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PRE-FEASIBILITY

REPORT

FCI ARAVALI GYPSUM & MINERALS INDIA LTD.

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PRE-FEASIBILITY REPORT
1. Executive Summary
1.1
1.1.1

Introduction
Project & Project Proponent
FCI Aravali Gypsum and Minerals India Limited (FAGMIL), is a public sector
undertaking under the Ministry of Fertilizers. It was previously known as Jodhpur
Mining Organization, and was a segment of the public sector undertaking, Fertilizer
Corporation of India Ltd. The main activity of FAGMIL was to supply mineral gypsum
to Sindri Fertilizer Plant. The gypsum produced was the basic raw material required
for Ammonium sulphate production.In 2003, the Jodhpur Mining Organization was
demerged from FCIL and formed into a new Company known as FCI Aravali Gypsum
and Minerals India Limited (FAGMIL).
There are nine mines under the Jodhpur Mining Organization producing gypsum.The
gypsum powder produced in the FAGMIL is used in reclamation of sodic lands as a
source of Sulphur, and as raw material in Cement Industries, in Plaster of Paris and
Gypsum Fibre Board industries.The company has been paying dividend to GOI
continually, and has reserves of more than Rs.100 crores. The company has plans to
expand the business by spending the available reserves to increase the company
turnover. Accordingly, the company has plan for setting up a Single Super
Phosphate (SSP) production facilities in Chittorgarh District of Rajasthan, based on
indigenous / imported Rock Phosphate.

1.1.2

Nature of the Project


The project will be located at Villages Pandoli in Chittorgarh district of Rajasthan,
adjacent to State Highway, SH-9, at a distance of 6 kms from Chittorgarh City. A plot
of Govt. land (reserved for industrial purpose) measuring 11.01hectares has been
allotted to the Company for establishment of SSP manufacturing facilities. The
project pertains to establishment of facilities for manufacturing of 800 TPD or
240,000 TPA of granulated single super phosphate. This is a grass root project and
will consist of the following main plants:
a) Single superphosphate plant

800 TPD or 240,000 TPA capacity

b) SSP granulation plant

800 TPD or 240,000 TPA capacity

Other facilities required for operation of the project, viz., boundary walls, internal
roads, truck parking, weigh bridge, storage facilities, work shop, administrative
building, canteen, community centre, first-aid post, green belt, electric sub-station,
DG Set, etc. are also included in the project proposal.
The main raw materials for manufacture of SSP are Sulphuric acid and rock
phosphate. The project will utilize imported rock phosphate and by-product
Sulphuric acid from Hindustan Zinc Limited, Chanderia. As Chittorgarh Block has
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PRE-FEASIBILITY REPORT
been declared as dark zone, make-up water requirements of the project and facilities
will be met from surface/ground water from neighbouring areas brought to the site
in tankers.
1.1.3

Need of the project


Due to increasing population pressure, the demand for food, feed, fodder, fibre, fuel,
pulses, and oilseed products is rapidly increasing. The challenge of the coming
decades is to feed our burgeoning population. It is antipicated that in India in the
year 2025, total food grains demand will reach 291 million tonnes. The main course
open for achieving the goal of increased food grain production is by increasing
productivity per unit area.Higher crop yields mean greater removal of nutrients
from the soil. The soil is not an inexhaustible store of plant nutrients and we cannot
over-mine it. Thus fertilizer is the key to success in meeting the challenge of food
security in the future.Single super phosphate, due to its low price, is a poor farmers
fertilizer. It also helps to improve the sulphur deficiency in soil and thus helps the
farmers in enhancing the yield at least cost for the crops especially for vegetables, oil
seed, sugar cane, tea etc.The role of fertilizer phosphorus in increasing crop
production in India is now increasingly being appreciated in the view of the low soil
phosphorus status and continued erosion in soil phosphorus during the past
hundreds of years. With the introduction of high yielding varieties and increase
cropping intensity the extent of phosphorus removal by crop has significantly
increased. Therefore, adequate fertilizer phosphorus is to be added to soils to
sustain high crop yields for years to come.

1.1.4

Demand Supply Gap


Analysis of demand and supply scenario of SSP in India demonstrates that though
the indigenous production of SSP has increased significantly, its demand has also
increased proportionately. As a result, the demand supply gap remains, thereby
encouraging setting up of additional manufacturing units in the country.

1.1.5

Employment Generation
The project will generate direct employment opportunities to approximately 76
persons, comprising 36 persons on company roll and 40 semi-skilled and unskilled
work force on contract basis. The project will also provide indirect employment
opportunities to approx. 100 persons in service sectors.

1.2
1.2.1

Project Description
Location
The proposed project site, comprising 11.01 hectares land (Plot No. 2615), is located
in Village Pandoli, Tehsil & District Chittorgarh, Rajasthan. It is Government land,
reserved for industrial purpose, and was allotted to FAGMIL for establishing the SSP
project. The plot is located adjacent to State Highway No. 9, approximately 6 kms
away from Chittorgarh City.
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1.2.2 Project description
SINGLE SUPER PHOSPHATE PLANT :
The process of manufacturing of SSP consists of reaction of Ground Rock Phosphate
of required fineness and P2O5 content with Sulphuric Acid in specified proportion.
The product of acidulation of Rock Phosphate is called Green Super Phosphate which
is allowed to cure for 2 to 3 weeks before the same is ready for packing or further
processing.
The main chemical reactions involved in the manufacturing of SSP from rock
phosphate, Sulphuric acid and recycled flouosilisic acid are as follows:
3Ca3(PO4)2 + 6H2SO4 + 3H2O

3Ca(H2PO4)2.H2O + 6CaSO4

CaF2 + H2SO4
4HF + SiO2
3SiF4 + 3H2O

CaSO4 + 2HF
SiF4 + 2H2O
2H2SiF6 + SiO2.H2O

Ca3(PO4)2 + 2H2SiF6 + 4H2O

Ca(H2PO4)2 + CaSiF6.2H2O

GRANULATED SSP PLANT :


Cured Single super phosphate is fed to the granulation plant through a Cutter/ Lump
Breaker and fed to Granulator through Feed Belt Conveyor. In granulator Drum
Water is Sprinkled and granules are formed which are fed to the Dryer Drum where
the Granulated SSP is heated through hot air generated through a HSD fired Furnace.
Hot Granulated SSP is Fed to Cooler drum through Belt Conveyor and the Product is
cooled. The product Granulated SSP is passed through Vibrating Screens where
under size and oversize materials are separated, and the desired product is sent for
automatic packing and bagging. The under size material is recycled to the Granulator
and the oversize material is crushed through Twin Roller Hammer Mill and is
recycled to the Granulator.
RAW MATERIALS AND INPUTS:
Estimated requirements of the raw materials and inputs are as follows:

Table 1-1 : Annual Raw Material & Utility Requirement


Sl. No.
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0

Raw Material/Utilities
Rock Phosphate
Sulphuric Acid
Power
Fuel Oil
Water

Unit
MT
MT
MWh
MT
100 m3

Annual Requirement
139200
86400
6000
2640
696

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1.2.3

Resources optimization, recycle & reuse


The following schemes have been incorporated for optimization, recycle & reuse of
resources:
a) Recycle of blow down (waste water containing approx. 12% H2SiF6) from the
scrubbing system in the SSP plant to the mixer in SSP plant, which would also
reduce consumption of Sulphuric acid in the acidulation process.
b) Precipitated silica from the scrubbing system will be used as filler to the product.

1.2.4

Generation and management of wastes

1.2.4.1 Solid wastes:

The silica precipitated in the scrubber unit of SSP plant will be separated from
the dilute fluosilicic acid, and added to the granulation drum as filler in the
product.
Used oil, decanted from pumps, compressors and other equipment, will be
stored in metallic containers and disposed through CPCB/RSPCB authorized
recyclers.
Used containers will be stored and disposed through CPCB/RSPCB authorized
recyclers

1.2.4.2 Liquid wastes:


The plants will be operated on zero effluent basis. The only process waste water, i.e.,
blow-down from the scrubber unit in SSP plant (approx. 30 KLD, containing approx.
15% H2SiF6) will be recycled to the Mixer in SSP plant, where it will reduce
consumption of fresh water and Sulphuric acid.
Wastewater from toilets and washrooms, approx. 8 KLD, will be treated in septic
tanks, and disposed in soak pits.
1.2.4.3 Gaseous emission:

In the rock grinding unit, air containing residual rock phosphate dust will be
passed through pulse jet bag filters, and the effluent air containing less than 125
mg/Nm3 particulate matter will be discharged through a stack of 30 m height.
Fluorine laden gases from the mixer and den (products of acidulation) will be
passed through the scrubbing system comprising a venture scrubber followed
by a 3-stage cross-flow scrubber. The effluent air stream, containing less than 25
mg/Nm3 fluoride and less than 50 mg/Nm3 particulate, will be discharged into
atmosphere through a stack of 40 m height.
Heating air from Dryer and cooling air from cooler in granulation plant will be
passed through cyclones to bring down particulate matter concentration below

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1.3
1.3.1

125 mg/Nm3. Air exiting the cycloneswill be discharged through a stack of 30 m


height.
Flue gases from the DG set will be discharged through a stack of 11 m height,

Site analysis
Connectivity
The site is adjacent to State Highway (SH-9) from Chittorgarh to Kapasn, at a
distance of 3 kms from its junction with NH-79. Chittorgarh and Chanderia Railway
Stations, both with loading and unloading facilities, are located within 9 km distance
from the project site. The project site is at a distance of 560Kms from Dahej Port,
which is the port proposed for import of rock phosphate.

1.3.2

Land form, Land use and Land ownership


The plot of land identified for locating the project lies in Pandoli Village of
Chittorgarh District of Rajasthan. The land is waste and barren, is rocky, uneven and
sloping from central ridge on the two sides.The plot of land was under Government
ownership, reserved for industrial purpose. It has been allotted to the project
proponent for establishment of SSP plant.

1.3.3

Topography & Soil


The topography of the plot is extremely rugged. Elevation of the plot varies from
approx. 423 m to 427 m above MSL. The maximum height is observed along the
central ridge, sloping all along towards the two sides. There is, practically, no soil
cover over the rocky face of the plot.

1.3.4

Climate of the area


The climate of area is quite dry and parched. The summer season extends from April
to June and is quite hot. The average temperature in summers falls between 43.8 C
to 23.8 C. The winter season lasts from October to February. Chittorgarh weather in
the winters is pretty cool. The temperature averages around 28.4 C to 11.6 C. The
monsoon season falls during the months of June to August. As far as climatic
conditions of Chittorgarh, Rajasthan in monsoon are concerned, there is only slight
rainfall that averages around 800mm.

