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# Chapter 2

Matrices
2.1

## Operations with Matrices

Homework: 2.1 (page 56): 7, 9, 13, 15, 17, 25, 27, 35, 37, 41, 46, 49,
67

## Main points in this section:

1. We define a few concept regarding matrices. This would include
addition of matrices, scalar multiplication and multiplication of
matrices.
2. We also represent a system of linear equation as equation with
matrices.

41

42

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES

## In this section, we will do some algebra of matrices. That means, we

will add, subtract, multiply matrices. Matrices will usually be denoted
by upper case letters, A, B, C, . . . . Such a matrix

## a11 a12 a13 a1n

a21 a22 a23 a2n

a
a
a

a
A=
31
32
33
3n

am1 am2 am3 amn
is also denoted by [aij ].

## Remark. I used parentheses in the last chapter, not a square brackets.

The textbook uses square brackets.
Definition 2.1.1 Two matrices A = [aij ] and B = [bij ] are equal if
both A and B have same size m n and the entries
aij = bij

f or all

1 i m and

1 j n.

## Read [Textbook, Example 1, p. 47] for examples of unequal matrices.

Definition 2.1.2 Following are some standard terminologies:
1. A matrix with only one column is called a column matrix or
column vector. For example,

13

a = 19
23

is a column matrix.

2. A matrix with only one row is called a row matrix or row vector. For example
b=
is a row matrix.

4 11 13 19 23

43

## 2.1. OPERATIONS WITH MATRICES

3. Bold face lower case letters, as above, will often be used to denote
row or column matrices.

2.1.1

## Definition 2.1.3 We difine addition of two matrices of same size.

Suppose A = [aij ] and B = [bij ] be two matrices of same size m n.
Then the sum A + B is defined to be the matrix of size m n given by
A + B = [aij + bij ].
1. For example, with

A= 3

15

13 10

8 , B = 5 18 we have A+B = 2 10
10 14
11 1
21 15

## 2. Also, for example, with

"
#
"
#
"
#
3.5 2
0.5 2.7
3 0.7
C=
,D=
we have C+D =
.
3
2.2
3 5
0 7.2
3. While, the sum A + C is not defined because A and C do not
have same size.
4. Read [Textbook, Example 2, p. 48] for more such examples.

2.1.2

Scalar Multiplication

## Recall, in some contexts, real numbers are referred to as scalars (in

contrast with vectors.) We define, multiplication of a matrix A by a
scalar c.

44

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES

## Definition 2.1.4 Let A = [aij ] be an m n matrix and c be a scalar.

We define Scalar multiple cA of A by c as the matrix of same size
given by
cA = [caij ].

## 1. For a matrix A, the negative of A denotes (1)A. Also AB :=

A + (1)B.
2. Let c = 11 and

A= 3

15

B = 5 18
11 1

8 ,
10 14

## Then, with c = 11 we have

44

55

8 = 33 88 .
110 154
10 14

cA = 11 3

Likewise, A B = A + (1)B =

15

15

3 8 +(1) 5 18 = 3 8 + 5 18
11 1
10 14
11 1
10 14

49

5 15

5 20

8 18 = 8 26
1 13
10 11 14 1

= 3+5

45

## 2.1. OPERATIONS WITH MATRICES

2.1.3

Matrix Multiplication

The textbook gives a helpful motivation for defining matrix multiplication in page 49. Read it, if you are not already motivated.
Definition 2.1.5 Suppose A = [aij ] is a matrix of size m n and
B = [bij ] is a matrix of size n p. Then the product AB = [cij ] is a
matrix size m p where
cij := ai1 b1j + ai2 b2j + ai3 b3j + + ain bnj =

n
X

aik bkj .

k=1

## 1. Note that number of columns (n) of A must be equal to number

of rows (n) of B, for the product AB to be defined.
2. Note the number of rows of AB is equal to is same as that (m) of
A and number of columns of AB is equal to is same as that (n)
of B.
3. Read [Textbook, Example 4-5, p.51-52]. I will workout a few
below.
Exercise 2.1.6 (Ex. 12, p. 57) Let

1 1

A = 2 1
3

8 ,
1

B= 2

1
1 3 2

## AB = 2 1 + (1) 2 + 8 1 2 1 + (1) 1 + 8 (3) 2 2 + (1) 1 + 8 2

3 1 + 1 2 + (1) 1 3 1 + 1 1 + (1) (3) 3 2 + 1 1 + (1) 2

46

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES

6 21 15

= 8 23 19
4 1
5

## Now, we compute BA. We have

11+12+23

BA = 2 1 + 1 2 + 1 3

1 (1) + 1 (1) + 2 1

1 7 + 1 8 + 2 (

2 (1) + 1 (1) + 1 1

2 7 + 1 8 + 1 (

9 0
13

= 7 2 21 .
1

19

## Exercise 2.1.7 (Ex. 16, p. 57) Let

2
0 1 3

A = 4 0 2 , and B = 3 .
1
8 1 7

## Solution: Note BA is not defined, because size of B is 3 1 and size

of A is 3 3. But AB is defined and is a 3 1 matrix (or a column
matrix). We have

AB =

0 2 + (1) (3) + 3 1

4 2 + 0 (3) + 2 1 = 10 .
26
8 2 + (1) (3) + 7 1

"
#
"
#
1 0 3 2 4
1 6
A=
and B =
6 13 8 17 20
4 2

47

## 2.1. OPERATIONS WITH MATRICES

Compute AB and BA, if definded.

