Operations and Applications of Matrices

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Matrices

2.1

Homework: 2.1 (page 56): 7, 9, 13, 15, 17, 25, 27, 35, 37, 41, 46, 49,

67

1. We define a few concept regarding matrices. This would include

addition of matrices, scalar multiplication and multiplication of

matrices.

2. We also represent a system of linear equation as equation with

matrices.

41

42

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES

will add, subtract, multiply matrices. Matrices will usually be denoted

by upper case letters, A, B, C, . . . . Such a matrix

a21 a22 a23 a2n

a

a

a

a

A=

31

32

33

3n

am1 am2 am3 amn

is also denoted by [aij ].

The textbook uses square brackets.

Definition 2.1.1 Two matrices A = [aij ] and B = [bij ] are equal if

both A and B have same size m n and the entries

aij = bij

f or all

1 i m and

1 j n.

Definition 2.1.2 Following are some standard terminologies:

1. A matrix with only one column is called a column matrix or

column vector. For example,

13

a = 19

23

is a column matrix.

2. A matrix with only one row is called a row matrix or row vector. For example

b=

is a row matrix.

4 11 13 19 23

43

3. Bold face lower case letters, as above, will often be used to denote

row or column matrices.

2.1.1

Matrix Addition

Suppose A = [aij ] and B = [bij ] be two matrices of same size m n.

Then the sum A + B is defined to be the matrix of size m n given by

A + B = [aij + bij ].

1. For example, with

A= 3

15

13 10

8 , B = 5 18 we have A+B = 2 10

10 14

11 1

21 15

"

#

"

#

"

#

3.5 2

0.5 2.7

3 0.7

C=

,D=

we have C+D =

.

3

2.2

3 5

0 7.2

3. While, the sum A + C is not defined because A and C do not

have same size.

4. Read [Textbook, Example 2, p. 48] for more such examples.

2.1.2

Scalar Multiplication

contrast with vectors.) We define, multiplication of a matrix A by a

scalar c.

44

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES

We define Scalar multiple cA of A by c as the matrix of same size

given by

cA = [caij ].

A + (1)B.

2. Let c = 11 and

A= 3

15

B = 5 18

11 1

8 ,

10 14

44

55

8 = 33 88 .

110 154

10 14

cA = 11 3

Likewise, A B = A + (1)B =

15

15

3 8 +(1) 5 18 = 3 8 + 5 18

11 1

10 14

11 1

10 14

49

5 15

5 20

8 18 = 8 26

1 13

10 11 14 1

= 3+5

45

2.1.3

Matrix Multiplication

The textbook gives a helpful motivation for defining matrix multiplication in page 49. Read it, if you are not already motivated.

Definition 2.1.5 Suppose A = [aij ] is a matrix of size m n and

B = [bij ] is a matrix of size n p. Then the product AB = [cij ] is a

matrix size m p where

cij := ai1 b1j + ai2 b2j + ai3 b3j + + ain bnj =

n

X

aik bkj .

k=1

of rows (n) of B, for the product AB to be defined.

2. Note the number of rows of AB is equal to is same as that (m) of

A and number of columns of AB is equal to is same as that (n)

of B.

3. Read [Textbook, Example 4-5, p.51-52]. I will workout a few

below.

Exercise 2.1.6 (Ex. 12, p. 57) Let

1 1

A = 2 1

3

8 ,

1

B= 2

1

1 3 2

3 1 + 1 2 + (1) 1 3 1 + 1 1 + (1) (3) 3 2 + 1 1 + (1) 2

46

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES

6 21 15

= 8 23 19

4 1

5

11+12+23

BA = 2 1 + 1 2 + 1 3

1 (1) + 1 (1) + 2 1

1 7 + 1 8 + 2 (

2 (1) + 1 (1) + 1 1

2 7 + 1 8 + 1 (

9 0

13

= 7 2 21 .

1

19

2

0 1 3

A = 4 0 2 , and B = 3 .

1

8 1 7

of A is 3 3. But AB is defined and is a 3 1 matrix (or a column

matrix). We have

AB =

0 2 + (1) (3) + 3 1

4 2 + 0 (3) + 2 1 = 10 .