1.3.5

Social infrastructure
Ground water is the main source of water for domestic and irrigational
requirements, supported by a number of ponds. All the villages are well connected
to NH 60 by roads. Chittorgarh, which is an old city, is the major market place in the
area, and is easily accessible from the site.

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1.4
1.4.1

Planning brief
Planning concept
The demand for the fertilizer due to the expanding agricultural production,
improvement in technology and growing awareness among farmers has led to the
increased consumption of agrochemicals. Fertilizers are key ingredients in ensuring
the food security of the country, as it increases the production and productivity of
the soil. The demand for domestic food grain production has been increase and will
continue to increase with population growth. The target of higher productivity can
be achieved through improved farming practice, expansion of irrigation, better seeds
and extensive and balanced use of fertilizers. A definite growth in the fertilizer
industry in India is required.

1.4.2

Population projection
Majority of the workforce for construction and operation of the facilities will be
drawn from local population, who will commute to the site from neighbouring
villages. The managerial and supervisory staff (approx. 36 persons) will commute
from Chittorgarh. Thus, increase in population is not envisaged.

1.4.3

Land use planning


The plot of land will be provided with boundary walls. Approximately one third of
the total area will be developed as green belt. In addition to plants, storage yards,
auxiliary plants and facilities, adequate area has been provided for parking of
vehicles. No construction will be done within 60 metres distance from the highway.

1.4.4

Infrastructure, amenities and facilities


Infrastructure, amenities and facilities required for construction and operation of
plants and facilities have been determined and provided in the project proposal.

1.5
1.5.1

Proposed infrastructure
Industrial area
Infrastructure proposed for industrial area includeplant equipment, bagging
facilities, covered storage yards for rock phosphate, green SSP, Cured SSP, and
granulated SSP. Adequate area has been left for parking of trucks. Project proposal
also includes provision of Administrative building, community Centre, canteen,
weigh bridge, overhead water storage tank, fire hydrant system and fire-fighting
facilities, electric substation, power distribution system, DG Set (125 KVA) for
emergency power, storage tanks for Sulphuric acid, HSD and FO, work shop, first aid
post, etc.

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1.5.2

Residential area
Development of residential area is not proposed, as most of the work force will be
drawn from neighboring villages.

1.5.3

Green belt
Approximately one third of the available project area has been identified for
development of green belt, where species prospering in the area will be planted and
developed. Additional areas have been identified for development of lawns and
gardens.

1.5.4

Social infrastructure
The project proponents propose to invest approximately 5% of the total project cost
under corporate social responsibility scheme.

1.5.5

Drinking water and sewerage system


As ground water extraction in the area is prohibited, drinking water will be brought
to the site in Tankers. Wastewater from toilets and wash rooms shall be treated in
septic tanks and disposed in soak pits.

1.5.6

Industrial waste management


The plants will be operated with zero liquid effluent discharge. Blow down from SSP
plant scrubber unit (dilute fluosilicic acid) will be recycled to the mixer. This will
result in saving of make-up water and Sulphuric acid.
Silica precipitated in the scrubbing unit will be separated and added to the
granulation drum as filler to the product. Spent oil and used containers will be
disposed through CPCB/RSPCB registered recyclers/ agencies.
Pulse jet bag filters will be provided in the rock grinding section for control of dust
emission. Fluorine bearing gases from Mixer and Den in SSP plant will be passed
through ventury scrubber, followed by 3-stage scrubbing system. In granulation
plant, control of dust will be achieved through cyclones for dryer and cooler
exhausts.

1.5.7

Power requirement and source


Total power requirement of the plants and associated facilities has been estimated
as approx. 900 KW. To meet power requirement of the plants and facilities,
connection from State electric grid AVVNL) will be taken. To meet emergency
requirement (for lighting and scrubber operation), a DG Set of 125 KVA capacity is
also proposed.

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1.6

Rehabilitation and resettlement


No dwelling unit exists on the proposed project area, and displacement of
population is not involved. Prior to its acquisition, the plot was government land,
reserved for industrial use. Therefore, rehabilitation or resettlement ofland oustees
or land losers is not required.

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1.7

Project schedule & cost estimates


Construction activities will start after all statutory clearances, including
environmental clearance to the project. These clearances should be completed
before the zero date of the project i.e. before the commencement of the active phase
of the project.The physical activities will start with provision of boundary wall to the
plot.
All the project execution related activities, as mentioned earlier, are interlinked and
have impact on the final outcome. The execution of the relevant project activities has
to be planned and controlled in such a way that the goals of the project are achieved
in the set time frame. The basic design and detailed engineering shall be completed
by 3 to 4 months from zero date. Mostly all the fabricated items and vendor items
shall be procured locally within 10-12 months. The critical items shall be procured
from the reputed vendors. The plant can be erected and commissioned within 18
months from zero date. It is assumed that before commissioning, FAGMIL shall
ensure the availability of required utilities at the battery limit of proposed plant.
The Project Capital Cost of proposed Granulated SSP project at Chittorgarh
(Rajasthan) has been estimated at about Rs. 70.95 Crores.The project capita cost
includes cost of:

Land & Land Development


Civil Works
Plant and Machinery incl. Spares
Incidental Expenses
Engineering Fees & Services
Project Management Charges
Erection Charges
Margin on Working Capital
Financing Charges
Startup Expenses
Contingency

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2. Introduction
2.1
2.1.1

Identification of project and project proponent


Project and project proponent
FCI Aravali Gypsum and Minerals India Limited (FAGMIL), previously known as
Jodhpur Mining Organization, was a segment of the public sector undertaking,
Fertilizer Corporation of India Ltd.
The main activity of FAGMIL was to supply mineral gypsum to Sindri Fertilizer Plant.
The gypsum produced was the basic raw material required for Ammonium sulphate
production. In 2003, the Jodhpur Mining Organization was demerged from FCIL and
formed into a new Company known as FCI Aravali Gypsum and Minerals India
Limited (FAGMIL).
There are nine mines under the Jodhpur Mining Organization producing gypsum. It
has credit for the exploration of 265 gypsum deposits with a reserve of more than
100 million tonnes all across the state of Rajasthan. The gypsum mines are situated
in different parts of Rajasthan like at Mohangarh, Kavas, Bikaner, Suratgarh, and
Ramsinghpur. In Asia the best quality gypsum is supplied by the Mohangarh mines,
situated in the district of Jaisalmer, Rajasthan. Apart from these mines, few new
mines also are acquired by FAGMIL like Thethar, Padampura, Khal, Randhisar, and
Mohangarh.
The gypsum powder produced in the FAGMIL is used in reclamation of sodic lands
as a source of Sulphur, and as raw material in Cement Industries, in Plaster of Paris
and Gypsum Fibre Board industries.
Till date, FAGMIL has the only activity as mentioned above and earning profit. It is
also paying dividend to GOI continually. The company has reserves of more than
Rs.100 crores. The company has plans to expand the business by spending the
available reserves to increase the company turnover. Accordingly, the company has
plan for setting up a Single Super Phosphate (SSP) production facilities in
Chittorgarh District of Rajasthan, based on indigenous / imported Rock Phosphate.

2.1.2

Pre-Feasibility Report (PFR)


FAGMIL entrusted Projects & Development India Limited (PDIL), an Engineering &
Consultancy Organization, to prepare a Feasibility Report (PFR) for the project
considering SSP manufacturing of viable capacity at suitable location.Projects &
Development India Ltd. (PDIL), a Government of India Undertaking, having
extensive experience in the field of preparation of a number of PFRs, DFRs and
TEFRs for various projects, has prepared this report.The details of raw material and
utility requirement, man-power, project capital cost, cost of production and financial

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analysis wereworked out and included in the report for project appraisal and
investment decision.
This Pre-feasibility report has been prepared to comply with the requirements of
Guidelines for Preparation of pre-feasibility report for obtaining prior
environmental clearance in terms of the provisions of EIA notification, 2006, issued
by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (J-11013/41/2006-1A.II(I) dated 30-122010. It has been prepared on the basis of, and utilizes the data presented in the
Feasibility Report prepared by PDIL.

2.2
2.2.1

Brief description of nature of project


Nature of the project
The project will be located in a plot of land measuring 11.01hectares,at Village
Pandoli in Chittorgarh District of RajasthannearSH-9. The plot is Government land
reserved for industrial purpose, andhas been allotted by the State Government for
the proposed SSP project. The project pertains to establishment of facilities for
manufacturing of 800 TPD or 240,000 TPA of granulated single super phosphate.
This is a grass root project and will consist of the following main plants:
a) Single superphosphate plant

: 800 TPD or 240,000 TPA capacity

b) SSP granulation plant

: 800 TPD or 240,000 TPA capacity

Other facilities required for operation of the project, viz., boundary walls, internal
roads, truck parking, weigh bridge, storage facilities, work shop, administrative
building, canteen, community centre, first-aid post, green belt, electric sub-station,
DG Set, etc. are also included in the project proposal.
The main raw materials for manufacture of SSP are Sulphuric acid and rock
phosphate. The project will utilize imported rock phosphate, which will be brought
up to Dahej Port by sea route, and from there by rail route up to Chittorgarh or
Chanderia. By-product Sulphuric acid will be brought from Hindustan Zinc Limited,
Chanderia. As Chittorgarh Block has been declared as dark zone, make-up water
requirements of the project and facilities will be met from surface/ground water
from neighbouringareas, brought to the site in tankers.
The plants have in-built facilities for pollution control. Waste water from the plants
shall be recycled quantitatively as dilution water for acidulation of rock phosphate.
Air pollution control measures are in-built in the plants, and effluent gases will be
discharged through stacks of adequate heights.
2.2.2

Single Super phosphate plant


The SSP plant will have the rated capacity to produce 800 TPD powder SSP (running
for 300 days per year). Thus, the plant will produce 240,000 TPA powder SSP. The
product specification, meeting the FCO requirements, are as follows:
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2.2.3

a) Water soluble P2O5 (min)

: 14.5%

b) Citrate soluble P2O5 (min)

: 16%

c) Free phosphoric acid as P2O5 (max)

:4%

d) Moisture content (max)

:5%

Granulation plant
The granulation plant will have the rated capacity to produce 800 TPD granulated
SSP (running for 300 days per year). Thus, the plant will produce 240,000 TPA
granulated SSP. The product specification, meeting the FCO requirements, are as
follows:

2.3
2.3.1

a) Water soluble P2O5 (min)

: 14.5%

b) Citrate soluble P2O5 (min)

: 16%

c) Free phosphoric acid as P2O5 (max)

:4%

d) Moisture content (max)

:5%

e) Particle size (1 to 4 mm IS sieve)

: 90%

f) Particle size below 1 mm

: less than 5%

Need of the project and its importance to the country


Food Security
Due to increasing population pressure, the demand for food, feed, fodder, fibre, fuel,
pulses, and oilseed products is rapidly increasing. The challenge of the coming
decades is to feed our burgeoning population. It is anticipated that in India in the
year 2025, total food grains demand will reach 291 million tones comprising 109
million tonnes of rice, 91 million tonnes of wheat, 73 million tonnes of course grains
and 18 million tonnes of pulses. Some years ago, eminent scientist Dr. M. S.
Swaminathan had estimated the theoretical production potential of the country to
be 475 million tonnes grain equivalent. Even based on yield levels achieved in
national demonstrations, the production potential is 560 million tonnes of food
grains. Thus, though the task is formidable, the potential does exist.