## Solution Note AB is not defined, because size of A is 2 5 and size

of B is 2 2. But BA is defined and we have BA =
"
#
1 1 + 6 6 1 0 + 6 13 1 3 + 6 8 1 (2) + 6 (17) 1 4 + 6 20
4 1 + 2 6 4 0 + 2 13 4 3 + 2 8 4 (2) + 2 (17) 4 4 + 2 20
=

2.1.4

"

37 78 51 104 124
16 26 28

42

56

## Systems of linear equations can be represented in a matrix form. Given

a system of liner equations
a11 x1 + a12 x2 + a13 x3 + + a1n xn = b1
a21 x1 + a22 x2 + a23 x3 + + a2n xn = b2
a31 x1 + a32 x2 + a33 x3 + + a3n xn = b3

## am1 x1 + am2 x2 + am3 x3 + + amn xn = bm

we can write this system in the matrix form as
Ax = b
where

A=

a21 a22 a23
a31 a32 a33

am1 am2 am3

a1n
a2n
a3n

amn

x=

x1
x2
x3

xn

b=

b1
b2
b3

bn

## Clearly, A is the coefficient matrix, x would be called the unknown (or

variable) matrix (or vector) and b would be called the constant vector
(or matrix).

48

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES
1. With

a1 =

a11
a21
a31

am1

, a2 =

a12
a22
a32

am2

, aj =

a1j
a2j
a3j

amj

, an =

a1n
a2n
a3n

amn

## we can write (or think)

A = a1 a2 a j a n

as a matrix of matrices.

## 2. The above system of linear equations can be (re)writeen as

x1 a1 + x2 a2 + + xj aj + + xn an = b.
We say, b is a linear combination of the column metrices (or
vectors) a1 , a2 , . . . , an with coefficents x1 , x2 , . . . , xn .
3. So, the solutions of the above system are precisely those c1 , . . . , cn
such that b is a linear combination of the vectors a1 , a2 , . . . , an
with coefficents c1 , c2 , . . . , cn .
Exercise 2.1.9 (Ex. 34 (changed), p. 58) Consider the system of
equation:
x1

+x2 3x3 = 1

x1 +2x2
x1 2x2

=1
+x3

=2

## Write this system in the matrix-form Ax = b and solve matrix equation

for x.
Solution: The equation reduces to

1
x1
1
1 3

2
0 x2 = 1
1
x3
2
1 2
1

49

## 2.1. OPERATIONS WITH MATRICES

This answers the first part. To solve, the augmented matrix of the
system is

1 3 1

2
1
1 2

1
2

## Using TI-84, we can reduce it to Gauss-Jordan form:

1 0 0 5

0 1 0 3
0 0 1 3
The corresponding linear system is:

1 0 0

x1

0 1 0 x2 = 3
3
x3
0 0 1
Multiplying, this give the solution:

x1

x2 = 3 .
x3
3
Exercise 2.1.10 (Ex. 40, .58)
#"
#
"
a b
2 1
c d

3 1

"

17

4 1

## Solution: Here we have four unknowns a, b, c, d. In any case, multiplying:

"

2a + 3b a + b
2c + 3d c + d

"

17

4 1

50

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES
Equating respective entries:
2a +3b

=3

+b

= 17

2c +3d
c
The augmented matrix of the

## Use TI-84 to reduce it to the

=4

+d = 1

system:
3 0 0

17

0 2 3
4

0 1 1 1
1 0 0

Gauss-Jordan form:

0 0 0
48

1 0 0 31

0 1 0 7

0 0 1
6

## Looking at the corresponding to this matrix, we get

#
# "
"
48 31
a b
.
=
a = 48, b = 31, c = 7, d = 6
and
7
6
c d

2.2

51

## Properties of Matrix operations

Homework: 2.2 (page 70): 1, 3, 7, 9, 15, 17, 21, 23, 29, 31, 35, 37,
39, 43, 57, 59

## Main points in this section:

1. We write down some of the properties of matrix addition and
multiplication.
2. We define transpose of a matrix.
3. We start writing some proofs.

52

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES
We start developing some algebra of matrices.

## Theorem 2.2.1 (Properties) Let A, B, C be three m n matrices

and c, d be scalars. Then
1. A + B = B + A

3. (cd)A = c(dA)

4. 1A = A

## identity of scalar multiplication

5. c(A + B) = cA + cB

## Distributivity of scalar multiplication

6. (c + d)A = cA + dA

## Distributivity of scalar multiplication

Proof. One needs to prove all these statements using definitions of addition and scalar multiplication. To prove the commutativity

of ma-

trix addition (1), Let A = [aij ], B = [bij ]. Both A and B have same size
m n, so A + B, B + A are defined. From definition
A + B = [aij ] + [bij ] = [aij + bij ] and B + A = [bij ] + [aij ] = [bij + aij ].
From commutative property of addition of real numbers, we have aij +
bij = bij +aij . Therefore, from definition of equality of matrices, A+B =
B + A. So, (1) is proved. Other properties are proved similarly.
Remark. For matrices A, B, C as in the theorem, by the expression
A + B + C we mean (A + B) + C or A + (B + C). It is well defined,
because (A + B) + C = A + (B + C) by associatieve property(2) of
Theorem 2.2.2 Let Omn denote the m n matrix whose entries are
all zero. Let A be a m n matrix. Then
1. Then A + Omn = A.