26

8 2 + (1) (3) + 7 1

"

#

"

#

1 0 3 2 4

1 6

A=

and B =

6 13 8 17 20

4 2

47

Compute AB and BA, if definded.

of B is 2 2. But BA is defined and we have BA =

"

#

1 1 + 6 6 1 0 + 6 13 1 3 + 6 8 1 (2) + 6 (17) 1 4 + 6 20

4 1 + 2 6 4 0 + 2 13 4 3 + 2 8 4 (2) + 2 (17) 4 4 + 2 20

=

2.1.4

"

37 78 51 104 124

16 26 28

42

56

a system of liner equations

a11 x1 + a12 x2 + a13 x3 + + a1n xn = b1

a21 x1 + a22 x2 + a23 x3 + + a2n xn = b2

a31 x1 + a32 x2 + a33 x3 + + a3n xn = b3

we can write this system in the matrix form as

Ax = b

where

A=

a21 a22 a23

a31 a32 a33

am1 am2 am3

a1n

a2n

a3n

amn

x=

x1

x2

x3

xn

b=

b1

b2

b3

bn

variable) matrix (or vector) and b would be called the constant vector

(or matrix).

48

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES

1. With

a1 =

a11

a21

a31

am1

, a2 =

a12

a22

a32

am2

, aj =

a1j

a2j

a3j

amj

, an =

a1n

a2n

a3n

amn

A = a1 a2 a j a n

as a matrix of matrices.

x1 a1 + x2 a2 + + xj aj + + xn an = b.

We say, b is a linear combination of the column metrices (or

vectors) a1 , a2 , . . . , an with coefficents x1 , x2 , . . . , xn .

3. So, the solutions of the above system are precisely those c1 , . . . , cn

such that b is a linear combination of the vectors a1 , a2 , . . . , an

with coefficents c1 , c2 , . . . , cn .

Exercise 2.1.9 (Ex. 34 (changed), p. 58) Consider the system of

equation:

x1

+x2 3x3 = 1

x1 +2x2

x1 2x2

=1

+x3

=2

for x.

Solution: The equation reduces to

1

x1

1

1 3

2

0 x2 = 1

1

x3

2

1 2

1

49

This answers the first part. To solve, the augmented matrix of the

system is

1 3 1

2

1

1 2

1

2

1 0 0 5

0 1 0 3

0 0 1 3

The corresponding linear system is:

1 0 0

x1

0 1 0 x2 = 3

3

x3

0 0 1

Multiplying, this give the solution:

x1

x2 = 3 .

x3

3

Exercise 2.1.10 (Ex. 40, .58)

#"

#

"

a b

2 1

c d

3 1

"

17

4 1

"

2a + 3b a + b

2c + 3d c + d

"

17

4 1

50

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES

Equating respective entries:

2a +3b

=3

+b

= 17

2c +3d

c

The augmented matrix of the

=4

+d = 1

system:

3 0 0

17

0 2 3

4

0 1 1 1

1 0 0

Gauss-Jordan form:

0 0 0

48

1 0 0 31

0 1 0 7

0 0 1

6

#

# "

"

48 31

a b

.

=

a = 48, b = 31, c = 7, d = 6

and

7

6

c d

2.2

51

Homework: 2.2 (page 70): 1, 3, 7, 9, 15, 17, 21, 23, 29, 31, 35, 37,

39, 43, 57, 59

1. We write down some of the properties of matrix addition and

multiplication.

2. We define transpose of a matrix.

3. We start writing some proofs.

52

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES

We start developing some algebra of matrices.

and c, d be scalars. Then

1. A + B = B + A

3. (cd)A = c(dA)

4. 1A = A

5. c(A + B) = cA + cB

6. (c + d)A = cA + dA

Proof. One needs to prove all these statements using definitions of addition and scalar multiplication. To prove the commutativity

of ma-

trix addition (1), Let A = [aij ], B = [bij ]. Both A and B have same size

m n, so A + B, B + A are defined. From definition

A + B = [aij ] + [bij ] = [aij + bij ] and B + A = [bij ] + [aij ] = [bij + aij ].

From commutative property of addition of real numbers, we have aij +

bij = bij +aij . Therefore, from definition of equality of matrices, A+B =

B + A. So, (1) is proved. Other properties are proved similarly.

Remark. For matrices A, B, C as in the theorem, by the expression

A + B + C we mean (A + B) + C or A + (B + C). It is well defined,

because (A + B) + C = A + (B + C) by associatieve property(2) of

matrix addition.

Theorem 2.2.2 Let Omn denote the m n matrix whose entries are

all zero. Let A be a m n matrix. Then

1. Then A + Omn = A.

53

3. If cA = Omn , then either c = 0 or A = 0.

We say, on the set of all mn matrices, Omn is an additive identity

(property (1)), and (A) is the additive inverse of A (property (2))

2.2.1

(of varying sizes) so that all the products below are defined and c be a

scalars. Then

1. AB 6= BA

2. (AB)C = A(BC)

Associativity of multiplication

4. A(B + C) = AB + AC Right Distributivity of multiplication

5. c(AB) = (cA)B

an Associativity

Proof. We will only prove (4). In this case, let A be a matrix of size

m n and then B, C would have to be of same size n p. Write

a11

a12

a13

A=

a31 a32 a33

am1 am2 am3

a1n

a2n

a3n

,

amn

54

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES

and

b21

B=

b31

bn1

,

bn2 bn3 bnp

c21

C=

c31

cn1

.