2.3.2

Available options
For achieving the goal of increased food grain production, there are two courses
open. One is to increase the area under the plough and the other is to increase
productivity from the available land; or even better would be a combination of both.
So far as expansion in the horizontal direction of increasing land area under
cultivation is concerned, there is very little scope. Thus the main course open is
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through vertical expansion i.e. by increasing productivity per unit area. The strategy,
therefore, should be to produce more food from less land with less water and less
pesticides and with minimum detriment to the environment. Whether the option is
through extensification or intensification of agriculture, the key factor in both cases
is soil fertility and its management. Higher crop yields mean greater removal of
nutrients from the soil. The soil is not an inexhaustible store of plant nutrients and
we cannot over-mine it. Thus fertilizer is the key to success in meeting the challenge
of food security in the next century.
2.3.3

Present level of Fertilizer Consumption


Growth in fertilizer consumption, which was rapid in the 80's has slackened in the
90's. In the second half of 1992-2002, after the enhancement of adhoc concession for
P & K, the total fertilizer consumption increased to 17.36 million tonnes in 2001-02
as against 14.31 million tonnes in 1996-97. All India consumption of total nutrients
reached an all time high of 28.28 million tonnes in 2010-11 (Table 2.1). The
consumption of N at 16.89 million tonnes, P2O5 at 8.00 million tonnes represent
growth of 8.4% and 10% over previous year. However, the consumption of K2O at
3.39 million tonnes in 2010-11 showed a decline of 6.6 % during the period.
The consumption of fertilizers (N+P2O5 +K2O) per hectare of arable land in India at a
level of 135 kg is low when compared with the consumption level of countries like
Netherlands (367 kg), Japan (291 kg), Korea-Rep (410 kg), China (288 kg) and Egypt
(438 kg).

Table 2-1 : All India Consumption of Chemical Fertilizers (000 tonnes)


Year

P2O5

K2O

Total

1981-82

4068.7

1322.3

676.2

6067.2

1991-92

8046.3

3321.2

1360.6

12728.1

1996-97

10301.8

2976.8

1029.6

14308.1

2001-02

11310.2

4382.4

1667.1

17359.7

2004-05

11713.9

4623.8

2060.7

18398.4

2005-06

12920.0

5260.0

2500.0

20680.0

2008-09

15090.5

6506.2

3312.6

24909.3

2009-10

15580.0

7274.0

3632.4

26486.4

2010-11*

16890.0

8001.4

3390.0

28280.0

*Provisional
There is also wide variation among different states in the level of consumption of
fertilizers. While Punjab ranks first with 237 kg per hectare followed by Andhra
Pradesh (226 kg), Haryana (210 kg), Tamil Nadu (206 kg), Uttar Pradesh (171 kg),
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West Bengal (169 kg), Karnataka (160 kg) and Gujarat (147 kg) have higher level of
consumption than all-India average of 135 kg per hectare. The consumption was
lowest in Nagaland with 2.4 kg followed by Arunachal Pradesh 3 kg respectively.
It is imperative that the level of fertilizer consumption in India has to be increased
so as to attain higher level of production not only to keep pace with the growing
population but also to become self-sufficient in food production. The immediate
need of the hour is at least to match the present level of consumption of Punjab.
2.3.4

Importance of Phosphorous
Phosphorus plays a leading role in living organisms and is said to be the key element
in metabolism. The role of fertilizer phosphorus in increasing crop production in
India is now increasingly being appreciated in the view of the low soil phosphorus
status and continued erosion in soil phosphorus during the past hundreds of years.
With the introduction of high yielding varieties and increase cropping intensity the
extent of phosphorus removal by crop has significantly increased. Therefore,
adequate fertilizer phosphorus is to be added to soils to sustain high crop yields for
years to come. Application of fertilizer phosphorus is essential for the purpose of
raising the concentration of available phosphorus in the soil so that the crop
requirement at different stages of growth is met.

2.3.5

Single Superphosphate (SSP)


SSP is a grey coloured straight phosphatic multi-nutrient fertilizer which contains
16% water soluble P2O5, 11% sulphur, 21% calcium and some other essential micro
nutrients in small proportions which provide balanced nutrition to most of the crops
resulting in improved yield and soil health. SSP, which is a poor farmer's fertilizer
(price-wise), is an option to optimise the use of phosphatic fertilizers. It also helps to
treat sulphur deficiency in soils (40% Indian soil sulphur deficient) as well for
further enhancement of yields at the least cost. In various crops, which require more
of sulphur and phosphate like oilseeds, pulses, sugarcane, fruits and vegetables, tea
etc, SSP is an essential fertilizer. It is used in both powder and granular forms.
Powdered SSP (PSSP) is useful in short duration crops (oil seeds, pulses and
vegetables) whereas granulated SSP (GSSP) is useful in long duration crops
(sugarcane, wheat and rice).

2.3.6

Advantages of using SSP for different crops


The growth rate of roots improves ensuring that, the plant extracts maximum
amount of nutrients from the soil.
For leguminous crops like Groundnut, use of SSP, ensures growth of a large
number of nodules on the roots, which fix atmospheric nitrogen directly into the
soil and also increase nitrogen content of the soil.
Oil content of Groundnut and other Oil seeds increases.
The quantity and quality of Oil seeds and different Dals increases.

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In Sugarcane, the quality of the cane juice improves to a large extent, due to
which, we get good quality of Jaggery.
Using SSP on Wheat, Rice, Bajra, Jowar and Sugarcane ensures that, the plants
get a lot of new shoots.
For crops such as Jowar and Groundnut, which are grown in non-irrigate lands, if
SSP is applied during sowing followed be required quantity of Urea or
Ammonium Sulphate, then the humidity in the soil can be used for a longer
period.
Increases yield by 17-41% in food grains, 18-32% in pulses, 16-33% in oilseeds
and 17-45% in vegetables.
Removes soil acidity and compaction and restore soil health.
2.3.7

Advantages of Granulated SSP


Granulated Single Super Phosphate (GSSP) as compared to SSP is in granulated form
and use of granulated product is more beneficial than the use of powder. The
powder gets dissolved immediately in irrigation water and becomes readily
available. Some part of it is used by plants and balance goes to sub soil with water
and remain useless. The powder can be used only during sowing of seeds. It cannot
be used on the growing crops as it get deposited on the leaves of the plants and
being slightly acidic, burns them. The granulated product rolls down the plant and
can be used harmlessly on the standing crops. The biggest advantage in using the
granulated product is that it is available to the crops for a longer time because it gets
dissolved slowly in water.

2.4
2.4.1

Demand Supply Gap


World Scenario of SSP
India ranks third in the global consumption of SSP, next to China and Brazil, as per
the latest data available. Other major SSP consuming countries are New Zealand,
Australia, Egypt, and Vietnam. In Egypt, almost entire quantity of P2O5 consumption
is sourced through SSP. Among other countries, which have large share of SSP to
total P2O5 consumption include, New Zealand (69 per cent), Taiwan-China (46 per
cent), Korea DPR (45 per cent), China (37 per cent), Brazil (29 per cent) and
Australia and Vietnam (25 per cent each) (Table 2.2).
Table 2-2 : Consumption of SSP and its Share to Total P2O5 in Selected Countries

Country

China
Brazil
India
New Zealand
Australia

Consumption of P2O5 (000 tonnes)


Total
Through SSP
9827.0
3410.0
4124.3
494.8
1019.3

3650.0
1007.6
407.0
340.0
250.2

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% share of SSP to
total P2O5
consumption
37
29
10
69
25

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Country

Egypt
Vietnam
Poland
Italy
Taiwan-china
Spain
Korea DPR
World
2.4.2

Consumption of P2O5 (000 tonnes)


Total
Through SSP
143.9
563.6
338.0
447.0
78.0
618.0
44.0
35037.5

142.3
141.2
65.0
36.0
36.0
21.0
20.0
6290.1

% share of SSP to
total P2O5
consumption
99
25
19
8
46
3
45
18

SSP Industry in India


The total installed capacity of SSP plants in India is around 8 million tonnes which
constitutes around 20% of the total capacity of phosphatic fertilisers. The major raw
materials for SSP are rock phosphate and sulphur. Unlike DAP, which is produced
using imported rock phosphate, 65% of the SSP is produced with low-grade rock
phosphate that is available domestically.
Majority of the SSP manufacturers are producing SSP in powder form. However,
around 50 units of the SSP are also manufacturing granular SSP.
SSP industry shows uneven growth in production during the current decade upto
2007-08 with recovery in production from 2008-09. The total production of SSP at
3.631 million tonnes during 2010-11 represented a growth of 17 per cent over the
previous year. The increase in production was partly attributed to enhancement in
the rate of concession and partly on account of higher demand as a result of good
weather.

Table 2-3 : Production of SSP in India (000 tonnes)


Year

Production

Per cent increase/decrease over the previous year

2000-01

2742.2

-22.4

2001-02

2504.6

-8.7

2002-03

2407.7

-3.9

2003-04

2543.4

5.6

2004-05

2461.1

-3.2

2005-06

2795.2

13.6

2006-07

2972.0

6.3

2007-08

2246.3

-24.4

2008-09

2533.6

12.8

2009-10

3093.0

22.0

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Year

Production

2010-11
2.4.3

Per cent increase/decrease over the previous year

3631.0

17.4

Share of SSP in total production of P2O5


The share of SSP to total production of P2O5 was 100 per cent way back in 1950s,
before the complex fertilizers came in production in India. It declined to 44.8 per
cent during 1970-71 and 23.4 per cent during 1980-81. Some improvement was
noticed during 1990-91, when it touched 28.5 per cent. It started declining from
1991-92, with marginal improvement occasionally. The share of SSP to total
production of P2O5 reduced from 18.6 per cent during 1991-92 to a low of 10.3 per
cent during the year 2005-06. It showed some improvement in 2010-11 at 13.3%.