53

## 2. We have A + (A) = Omn

3. If cA = Omn , then either c = 0 or A = 0.
We say, on the set of all mn matrices, Omn is an additive identity
(property (1)), and (A) is the additive inverse of A (property (2))

2.2.1

## Theorem 2.2.3 (Mult-Properties) Let A, B, C be three matrices

(of varying sizes) so that all the products below are defined and c be a
scalars. Then
1. AB 6= BA

## Failure of Commutativity of multiplication

2. (AB)C = A(BC)

Associativity of multiplication

## 3. (A + B)C = AC + BC Lef t Distributivity of multiplication

4. A(B + C) = AB + AC Right Distributivity of multiplication
5. c(AB) = (cA)B

an Associativity

## In (1), by AB 6= BA, we mean AB is not always equal to BA.

Proof. We will only prove (4). In this case, let A be a matrix of size
m n and then B, C would have to be of same size n p. Write

a11

a12

a13

## a21 a22 a23

A=
a31 a32 a33

am1 am2 am3

a1n

a2n

a3n
,

amn

54

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES

and

b21

B=
b31

bn1

,

bn2 bn3 bnp

c21

C=
c31

cn1

## c32 c33 c3p

.

cn2 cn3 cnp

Therefore, A(B + C) =

a11

a12

a13

am1 am2 am3

a1n

b11 + c11

b12 + c12

## a2n b21 + c21 b22 + c22 b23 + c23

a3n
b31 + c31 b32 + c32 b33 + c33

amn
bn1 + cn1 bn2 + cn2 bn3 + cn3

b2p + c2p

b3p + c3p
.

bnp + cnp

which is

Pn

Pnk=1
Pnk=1
k=1

a2k (bk1 + ck1 )

Pn

Pnk=1
Pnk=1
k=1

a2k (bk2 + ck2 )

Pn

Pnk=1
Pnk=1
k=1

## a3k (bk1 + ck1 )

a3k (bk2 + ck2 )
a3k (bkp + ckp )

Pn
Pn
Pn
k=1 amk (bk1 + ck1 )
k=1 amk (bk2 + ck2 )
k=1 amk (bkp + ckp )

55

which is
Pn

Pk=1
n
Pk=1
n
k=1

a1k bk1
a2k bk1
a3k bk1

Pn

k=1

Pn

Pk=1
n
Pk=1
n
k=1

a1k bk2

a2k bk2

amk bk1

Pn

k=1

a3k bk2
amk bk2
+

Pn

Pk=1
n
Pk=1
n
k=1

a1k bkp

a2k bkp

a3k bkp

Pn

Pn

Pn

a1k ck2
k=1 a1k ck1
Pk=1
Pn
n
a2k ck1

Pk=1
P
n
n

k=1 a3k ck2

Pn
Pn
k=1 amk ck1 )
k=1 amk ck2

Pn

Pk=1
n

= AB + AC

a1k ckp

a2k ckp

a3k ckp

Pn

Pk=1
n
k=1

## Alternate way to write the same proof: Let A be a matrix of size

m n and then B, C would have to be of same size n p. Write
A = [aik ],

B = [bkj ],

C = [ckj ].

## Then B + C = [bkj + ckj ]. So,

A(B + C) = [aik ][bkj + ckj ] = [ij ] (say).
Then the (ij)th entry ij of A(B + C) is given by
ij =

n
X

AB =

"

n
X
k=1

aik bkj +

aik bkj ,

and

n
X

aik ckj

k=1

k=1

k=1

But

n
X

AC =

"

n
X
k=1

aik ckj

## So, the (ij)th entry of AB + AC is also equal to ij . Therefore A(B +

C) = AB + AC and the proof is complete.

56

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES

Remark. For matrices A, B, C as in the theorem so that all the multiplications in the associative law (2) are defined. Then the expression ABC would mean (AB)C or A(BC). It is well defined, because
(AB)C = A(BC) by associatieve property(2) of matrix multiplication.
1. [Textbook, Example 3, p. 64] to experience that associativity
(property 2) works.
2. [Textbook, Example 4, p. 64] to see examples that commutativity
for multiplication fails (property 1).
3. [Textbook, Example 5, p. 65] to see examples that cancellation
fails. That means, examples AB = AC for nonzero A, B, C with
B 6= C. This makes solving matrix equation like AX = AC, different from solving equation in real numbers, like ax = c.
Theorem 2.2.4 Let In denote the square matrix of order n whose
main diagonal entries are 1 and all the entries are zero. So,

1
0
0

In = 0
0
1

0
0
0

1 0

0
1 0 0

0 1

0
, I3 = 0 1 0 , I4 = 0 0

0 0 1
0 0
1

0 0

0 0

1 0

0 1

## Let A be an m n matrix. Then

Im A = A and AIn = A.
Because of these two properties, In is called the identity matrix of
order n.
Proof. Easy.

## 2.2. PROPERTIES OF MATRIX OPERATIONS

57

1. [Textbook, Example 6, p. 66]
2. [Textbook, Example 7, p. 66], just to get used to computing Ar .
Following the definition 1.1.2 in item (4) we gave a classification of
system of equation, which we state as a theorem and prove as follows.
Theorem 2.2.5 Let Ax = b be a linear system of m equations in n
unknowns. Then exactly one of the follwoing is true:
1. The system has no solution.
2. The system has exactly one solution.
3. The system has infinitely many solutions.
Proof. If the system has no solution or have exactly one solution,
then there is nothing to prove. So, assume, it has at least two distinct
solutions x1 , x2 . So, Ax1 = b and Ax2 = b. Subtracting the second
from the first, we have A(x1 x2 ) = 0. Write y = x1 x2 .
Then y 6= 0 and Ay = 0. So, for any scalar c, we have
A(x1 + cy) = Ax1 + A(cy) = b + (Ac)y = b + c(Ay) = b + c0 = b.
So, x1 +cy is a solution, for each scalar c (and they are all distinct). So,
the system has infinitely many solutuions. This completes the proof.