cn2 cn3 cnp

Therefore, A(B + C) =

a11

a12

a13

am1 am2 am3

a1n

b11 + c11

b12 + c12

a3n

b31 + c31 b32 + c32 b33 + c33

amn

bn1 + cn1 bn2 + cn2 bn3 + cn3

b2p + c2p

b3p + c3p

.

bnp + cnp

which is

Pn

Pnk=1

Pnk=1

k=1

a2k (bk1 + ck1 )

Pn

Pnk=1

Pnk=1

k=1

a2k (bk2 + ck2 )

Pn

Pnk=1

Pnk=1

k=1

a3k (bk2 + ck2 )

a3k (bkp + ckp )

Pn

Pn

Pn

k=1 amk (bk1 + ck1 )

k=1 amk (bk2 + ck2 )

k=1 amk (bkp + ckp )

55

which is

Pn

Pk=1

n

Pk=1

n

k=1

a1k bk1

a2k bk1

a3k bk1

Pn

k=1

Pn

Pk=1

n

Pk=1

n

k=1

a1k bk2

a2k bk2

amk bk1

Pn

k=1

a3k bk2

amk bk2

+

Pn

Pk=1

n

Pk=1

n

k=1

a1k bkp

a2k bkp

a3k bkp

Pn

Pn

Pn

a1k ck2

k=1 a1k ck1

Pk=1

Pn

n

a2k ck1

Pk=1

P

n

n

k=1 a3k ck2

Pn

Pn

k=1 amk ck1 )

k=1 amk ck2

Pn

Pk=1

n

= AB + AC

a1k ckp

a2k ckp

a3k ckp

Pn

Pk=1

n

k=1

m n and then B, C would have to be of same size n p. Write

A = [aik ],

B = [bkj ],

C = [ckj ].

A(B + C) = [aik ][bkj + ckj ] = [ij ] (say).

Then the (ij)th entry ij of A(B + C) is given by

ij =

n

X

AB =

"

n

X

k=1

aik bkj +

aik bkj ,

and

n

X

aik ckj

k=1

k=1

k=1

But

n

X

AC =

"

n

X

k=1

aik ckj

C) = AB + AC and the proof is complete.

56

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES

Remark. For matrices A, B, C as in the theorem so that all the multiplications in the associative law (2) are defined. Then the expression ABC would mean (AB)C or A(BC). It is well defined, because

(AB)C = A(BC) by associatieve property(2) of matrix multiplication.

Reading assignment

1. [Textbook, Example 3, p. 64] to experience that associativity

(property 2) works.

2. [Textbook, Example 4, p. 64] to see examples that commutativity

for multiplication fails (property 1).

3. [Textbook, Example 5, p. 65] to see examples that cancellation

fails. That means, examples AB = AC for nonzero A, B, C with

B 6= C. This makes solving matrix equation like AX = AC, different from solving equation in real numbers, like ax = c.

Theorem 2.2.4 Let In denote the square matrix of order n whose

main diagonal entries are 1 and all the entries are zero. So,

1

0

0

In = 0

0

1

0

0

0

1 0

0

1 0 0

0 1

0

, I3 = 0 1 0 , I4 = 0 0

0 0 1

0 0

1

0 0

0 0

1 0

0 1

Im A = A and AIn = A.

Because of these two properties, In is called the identity matrix of

order n.

Proof. Easy.

57

Reading assignment

1. [Textbook, Example 6, p. 66]

2. [Textbook, Example 7, p. 66], just to get used to computing Ar .

Following the definition 1.1.2 in item (4) we gave a classification of

system of equation, which we state as a theorem and prove as follows.

Theorem 2.2.5 Let Ax = b be a linear system of m equations in n

unknowns. Then exactly one of the follwoing is true:

1. The system has no solution.

2. The system has exactly one solution.

3. The system has infinitely many solutions.

Proof. If the system has no solution or have exactly one solution,

then there is nothing to prove. So, assume, it has at least two distinct

solutions x1 , x2 . So, Ax1 = b and Ax2 = b. Subtracting the second

from the first, we have A(x1 x2 ) = 0. Write y = x1 x2 .

Then y 6= 0 and Ay = 0. So, for any scalar c, we have

A(x1 + cy) = Ax1 + A(cy) = b + (Ac)y = b + c(Ay) = b + c0 = b.

So, x1 +cy is a solution, for each scalar c (and they are all distinct). So,

the system has infinitely many solutuions. This completes the proof.