2.4.4

Capacity Utilization
All India capacity utilization of SSP increased from 42.6 per cent during 2009-10 to
49.5 per cent during 2010-11. Despite improvement in the capacity utilization of SSP
during 2010-11, still there is a significant underutilization of capacity at the
aggregate level. It is interesting to note that out of 67 operating plants in the
country, 25 plants operated above 60 per cent capacity utilization level, and
remaining 41 plants below 60 per cent during 2010-11. During 2010-11, out of 67
operating plants, three plants operated above 100% capacity utilisation. Only one
between 90 to 100% and six plants operated between 80 to 90%.

Table 2-4 : SSP Plants in Various Ranges of Capacity Utilization


Capacity Utilisation Range
(%)
Above 100
91-100
81-90
71-80
61-70
51-60
41-50
Below 50
Nil/Not Available
Total No. of Plants
2.4.5

Number of Plants
2009-10
2
2
2
5
9
8
12
30
10
80

2010-11
3
1
6
4
11
15
10
17
15
82

Government Policies for SSP


The production of SSP witnessed uneven growth during the major part of the decade
of 2000 until 2007-08 due to unfavourable policy. It showed sign of recovery from
2008-09 with the introduction of New Policy which made provision for
o

Fixation of uniform MRP throughout the country.

Monthly revision in the concession rates to reflect the variation in prices of


raw materials vis--vis imported rock phosphate and imported sulphur,
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o

Recognition of sulphur content in SSP while fixing MRP.

The policy continued upto September, 2009. With effect from October, 2009, the SSP
policy once again changed. Under the revised policy, the government decided to
leave the selling price of SSP open with an adhoc concession of Rs.2000 per tonne.
The SSP industry witnessed a major breakthrough after the introduction of Nutrient
Based Subsidy (NBS) on SSP w.e.f. 1st May, 2010.
As per the NBS, the government has offered a fixed per kg subsidy for application on
N, P, K and S as well as micronutrients with multi-fold objectives:
o

Increase availability of secondary and micronutrients in the soil by


encouraging the producers to innovate and experiment with customised
fertilizers, leading to higher demand due to higher response.

Reduce the subsidy bill by decontrolling the prices.

NBS has bought the price parity to the farmers for P & K fertilizers based on
nutrient content.

With effect from 1st April, 2011, per tonne NBS for SSP (0-16-0-11) for 2011-12
would be Rs.5359 and henceforth, the DoF is authorised to revise MRP of SSP from
time to time in future keeping in view the international price trend of sulphur as
well as the nutrient price of 'phosphate' in DAP. Manufacturers / marketers are
required to ensure the product is transported up to the retail point. The market
price of SSP is open and will be announced by the manufacturers.
2.4.6

Future Demand-Supply Scenario


Demand Forecasts
Fertilizer consumption / demand is affected by a large number of factors such as its
own demand in the previous period, the expected price of crops, its own price,
geographical factors, government policies, market forces, climatic and other factors.
Other factors that might be expected to influence the use of fertilizer are: area under
high-yielding varieties (HYVs), irrigation, cropping intensity, per capita income, etc.
As such, the estimation of demand for fertilizers in the future years becomes a
difficult work. Yet, it is important that future demand/ consumption estimates are
made for planning the installation of new manufacturing units and for determining
the level of imports etc.
Several agencies, from time to time, have came out with their estimates based on
various methods viz. straight-line fit, quadratic fit, agricultural growth rate
approach, population nutrition method, cropped area and recommended dose
method etc. Experience has shown that more often than not, the estimates do not
conform to actual consumption figures. This is mainly due to the fact that the
assumption of normal conditions in methods adopted does not hold good because of
abnormal weather conditions, physical controls, lack of supply, unprecedent price
hike, advance input-output ratios etc. However, serious efforts in this direction
continue and the organisation like Planning Commission, Department of Agriculture
& Co-operation, Fertilizer Association of India, National Informatics Centre, and
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National Council of Applied Economic Research havecame out with their estimates
at different points of time.
FAI demand estimates are based on the multiple regression model. The variables
considered to the model are irrigated area, area under HYV, Fertilizer consumption,
rainfall and prices of fertilizer nutrients. A time series data have been used in the
model. The projections made by FAI in respect of nutrient P2O5 during 12th Five
Year Plan and onwards are summarised below in Table 2.5.

Table 2-5 : Demand Projections of Nutrient P2O5('000 tonnes of P2O5)


Year
2012-13
2013-14
2014-15
2015-16
2016-17

Projected Demand
8576
8814
9051
9285
9517

Year
2017-18
2020-21
2022-23
2023-24
2024-25

Projected Demand
9868
10543
11113
11324
11530

The projections made by FAI in respect of SSP are summarised below in Table 2.6. It
has been assumed that the share of SSP to total P2O5 will progresively increase from
the current level of 7 per cent to 10 per cent by the end of the 12th Plan.

Table 2-6 : Demand Projections of SSP('000 tonnes)


Year
2012-13
2013-14
2014-15
2015-16
2016-17

Projected Demand
4288
4682
5091
5513
5948

Year
2017-18
2020-21
2022-23
2023-24
2024-25

Projected Demand
6476
7248
7814
8139
8467

Future Supply Estimates


As there is subsidy on SSP on sold quantity acknowledging SSP as key phosphattic
fertilizer at par with DAP on nutrient content due to price advantage and huge
demand of SSP, it is expected that many large fertilizer companies are entering this
sector. Mergers and acquisitions have also so far been beneficial for long run. The
public sector companies like Rashtriya Chemicals & Fertilizers Limited (RCF),
National Fertilizers Limited (NFL), Madras Fertilizers Limited (MFL), Fertilizers &
Chemicals Travancore Limited (FACT), FCIAravali Gypsum & Minerals India Limited
(FAGMIL) have plans for entering in the field of production of SSP in near future.
Besides these, many other companies have plans for expansion of existing facilities
or new capacities. Some of the companies has submitted proposals for
environmental clearance. The details of new or expansion capacity are given in the
Table 2.7
The increase in production of SSP in the country is also expected from improved
capacity utilization of existing plants. Considering 70% capacity utilisation of the
existing effective capacity, total supply of SSP is expected to increase to a level of

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5150 thousand tonnes. The projected demand supply gap of SSP in the country
would be in the range of 8 lakh tonnes by the year 2016-17.
Moreover, there is consistently sizeable supply gap of P2O5 in the country is
indication that, given an acceptable product, any additional production of
phosphatic fertilizer products in the country will not suffer for want of a market. In
fact, unless indigenous production of phosphatic fertilizers sufficiently expands,
imports are likely to rise further as a result of the efforts presently being made to
raise the consumption of P2O5 to attain a better NPK ratio.
It is apparent that DAP is a strategic commodity and capacity of international market
is rather limited to meet significant increase in demand. An additional demand of
even 1-2 million tonnes would cause serious imbalance and prices would shoot up.
Higher levels of demand could result in a situation when DAP would not be available
in spot markets at any price.

Table 2-7 : Proposals for New / Additional Capacity of SSP


Company

Tentative Location of
SSP Plant

Capacity
(MTPD)

Status

RCFL
NFL
MFL
FACT
FAGMIL
CFCL

Thal (Maharashtra)
Not Available
Manali (Tamil Nadu)
Cochin (Kerala)
Rajasthan
Gadepan (Rajasthan)

1500
800
600
500
600
800

Bodal Chemicals
Limited
Golden Futures
Fertilizers Ltd.
Coromandal
International
Patel Phoschem Pvt.
Ltd.
Khaitan Chemicals &
Fertilizers Ltd.
KPR Fertilizers Ltd.

Padra, Vadodara
(Gujarat)
Udaipur (Rajasthan)

800

Planning
Planning
Planning
Planning
Planning
Environmental
Clearance
Commissioning

Punjab

800

Udaipur (Rajasthan)

300

Bharauch (Gujarat)

600

Koppal Karnataka)

200

India Phosphate Ltd.

Udaipur (Rajasthan)

Rama Phosphate Ltd.

Indore
(Madhya Pradesh)

400
(Additional)
300
(Additional)

600

Environmental
Clearance
Planning
Environmental
Clearance
Environmental
Clearance
Environmental
Clearance
Environmental
Clearance
Environmental
Clearance

Therefore, it would not be prudent to depend on imports for more than 1 million
tonnes of DAP. This in other words means that the country shall be required to have

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in place additional domestic capacity of phosphatic fertilizer products for indigenous
consumption.
Moreover, with increased use of high analysis fertilizers like Urea and DAP for the
nitrogen and phosphorous needs, the sulphur removed from the soils through
intensive farming was not getting replenished.
In India, the number of sulphur-deficient districts has risen from 88 in 1980 to 250
now, with the annual unmet requirement put at 9.6 lakh tonnes.
View against the background of sulphur deficient soils and continuing gap for P2O5
as also the long-term objective of achieving self-sufficiency in agricultural
production and thereby minimum imports, the proposal for installation of SSP plant,
it is felt, would be a right step. This would not only help in boosting the production
of SSP for sulphur deficient soils but will also reduce the demand pressure for DAP.

2.5

Imports Vs Indigenous Production


The project proposal does not envisage import for SSP fertilizer as demand for SSP
will be met through indigenous production only. The raw materials, viz. phosphate
rock and elemental sulphur will, however, be imported.

2.6

Export Possibility
Export of fertilizers is banned in India.

2.7

Domestic / Export markets


As adequate demand for the product exists in the domestic market, the product will
be marketed in the domestic market specially in the states in North India.

2.8

Employment generation
The execution of the project has to pass through different phases like pre-project
activities, design and engineering, procurement, civil works and erection, precommissioning, trial run/commissioning till the project finally goes in to commercial
production. The success of the project will depend on the strength of the owners
project management cell that will monitor the various activities with vendors &
detailed engineering contractor.
The project will generate direct and indirect employment opportunities. Direct
employment will be in the form of skilled, semi-skilled and un-skilled work force
required for operation of the facilities. The project will also provide indirect
employment generation in service sectors. The plants will be operated in 3 shifts.
However, loading, un-loading and grinding operations will be performed during day
time only.

Table 2-8 : Skilled Manpower Requirement


Sl. No.
i.
ii.

Department
Operation
Maintenance

Nos.
16
7

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Sl. No.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.

Department
Technical Services
Materials Management
Finance & Accounts
Personnel & Administration
Marketing
TOTAL

Nos.
2
8
1
1
1
36

The skilled manpower will be permanent employees of the project, and semi-skilled
and un-skilled work force will be drawn from local population on contract basis. A
tentative skilled manpower requirement for the proposed project is shown in Table
2.8.
The above estimated figures are tentative and detailed analysis is required for fixing
the precise requirement to ensure trouble free and efficient management of the
plants and facilities.
In addition to the above, approx. 40 semi-skilled and un-skilled persons will be
required, on contract basis, for operation of the plants and facilities.

