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Journal of Educational Policy and

Entrepreneurial Research (JEPER) www.iiste.org


Vol.1, N0.2, October 2014. Pp 238-250

Assessment of Teachers and Principals Opinion on Causes of Low


Enrollment of Students in Technical Colleges: A Delta State Study

Igberadja, Serumu
Department of Technical and Business Education, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria
zerumuhjack@yahoo.co.uk

Abstract
The purpose of this study is to ascertain the causes of low enrollments in Delta State technical colleges. The
population of the study is 292 comprising of 19 principals and 280 teachers from the six government technical
colleges in Delta State. Purposive sampling technique was used to select all the 12 principals and random
sampling technique was used to select 84 teachers. The instrument for data collection was questionnaire. The
questionnaire was content and faced validated by the research supervisor. Pearson product moment correlation
technique was used to ascertain the reliability of the instrument which yields 0.73. The researcher administered
the questionnaire on the principals and teachers personally in the selected technical colleges. Mean and
standard deviation was used to analyze the research questions while Z-test was used to test the hypotheses at
0.05 level of significance. The study revealed among others that lack of qualified technical teachers, poor
funding of the state technical colleges, location of the technical colleges, dilapidated infrastructural facilities,
poor societal attitude towards technical education, and parents perception that technical education is for dull
and unintelligent students. It was concluded that the factors responsible for low enrolment of students in Delta
State technical colleges are governmental factors, school factors, societal factors and parental factors. Hence it
was recommended among others that Government should revitalize technical vocational education institutions
in Delta State.

Keyword: Technical College, Education, Vocational Education, technical Education

Introduction
Education is a general term which refers to an exercise that engages every one. It is a process of enabling
individuals to live as useful and acceptable members of a society (Aigbepue, 2011). Also, Igbinedion and
Ojeaga (2012) see Education as a veritable means of progress for nations and individuals. Similarly,
Okebukola (2012) opined that Education is a process of updating the knowledge and skills of the individual
that will be useful to himself or herself and to the community. Education help individuals to gain ideas,
knowledge and experience that will make them useful to themselves and the society. Consequently, Technical
and Vocational Education (TVE) is used as a comprehensive term referring to those aspects of the educational
process involving in addition to general education, the study of technologies, related sciences, and the
acquisition of practical skills, attitudes understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in various sectors
of economic and social life (UNESCO & ILO, 2002). This type of education can take place in the formal and

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Vol.1, N0.2, October 2014. Pp 238-250
informal setting. Example of the formal type of technical and vocational education is the type of educational
training received in the technical colleges, polytechnics, monotechnics, and special training institutions like
Petroleum Training Institute, Federal University of Technology, and Federal University of Agriculture etc.
Technical colleges in Nigeria are faced with various challenges which have affected technical education
programs in the various part of the country. According to Ibeneme (2007), Nigeria does not seem to accord
technical and vocational education (TVE) the attention it deserves. In same vein, Aina (2006) as cited by
Okeke (2005) opined that since the introduction of technical and vocational education in Nigeria educational
system some years ago, enrollment in technical and vocational education programmes has remained low. More
so, Yakubu (2006) reported that the total enrolment figure into technical and vocational education programes
in Nigeria as at year 2006 was less than three percent (3%). He further stated that, this figure; in comparism
with countries target about fifty percent (50%) enrolments in technical and vocational education. Additionally,
Ozioma (2011) posited that Federal Government wants technical education to occupy a prominent position in
our schools; Nigerian schools pay little or no attention to technical education, teachers and students seem not
to understand what it is all about and consequently develop some contempt and aversion for technical courses
and subjects, teachers, and students now makes technical education to be unhealthy.
However, many of the occupation and trades in technical education are regarded as ignoble and unbecoming,
an average Nigerian parents does not want his son or daughter to earn a living as a full time farmer, plumber,
brick/block layer, carpenter and auto- motor mechanic. For many Nigerians, these trades are for the poor and
underprivileged (Ozioma, 2011). Various scholars such as Igbinedion and Ojeaga (2012); Amoor (n.d);
Ediagbanya, Agbaje and Suberu (2012) have identified same major factors responsible for low enrolment of
students in technical and vocational education to include among others, low societal estimation of technical
and vocational education as education for lowest class people, education for the last result, for people of, low
intelligent quotient, low achievers and low status occupation as well as lack of career awareness.