2.2.2

Transpose of a matrix

Definition 2.2.6 The transpose of a matrix A is obtained by writing the rows as columns (and/or writing the columns as rows). The

transpose of A is denoted bt AT . So, for the matrix

58

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES

a11

a12

a13

A=

a31 a32 a33

am1 am2 am3

a1n

a2n

a

T 12

a3n A =

a13

a1n

amn

a2n a3n amn

A = AT .

Theorem 2.2.8 Let A, B be matrices (of varying sizes so that the sum

or product is defined) and c be a scalar. Then,

1. (AT )T = A. (That means transpose of transpose is the same.)

2. (A + B)T = AT + B T .

3. (cA)T = cAT .

4. (AB)T = B T AT . (This is the most important one in this list.)

In fact, properties 2, 4 extends to sum of higher number of matrices.

Reading assignment

1. [Textbook, Example 8, p. 68] to compute transpose of a matrix.

2. [Textbook, Example 9, p. 66], about transpose and product of

matrices.

59

Exercise 2.2.9 (Ex. 8, p. 70) Let

2 1

A= 1

0 , B =

3 4

Then

0 .

4 1

2

1. Solve X = 3A 2B

Solution: In this case

2 1

1

which is

0

0 2 2

4 1

3 4

X = 3A 2B = 3

0 4

0 = 1

0 .

9 12

8 2

17 10

3

2. Solve 2X = 2A B.

Solution: We have

2X = 2AB = 2

OR

2 1

4 2

0 =

0 2

4 1

3 4

1

2X =

4 5

0

0

10 7

4 5

2 2.5

1

X= 0

0 = 0

0 .

2

10 7

5 3.5

0

0 2

4 1

6 8

2

60

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES

3. Solve 2X + 3A = B.

Solution: We have 2X + 3A = B. Subtracting 3A from both

sides, 2X = B 3A. So,

0

3

2 1

6 6

2X = B 3A = 2

0 3 1

0 = 1 0 .

4 1

3 4

13 11

Divide by 2 (i.e. multiply by 12 ), we have

6 6

3

3

1

X = 1 0 = 0.5

0 .

2

13 11

6.5 5.5

"

#

"

#

"

#

1 2

3

1 3

0 1

A=

,B =

,C =

0 1 1

1 2

1 0

Compute C(BA) and A(BC), if defined.

Solution: Note A(BC) is not defined because A has 3 column and BC

has two rows. We compute C(BA). We have C(BA) = (CB)A and

#"

# "

#

"

0 1

1 3

1

2

=

CB =

1 0

1 2

1 3

So, C(BA) = (CB)A

"

#"

# "

#

1

2

1 2

3

1

0 5

=

=

.

1 3

0 1 1

1 5

0

Exercise 2.2.11 (Ex. 18, p. 70) Let

#

"

#

"

2 4

1 2

A=

,

B=

2 4

.05

1

61

will not occur with real numbers. That is why with real numbers, ax =

0, a 6= 0 x = 0. We cannot do similar algebra with matrices. With

A 6= 0 the solution to the equation AX = 0 is not necessarily X = 0.)

Solution: Obvious.

Exercise 2.2.12 (Ex. 22, p. 70) Let

"

#

"

#

1

2

1 0

A=

, and I = I2 =

.

0 1

0 1

Compute A + IA.

Solution: We have

A + IA = A + A = 2A = 2

"

0 1

"

0 2

1 1

A= 3

4 .

0 2

Solution: We have

AT =

"

1 3

1 4 2

So, AT A =

"

1 3

1 4 2

1 1

4 =

3

0 2

"

1 + 9 + 0 1 + 12 + 0

1 + 12 + 0

1 + 16 + 4

"

10 11

11 21

62

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES

Also AAT =

#

1 1 "

1+1 34 0+2

1 3

0

= 3 4 9 + 16 0 8

4

3

1 4 2

0 2

0+2 08 0+4

which is

2 1

= 1

25 8

2 8

4

and AT A are symmetric matrices. This is not a surprise.

In fact, for any matrix A, both AAT and AT A are symmetric matrices.

Proof.

AAT

T

= AT AT = AAT .

Exercise 2.2.14 (Ex. 38. p. 71)

1

1

X = 2 ,Y = 0 ,Z =

2

3

Let

0

0

1

4 ,W = 0 ,O = 0 .

0

1

4

Solution: This is, in fact, a problem of solving a system of linear

equations. Suppose Z = aX + bY. Then,

" #

" #

1

1

1

h

i a

a

= Z. OR 2 0

= 4

X Y

b

b

3 2

4

63

of this system is:

1 1 1

2 0 4

3 2 4

1 0

2

0 1 1

0 0

Gauss-Jordan form:

2. Show that there do not exist scalar a, b such that W = aX + bY.

Solution: This is, in fact, a problem of solving a system of linear

equations. Suppose W = aX + bY. Then,

" #

" #

0

1

1

h

i a

a

= 0

= W. OR 2 0

X Y

b

b

1

3 2

Here a, b are unknown to be solved for. The augmented matrix

of this system is: Here a, b are unknown to be solved for. The

augmented matrix of this system is:

1 1 0

2 0 0

3 2 1

1 0 0

0 1 0 .

