14 e

z 20

27a12

64m18

49p10

7 a

a8

10 000k 8

125t 33

x15y 10

8 a

m12n18

p 28q12

a 8b 20

1
-----3k

3
--k

2
-----y5

1
------------32y 5

3
---t4

1
-----------81t 4

24m

4 a

15 6

8x y

5 a

8a8b 5

10m10n8

12p11q15

30x10y 4

12w14z17

3a 2 b 4
---------------2

d
g
j

3x4y 7

k4m6

------------5

3a 3 b 5

---------------4

4m
-------5

3 a 1
b 1
c 3
f 1
g 1
h 10
k 4
l 6
m 13

Exercise 4G
1 a
d

d
i
n

4
8
5

e
j
o

9
1
2

12z
3

2 a

a7

e
b
f

y4
w

e2

k 4

4y 6

3 a

90a2

18b7

6v 4

3p6

3k 2
-----------8

125z 12 h

Exercise 4D

4pq

20

i 9w 12 j 2n2
4 a F
b F
c
f F
g F
h

T
T

d
i

F
T

32m 15

## LEY_bk953_answers_finalpp Page 522 Thursday, January 13, 2005 3:23 PM

522

Exercise 4H
1 a
c

6w + 15
20a + 15b

b
d

18z 12
8x 6y

10x 2 + 60

7ab 14a 2

4m + 4n
20b + 10a + 15

h
j

2m3 6mn
15x 9y 6z

6ab + 12ac

12x 2 8xy

60k2 40km

m3 + 2m

y 5 4y 2

12xy 30x 3

5a5 2a3

g
i
2 a

6k + 15k

i
3 a
d
g
j

2p7 + 6p8
2y 6
4m + 28
6k 15
4x + 1

4 a

6a3 4a2b

b
e
h

j 10x5 15x3y
5a 10
c 3w 12
t 3
f b 6
8m + 10 i 7w 3

9p4 12p3q
6

8x3 + 12x2y

4y 5 + 3xy 4

e
5 a
d
g
j
6 a
d
g
j
7 a
d
g

6m 15m n
4a + 18
b
10y 17
e
2 + 6b
h
14 + 20e
2 2a
b
19 2v
e
2 15x
h
7 + 20w
13k + 9
b
13a 6
e
12v 16
h

j
8 a
c
e
g

18a2 2a
4k + 9
9t 10
2a + 14
10x + 11y

b
d
f
h

2w + 26
13z 8
d 18
4a 12b

2q 2 14q + 20

12z 2 + 7z + 1

6b 12
18z 2
33 + 4y

c
f
i

12w 1
16 + 8x
8 + 6w

14 3y
5 6w
12 6k

c
f
i

3 4b
22 15t
4 12z

15m + 11
25x 11
22x + 2y

c
f
i

14p + 6
14y + 1
23a 9b

4 a p(p + 3)
c w(3w + 2)
e m(4n 3m)
g 4p(q 3p)
i 5z(2z 1)
6 a x(x + 4)
c a(a + b)
e 2k(k + 2)
g 5b(2b + a)
i 6p(2q 3p)
7 a 2a(b + 2 + 2a)
c 2m(1 3m + 2n)
e 2k(4k 3 5m)

2(4a + 5)
3(a + 2b)
4(w 3)
4(3ab + 2)

b
d
f
h

2(3x 2)
5(x + 2y)
8(2m 1)
10(m 2n)

i
2 a
c
e
3 a
c
e
g
i

6(4k 3n)
5(x + 3y + 2z)
4(a + 3b 2c)
10(2xy + 5z + 3)
y(y + 7)
m(3n + 4)
x(x + 5y)
3m(2m 1)
4p(4q 3p)

j
b
d

8(2x 2 + 3y 2)
3(p 2q + 3r)
6(2m n 3r)

b
d
f
h
j

m(m 3)
p(9 5q)
b(2c b)
2a(6a 5b)
6k(2k + 3)

k(k 2)
z(2z 1)
2x(x + 4)
4p(2q 3r)
2m(3k 4m)

b y(y 7)
d m(m 5n)
f 3y(y 4)
h 3w(3w 2)
j 8k(2m + 3k)
b 3x(2x + 1 + 3y)
d 5x(y 2 x)