2.2.2

Transpose of a matrix

Definition 2.2.6 The transpose of a matrix A is obtained by writing the rows as columns (and/or writing the columns as rows). The
transpose of A is denoted bt AT . So, for the matrix

58

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES

a11

a12

a13

A=
a31 a32 a33

am1 am2 am3

a1n

a2n
a
T 12

a3n A =
a13

a1n
amn

a2n a3n amn

## Definition 2.2.7 A (square) matrix A is said to be symmetric, if

A = AT .

Theorem 2.2.8 Let A, B be matrices (of varying sizes so that the sum
or product is defined) and c be a scalar. Then,
1. (AT )T = A. (That means transpose of transpose is the same.)
2. (A + B)T = AT + B T .
3. (cA)T = cAT .
4. (AB)T = B T AT . (This is the most important one in this list.)
In fact, properties 2, 4 extends to sum of higher number of matrices.

1. [Textbook, Example 8, p. 68] to compute transpose of a matrix.
2. [Textbook, Example 9, p. 66], about transpose and product of
matrices.

59

## 2.2. PROPERTIES OF MATRIX OPERATIONS

Exercise 2.2.9 (Ex. 8, p. 70) Let

2 1

A= 1
0 , B =
3 4

Then

0 .
4 1
2

1. Solve X = 3A 2B
Solution: In this case

2 1
1

which is

0
0 2 2
4 1
3 4

X = 3A 2B = 3

0 4
0 = 1
0 .
9 12
8 2
17 10
3

2. Solve 2X = 2A B.
Solution: We have

2X = 2AB = 2

OR

2 1

4 2

0 =
0 2
4 1
3 4
1

2X =

4 5
0

0
10 7

## Divide by 2 (i.e. multiply by 12 ), we have

4 5
2 2.5
1

X= 0
0 = 0
0 .
2
10 7
5 3.5

0
0 2
4 1
6 8
2

60

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES
3. Solve 2X + 3A = B.
Solution: We have 2X + 3A = B. Subtracting 3A from both
sides, 2X = B 3A. So,

0
3
2 1
6 6

2X = B 3A = 2
0 3 1
0 = 1 0 .
4 1
3 4
13 11
Divide by 2 (i.e. multiply by 12 ), we have

6 6
3
3
1

X = 1 0 = 0.5
0 .
2
13 11
6.5 5.5

## Exercise 2.2.10 (Ex. 10-changed, p. 70) Let

"
#
"
#
"
#
1 2
3
1 3
0 1
A=
,B =
,C =
0 1 1
1 2
1 0
Compute C(BA) and A(BC), if defined.
Solution: Note A(BC) is not defined because A has 3 column and BC
has two rows. We compute C(BA). We have C(BA) = (CB)A and
#"
# "
#
"
0 1
1 3
1
2
=
CB =
1 0
1 2
1 3
So, C(BA) = (CB)A
"
#"
# "
#
1
2
1 2
3
1
0 5
=
=
.
1 3
0 1 1
1 5
0
Exercise 2.2.11 (Ex. 18, p. 70) Let
#
"
#
"
2 4
1 2
A=
,
B=
2 4
.05
1

61

## Then AB = 0 but A 6= 0 nor B 6= 0. (Note, such a phenomenon

will not occur with real numbers. That is why with real numbers, ax =
0, a 6= 0 x = 0. We cannot do similar algebra with matrices. With
A 6= 0 the solution to the equation AX = 0 is not necessarily X = 0.)
Solution: Obvious.
Exercise 2.2.12 (Ex. 22, p. 70) Let
"
#
"
#
1
2
1 0
A=
, and I = I2 =
.
0 1
0 1
Compute A + IA.
Solution: We have
A + IA = A + A = 2A = 2

"

0 1

"

0 2

1 1

A= 3
4 .
0 2

## Compute AT , AT A and AAT .

Solution: We have

AT =

"

1 3

1 4 2

So, AT A =
"

1 3

1 4 2

1 1

4 =
3
0 2

"

1 + 9 + 0 1 + 12 + 0
1 + 12 + 0

1 + 16 + 4

"

10 11
11 21

62

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES
Also AAT =

#
1 1 "
1+1 34 0+2
1 3
0

= 3 4 9 + 16 0 8
4
3
1 4 2
0 2
0+2 08 0+4

which is

2 1

= 1

25 8
2 8
4

## Exercise and comment: Notice in this exercise 24 above, both AAT

and AT A are symmetric matrices. This is not a surprise.
In fact, for any matrix A, both AAT and AT A are symmetric matrices.
Proof.

AAT

T
= AT AT = AAT .