0 0 1

64

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES

The system corresponding to this matrix is a = 0, b = 0, 0 = 1,

which is inconsistent.

3. Show that aX + bY + cW = O then a = b = c = 0.

Solution: This is, again, a problem of solving a system of linear

equations. Suppose O = aX + bY + cW. Then,

h

X Y

b =O

c

OR

1 1 0

2 0 0 b = 0

0

3 2 1

c

1 1 0 0

2 0 0 0

3 2 1 0

From TI-83/84, the matrix reduces to the following Gauss-Jordan

form:

1 0 0 0

0 1 0 0 .

0 0 1 0

4. Find the scalars a, b, c, not all zero (nontrivial solution), such that

aX + bY + cZ = O.

Solution: This is, again, a problem of solving a system of linear

equations. Suppose O = aX + bY + cZ. Then,

h

X Y

b =O

c

OR

1 1 1

2 0 4 b = 0

c

3 2 4

0

65

The augmented matrix of this system

1 1 1 0

2 0 4 0

is given by

3 2 4 0

form:

1 0

0 1 1 0 .

0 0 0 0

+2c = 0

a

b

c

0

=0 .

=0

any scalar t, we have 2tX + tY + tZ = O.

Exercise 2.2.15 (Ex. 44, p. 71) Let

f (x) = x2 7x + 6 and A =

"

5 4

"

29 28

1 2

Compute f (A).

Solution: We have

A2 = AA =

"

5 4

1 2

#"

5 4

1 2

"

#

"

#

"

#

29 28

5 4

1 0

7

+6

7 8

1 2

0 1

66

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES

"

29 28

7

"

35 28

7

14

"

6 0

0 6

"

0 0

0 0

2.3

67

Homework: [Textbook, Ex. 9, 13, 25, 27, 33, 35, 37, 41, 45 ; page

84-]

Main point in the section is to define and compute inverse of

matrices:

1. We give a formula to compute inverse of a 2 2 matrices.

2. We describe the method of row reduction to compute inverse of a

matrix of any size.

3. We use inverse of matrices to solve system of linear equations.

68

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES

invertible (or nonsingular) if there is an n n, matrix B such that

AB = BA = In

where In is the identity matrix of order n. The matrix B is called the

(multiplicative ) inverse of A. If a matrix does not have an inverse, it

is called a noninvertible (or singular) matrix.

A non-square matrix does have an inverse. Because if A is an mn

matrix with m 6= n, then for AB and BA to be defined, the size of B

has to be n m. The size of AB would be m m and size of BA would

be n n. So, AB 6= BA.

Theorem 2.3.2 If A is invertible, then the inverse is unique. The

inverse is denoted by A1 .

Proof. Suppose B and C are two inverses of A. We nned to prove

B = C. We have

AB = BA = I

and

AC = CA = I.

So,

B = BI = B(AC) = (BA)C = IC = C.

So, the proof is complete.

Remark. (1) Note that the proof works if C was only a right-inverse

and B was a left-inverse of A. (2) Also note that the proof did not use

any property of matrices, except associativity.

2.3.1

at least two of them. The easy one, for a 2 2 matrices is given by the

theorem:

69

Theorem 2.3.3 Suppose

"

A=

a b

c d

1. If ad bc = 0, then A has no invierse (i.e. A is a singular matrix).

2. If ad bc 6= 0, then

A1

1

=

ad bc

Proof. Write

d b

c

a

B=

First,

AB =

a b

c d

d b

c

a

"

d b

c

ad bc

0

0 ad bc

= (ad bc)I2 .

cannot have an inverse (otherwise we will get B = A1 (AB) = O,

which is not the case).

1

2. (Case 2:) Assume ad bc 6= 0. We need to prove A( adbc

B) =

1

1

I2 = ( adbc B)A. Multiply the above equation by adbc , we get

1

A

B = I2 .

ad bc

1

B A = I2 . So, the proof is complete.

Similarly, adbc

"

#

1 2

A=

, if exists.

2 3

70

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES

Solution: We have ad bc = 1(3) (2)2 = 1. So, by theorem

2.3.3,

A1

1

=

ad bc

"

d b

c

"

3 2

2 1

and [Textbook, Example 5, p. 79].