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3. Project Description
3.1

Type of project
The proposed project is to be set up for the production of SSP as end product. It
comprises main facilities such as SSP plant and associated facilities like curing
building for intermediate product, bagging unit and storage for raw material and
final product. The main raw materials are Rock Phosphate and Sulphuric acid.
Required sulphuric acid shall be procured from Hindustan Zinc Limited, Chittorgarh
while rock phosphate shall be imported at Dahej port and transported by rail/road
to the project site.

3.2

Location
The proposed project site, comprising 11.01 hectares land (Plot No. 2615), is located
in Village Pandoli, Tehsil & District Chittorgarh, Rajasthan. It is Government land,
reserved for industrial purpose, and was allotted to FAMIL for establishing the SSP
project (Annex-8). The plot is located adjacent to State Highway No. 9,
approximately6kms away from Chittorgarh.Geographically, the project site is
located at latitude 2405527 N and longitude 7403342 E. Elevation of the plot
varies from 423 to 427 m above MSL. Maps showing general & specific location,
project boundary and project layout plan have been presented in Annexures 1 to 4.

3.3

Alternate sites considered


The ideal project location will be the location from where the cost of production &
distribution is minimum and the same will depend on many factors like availability
of raw materials, markets and distribution centres immediate to the project location,
transportation etc.
Rock phosphate and Sulphuric Acid are the basic raw materials for manufacturing of
SSP. Presence of Rock Phosphate reserves in Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh has
made easy availability ofRock Phosphate in these states and hence most of the SSP
Plants are concentrated in these states only. Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh have
total of 17 and 14 plants respectively. Some of the plants are also located near the
ports along the coastal lines of Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra and West
Bengal using indigenous as well as imported rock phosphate. A large quantity of byproduct sulphuric acid is available at Hindustan Zinc Limited smelter plant in
Udaipur.
The following five locations have been considered for setting up the proposed SSP
project.
I.
II.

Udaipur
Suratgarh

III.

Jodhpur

IV.

Chittaurgarh
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V.

Existing premises of FACT

A meeting was held between FAGMIL and PDIL officials on 26th September 2011 at
Jodhpur office of FAGMIL to discuss about the alternative sites for setting up SSP
project. Accordingly, a joint team visited Udaipur, Chittorgarh and also outskirts of
Jodhpur in search of suitable sites. For sites in Suratgarh, information have been
gathered through FAGMIL officials stationed at Suratgarh. One of the alternates is
the FACTs existing premises at Cochin. Though the site at Cochin has not been
physically assessed but information made available by FACT has been used for
assessment.
Rajasthan State Industrial Development and Investment Corporation (RIICO), the
sole government agency in the State involved in development of land for industrial
enterprisesa has informed FAGMIL that presently there is no land available in
Jodhpur for the proposed SSP project and such land could be available after 1.5 to 2
years. The Cost of land for industrial purpose in Jodhpur would be around Rs. 6 to 8
lakhs per Bighai.eRs. 15 to 20 lakhs per acre.
While the sites located in Udaipur and Chittorgarh are considered to get imported
rock phosphate through Dahej port, sites located in Jodhpur and Suratgarh will get
imported rock phosphate through Kandla port. Site located in Cochin will get
imported rock through Kochi port.
The site located in Chittorgarh is nearest to sulphuric acid supplier. In Suratgarh,
FAGMIL has its own operating office for gypsum. The site near Suratgarh could be
better site with respect to product evacuation. The target markets for the product
i.e. the states of Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh are nearer than any location viz.
Jodhpur, Udaipur and Chittorgarh. Also, the cost of land would be cheapest in
Suratgarh compared to Jodhpur, Udaipur and Chittorgarh. Cochin, the FACTs
existing site is also considered as one of the site for evaluation purpose.
All the site locations namely Udaipur, Suratgarh, Jodhpur, Chittorgarh and FACT
Cochin have been studied. The criteria for selection of ideal site are as follows:

Cheaper availability of raw materials such as sulphuric acid and rock phosphate.

The finished product SSP does not have to be transported for longer distance,
consequently lower freight and distribution costs, to a considerable extent, the
disadvantages of lower primary nutrient content.

A comparative statement showing advantages and disadvantages in procurement of


raw materials and distribution of finished product at different plant locations is
presented in Table 3.1.
It can be observed from the table that the profitability of the proposed project is
highest if plant location is Chittorgarh followed by Udaipur. Hence, Chittorgarh can
be considered as the ideal location for the proposed project.
Availability of land, free from litigation, is one of the major environmental
considerations of site for locating a project. The environmental considerations in
favour of the site near Chittorgarh are as follows:
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Availability of Govt. land, reserved for industrial purpose, free from litigations;

Proximity to and connectivity with the source of Sulphuric acid;

Away from densely inhabited areas;

No sensitive areas located in proximity;

No reserve forest, sanctuary or major water body located within 10 km distance


from the site;

Availability of semi-skilled and un-skilled work force in neighboring villages;

Better connectivity by rail and road - Chittorgarh and Chanderia Railway Station,
with railway siding, are located within 9 km from the site; State Highway (SH - 9)
is located adjacent to the site.

Table 3-1 : A comparative statement showing profitability of the proposed


project at different locations
Particulars
Distance from Sulphuric
Acid source i.e.
Chittorgarh* (km)
Distance from nearest
Port (km)
Landed Price of Raw
Materials
Rock Phosphate
(Rs./MT)
Sulphuric Acid (Rs./MT)
Project Capital Cost (Rs.
Lakhs)
Working Capital
(Rs. Lakhs)
Cost of Production
(Rs./MT)
Sale Price of GSSP
IRR (Post-Tax)
Pay Back period ( Years)

Jodhpur Chittorgarh
300
40

Udaipur
120

Suratgarh
600

Cochin
2000

600
560
(Kandla) (Dahej)

450
(Dahej)

1030
(Kandla)

80
(Kochi)

9156

9076

8856

10016

8056

4209
7075

3559
7095

3759
7241

4959
6915

6759
9054

6701

6584

6549

7059

7042

8469

8185

8134

9244

8880

8735
12.06%
7.93

8820
19.73%
4.24

8637
16.85%
5.14

8925
-ve
15.0

8905
6.23%
14.16

*By-product Sulphuric acid available from Hindustan Zinc Ltd. has been considered.

3.4

Size & Magnitude of the project


Main product

: Granulated SSP; 240,000 TPA

Intermediate products
SSP powder

: 240,000 TPA

Fluosilicic acid (15%)

: 4,500 KL/year

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3.5
3.5.1

Process Description
Single Super Phosphate Plant
PROCESS TECHNOLOGY :
The process of manufacturing of SSP consists of reaction of Ground Rock Phosphate
of required fineness and P2O5 content with Sulphuric Acid in specified proportion.
The product of acidulation of Rock Phosphate is called Green Super Phosphate which
is allowed to cure for 2 to 3 weeks before the same is ready for packing or further
processing.
The phosphate rock from different sources, used for SSP production, is mainly
fluorapatite, (Ca5(PO4)3F). The actual composition of the phosphate rock varies with
the source.The main chemical reactions involved in the manufacturing of SSP from
rock phosphate and Sulphuric acid are as follows:

3Ca3(PO4)2 + 6H2SO4 + 3H2O


CaF2 + H2SO4
4HF + SiO2
3SiF4 + 3H2O
Ca3(PO4)2 + 2H2SiF6 + 4H2O

3Ca(H2PO4)2.H2O + 6CaSO4
CaSO4 + 2HF
SiF4 + 2H2O
2H2SiF6 + SiO2.H2O
Ca(H2PO4)2 + CaSiF6.2H2O

Schematic flow diagram of manufacturing of SSP has been presented in Annex-5.


PHOSPHATE ROCK BLENDING AND GRINDING :
Phosphate rocks, from different sources have different phosphate, fluoride and silica
contents. These rocks are mixed in the blending plant to produce a product with a
total phosphate concentration of 31.5%. The phosphate rock mixture is passed
through a ball/hammer mill which reduces the particle size to 0.5cm or less. The
coarsely ground rock is then passed through an air swept roller mill (Bradley Mill)
to attain a rock grist of approximately 75% less than 75 microns. The powdered rock
is stored in a large hopper. Fine Phosphate is transported to ground Phosphate
Hopper to be used for PSSP production.
The grinding of rock phosphate leads to emission of dust. A Pulse jet dust collector
(Bag filter) will be provided to control dust emissions. A stack will be provided at the
ball mill for discharge of gaseous effluent from the dust collector.
SULHURIC ACID DILUTION :
Dilution and Cooling Systems are used to dilute the concentrated Sulphuric Acid
98.5% to 70% concentration, and to cool down the produced Diluted Acid (178C),
because the Dilution Process is exothermic. Dilution Process (as a result of mixing
water with Conc. Acid) and cooling system is sophisticated systems due to the highly
corrosive effect of the Diluted Acid. For that, all parts in contact with Diluted Acid
made from special Graphite can bear the operating conditions such as:
Diluted acid inlet Temperature: 178 C

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Pressure inside the cooler: > 2 bars
This system is fully automated and provides all the safety precautions necessary to
guarantee safe operation not only for operators but also for the Graphite Cooler and
cable to control the outlet concentration and temperature. The Diluted Acid (DSA) is
stored in Storage Tank lined with Rubber and acid bricks. The cooling water
necessary to cool the DSA is re-circulated in water Cooling Tower to minimize the
consumed water and in turn the waste water.
POWDER SUPERPHOSPHATE MANUFACTURE:
Diluted Acid is pumped to PSSP production plant using special chemical pumps.
PSSP plant is designed to use 70% Sulphuric Acid, recycled scrubber liquor and
ground phosphate rock. It is based on the most technically and economically up to
date feasible process and is compatible with Environment Protection Requirements
Feed Metering is achieved with Automatic Control System. The ground rock and
sulfuric acid are reacted in a horizontal mixer. A continuous flow of the sloppy mix
drops out of the mixer into the Broad field Den. Broad Field Mixer developed
specially for PSSP manufacture is a large two stage horizontal paddle mixer, the two
stage design ensures complete mixing and good chemical reaction (quality) of SSP
powder. Varying speed drive and adjustable paddle configuration allows selection of
optimum mixing conditions for all phosphate rocks with Acid.
The den consists of a slowly moving floor (approx. 300 mm/min), built from steel
tee slats, with polypropylene sealing strips, to prevent leakage, to enable setting of
the cake and reciprocating sides, lined with cement fondu (special tile) and are
driven by two geared motor units through two heavy crank arms which prevent the
superphosphate adhering to the walls. The partially matured superphosphate cake
is cut out of the den with a rotating cutter wheel after a retention time of
approximately 30 minutes.
A sturdy steel framework carries the den and mixer. A rotary cutter excavates the
SSP cake from Den. Stainless steel blades are mounted on a steel frame and shaft
carried on externally mounted Plummer block bearings. The outlet PSSP fertilizer
conveyed to storage area where remaining reaction of the SSP is completed by
spreading the cut lumps on the floor and reshuffling the hips by means of a over
head crane situated in the curing building. The SSP is allowed to complete the
reaction and attain the powdered form which takes around 21 days. After curing, the
powder SSP is transferred to the granulation plant for further processing.
SCRUBBING :
The SiF4 fumes and fine dust of ground rock, generated during the reaction between
phosphate rock and Sulphuric acid, are drawn from the Den by induced draft fans.
The SiF4 fumes and dust are passed through the scrubbing system, comprising a
venturi scrubber followed by three stage scrubbers.In the scrubbing system, fluoride
content of the air stream is reduced to below 25 mg/Nm3. Effluent air from the
scrubbing system is discharged into the atmosphere through a chimney. Fluo-silicic
acid (H2SiF6) is separated from sludge in a Sump. Sludge thus separated will be
reused as a filler in SSP and clear scrubbed liquor (approx.. 15% H2SiF6)is recycled
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to the mixer which reduces consumption of Sulphuric Acid and dilution water.
Process flow diagram of the Scrubbing Section has been presented in Annexure-6.