## So, AAT is symmetric. Similarly, AT A is symmetric.

Exercise 2.2.14 (Ex. 38. p. 71)

1
1

X = 2 ,Y = 0 ,Z =
2
3

Let

0
0
1

4 ,W = 0 ,O = 0 .
0
1
4

## 1. Find scalars a, b such that Z = aX + bY.

Solution: This is, in fact, a problem of solving a system of linear
equations. Suppose Z = aX + bY. Then,

" #
" #
1
1
1
h
i a

a

= Z. OR 2 0
= 4
X Y
b
b
3 2
4

63

## Here a, b are unknown to be solved for. The augmented matrix

of this system is:

1 1 1

2 0 4
3 2 4

## By TI-84, the matrix reduced to the

1 0
2

0 1 1
0 0

Gauss-Jordan form:

## This gives a = 2, b = 1. (We can check 2X Y = Z.)

2. Show that there do not exist scalar a, b such that W = aX + bY.
Solution: This is, in fact, a problem of solving a system of linear
equations. Suppose W = aX + bY. Then,

" #
" #
0
1
1
h
i a

a

= 0
= W. OR 2 0
X Y
b
b
1
3 2
Here a, b are unknown to be solved for. The augmented matrix
of this system is: Here a, b are unknown to be solved for. The
augmented matrix of this system is:

1 1 0

2 0 0
3 2 1

## By TI-84, the matrix reduced to the Gauss-Jordan form:

1 0 0

0 1 0 .
0 0 1

64

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES
The system corresponding to this matrix is a = 0, b = 0, 0 = 1,
which is inconsistent.
3. Show that aX + bY + cW = O then a = b = c = 0.
Solution: This is, again, a problem of solving a system of linear
equations. Suppose O = aX + bY + cW. Then,
h

X Y

b =O
c

OR

1 1 0

2 0 0 b = 0
0
3 2 1
c

## The augmented matrix of this system is given by

1 1 0 0

2 0 0 0
3 2 1 0
From TI-83/84, the matrix reduces to the following Gauss-Jordan
form:

1 0 0 0

0 1 0 0 .
0 0 1 0

## So, a = 0, b = 0, c = 0, as was required to show.

4. Find the scalars a, b, c, not all zero (nontrivial solution), such that
aX + bY + cZ = O.
Solution: This is, again, a problem of solving a system of linear
equations. Suppose O = aX + bY + cZ. Then,
h

X Y

b =O
c

OR

1 1 1

2 0 4 b = 0
c
3 2 4
0

65

## 2.2. PROPERTIES OF MATRIX OPERATIONS

The augmented matrix of this system

1 1 1 0

2 0 4 0

is given by

3 2 4 0

form:

1 0

0 1 1 0 .
0 0 0 0

+2c = 0

a
b

c
0

=0 .
=0

## Using c = t as parameter, we have a = 2t, b = t, c = t. So, for

any scalar t, we have 2tX + tY + tZ = O.
Exercise 2.2.15 (Ex. 44, p. 71) Let
f (x) = x2 7x + 6 and A =

"

5 4

"

29 28

1 2

Compute f (A).
Solution: We have
A2 = AA =

"

5 4
1 2

#"

5 4
1 2

## So, f (A) = A2 7A + 6I2 =

"
#
"
#
"
#
29 28
5 4
1 0
7
+6
7 8
1 2
0 1

66

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES

"

29 28
7

"

35 28
7

14

"

6 0
0 6

"

0 0
0 0

2.3

67

## The Inverse of a matrix

Homework: [Textbook, Ex. 9, 13, 25, 27, 33, 35, 37, 41, 45 ; page
84-]
Main point in the section is to define and compute inverse of
matrices:
1. We give a formula to compute inverse of a 2 2 matrices.
2. We describe the method of row reduction to compute inverse of a
matrix of any size.
3. We use inverse of matrices to solve system of linear equations.

68

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES

## Definition 2.3.1 For a square matrix A of size n n, we say that A is

invertible (or nonsingular) if there is an n n, matrix B such that
AB = BA = In
where In is the identity matrix of order n. The matrix B is called the
(multiplicative ) inverse of A. If a matrix does not have an inverse, it
is called a noninvertible (or singular) matrix.
A non-square matrix does have an inverse. Because if A is an mn
matrix with m 6= n, then for AB and BA to be defined, the size of B
has to be n m. The size of AB would be m m and size of BA would
be n n. So, AB 6= BA.
Theorem 2.3.2 If A is invertible, then the inverse is unique. The
inverse is denoted by A1 .
Proof. Suppose B and C are two inverses of A. We nned to prove
B = C. We have
AB = BA = I

and

AC = CA = I.

So,
B = BI = B(AC) = (BA)C = IC = C.
So, the proof is complete.
Remark. (1) Note that the proof works if C was only a right-inverse
and B was a left-inverse of A. (2) Also note that the proof did not use
any property of matrices, except associativity.

2.3.1

## There are many methods of finding inverse of a matrix. We will discuss

at least two of them. The easy one, for a 2 2 matrices is given by the
theorem:

69

## 2.3. THE INVERSE OF A MATRIX

Theorem 2.3.3 Suppose
"

A=

a b
c d

## is a non-zero 2 2 matrix. Then

1. If ad bc = 0, then A has no invierse (i.e. A is a singular matrix).
2. If ad bc 6= 0, then
A1

1
=

Proof. Write

d b
c
a

B=
First,
AB =

a b
c d

d b
c
a

"

d b
c

0

## 1. (Case 1:) Assume ad bc = 0. Then, we have AB = O. So, A

cannot have an inverse (otherwise we will get B = A1 (AB) = O,
which is not the case).
1
2. (Case 2:) Assume ad bc 6= 0. We need to prove A( adbc
B) =
1
1
I2 = ( adbc B)A. Multiply the above equation by adbc , we get

1
A
B = I2 .

1
B A = I2 . So, the proof is complete.

## Exercise 2.3.4 (Ex. 6, p.84) Find the inverse of the matrix

"
#
1 2
A=
, if exists.
2 3

70

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES
Solution: We have ad bc = 1(3) (2)2 = 1. So, by theorem
2.3.3,
A1

1
=

"

d b
c

"

3 2
2 1

and [Textbook, Example 5, p. 79].