Language in Mathematics
1 reduce, substitute, apply
2 a a factor
b zero
c index
d algebraic e factorise
4 a x squared (to the power of 2)
b square root of x
c x cubed (to the power of 3)
d cube root of x
5 a parentheses
b brackets
c braces
1
5
9
13
17
21

D
A
C
D
A
A

2
6
10
14
18
22

C
D
C
A
A
D

3
7
11
15
19

A
A
B
B
C

4
8
12
16
20

B
B
B
B
B

Review Set 4A
1 a

4x
-----18

15mn
--------------20

2 a

4a
-----5

3y
-----2

3 a

11a
---------13

31m
----------24

4 a

y 17

d
5 a

Exercise 4I
1 a
c
e
g

b
d
f
h
j

t
1

e
5

6 a

7 a

1
----z3

8 a
9 a

y2
T

10 a

b
b

k6
12

125m
c

3 x c
b
e8
F

10v 20w b

8w 2
---------15

2
----z3
c
c

p14

6a6b9
d 3

3x d

c
n 20 d
F
d

5x
-----2y

e
1
--------8z 3

18b5 e
T
e

2a5 + 4a4 c

23 x

2k 2
F

12x 15

## LEY_bk953_answers_finalpp Page 523 Thursday, January 13, 2005 3:23 PM

11 a
12 a

10m + 7 b
4(2w + 5) b

Review Set 4D

7a 2b
x(x + 9)

4q(p 3q)

Review Set 4B

1 a

15b
---------24

35pq
------------10

1 a

9x
-----21

12ab
------------18

2 a

5h
-----4

2p
-----3

2 a

2m
-------3

2b

3 a

5k
-----11

w
-----18

6ab
---------5

27
-----40

3 a

17y
--------12

2km
----------5

9
-----10

4 a

y13

k6

p50

c8

4 a

m20

t 20

z 24

b19

e
5 a

81h10
1

f
b

6a13b11
8
c

6 a

6 m

2
----x2

e
5 a

16m
1

6 a

28

f
b

7 8

20p q
4
b

2 c

1
----e4

8 a

k 4

m3 c

n15 d

20n5 e

1
--2

9 a

3m7 m5

10 a

3
----e4

40p 30 b

1
-----------81e 4

a3

2a 2 + 5a

11 a
12 a
c

4q + 32
b 4a 13a 1
6(2x 3)
b y(2y 7)
a(4a 3b + 2)

12h
---------20

2 a

w
---3

3 a

8d
-----7

4 a

p14

y8

t 30

d
5 a

1
1

e
7

27v 21
c 1

18x10y 14
d 12

4 q

43

b
q

16xy
-----------12

5m
-------7

b
--8

4xy
--------3

1 7--8-

p15 d

9 a

15z3 e
T
3

2m 3
----------3
T

10 a
c

12xy 6xz
10 + 4a

3a m + 4m5

11 a
12 a

23 + 19n
6(4x + 3)

b
b

4a 2 a
h(h 8)

D
B
B
B

4
8
12
16

D
C
B
D

600

3(y 2 + 2y 3)

1
---------------243b 5

8 a

d 8

k6

15a3

10 a 20w + 8x b
11 a t + 4
b
12 a 5(3n 4)
c 2m(6m + 7n)

C
A
B
C

1 a
d

q
c

1
5
9
13

3
-----b5

n2

4q

2m 7
----------3
c F
7

T
5

2
6
10
14

C
C
A
C

3
7
11
15

Exercise 5A

1
-----b5

9 a

y 7

Diagnostic Test

7 a

8 a

1
--------4x 2

CHAPTER 5

1 a

6 a

7 a

Review Set 4C

6m

1
----x2

2c

7 a

2c

6m

2k + 4k c 4s + 7
15y
b 2b(2b + 3)