2.3.2

The second mothod of finding the inverse evolves out of the spirit of

solving equation. Suppose A is an n n matrix and it has an inverse

X, where X is an n n matrix. To find X, we have to solve the

equation AX = In . The following method is suggested to solve

this equation:

1. Write the augmented matrix of this Equation AX = In as

[A | In ] .

2. If possible, row reduce A to the identity matrix I using elementary

row operations on the entire augmented matrix [A | I] . If the

result is [I | C] , then A1 = C. If this is not possible, the matrix

is not invertible (or singular).

3. Check your work by multiplying AA1 and A1 A to see AA1 =

A1 A = I.

Justifcation or Proof. Suppose B is an m n matrix. Then, each

elemetary row operation on a matrix B is same as left-multiplication

of B by a matrix:

1. For example, multiplying the ith row B by a constant is same as

left-multiplication of B by the diagonal matrix of order n, whose

(i, i)entry is c and other digonal entries are 1 (and rest of the

entries are zero).

71

of B by the (partitioned) matrix:

0 1

O

.

S= 1 0

O

Im2

We use the notation O to denote the zero matrix of appropriate

size. So, we mean SB is the matrix obtained by switching first

and second row of B.

of B by the (partitioned) matrix:

1 0

O

.

E = c 1

O

Im2

So, we mean EB is the matrix obtained from B by adding ctimes

the first row to second. We can write down a similar fact for

adding ctimes the ith row to j th row.

the left-muitiplication(s) gives

(E1 E2 Er )[A | I] = [I | C].

With E = E1 E2 Er , we have

E[A | I] = [I | C]

[EA | E] = [I | C].

This completes the justification/proof.

Reading assignment: Read [Textbook, Example 3 and 4, p. 76-75].

Exercise 2.3.5 (Ex. 10, p. 84) Compute the inverse of the matrix

1

2

3

A= 3

7

9 .

1 4 7

72

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES

Solution: Augment this matrix with the idetity matrix I3 and we have

1

2

3 1 0 0

7

9 0 1 0 .

3

1 4 7 0 0 1

to I3 , using row operations. Subtract 3 times first row from second and

add first roe to third:

1 0 0

1

0 3 1 0 .

0

0 2 4

1 0 1

Now subtract 2 times second row from first and add 2 times second row

to third:

1 0

1 0 .

2 1

0 3

0 1

0 0 4 5

1 0 3

7

0 1 0 3

7 2 0

0 .

0 0 1 1.25 .5 .25

1

1 0 0 3.25 .5

1

0 1 0 3

So,

.75

0 .

0 0 1 1.25 .5 .25

3.25 .5

A1 = 3

.75

0 .

1.25 .5 .25

1

73

Exercise 2.3.6 (Ex. 12, p. 84) Compute the inverse of the matrix

10 5 7

A = 5 1

4 .

3 2 2

Solution: Augment this matrix with the idetity matrix I3 and we have

10 5 7 1 0 0

4 0 1 0 .

5 1

3 2 2 0 0 1

According to the above method, we will try to reduce the left 3 3 part

to I3 , using row operations. Divide first row by 10:

1 .5 .7 .1 0 0

4 0 1 0 .

5 1

3 2 2 0 0 1

Add 5 times first row to second and substract 3 times first row from

third:

.5 .7

0 3.5

0 .5

.5 1 0 .

.1 .3 0 1

.5

1 .5 .7

1

0 1

7

0 .5

.1 0 0

.1 0 0

1

7

2

7

0 .

.1 .3 0 1

Subtract .5 times second row from both the first and third:

1

1

1 0 54

0

70

35

7

1

1

2

0 .

0 1

7

7

7

1

13

0 0

35

17 1

35

74

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES

1 0 54

70

1

7

1

7

71

2

7

0 .

1 13 5 35

0 1

0 0

Subtract

1

35

1

7

54

70

1 0 0 10 4

27

2

1 5 .

0 1 0

0 0 1 13 5 35

So,

A1 =

2.3.3

10 4

27

1 5 .

13 5 35

2

Properties of Inverses

Theorem 2.3.7 Suppose A is an invertible matrix and c 6= 0 is a

scalar. Also, let k be a positive integer. Then

1. (A1 )1 = A.

2. (Ak )1 = (A1 )k .

3. (cA)1 = 1c A1 .

4. (AT )1 = (A1 )T .

75

AB = BA = I.

So, (1) is obvious. To prove (2), we need to show (Ak )(A1 )k ) =

(A1 )k )Ak = I. For k = 2, we need to prove (A2 )(A1 )2 ) = (A1 )2 )A2 =

I. But

(A2 )(A1 )2 ) = (AA)(A1 A1 ) = A((AA1 )A1 ) = A(IA1 ) = AA1 = I

Similarly, (A1 )2 )A2 = I. For any integer k > 2, we prove it similarly

or we can prove it by method of induction: To do this we assume

that (A1 )k is the inverse of Ak and use it to prove that(A1 )k+1 is the

inverse of Ak+1 , as follows:

(Ak+1 )(A1 )k+1 = Ak (AA1 )(A1 )k = Ak I(A1 )k = Ak (A1 )k = I

So, (2) is proved.