Causes of Low Enrolment of Students in technical Colleges in Nigeria


According to NBTE (2011), the third edition of the National Policy on Education prescribed the following
transition rates at the end of basic education (i.e. post junior secondary education).
(a)
The senior secondary school 60%.
(b)

The technical colleges 20%

(c)

The vocational training centres 10%

(d)

The apprenticeship scheme 10%

However, at the current basic education annual turnout rate of about 4million expected enrolments in technical
colleges will be 800,000 (20%). Consequently, the total enrolment in technical colleges in 2009/2010 session
was 74, 299 made up of 63, 528 (85. 5%) male and 10, 771 (14. 5%) female students. This compares
unfavorably with the expected 800,000 which shows clearly that technical colleges are only able to enrol
barely about 9.3% of their target. The causes of these poor enrolments of students in the technical colleges
according to Igbinedion and Ojeaga (2012) are poor societal perception, poor entry level, lack of recognition
and discrimination against graduates of technical vocational education (TVE). Moreso, Amoor (n.d) reported
that some of the causes include government lukewarm attitude towards technical and vocational education
(TVE), the perception of the society towards technical and vocational education, and lack of candidates
interest. In same vein, Ediagbnya, Agbaje and Suberu (2012) posited that the inadequacies of

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Journal of Educational Policy and


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Vol.1, N0.2, October 2014. Pp 238-250
facilities/infrastructural materials, qualified teachers and career counsellors have equally not helped out in
boosting enrolment into technical and vocational programmes.
Furthermore, researches by Aina (2006), Amaewhule (2000), Hubert (2006), Okwori (2006), Olaitan (1992),
Oranu (2003) and Yakubu (2006) identified the major factors responsible for low enrolment of students in
technical and vocational education to include among others; low societal estimation of technical and vocational
education as education for lowest class people education for last resort, for people of low intelligent quotient
(IQ), low achievers and low status occupation as well as lack of career awareness in technical and vocational
education; lack of interest in technical vocational subjects (Ozioma, 2011). According to Osuala (1992) in
Ozioma (2011) at the heart of our society and economic problem it is a national attitude that implies that
vocational and technical subjects are designed for somebody elses children and is meant primarily for the
children of the poor. This same attitude is shared by students. Thus, it makes the students lack interest in the
study of vocational subjects.
Consequently, the findings from my preliminary survey on the enrolment of students in Delta State technical
colleges revealed that there is low enrolment in the various technical colleges. It is against this backdrop that
this present study seeks to ascertain the causes of low enrolment of students in Delta State technical colleges.

Statement of the Problem


The state of enrolment in Delta State Technical Colleges needs attention. Despite successive governments
efforts directed at improving Technical Educational levels to make technical Education attractive and sellable.
The enrolment of students in technical colleges in the six technical colleges is still very poor when compared
to enrolment in general education programmes (Aina, 2006; Amaewhule, 2000; Hubert, 2006; Okwori, 2006;
Olaitan, 1992; Oranu , 2003; & Yakubu,2006). Therefore, this study is designed to examine the causes of low
enrolment of students in Delta State technical colleges.

Purpose of the Study


The purpose of the study is to ascertain the causes of low enrolments in Delta State Technical Colleges.
Specifically the study seeks to ascertain the following;
i.
Government factor responsible for low enrolment in Delta State technical colleges as perceived by
principals and teachers.
ii.

School factors responsible for low enrolment of students in Delta State technical colleges as perceived
by principals and teachers.

iii.