2 a
d
g
j
3 a
d
g
j
4 a
d
g
j

60

6000

6 000 000 f

6
-----h
10
37 000
8000
181 000
401 000
5400
800
3100
100
670
1060
310
1250

6
---------i 600
100
b 84 000
c
e 19 000
f
h 6000
i
k 1000
l
b 16 800
c
e 400
f
h 9600
i
k 100
l
b 2370
c
e 70
f
h 20 060
i
k 10
l

6
------------1000
6
-----------------10 000
524 000
623 000
3000
0
20 400
240 200
500
0
830
30
410
0
j

523

## LEY_bk953_answers_finalpp Page 524 Thursday, January 13, 2005 3:23 PM

524

Exercise 5A continued
5 a 17
b 25
c 82
d 237
e 583
f 265
g 21
h 106
i 301
j 56
k 1
l 0
6 a i 47 000
ii 46 800
iii 46 780
iv 46 784
b i 28 000
ii 28 500
iii 28 460
iv 28 457
c i 39 000
ii 39 200
iii 39 170
iv 39 166
d i 8000
ii 8500
iii 8460
iv 8462
e i 183 000 ii 182 700
iii 182 680
iv 182 679
7 a 30 000
b 60 000
c 180 000
d 200 000
e 800 000
8 a 4000
b 6000
c 24 000
d 80 000
e 20 000
9 a 700
b 1800
c 32 600
d 100
e 7000
10 a 38.3
b 38.27
c 38.268
11 a i 8.4
ii 8.44
iii 8.438
b i 6.6
ii 6.58
iii 6.584
c i 0.9
ii 0.86
iii 0.863
d i 0.2
ii 0.19
iii 0.186
e i 18.6
ii 18.56
iii 18.556
f i 21.6
ii 21.60
iii 21.603
g i 4.1
ii 4.06
iii 4.061
h i 5.0
ii 5.04
iii 5.044
i i 7.0
ii 7.00
iii 7.007
j i 3.0
ii 3.00
iii 3.000
12 a 3.60
b 50.0
c 2.690
d 13.00
e 1.00
f 4.900
g 100.0
h 70.00
13 a 75
b < 85 c 75  no. < 85
14 a 350
b < 450 c 350  no. < 450
15 a i 27 500
ii < 28 500
iii 27 500  no. < 28 500
b i 42.5
ii < 43.5
iii 42.5  no. < 43.5
c i 5.65
ii < 5.75
iii 5.65  no. < 5.75
d i 6.315
ii < 6.325
iii 6.315  no. < 6.325
16 162.5  height < 163.5 cm
17 415  weight < 425 g
18 12.35  time < 12.45 s
Exercise 5B
1 a

2 a
d
3 a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
4 a
d
g
j
5 a

30
b 28
c 28.5
28.47
e 28.471
i 400
ii 430
iii 428
i 6000
ii 6200
iii 6240
i 8
ii 7.8
iii 7.82
i 0.5
ii 0.53
iii 0.527
i 50 000
ii 54 000
iii 53 700
i 700 000 ii 730 000
iii 726 000
i 0.04
ii 0.039
iii 0.0393
i 0.005
ii 0.0051
iii 0.005 07
i 6000
ii 6100
iii 6100
i 2000
ii 2000
iii 2010
370 000
b 240
c 0.005 80
9.00
e 300 000
f 500
0.0400
h 0.300
i 0.002 00
1 000 000
i 555
ii < 565
iii 555  no. < 565
b i 8.15
ii < 8.25
iii 8.15  no. < 8.25
c i 47.5
ii < 48.5
iii 47.5  no. < 48.5
d i 0.715
ii < 0.725
iii 0.715  no. < 0.725
e i 36 500
ii < 37 500
iii 36 500  no. < 37 500
f i 0.0835
ii < 0.0845
iii 0.0835  no. < 0.0845
a 482.5  no. < 483.5
b 3.855  no. < 3.865
c 14 450  no. < 14 550
d 0.1275  no. < 0.1285
e 56.85  no. < 56.95
f 3205  no. < 3215
a 295  no. < 305
b 2950  no. < 3050
c 5995  no. < 6005
d 23 950  no. < 24 050
e 499 500  no. < 500 500
f 0.795  no. < 0.805
g 0.3995  no. < 0.4005
a 2
b 2
c 4
d 2
e 2
f 4
g 2
h 2
i 1, 2 or 3
j 1, 2, 3 or 4
k 2, 3, 4 or 5
l 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7
a 3.64 m is the total nearest cm, 3.640 to the
nearest mm
b 5.8 kg is to the nearest 100 g, 5.80 kg to the
nearest 10 g
c 12 s is to the nearest second, 12.0 s to the
nearest tenth of a second
d 36 cm is to the nearest cm, 36.0 cm is to the
nearest mm