Also

1 1

A

c

1

(cA)

= (c )(AA1 ) = 1I = I.

c

1 1

(cA) = I. So, (3) is proved. Finally,

Similarly, c A

T

T

AT A1 = A1 A = I T = I.

T

Theorem 2.3.8 Let A, B be two invertible matrices of order n. Then

AB is invertible and

(AB)1 = B 1 A1 .

Proof. We need to prove,

(AB) B 1 A1 = I = B 1 A1 (AB).

But

76

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES

Theorem 2.3.9 (Cancellation Property) Let A, B be two invertible matrices of order n and C be an invertible matrix of the same

order. Then

AC = BC = A = B

CA = CB = A = B.

and

right side (we can do this because it is given that C has an inverse), we

get

(AC)C 1 = (BC)C 1 . So A(CC 1 ) = B(CC 1 ) So AI = BI.

So A = B. Similaraly, we prove the other one. The proof is complete

Theorem 2.3.10 Let A be an invertible matrices of order n. Then the

system of linear equations Ax = b has a unique solution given by

x = A1 b.

Proof. (Proof is exactly same as that of theorem 2.3.9) Suppose Ax =

b. Multiply this eqyuation by A1 , and we get (A1 A)x = A1 b. Therefore Ix = A1 b. Hence x = A1 b. The proof is complete

Exercise 2.3.11 (Ex. 26, p. 85) Solve the following three linear systems.

1. Solve the linear system of equations:

2x y = 3

2x +y =

Solution: With

"

#

2 1

A=

2

1

x=

"

x

y

b=

"

3

7

77

the system can be written as Ax = b.

By theorem 2.3.3,

A1

1

=

4

"

1 1

2 2

The solution is

1

x = A1 b =

4

"

1 1

2 2

#"

3

7

"

1

5

2x y = 1

2x +y = 3

Solution: The system can be writeen as Ax = b where A, x are

same as in (1) and

"

#

"

#

1

1 1

1

1

b=

. W e already computed A =

.

4 2 2

3

The solution is

1

x = A1 b =

4

"

1 1

2 2

#"

1

3

"

1

1

2x y =

2x +y = 10

Solution: The system can be writeen as Ax = b where A, x are

same as in (1) and

"

#

"

#

6

1

1

1

b=

. W e already computed A1 =

.

4 2 2

10

78

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES

The solution is

x = A1 b =

1

4

"

1 1

2 2

#"

6

10

"

4

2

Exercise 2.3.12 (Ex. 28, p. 85) Solve the following two linear systems.

1. Solve the linear system of equations:

x1

+x2 3x3 =

x1 2x2

x1

x2

Solution: With

1

1 3

A = 1 2

1

1 1 1

+x3 =

x3 = 1

x1

x = x2

x3

b=

0

1

of A. To do this augment the identity matrix I3 , to A and we get

1

1 3 1 0 0

1 0 1 0

1 2

1 1 1 0 0 1

1

1 3

1 0 0

4 1 1 0

0 3

0 2

2 1 0 1

1

1 3

1

0 0

1

1 43

31 0

0

3

0 2

2 1

0 1

79

Subtract second row from first and add 2 times second to third

row:

1 0 53

2

3

1

3

13

0 1 43

0 0 23

1

3

31

32

0

1

Add

5

3

1 0 53

2

3

1

3

1

2

0 1 43

0 0

1

1

3

13

1 32

4

3

second:

By theorem 2.3.3,

2 52

0 1 0 1 1 2

0 0 1 12 1 32

The solution is

3

2

1 0 0

3

2

2 52

A1 = 1 1 2

1

1 32

2

3

2

2 25

5

2

x = A1 b = 1 1 2 0 = 2

1

3

1 23

1

2

2

2. Solve the linear system of equations:

x1

+x2 3x3 = 1

x1 2x2

+x3 =

x2

x3 =

x1

80

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES

Solution: With A and x as in (1) and with

b= 2

0

So, the solution is

3

2

2 52

x = A1 b = 1 1 2

1

1 32

2

2.5

2 = 1 .