Societal factors responsible for low enrolment in Delta State technical colleges as perceived by
principals and teachers.

iv.

Parental factors responsible for low enrolment in Delta State technical colleges as perceived by
principals and teachers.

Significance of the Study


The findings of this study will be significant to Delta State Ministry of Education, School administrators,
teachers, parents, students, future researchers and the general public. However, the findings of the study will
exposed the various factors responsible for low enrolment in Delta State technical colleges which will enable
government and other stakeholders to tackle the issue of low enrolment in the various technical colleges.

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Scope of the Study


This Study was delimited in locality to Delta State. The study will cover the six (6) technical colleges in the
state. Moreso, the scope of the study in terms of the observational units include all the principals and teachers
in the six (6) technical colleges in Delta State.

Research Questions
i.
What government factors are responsible for low enrollment of students in Delta State technical
colleges?
ii.
What school factors are responsible for low enrollment of students in Delta State technical colleges?
iii.
What societal factors are responsible for low enrollment of students in Delta State technical colleges?
iv.
What parental factors are responsible for low enrollment of students in Delta State technical colleges?

Hypotheses
The following Null Hypotheses will be tested for the study;
H01:
There is no significant difference in the mean response of principals and teachers on government
factors responsible for low enrollment of students in Delta State technical colleges.
H02:
There is no significant difference in the mean response of principals and teachers on government
factors responsible for low enrollment of students in Delta State technical colleges.
H03:
There is no significant difference in the mean response of principals and teachers on societal factors
responsible for low enrollment of students in Delta State technical colleges.
H04:
There is no significant difference in the mean response of principals and teachers on parental factors
responsible for low enrollment of students in Delta State technical colleges.

Methodology
The survey research design was used in this study. According to Babbie (1990), survey research provides a
quantitative or numeric description of trends, attitudes, or portion of a population by studying a sample of that
population. Colins (2007) posited that survey research design includes selecting a representative and unbiased
sample of subjects drawn from the group under study.The area of the study is Delta State. Delta State was
carved out of formal Bendel State on August 27th 1991 (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2007 cited in Wikipedia,
n.d). The population of the study is made up of 19 principals including vice principals and 280 teachers in the
six technical colleges in Delta state. The table below shows the population of the study (Field work, 2013).
The random sampling technique was used to select 12 principals and 84 teachers from the six (6) technical
colleges. A Likert five point scale questionnaire titled Questionnaire on Factors Responsible for Low
Enrollment of Students in Delta State Technical Colleges with four sections (Section A-D) Section A is on
government factors, Section B is on school factors, Section C is on Societal factors and Section D is on
parental factors. Section A, B, C and D has 7, 8, 8 and 7 items respectively making up a total of 30 items in the
questionnaire was used for data collection.

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The questionnaire was faced validated by 3 expert from Department of Technical and Business Education,
Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria and possible corrections were made as directed by the expert.The
questionnaires were administered to twenty (20) year one students of the Department of Technical and
Business and Education (Technical Education Unit) who are not part of the sample under study. The Pearson
Product Moment correlation was used to ascertain the reliability which yields 0.73. The researcher went round
the six (6) Technical Colleges to administer the questionnaires to the principals and the teachers. Also he
collected the questionnaires on the spot which yield a hundred percent return rate. The mean and standard
deviation was used to analyze the research questions. Furthermore, the hypotheses were tested using the Z-test
statistics at 0.05 level of significance. According to Nworgu (2006) the Z-test is usually adopted in testing
hypothesis about the difference between the sample size that is large. Generally, a sample is considered to be
large if its size is equal to or greater than 30.