2.3.2

## 2nd method of finding inverse of a matrix

The second mothod of finding the inverse evolves out of the spirit of
solving equation. Suppose A is an n n matrix and it has an inverse
X, where X is an n n matrix. To find X, we have to solve the
equation AX = In . The following method is suggested to solve
this equation:
1. Write the augmented matrix of this Equation AX = In as
[A | In ] .
2. If possible, row reduce A to the identity matrix I using elementary
row operations on the entire augmented matrix [A | I] . If the
result is [I | C] , then A1 = C. If this is not possible, the matrix
is not invertible (or singular).
3. Check your work by multiplying AA1 and A1 A to see AA1 =
A1 A = I.
Justifcation or Proof. Suppose B is an m n matrix. Then, each
elemetary row operation on a matrix B is same as left-multiplication
of B by a matrix:
1. For example, multiplying the ith row B by a constant is same as
left-multiplication of B by the diagonal matrix of order n, whose
(i, i)entry is c and other digonal entries are 1 (and rest of the
entries are zero).

71

## 2. Interchanging of (for example) first and second row is left-multiplication

of B by the (partitioned) matrix:

0 1
O
.
S= 1 0
O
Im2
We use the notation O to denote the zero matrix of appropriate
size. So, we mean SB is the matrix obtained by switching first
and second row of B.

## 3. Adding ctimes first row to the second is same as left-multiplication

of B by the (partitioned) matrix:

1 0
O
.
E = c 1
O
Im2
So, we mean EB is the matrix obtained from B by adding ctimes
the first row to second. We can write down a similar fact for
adding ctimes the ith row to j th row.

## Our method says, thee is sequence of matrices E1 , E2 , . . . , Er such that

the left-muitiplication(s) gives
(E1 E2 Er )[A | I] = [I | C].
With E = E1 E2 Er , we have
E[A | I] = [I | C]

[EA | E] = [I | C].

## This means, EA = I and E = C. So, E = C is the (left) inverse of A.

This completes the justification/proof.
Exercise 2.3.5 (Ex. 10, p. 84) Compute the inverse of the matrix

1
2
3

A= 3
7
9 .
1 4 7

72

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES

Solution: Augment this matrix with the idetity matrix I3 and we have

1
2
3 1 0 0

7
9 0 1 0 .
3
1 4 7 0 0 1

## According to the above method, we will try to reduce first 3 3 part

to I3 , using row operations. Subtract 3 times first row from second and

1 0 0

1
0 3 1 0 .
0
0 2 4
1 0 1

Now subtract 2 times second row from first and add 2 times second row
to third:

1 0

1 0 .
2 1

0 3
0 1
0 0 4 5

## Divide third row by 4, we get

1 0 3
7

0 1 0 3

7 2 0

0 .
0 0 1 1.25 .5 .25
1

## Subtract 3 times third row from first:

1 0 0 3.25 .5

1
0 1 0 3

So,

.75

0 .
0 0 1 1.25 .5 .25

3.25 .5

A1 = 3

.75

0 .
1.25 .5 .25
1

73

## 2.3. THE INVERSE OF A MATRIX

Exercise 2.3.6 (Ex. 12, p. 84) Compute the inverse of the matrix

10 5 7

A = 5 1
4 .
3 2 2

Solution: Augment this matrix with the idetity matrix I3 and we have

10 5 7 1 0 0

4 0 1 0 .
5 1
3 2 2 0 0 1

According to the above method, we will try to reduce the left 3 3 part
to I3 , using row operations. Divide first row by 10:

1 .5 .7 .1 0 0

4 0 1 0 .
5 1
3 2 2 0 0 1

Add 5 times first row to second and substract 3 times first row from
third:

.5 .7

0 3.5
0 .5

.5 1 0 .
.1 .3 0 1

.5

## Divide second row by 3.5:

1 .5 .7

1
0 1
7
0 .5

.1 0 0

.1 0 0
1
7

2
7

0 .
.1 .3 0 1

Subtract .5 times second row from both the first and third:

1
1
1 0 54

0
70
35
7

1
1
2
0 .
0 1
7
7
7
1
13
0 0
35
17 1
35

74

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES

1 0 54
70
1
7

1
7

71

2
7

0 .
1 13 5 35

0 1
0 0
Subtract

1
35
1
7

54
70

## from the first:

1 0 0 10 4

27

2
1 5 .
0 1 0
0 0 1 13 5 35
So,

A1 =

2.3.3

10 4

27

1 5 .
13 5 35
2

Properties of Inverses

## Following is a list properties of inverses:

Theorem 2.3.7 Suppose A is an invertible matrix and c 6= 0 is a
scalar. Also, let k be a positive integer. Then
1. (A1 )1 = A.
2. (Ak )1 = (A1 )k .
3. (cA)1 = 1c A1 .
4. (AT )1 = (A1 )T .