0

1.5

Exercise 2.3.13 (Ex. 34, p. 85) Suppose A, B arer two 2 2 matrices and

A1 =

"

1

7

2

7

27

3

7

and B 1 =

"

5

11

3

11

2

11

1

11

72

1

7

2

7

4 9

1. Compute (AB)1 .

Solution: By theorem 2.3.8, we have

"

(AB)

1 1

=

11 7

=B A

"

3 1

#"

5

11

3

11

2 1

3 2

2

11

1

11

#"

1

=

77

"

3

7

9 1

2. Compute (AT )1 .

Solution: By theorem 2.3.7, we have

"

#!T "

1

2

72

7

7

(AT )1 = (A1 )T =

=

3

1

2

7

3

7

2

7

81

Ak := (A1 )k .)

We have A2 = A1 A1 =

#

"

#"

#

#"

#

"

"

72 17

2 1

72 17

2 1

1 0

1

1

=

.

=

2

2

3

3

49

49

3 2

3 2

0 5

7

7

7

7

4. Compute (2A)1 .

Solution: By theorem 2.3.7, we have

"

# "

1

2

17

1

1

7

7

(2A)1 = A1 =

=

3

3

2

2

2

7

7

14

1

14

2

14

#

"

2

x

.

A=

1 2

Find x, so that A is its own inverse.

Solution: If A it its own inverse then A2 = I2 . So, we have

"

#"

# "

#

2

x

2

x

1 0

=

1 2

1 2

0 1

Multiplying, we have

"

#

4x

0

0 4x

2.4

"

1 0

0 1

. so 4 x = 1;

so x = 3.

Elementary Matrices

82

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES

2.5

Homework: [Textbook, 2.5 Ex. 15, 17, 19, 21, 23; p. 113].

Main point in this section is to do some applications of matrices.

1. We discuss stochastic matrices. But we will not go deeper into it.

2. We discuss application of matrices in Cryptography.

2.5.1

83

Stochastic matrices

P =

of size n n

1. we have 0 pij 1 and

2. sum of all the entries in a column is 1. For example,

p11 + p21 + p31 + + pn1 = 1.

Remark. We will not emphasize on this topic of stochastic matrices

very much in this course. We encounter such matrices in probability

theory and statistics.

Reading Assignment: Read [Textbook, Example 1,2 p. 99-100] and

the discussion preceding this.

2.5.2

Cryptography

describle a method of using matrix multiplication to encode and decode.

84

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES

First, we assign a number to each letter in the letter as follows:

0 = space 1 = A 2 = B

3=C 4=D

5=E

6=F

7=G

8=H

9 = I 10 = J 11 = K 12 = L 13 = M 14 = N 15 = O

16 = P 17 = Q 18 = R 19 = S 20 = T 21 = U 22 = V 23 = W

24 = X 25 = Y 26 = Z

LINEAR ALGEBRA.

Solution:

A L G E B R A

L I N E A R

12 9 14

5 1 18

0 1 12

7 5 2

18 1 0 .

2.5.3

Encoding

1. Given a message, first it is written as sequence of row matrices of

a fixed size. This was done in the above example, by writting the

message in a sequence of uncoded matrices of size 1 3. These

will be called uncoded matrices.

2. The message is encoded by using a square matrix A of appropriate size and simply multiplying the uncoded matrices by A.

3. Decoding of the encoded matrices is done by multiplying the

encoded matrices by the inverse A1 of A.

Exercise 2.5.2 (Ex. 16, p.113) Use the endoing matrix

14

A = 3 3 1

3

2

1

85

Solution: We first write the message in uncoded row matrices of size

1 3 as follows:

S E i h N D i

h P L E i hA S Ei h

16 12 5

1 19 5

0 19 5

14 4 0

h M O N i h E Y i

13 15 14

5 25 0 .

uncoded A

encoded

h

i

h

i

= 203 6 9

16 12 5 A

h

i

h

i

A

=

1 19 5

28 45 13

h

i

h

i

= 42 47 14

0 19 5 A

h

i

h

i

= 184 16 10

14 4 0 A

h

i

h

i

= 179 9 12

13 15 14 A

h

i

h

i

= 5 65 20

5 25 0 A

3 4 2

A= 0 2 1

4 5 3

112 -140 83 19 -25 13 72 -76 61 95 -118 71 20 21 38 35 -23 36 42 -48 32.

Solution: We use TI to find:

11

A1 = 4

3 .

8 1 6

86

CHAPTER 2. MATRICES

So, the uncoded matrices (and corresponding letters) are given by:

encoded A1

h

i

112 140 83 A1

h

i

19 25 13 A1

h

i

72 76 61 A1

h

i

95 118 71 A1

h

i

20 21 38 A1

h

i

35 23 36 A1

h

i

42 48 32 A1

unencoded

i

= 8 1 22

h

i

= 5 0 1

h

i

= 0 7 18

h

i

= 5 1 20

h

i

= 0 23 5

h

i

= 5 11 5

h

i

= 14 4 0

h

word

HAV

E A

GR

EAT

WE

EKE

ND

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