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3.5.2

Granulation Plant
Cured Single super phosphate is fed to the granulation Plant through a Cutter/ Lump
Breaker and fed to Granulator through Feed Belt Conveyor. In granulator drum,
water is sprinkled and granules are formed, which are fed to the Dryer Drum where
the Granules of SSP are heated by hot air generated through a Fuel oil fired Furnace.
Hot granulated SSP is fed to Cooler drum through Belt Conveyor and the product is
cooled. The Dryer and Cooler Drums are attached to ID Fans through Cyclone
Separator and Chimney. The cyclones collect the Dust from the system and the
effluent air is discharged through Chimney.
The product granulated SSP is passed through Vibrating Screens, where under-size
and oversize materials are separated, and the desired size product is sent to the
automatic packing and bagging plant, where from the product is packed in 50 kgs
HDPE laminated bags and stored for dispatches.
The under size material is recycled in the Granulator and the oversize material is
crushed through Twin Roller Hammer Mill and is recycled to the Granulator.
Process flow diagram of manufacturing of Granular SSP has been presented in
Annexure-7.

3.6
3.6.1

Raw Materials & Transport


Consumption Norms
The requirement of raw materials and utilities for the proposed GSSP project of 800
MTPD has been worked out on the basis of rated capacity operation of the plant. The
annual requirements of various inputs of proposed project are presented below in
Table- 3.2.The annual requirement of Rock Phosphate and Sulphuric acid include
margin for over consumption and handling losses.

Table 3-2 : Annual Raw Material & Utility Requirement

3.6.2

Sl. No.

Raw Material/Utilities

Unit

Annual Requirement

1.0

Rock Phosphate

MT

139200

2.0

Sulphuric Acid

MT

86400

3.0

Power

MWh

6000

4.0

Fuel Oil

MT

2640

5.0

Water

100 m3

696

Rock Phosphate
For the proposed project near Chittorgarh, rock phosphate will be sourced from
various countries like Jordan, Iran, Egypt and Togo. It is envisaged that Rock
Phosphate can be used from all these sources including rocks available from
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indigenous sources like Rajasthan State Minerals and Mining Limited (RSMML) &
Madhya Pradesh State Mining Corporation Limited (MPSMCL).
The requisite quantities of rock will be unloaded at Dahej port and from there; it will
be transported by rail/road to the proposed project site.
Unloading and port handling charges of around 200 Rs/MT of Rock Phosphate has
been considered.
3.6.3

Sulphuric Acid
Sulphuric Acid for the proposed project has been considered to be procured from
Hindustan Zinc Limited (HZL), Udaipur and shall be transported through road
transport. Base price of 3000 Rs/MT of sulphuric acid has been considered for the
proposed project.

3.6.4

Power
Power supply for the proposed project has been considered from State electricity
Board. In addition to this, power is considered to be supplied to plant through DG set
in case of emergency.

3.6.5

Fuel Oil
Fuel Oil for the proposed project has been considered to be transported from near
by oil supplier through rail/road transport.

3.6.6

Water
The total requirement of process water for the project is envisaged to be around
9.67 m3/hr. As Chittorgarh Block has been declared as dark zone, make-up water
requirements of the project and facilities will be met from surface/ground water
from neighbouring areas, brought to the site in tankers.

3.6.7

Bags
Granulated SSP will be sold in 50 kg bags. The provision has been made for the use
of polyethylene bags. The delivered price of bag & thread has been considered as rs.
13.30/bag

3.6.8

Finished Products
The proposed facilities will produce 800 TPD (240,000 TPA) granulated single super
phosphate. Finished granulated SSP will be transported up to Chanderia/
Chittorgarh railway station by road route, and from there to the destinations by rail
route.

3.7
3.7.1

Resource Optimization
Energy Conservation
The granulation plant will be designed to achieve maximum utilization of heat
generated in the Hot Air Generator for drying of granulated material.
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3.7.2

Water Conservation
The plant will be operated on zero discharge of waste water. Blow down (waste
water containing approx. 15% H2SiF6) from the scrubbing system in the SSP plant
will be recycled quantitatively to the mixer in SSP plant, which would also reduce
consumption of Sulphuric acid in the acidulation process.

3.7.3

Waste Minimization
Precipitated silica from the scrubbing system, after centrifuge and atmospheric
drying, will be used as filler to the product.

3.8
3.8.1

Water and Electricity


Water

Source:
The initial feasibility of the projectwas based on the assumption that fresh water
requirement of the project during construction and operation phases will be met from
ground water, drawn through bore wells. However, as Chittorgarh Block has been
declared as dark zone, make-up water requirements of the project and facilities will be
met from surface/ground water from neighbouring areas, brought to the site in tankers.
Construction phase requirement:
Average water requirement during construction phase is estimated as 20 KLD,
comprising 17 KLD for construction and 3 KLD for domestic usage.
Operation phase requirement:
The one time water requirement during operation of the facilities for the manufacturing
of proposed product will be approximately 262 KLD. However, under normal operation,
the total water demand is approximately 232 KLD. Water balance for normal operation
of the facilities is presented in Table-3.3.

Table 3-3 : Water consumption during normal operation


Water requirement
Fresh water to SSP plant Mixer, excluding recycled wastewater
from of blow-down from scrubber unit
Make-up water to scrubbing unit
Process water to granulation drum
Domestic usage
Dust suppression
Green belt
Total Water requirement

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Quantity (KLD)
98
35
80
10
2
7
232

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3.8.2

Electric Power
The annual power requirement of the plant and facilities, including auxiliaries,
materials, handling, utilities and lighting load, has been estimated as 6000 MWh,
which is equivalent to 20 MWh/day or 0.83 MWh/h. Power supply for the proposed
project has been considered from State electricity Board.
To meet the emergency power requirements during power cuts, a DG sets of 125
KVA capacity will be installed. The SSP plant scrubber unit will be interlocked with
alternative power, i.e. DG set, to prevent release to toxic gases to atmosphere in case
of power failure.

3.9
3.9.1

Generation and Management of Wastes


Solid & hazardous wastes
Silica from Scrubber: The silica precipitated in the scrubber unit of SSP plant
(reaction between SiF4 and water) will be settled and separated in a sump, washed,
and added to the granulation drum as filler in the product.
Spent oil: Used oil, decanted from pumps, compressors and other equipment, will
be stored in metallic containers and disposed through CPCB/RSPCB authorized
recyclers.
Used Containers: Used containers will be stored and disposed through
CPCB/RSPCB authorized recyclers.

3.9.2

Liquid effluents
The plants will be operated on zero effluent basis. Blow-down from the scrubber
unit in SSP plant, approx. 30 KLD, containing approx. 15% H2SiF6, will be recycled
quantitatively to the Mixer for conservation of water and acid.
Sanitary waste water, approx. 8 KLD, will be treated in septic tanks, followed by
disposal in soak pits within premises.

3.9.3

Gaseous emissions
Exact details of emissions from the different sources will be available at detailed
engineering stage. However, the emission details, based on experience with other
similar plants, are presented below.
ROCK PHOSPHATE GRINDING :
Ground mass from the grinding mill will be drawn pneumatically with air and the
ground mass collected in a cyclone separator. Major portion of the air exiting the
cyclone will be circulated to the grinding mill, and a fraction will be passed through
pulse jet bag filter for collection of fine dust. Effluent air from the bag filter will be
discharged into the atmosphere through a stack. The expected details of emissions
are as follows:
Volumetric flow rate

: 24,000 Nm3/hr

Stack height

: 30 metres above GL
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Particulate matter concentration : 125 mg/Nm3 max.
Particulate matter emission

: 3.0 kg/hr

GASES FROM MIXER & DEN IN SSP PLANT :


Fluorine bearing gases, particulate matter and water vapour generated in the Mixer
and the Den will be drawn with an ID fan, and passed through the scrubbing system
for control of fluorine bearing gases. The proposed scrubbing unit will consist of a
ventury scrubber, followed by 3-stage cross-flow scrubbers. Fresh water will be
added as make-up water to the system. A portion of the circulating water, approx.
15% H2SiF6 will be drawn from the 1st scrubber and recycled to the Mixer, where it
will react with rock phosphate and reduce fresh water consumption. Tail gas from
the scrubbing system, with fluorine content less than 25 mg/Nm3 will be discharged
into the atmosphere through a stack. Expected details of emission are as follows:
Volumetric flow rate

: 36,000 Nm3/hr

Stack height

: 40 metres above GL

Fluoride concentration

: 25 mg/Nm3 max.

Fluoride emission

: 0.90 kg/hr max.

Particulate matter concentration : 50 mg/Nm3 max.


Particulate matter emission

: 1.80 kg/hr

GRANULATION PLANT EMISSIONS:


Drying and cooling air from Drying and Cooling operations will be passed through
respective cyclones, and discharged through a common stack. Product dust carried
with the air streams will be collected in cyclones and recycled to the process. Flue
gases from the hot air generator, product of HSD combustion, will also be discharged
through the same stack. Details of emissions are as follows:
Volumetric flow rate

: 30,000 Nm3/hr

Stack height

: 30 metres above GL

Particulate matter concentration : 125 mg/Nm3 max.


Particulate matter emission

3.10

: 3.75 kg/hr

Information of EIA Purpose


As per the EIA Notification 2006 of Ministry of Environment & Forests, Government
of India and its amendment, the proposed SSP manufacturing unit has to obtain
prior environmental clearance. The proposed project is covered under Category 'B'
as per the Schedule of EIA Notification and hence requires environmental clearance
from State Level Environmental Impact Assessment Authority (SEIAA) of Rajasthan.
The process for obtaining prior Environmental Clearance for the proposed project as
per EIA Notification-2006 is as follows.