75

## Proof. From definitions, B is an inverse of A, if

AB = BA = I.
So, (1) is obvious. To prove (2), we need to show (Ak )(A1 )k ) =
(A1 )k )Ak = I. For k = 2, we need to prove (A2 )(A1 )2 ) = (A1 )2 )A2 =
I. But
(A2 )(A1 )2 ) = (AA)(A1 A1 ) = A((AA1 )A1 ) = A(IA1 ) = AA1 = I
Similarly, (A1 )2 )A2 = I. For any integer k > 2, we prove it similarly
or we can prove it by method of induction: To do this we assume
that (A1 )k is the inverse of Ak and use it to prove that(A1 )k+1 is the
inverse of Ak+1 , as follows:
(Ak+1 )(A1 )k+1 = Ak (AA1 )(A1 )k = Ak I(A1 )k = Ak (A1 )k = I
So, (2) is proved.
Also

1 1
A
c

1
(cA)
= (c )(AA1 ) = 1I = I.
c
1 1
(cA) = I. So, (3) is proved. Finally,
Similarly, c A

T
T
AT A1 = A1 A = I T = I.
T

## Similarly, (A1 ) AT = I. So, all the proofs are complete.

Theorem 2.3.8 Let A, B be two invertible matrices of order n. Then
AB is invertible and
(AB)1 = B 1 A1 .
Proof. We need to prove,

(AB) B 1 A1 = I = B 1 A1 (AB).

But

## Similarly, we prove (B 1 A1 ) (AB) = I. The proof is complete.

76

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES

Theorem 2.3.9 (Cancellation Property) Let A, B be two invertible matrices of order n and C be an invertible matrix of the same
order. Then
AC = BC = A = B

CA = CB = A = B.

and

## Proof. Suppose AC = BC. Multiply this equation by C 1 from the

right side (we can do this because it is given that C has an inverse), we
get
(AC)C 1 = (BC)C 1 . So A(CC 1 ) = B(CC 1 ) So AI = BI.
So A = B. Similaraly, we prove the other one. The proof is complete
Theorem 2.3.10 Let A be an invertible matrices of order n. Then the
system of linear equations Ax = b has a unique solution given by
x = A1 b.
Proof. (Proof is exactly same as that of theorem 2.3.9) Suppose Ax =
b. Multiply this eqyuation by A1 , and we get (A1 A)x = A1 b. Therefore Ix = A1 b. Hence x = A1 b. The proof is complete
Exercise 2.3.11 (Ex. 26, p. 85) Solve the following three linear systems.
1. Solve the linear system of equations:
2x y = 3
2x +y =
Solution: With
"
#
2 1
A=
2
1

x=

"

x
y

b=

"

3
7

77

## 2.3. THE INVERSE OF A MATRIX

the system can be written as Ax = b.
By theorem 2.3.3,
A1

1
=
4

"

1 1
2 2

The solution is
1
x = A1 b =
4

"

1 1
2 2

#"

3
7

"

1
5

## 2. Solve the linear system of equations:

2x y = 1
2x +y = 3
Solution: The system can be writeen as Ax = b where A, x are
same as in (1) and
"
#
"
#
1
1 1
1
1
b=
. W e already computed A =
.
4 2 2
3
The solution is
1
x = A1 b =
4

"

1 1
2 2

#"

1
3

"

1
1

## 3. Solve the linear system of equations:

2x y =

2x +y = 10
Solution: The system can be writeen as Ax = b where A, x are
same as in (1) and
"
#
"
#
6
1
1
1
b=
. W e already computed A1 =
.
4 2 2
10

78

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES
The solution is
x = A1 b =

1
4

"

1 1
2 2

#"

6
10

"

4
2

Exercise 2.3.12 (Ex. 28, p. 85) Solve the following two linear systems.
1. Solve the linear system of equations:
x1

+x2 3x3 =

x1 2x2
x1

x2

Solution: With

1
1 3

A = 1 2
1
1 1 1

+x3 =

x3 = 1

x1

x = x2
x3

b=

0
1

## the system can be written as Ax = b. We need to find the inverse

of A. To do this augment the identity matrix I3 , to A and we get

1
1 3 1 0 0

1 0 1 0
1 2
1 1 1 0 0 1

1
1 3
1 0 0

4 1 1 0
0 3
0 2
2 1 0 1

1
1 3
1
0 0

1
1 43
31 0
0
3
0 2
2 1
0 1

79

## 2.3. THE INVERSE OF A MATRIX

Subtract second row from first and add 2 times second to third
row:

1 0 53

2
3
1
3
13

0 1 43
0 0 23

1
3
31
32

0
1

5
3

1 0 53

2
3
1
3
1
2

0 1 43
0 0
1

1
3
13

1 32

4
3

## times third row to

second:

By theorem 2.3.3,

2 52

0 1 0 1 1 2
0 0 1 12 1 32

The solution is

3
2

1 0 0

3
2

2 52

A1 = 1 1 2
1
1 32
2

3
2

2 25

5
2

x = A1 b = 1 1 2 0 = 2
1
3
1 23
1
2
2
2. Solve the linear system of equations:
x1

+x2 3x3 = 1

x1 2x2

+x3 =

x2

x3 =

x1

80

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES
Solution: With A and x as in (1) and with

b= 2
0

## the system can be written as Ax = b. We already computed A1 .

So, the solution is

3
2

2 52

x = A1 b = 1 1 2
1
1 32
2

2.5

2 = 1 .
0
1.5

Exercise 2.3.13 (Ex. 34, p. 85) Suppose A, B arer two 2 2 matrices and
A1 =

"