## 23.8 s is to the nearest tenth of a second,

23.80 to the nearest hundredth of a second
f 7.29 km is to the nearest 10 m, 7.290 km to
the nearest m
g 1.5 t is to the nearest 100 kg, 1.50 t to the
nearest 10 kg
h 5.83 L is to the nearest 10 mL, 5.830 L to the
nearest mL
Exercise 5C
1 a
c
d
2 a
b
d
3 a
d
4 a
c
e
5 a
c
d
6 a
d
7 a
b
c
8 a
9 a
10 a
c

29 153
b 29 200
i 12 900
ii 700
iii 15 700
29 300
e Differ by 100.
5250
i 8090
ii 2830
c 5260
Differ by 10.
18.7
b 2.3
c 18.4
Differ by 0.3.
143.4
b 142.6
Differ by 1.2.
d 142.1
Differ by 1.3.
75.172
b 75
i 33
ii 17
iii 26
76
e Differ by 1.
60
b 4, 20
c 80
Differ by 20.
2.18
i 16.4
ii 7.50
2.19
d Differ by 0.01.
4220 b 4240 c Differ by 20.
0.18
b 0.19
c Differ by 0.01.
3.3
b 10.89
i 3.32, 11.0224
ii 3.317, 11.002
iii 3.3166, 10.9998
iv 3.31662, 10.99996
11 a 3 s.f.
b 7 s.f.
c 4 s.f.
d 3 s.f.
e 4 s.f.
Exercise 5D
0.7

0.35

0.2 8

0.3 25

0.6 784

1.4

6.92

0.4 9

0.2 34

0.03

0.9 0

0.536

1 a

m 0.217
2 a
d

0.875

0.5

0.16

0.1 8

1.416

1.6

0.61

0.4583

0.6

1.59 0

3 a

3
--5

39
-----50

1
--8

2
-----25

32
---------125

4 a

2
--9

1
--3

5
--9

8
--9

7
--9

91
-----99

10
-----33

7
-----11

98
-----99

0.9 = 1

6 a

46
-----99

7 a

586
---------- b
999

239
---------- c
999

284
---------- d
333

47
---------- e
111

205
---------333

8 a

7
-----18

59
-----90

83
-----90

1
--6

1
-----10

9 a

41
-----75

217
---------- c
300

163
---------- e
180

1
-----20

Exercise 5E
1 a \$3.44/kg
c 55 words/min
e 90 km/h
2 a 0.91 c/cm
c 1.4 L/min
e 2.25% per quarter
g
i
k
3 i
iii
4 i
iii
5 i