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1. Submission of application (Form I, Pre-feasibility report and proposed Terms of
Reference TOR) to State Environmental Impact Assessment Authority (SEIAA);
2. Scoping and communication of TOR for EIA study by SEIAA;
3. Undertaking EIA study as per TOR, and preparation & submission of draft EIA report
to State Pollution Control Board for conduct of Public Hearing;
4. Conduction of Public Hearing by State Pollution Control Board, and recording of
Public Hearing Proceedings;
5. Revision of EIA report taking the Public Hearing proceedings into account, and
submission of final EIA report to SEIAA;
6. Appraisal by SEIAA;
7. Grant of Prior Environmental Clearance.

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4. Site Analysis
4.1

Connectivity
The site is adjacent to State Highway (SH-9) from Udaipur to Chittorgarh, at a
distance of 3 kms from its junction with NH-79. Chittorgarh and Chanderia Railway
Stations, both with loading and unloading facilities, are located within 9 km distance
from the project site. The nearest airport (with regular flights) is MaharanaPratap
Airport, Udaipur, at approx. 100 km from project site. The project site is at a distance
of 560Kms from Dahej Port, which is the port proposed for import of rock
phosphate.

4.2

Land form, Land use and Land ownership


The plot of land identified for locating the project lies in Pandoli Village of
Chittorgarh District of Rajasthan. The land is rocky, uneven and sloping from central
ridge on the two sides.
The plot of land was under Government ownership, reserved for industrial purpose.
It has been allotted to the project proponent for establishment of SSP plant. Cost of
land fixed by the State Government has already been paid.

4.3

Topography
The topography of the plot is extremely rugged. Elevation of the plot varies from
approx. 423 m to 427 m above MSL. The maximum height is observed along the
central ridge, sloping all along towards the two sides.

4.4

Existing Land use Pattern


As stated earlier, the land belonged to the State Government, and its designated land
use is reserved for industrial purpose.

4.5

Existing Infrastructure
The proposal is for a grass root project, to be developed on a plot of land which was
reserved for industrial use. Thus, no infrastructure exists at the site.

4.6

Soil Classification
There is practically no soil cover over the plot identified for locating the project. The
entire area is covered by spurs of rocks.

4.7

Climate of the area


The climate of area is quite dry and parched. The summer season extends from April
to June and is quite hot. The average temperature in summers falls between 43.8 C
to 23.8 C. The winter season lasts from October to February. Chittorgarh weather in
the winters is pretty cool. The temperature averages around 28.4 C to 11.6 C. The
monsoon season falls during the months of June to August. As far as climatic
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conditions of Chittorgarh, Rajasthan in monsoon are concerned, there is only slight
rainfall that averages around 800mm. The best time to visit Chittorgarh is between
September to March.
The climatological normal data for Chittorgarh Observatory, approximately 8 km
from the site, are summarized in Table-4.1 and 4.2.

Table 4-1 : Climatological Normal Data for Chittorgarh Wind Direction and
Speed
Month
January

II
February I
II
March
I
II
April
I
II
May
I
II
June
I
II
July
I
II
August
I
II
September I
II
October I
II
November I
II
December I
II
Annual
I
II

Percentage no. of days with wind from


N
NE
E
SE
S
SW W
19
21
2
1
3
4
1
20
27
3
1
3
8
6
16
18
1
3
10
6
3
16
24
2
3
6
13
8
10
14
1
4
15
10
4
12
11
3
3
7
18
17
7
7
1
5
24
16
6
10
5
1
1
8
27
24
3
3
2
3
28
37
8
7
3
2
2
12
33
21
2
3
1
2
23
50
12
7
5
2
3
15
39
18
2
2
1
2
26
49
8
3
4
3
3
16
47
15
4
4
0
2
21
39
7
4
6
2
4
17
38
13
7
7
1
3
22
27
4
9
10
3
2
12
29
11
7
7
2
3
19
9
4
11
18
4
2
8
13
8
14
16
2
1
5
4
3
14
27
4
3
4
5
3
19
19
1
0
3
2
2
17
28
3
1
3
4
3
9
10
1
2
17
21
5
11
14
3
2
9
23
12

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NW
1
10
3
17
3
19
3
20
3
16
2
9
1
3
4
6
2
11
2
11
2
7
3
4
2
11

Calm
48
22
40
11
39
10
31
4
13
4
5
2
9
6
19
10
27
13
47
25
53
33
51
37
32
15

Mean wind
speed, kmph
3.9
4.2
4.7
5.4
7.0
9.3
7.8
6.3
4.5
3.2
3.2
3.4
5.2

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Table 4-2 : Climatological Normal data for Chittorgarh Temperature &
Rainfall
Month

January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Annual

4.8

Mean of Air temperature, 0C


Daily
Daily
Highest
max
min
in the
month
24.5
6.7
28.9
26.7
8.6
32.2
33.0
14.3
38.0
38.2
20.4
42.1
40.7
24.6
43.6
38.5
25.3
43.4
32.5
23.6
37.9
30.6
22.5
34.7
32.9
21.2
36.4
33.9
16.8
36.8
29.7
11.6
3.4
25.8
7.5
29.6
32.3
16.9
44.1

Lowest
in the
month
2.2
3.3
8.8
15.1
20.5
21.2
21.0
20.7
18.7
12.0
7.1
3.2
1.9

Rainfall
Monthly
total, mm
4.3
4.2
1.7
3.1
14.3
70.7
227.2
323.8
105.1
19.4
21.2
5.5
800.5

No. of
rainy
days
0.4
0.6
0.3
0.4
1.4
4.6
10.0
12.3
5.2
0.9
1.1
0.3
37.5

Available Social Infrastructure


Chittorgarh city is located within 6 to 10 Kms from the site, in western direction.
Chittorgarh is an old city, and infrastructure available in the city satisfactory.

4.8.1

Houses
Houses are built on either side of the roads in the villages. Some of them are located
near their fields. Most of the houses in the villages are pucca with few a kuchha
houses.

4.8.2

Water supply
Villages mostly rely on hand pumps, wells and pond water. Ground water in the area
is available at a depth60-70 m below ground level. Water collected in the ponds and
drawn from tube wells is also used for irrigation.

4.8.3

Transport and Communication


Transport accessibility is one of the important factors required for the overall
development of the area. All the villages have roads and means of transportation to
the towns are by Bus, auto, two-wheelers, jeeps, etc. All villages in the area are well
connected to SH-9 and NH-79.

4.8.4

Market Facilities
Commercial activities form the backbone of the economy. The study tends to tell the
kind of employment it generates for the people of the area and the kind of
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employment it generates for the people of the area and the kind of services it
provides for the attainment of a better living. Market facilities available at
Chittorgarh cater to the needs of the area, and are adequate.
4.8.5

Health Facility
Health is one of the most important development indicators, which needs to be
studied to know the quality of life in the area. The site and surrounding villages are
well connected to Chittorgarh City and Chanderia. Health care facilities available in
the area include Primary health centers in villages, government and private
hospitals in Chittorgarh City, and Hospitals operated by Hindustan Zinc Limited and
Birla Cement Works.

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5. Planning Brief
5.1

Planning Concept
The demand for the fertilizer due to the expanding agricultural production,
improvement in technology and growing awareness among farmers has led to the
increased consumption of agrochemicals. Fertilizers are key ingredients in ensuring
the food security of the country, as it increases the production and productivity of
the soil. The demand for domestic food grain production has been increase and will
continue to increase with population growth. The target of higher productivity can
be achieved through improved farming practice, expansion of irrigation, better seeds
and extensive and balanced use of fertilizers. A definite growth in the fertilizer
industry in India is required. In view of this and seeing bright future of fertilizers
industry in country the management of M/s FCI Aravali Gypsum and Minerals
India Limited (a Govt. of India Enterprise) proposes to set up a 800 MT/day
granulated SSP plant.

5.2

Population Projection
Unskilled and semi-skilled work force during construction and operational phases
will be drawn from local population. Skilled work force during operation and
construction phases will stay at Chittorgarh, and commute to the site. Thus, the
increase in population due to the proposed project is not envisaged.

5.3

Land Use Planning


FAGMIL has acquired 11.01 hectares of industrial land at Pandoli village on
Chittorgarh Kapasan State Highway in Chittorgarh district of Rajasthan. As no
construction is allowed upto 75 meters distance from National Highway, around
1.14 hectares of acquired land cannot be used for factory purpose. Moreover, high
tension wires of 11 KV are passing through the identified land and hence the area of
around 1.31 hectares under these wires has not been considered for any
construction purpose. In view of above, an area of around 2.45 hectares out of 11.01
hectares has been left out and the balance area of around 8.56 hectares has been
considered for the proposed SSP project.
Lay out map of the project area, demonstrating plants and facilities, has been
presented in the lay out plan figure.

5.4
5.4.1

Infrastructure Demand
Physical Demand
Land: Total area of land allotted for the project is 11.01 hectares. It is government
land, reserved for industrial purpose. The plot area is adequate for plants, utilities,
amenities, green belt, truck parking, etc., with open areas for natural vegetation,
lawns and gardens.
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Water: Daily water requirement during normal; operation of the plants has been
estimated as 232 KL. As Chittorgarh Block has been declared as dark zone, make-up
water requirements of the project and facilities will be met from surface/ground
water from neighbouring areas, brought to the site in tankers.
Energy: Total power requirement approximately 900 KW, which will be met from
state electric supply (AVVNL) grid. An electric sub-station is located adjacent to site,
across the state Highway, and transmission lines pass through northern part of the
plot.
Construction material: Construction materials include structural steel, corrugated
sheets, bricks; sand, cement, stone chips, etc. are available in the area and will be
sourced from Chittorgarh.
Plant machinery: The list of plant machinery has been provided separately.
5.4.2

Social Demand
On the basis of the preliminary site visit, the infrastructure demand in the villages
assessed on the basis of need and priority. Health infrastructure of the study area
requires improvement. People from the villages visit Hijli Gramin Hospital (10km)
and Kharagpur Government Hospital (11km) which is well connected through NH60. Lack of hospitals & ambulances/ facilities needs improvement. Few village
schools do not have proper fans and cooling facilities. The assessment will be
identified in the socio economic survey, after grant of TOR and will be submitted at
the time final presentation regarding EC.

5.5

Amenities/ Facilities
The project site office, small workshop, first aid room, stack yard & rest shelter will
be established. Clean drinking water will be provided. The toilets will be provided
separately for males and females.