1
7
2
7

27
3
7

and B 1 =

"

5
11
3
11

2
11
1
11

72

1
7
2
7

4 9

1. Compute (AB)1 .
Solution: By theorem 2.3.8, we have
"
(AB)

1 1
=
11 7

=B A

"

3 1

#"

5
11
3
11

2 1
3 2

2
11
1
11

#"

1
=
77

"

3
7

9 1

2. Compute (AT )1 .
Solution: By theorem 2.3.7, we have
"
#!T "
1
2

72
7
7
(AT )1 = (A1 )T =
=
3
1
2
7

3
7
2
7

81

## 3. Compute A2 . (In page 80, for a positive integer k it was defined

Ak := (A1 )k .)
We have A2 = A1 A1 =
#
"
#"
#
#"
#
"
"
72 17
2 1
72 17
2 1
1 0
1
1
=
.
=
2
2
3
3
49
49
3 2
3 2
0 5
7
7
7
7
4. Compute (2A)1 .
Solution: By theorem 2.3.7, we have
"
# "
1
2

17
1
1
7
7
(2A)1 = A1 =
=
3
3
2
2
2
7
7
14

1
14
2
14

## Exercise 2.3.14 (Ex. 38, p. 85) Let

#
"
2
x
.
A=
1 2
Find x, so that A is its own inverse.
Solution: If A it its own inverse then A2 = I2 . So, we have
"
#"
# "
#
2
x
2
x
1 0
=
1 2
1 2
0 1
Multiplying, we have
"
#
4x
0
0 4x

2.4

"

1 0
0 1

. so 4 x = 1;

so x = 3.

Elementary Matrices

## We skip this section. I included some of it in subsection 2.3.2.

82

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES

2.5

## Application of matrix operations

Homework: [Textbook, 2.5 Ex. 15, 17, 19, 21, 23; p. 113].
Main point in this section is to do some applications of matrices.
1. We discuss stochastic matrices. But we will not go deeper into it.
2. We discuss application of matrices in Cryptography.

## 2.5. APPLICATION OF MATRIX OPERATIONS

2.5.1

83

Stochastic matrices

P =

of size n n

## is called a stochastic matrix if

1. we have 0 pij 1 and
2. sum of all the entries in a column is 1. For example,
p11 + p21 + p31 + + pn1 = 1.
Remark. We will not emphasize on this topic of stochastic matrices
very much in this course. We encounter such matrices in probability
theory and statistics.
the discussion preceding this.

2.5.2

Cryptography

## A cryptogram is a message written accoring to a secret code. We

describle a method of using matrix multiplication to encode and decode.

84

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES
First, we assign a number to each letter in the letter as follows:

0 = space 1 = A 2 = B
3=C 4=D
5=E
6=F
7=G
8=H
9 = I 10 = J 11 = K 12 = L 13 = M 14 = N 15 = O
16 = P 17 = Q 18 = R 19 = S 20 = T 21 = U 22 = V 23 = W
24 = X 25 = Y 26 = Z

LINEAR ALGEBRA.
Solution:
A L G E B R A
L I N E A R
12 9 14
5 1 18
0 1 12
7 5 2
18 1 0 .

2.5.3

Encoding

## Following is the method of encoding and decoing a message:

1. Given a message, first it is written as sequence of row matrices of
a fixed size. This was done in the above example, by writting the
message in a sequence of uncoded matrices of size 1 3. These
will be called uncoded matrices.
2. The message is encoded by using a square matrix A of appropriate size and simply multiplying the uncoded matrices by A.
3. Decoding of the encoded matrices is done by multiplying the
encoded matrices by the inverse A1 of A.
Exercise 2.5.2 (Ex. 16, p.113) Use the endoing matrix

14

A = 3 3 1
3
2
1

85

## to encode the message: PLEASE SEND MONEY

Solution: We first write the message in uncoded row matrices of size
1 3 as follows:
S E i h N D i
h P L E i hA S Ei h
16 12 5
1 19 5
0 19 5
14 4 0
h M O N i h E Y i
13 15 14
5 25 0 .

uncoded A
encoded
h
i
h
i
= 203 6 9
16 12 5 A
h
i
h
i
A
=
1 19 5
28 45 13
h
i
h
i
= 42 47 14
0 19 5 A
h
i
h
i
= 184 16 10
14 4 0 A
h
i
h
i
= 179 9 12
13 15 14 A
h
i
h
i
= 5 65 20
5 25 0 A

3 4 2

A= 0 2 1
4 5 3

## be the encoding matrix. Decode the cryptogram:

112 -140 83 19 -25 13 72 -76 61 95 -118 71 20 21 38 35 -23 36 42 -48 32.
Solution: We use TI to find:

11

A1 = 4

3 .
8 1 6

86

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES

So, the uncoded matrices (and corresponding letters) are given by:
encoded A1
h
i
112 140 83 A1
h
i
19 25 13 A1
h
i
72 76 61 A1
h
i
95 118 71 A1
h
i
20 21 38 A1
h
i
35 23 36 A1
h
i
42 48 32 A1

unencoded
i
= 8 1 22
h
i
= 5 0 1
h
i
= 0 7 18
h
i
= 5 1 20
h
i
= 0 23 5
h
i
= 5 11 5
h
i
= 14 4 0
h

word
HAV
E A
GR
EAT
WE
EKE
ND