8
9
10

343
---------- d
450

b
d

\$12.56/h
10.5 km/L

b
d
f

0.125 c/mm
1.25% per month
16 c/min

84 c/min

1800 g/m2

650 g/m2
3.6 c/mL
1.2 km/min
20 m/s
1.8 km/min
30 m/s
1 km/min

j 1.9 c/g
l 7.5 g/mL
ii 1200 m/min
ii 1800 m/min
ii 1000 m/min

6 i 300 L/h
7

ii 5 L/min

## iii 83.3 mL/s

a 28.8 km/h b 72 km/h
c 126 km/h
d 150 kg/ha e 80 kg/ha
f 250 kg/ha
g \$5/kg h \$7.20/h i 7.2 L/h j 0.8 kg/L
36 km/h
i 0.125 L/km
ii 12.5 L/100 km
iii 125 mL/km
a 1080 b 25 h
c 4 bottles/min
d 180
e 50 min

11 a
d
12 a
c
13 a
c
14 a

320 m2 b
2

i 8m
450 km
25 m/s
270 L
75 mL/s
1200 mL

15 L

0.016 m2/mL

ii 3.2 m
b
d
b
d
b

7.5 h
135 m
8 h 53 min
1800 mL
10 drops/min

525

## LEY_bk953_answers_finalpp Page 526 Thursday, January 13, 2005 3:23 PM

526

Exercise 5E continued
15 a 17c/min
b 66c
c 22c/min
d 108.5c
e 5 min
16 i 0.072 g/mL
ii 72 mg/mL
iii 720 mg/10 mL
Non-calculator Activities
1 a
d
2 a

35 000
2500
3
b

3 a
d
4 a

b
e
2

7.30
7.64
c

0.4

0.5 2

0.576

0.2 13

0.4

0.375

15

1, 2, 3, 4 or 5
c

0.56

15 120 L/100 km
Review Set 5B

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

37
5 -----99
6 a 10 m/s

6
6
-----b 600
c ------------- d 60
1000
10
a 13 600 b 4060 c 148
d 100 000
a 1.6
b 1.56
c 1.561
a 2.70
b 40.0
163.5  height < 164.5 cm
a 2
b 1
c 5
a 365 000
b 540
c 0.002 40
d 2.00
a 2
b 2
c 4
d 1
e 1, 2, 3 or 4
1.85 kg is to the nearest 10 g, 1.850 to the
nearest gram.

1 a

0.3

0.36

0.3 14

0.5 678

11 a

0.1875

1.7

12 a

3
-----10

81
---------100

10 a

1.5 kg/L

Language in Mathematics
1 D
5 a fraction
d product

b
e

decimal
terminate

sum

1
5
9
13

D
D
D
D

2
6
10
14

50

3
7
11
15

D
B
B
B

4
8
12
16

5
---------100
34
8.463

0.2

0.42

0.4 25

0.4 253

11 a

0.375

1.6

12 a

3
--5

73
---------100

4
--9

14 1600 g/m2

267
------------1000

8
49
--b -----9
99
14 i 0.6 km/min ii 600 m/min
iii 10 m/s
15 18 L/h

C
D
A
D

500

a 2500 b 7930 c
d 50 000
a 8.5
b 8.46
c
a 3.50
b 20.0
a 35
b < 45
c 35  no. < 45
a 3
b 4
c 2
a 50
b 48
c 48.4
d 48.35
e 48.351
8 a 3
b 1
c 3
d 2
e 2, 3, 4 or 5
9 3.65 m is to the nearest cm, 3.650 to the nearest
mm.

13 a

Review Set 5C

2
3
4
5
6
7

10 a

0.2 8

13 a

D
C
A
C

Review Set 5A
1 a

41
-----99

0.4 2

8
8
-----c ---------d 8000
100
10
a 13 800 b 770
c 24
d 90 000
a 13.1
b 13.07
c 13.065
a 4.20
b 21.0
a 3
b 4
c 2
a 20
b 18
c 17.6
d 17.63
e 17.631
a 425
b < 435
c 425  no. < 435
a 3
b 1
c 3
d 2
e 2, 3, 4 or 5
6 cm is to the nearest cm, 6.0 cm to the nearest
mm.

1 a
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

0.1

0.37

0.6 37

0.423

11 a

0.275

1.916

12 a

1
--5

29
-----50

13 a

8
--9

635
---------999

10 a

69
---------500

0.9 2</