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6. Proposed Infrastructure
6.1
6.1.1

Industrial Area
Project Facilities
The proposed Fertilizer Project would consist of SSP Plant, Granulation unit, and
other utility facilities. For smooth and reliable operation of the plant, the broad
provision of process plant and facilities considered in the complex has been
presented in Table-6.1.
Table 6-1: Main plants, off-site & Utility facilities considered in the proposed
project
Sl. No
1.0
1.1
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
3.0
3.1
3.2
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
7.1

7.2
7.3
6.1.2

Description
Main Plant
SSP Plant along with Granulation unit
Product Storage, Handling & Bagging
SSP Curing Storage (21 days)
GSSP Bagged Product Storage (30 days)
Empty Bagged storage (1 month)
Bagging Unit (GSSP)
Raw Material Storage & Handling
Rock Phosphate Storage (1 month)
Sulphuric Acid Storage
Water Storage (Overhead Tank)
Safety equipments as per Statutory and
emergency requirements
Effluent Treatment Plant
Auxiliary Facilities
Work shop, Ware house, Technical
Laboratory, Road weigh Bridge,
Telephone Exchange, Vehicle parking,
Community Facility etc.,
Truck Parking Area
Administrative Building

Facilities Considered
1800 MTPD
17000 MT
24000 MT
0.5 Million
(1+1) slat of 60 TPH each
14000 MT
22000 MT
100 m3

Auxiliary & General Welfare Facilities


The following facilities have been considered under this head.

Technical Laboratory
Workshop
Warehouse
Administrative Building
Road Weigh Bridges
Truck and car parking
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6.2

Community centre
Technical Office, Canteen, Medical Room etc.

Residential Area
As mentioned earlier, semi-skilled and skilled work force required during
construction and operation phase of the project will be drawn from nearby villages,
who commute from their own homes. Skilled work force and administrative/
managerial personnel will commute from Chittorgarh. Thus, residential colony is not
proposed.

6.3

Green Belt
Increasing vegetation in the form of greenbelt is one of the preferred methods to
mitigate air pollution. Plants serve as a sink for pollutants, act as barrier to break up
the wind speed as well allow the dust and other particulates to settle out there. It
also helps to reduce the noise level to some extent. In view of this, the project
proposal includes development of green belt. The green belt would occupy
approximately 30% of the total available area within premises. Additionally,
adequate open area has been left for natural vegetation, lawns and gardens.

6.4

Social Infrastructure
The project proponents propose to invest approximately 5% of the total project cost
under corporate social responsibility scheme. The schemes to be under the CSR will
be finalized after socio-economic survey of the area, to be undertaken during the EIA
study.

6.5

Connectivity
The site is adjacent to SH-9, which is well connected to Chittorgarh and Chanderia
railway stations. It meets NH-79 at a distance of 3 kms from the site, and is well
connected to other parts of India.

6.6

Drinking Water Management


An overhead tank has been provided for storage of water. For drinking water, water
dispensers will be installed at important locations.

6.7

Sewerage System
Sanitary wastewater from toilets and wash rooms will be treated in septic tanks,
followed by disposal in soak pits.

6.8

Industrial Waste Management


Industrial waste management, including solid, liquid and gaseous wastes generated
in the project, has been discussed under Section 3.9. The process steps have been
designed in such a way that no liquid effluent becomes waste. Thus the proposed
plant will be operated on Zero Discharge System.
ABSORPTION AND SCRUBBING SYSTEM FOR SSP PLANT:
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In the SSP manufacture during mixing of rock phosphate and Sulphuric acid, of gases
such as SiF4 and HF are released. The SSP plant will be provided with venturi
scrubber followed by a three Stage Scrubbing system. The gases (SiF4 and HF) are
highly soluble in water and thus water will be used in the scrubbing system for the
absorption of these gases.
Venturi Scrubber: The venturi scrubber is designed to effectively use the energy
from the inlet gas stream to atomize the liquid being used to scrub the gas stream. A
venturi scrubber comprises of three sections: a converging section, a throat section,
and a diverging section. The inlet gas stream will enter the converging section and,
as the area decreases, gas velocity will increase (in accordance with the Bernoulli
equation). Water will be introduced either at the throat or at the entrance to the
converging section. The inlet gas, forced to move at extremely high velocities in the
small throat section, will shear water from the walls, producing an enormous
number of very tiny droplets. Particle and gas removal will occur in the throat
section as the inlet gas stream mixes with the fog of tiny liquid droplets. The inlet
stream will exit through the diverging section, where it is forced to slow down. The
total absorption through the Venturi scrubber will be approx. 90 %.
Three Stage Scrubbers: The gases after passing through ventury system are
allowed to undergo further absorption in a series of cross-flow scrubbers. Each stage
of independent scrubber will be installed with adequate irrigation of dilute fluo
silicic acid from its respective pumping tanks. The third and last stage the
concentration of fluo silicic acid is negligible as we will be continuously added fresh
water to the system so as to ensure maximum abortion of fluorine gases. The
efficiency of each scrubber is 98%. They are all mild steel rubber lined scrubbers. In
each stage of scrubber the mist particles get separated in the tall chambers hence at
every stage mist free gases will be entering to achieve maximum absorption
efficiency.
The overall absorption due to the multi stage scrubbing system will about 99.65 %.
The negligible amount of residual gas will be discharged through a stack of 40 m
height.

6.9

Solid Waste Management


Solid waste management has been discussed under sub-section 3.9.1.

6.10

Power Requirement & Supply / Source


Electric power requirements of the different plants and facilities have been
estimated as 900 KW, which will be sourced from AVVNL grid. To meet emergency
power requirements, a DG Set of 125 KW capacity is proposed.

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7. Rehabilitation and Resettlement Plan
No dwelling unit exists on the proposed project area, and displacementof population
is not involved. Prior to its acquisition, the plot was government land, reserved for
industrial use. Therefore, rehabilitation or resettlement ofland oustees or land losers
is not required.

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8. Project schedule and cost estimate


8.1

Project Schedule

8.1.1 Pre-Project Activities


The pre-project activities to be completed before the physical execution of the
project are briefly enumerated below:
i.

Clearance and approval of the project, by the board of the company.

ii.

Firming up of arrangement for supply of raw materials from concerned


suppliers/agency.

iii.

Firming up of arrangement for supply of power & water, if required, from


concerned agency.

iv.

Selection of Prime Engineering Consultant (PEC).

v.

Preparation of Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) study and clearance


by State and Central Pollution Control Boards.

vi.

Obtaining financial clearance and commitment from financial institutions


and creditors for financial closure of the project.

vii.

Mobilization of resources for plant construction.

viii.

Organization of Owners Project Management team.

ix.

Drawing up of a project implementation plan on the basis of a network of


activities.

All the activities mentioned above should be completed before the zero date of the
project i.e. before the commencement of the active phase of the project. The
minimum 6 months time will be required to complete the pre-project activities after
obtaining clearance from Government and the board of the company for execution of
the project.
8.1.2

Project Implementation Period


All the project execution related activities, as mentioned earlier, are interlinked and
have impact on the final outcome. The execution of the relevant project activities has
to be planned and controlled in such a way that the goals of the project are achieved
in the set time frame. The basic design and detailed engineering shall be completed
by 3 to 4 months from zero date. Mostly all the fabricated items and vendor items
shall be procured locally within 10-12 months. The critical items shall be procured
from the reputed vendors. The plant can be erected and commissioned within 18
months from zero date. It is assumed that before commissioning, FAGMIL shall
ensure the availability of required utilities at the battery limit of proposed plant.

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8.2

Project Capital cost


The Project Capital Cost of proposed Granulated SSP project at Chittorgarh
(Rajasthan) has been estimated at about Rs. 70.95 Crores. Summarized version of
the project capital cost is given in Table-8.1.

Table 8-1 : Estimated Project Capital Cost (Rs. Lakhs)


Sl. No.
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0
10.0
11.0

8.3

Particulars
Land & Land Development
Civil Works
Plant and Machinery incl. Spares
Incidental Expenses
Engineering Fees & Services
Project Management Charges
Erection Charges
Margin on Working Capital
Financing Charges
Startup Expenses
Contingency
Total Project Capital Cost

Estimated Cost
585
1441
1857
307
243
397
130
1646
208
50
231
7095

Cost of Production
The capacity of proposed granulated SSP project has been considered as 800 MTPD
for 300 stream days. The cost of production of GSSP has been worked out assuming
operation at rated capacity. The cost of production of GSSP has been worked out as
Rs. 8185/MT at rated production (100%) levels.
For calculation of the cost of production, the prices of raw material, utilities and
packing material considered has been presented in Table-8.2.

Table 8-2 : Input Prices Considered


Sl.No.
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0

Item
Rock Phosphate
Sulphuric Acid
Fuel Oil
Power
Water
Bags & Threads

Unit
MT
MT
MT
MWh
100m3
100 Nos

Unit Price (Rs.)


9076
3559
36780
5000
300
1330

The following expenses have also been considered for computing the cost of
production:

The cost for other operating supplies like consumables etc. have been
considered as Rs 20/MT of the product.

Annual expenditure towards salary and wages has been considered at an


average rate of about Rs. 6.0 Lakh per man-year. In addition to this, overhead
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charges @ 50% of salary and wages has also been considered. A lump sum cost
has been included for outsourcing various services.

The bagging and handling operations of GSSP are carried out through contract
labour. Cost of bagging and handling has been considered @ Rs. 40/MT of the
product.

The annual expenses towards repair and maintenance have been estimated at
1% of total Project Capital Cost.

The annual costs for insurance and local taxes have been taken @ 1% of the
project capital cost.

Depreciation for the cost of production has been taken @ 5.28% of the
depreciable capital on straight-line method.

Interest on long term (LT) & short term (ST) has been taken at the rate of 11.5%
per annum.

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9. Analysis of proposal (Final recommendation)


The proposed project is for production of 800 TPD granulated SSP fertilizer.
Presently, a wide gap exists between demand and supply of phosphatic fertilizer,
which is a vital input for increasing agricultural outputs, including food grains.
The project will be located on a plot of land under government ownership, reserved
for industrial purpose.
The proposed project will provide indigenous SSP the farmers, and will shorten the
demand supply gap of the fertilizer.
The socio economic scenario in the region will change with positive impact on the
regional socio economic pattern.
The workforce required during the construction phase will be approx. 100
persons.Since most of the construction activities like fencing, road construction, and
common facilities are labor intensive, all the unskilled and semiskilled laborers will
be largely available from the nearby villages. Hence, short-term positive impacts on
socio-economic conditions of the area are anticipated during the construction phase.
After commissioning the proposed project will generate direct employment for
approx. 76 persons, out of which approx. 40 will be on contract basis. Indirect
employment of about 100 persons will be generated in raw material and final
products transportation, and contractual manpower for non-critical activities at the
plant (canteen, gardening, housekeeping etc.).
The industrial growth of the region will help in infrastructure development in the
area. It will also generate income for government through taxes. Overall the project
will have positive impacts on socio-economic environment.

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