Results
The results are presented based on order of the research questions and hypothesis.
Research Question 1: What government factor is responsible for the low enrolment of students in Delta State
Technical Colleges?
Table 1: Shows the Perception of Principals and Teachers on Government Factors Responsible for Low
Enrolment of Students in Delta State Technical Colleges.
S/NITEM STATEMENT
PRINCIPALS
Government Factors
Mean
S.D
1. Poor
provision
of4.42
0.79
infrastructural facilities such
as
library,
classrooms
blocks,
workshops,
laboratories and recreational
facilities.
2. Poor
provision
of4.75
0.45
consumable materials such
as wood nails wires, rods,
and glues for students
practical.
3. Poor provision of qualified4.83
0.39
technical teachers.
4. Poor funding of the state4.67
0.49
technical colleges.
5. Poor governmental policy4.33
0.78
on technical education
6. Inadequate numbers of4.83
0.39
technical colleges in the
state.
7. Poor retraining scheme for4.92
0.29
technical teachers
Grand Mean and S.D
4.68
0.51

Remark
Agree

TEACHERS
Mean
S.D
4.30
1.12

Remark
Agree

Agree

4.46

1.05

Agree

Agree

4.27

1.21

Agree

Agree

4.32

1.16

Agree

Agree

4.23

1.17

Agree

Agree

4.36

1.03

Agree

Agree

4.40

1.09

Agree

4.33

1.12

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Table 1 under governmental factors, the principals and teachers agreed with item statement 1-7. The mean and
standard deviation as perceived by principals are 4.42: 0.79, 4.75: 0.45, 4.83: 0.39, 4.67: 0.49, 4.33: 0.78, 4.83:
0.39, and 4.92: 0.29 while that of the teachers are 4.30: 1.12, 4.46: 1.05, 4.27: 1.21, 4.32: 1.16, 4.23: 1.17,
4.36: 1.03, and 4.40: 1.09 respectively for item statement 1-7.
Research Question 2: What school factor is responsible for low enrolment of students in Delta State technical
colleges?
Table 2: Shows the Perception of Principal and Teachers on School Factors Responsible for Low Enrollment
of Students in Delta State Technical Colleges.
S/NITEM STATEMENT
PRINCIPALS
School Factors
Mean
S.D
8. Poor
public
relations4.67
0.49
practice
by
technical
teachers and instructors.
9. Poor teaching methods4.08
0.29
employed by technical
teachers and instructors
10. Location of the technical4.17
0.39
colleges.
11. Dilapidated infrastructural4.50
0.52
facilities in the technical
colleges.
12. Poorly equipped libraries4.58
0.52
workshops
and
laboratories.
13. Poor
provision
of4.75
0.45
instructional
materials
such as textbooks.
14. Teachers
nonchalant4.58
0.52
attitude to upgrade their
skills.
15. Un
conducive
school4.42
0.52
environment
Grand Mean and S.D
4.47
0.46

Remark
Agree

TEACHERS
Mean
S.D
4.26
1.01

Remark
Agree

Agree

4.51

1.04

Agree

Agree

4.31

1.33

Agree

Agree

4.29

1.28

Agree

Agree

4.35

1.08

Agree

Agree

4.17

1.32

Agree

Agree

4.50

0.99

Agree

Agree

4.30

1.15

Agree

4.34

1.15

Table 2 under school factors, the principals and teachers agreed with item statement 8-15. The mean and
standard deviation as perceived by principals are 4.67: 0.49, 4.08: 0.29, 4.17: 0.39, 4.50: 0.52, 4.58: 0.52, 4.75:
0.45, 4.58: 0.52, and 4.42: 0.52 while that of the teachers are 4.26: 1.01, 4.51: 1.04, 4.31: 1.33, 4.29: 1.28,
4.35: 1.08, 4.17: 1.32, 4.50:0.99 and 4.30: 1.15 respectively for item statement 8-15.

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Research Question 3:
technical colleges?

What societal factor is responsible for low enrollment of students in Delta state

Table 3: Shows the Perception of Principal and Teachers on Societal Factors Responsible for Low Enrollment
of Students in Delta State Technical Colleges.
S/NITEM STATEMENT
PRINCIPALS
TEACHERS
Societal Factors
Mean
S.D
Remark
Mean
S.D
Remark
16. Discrimination of technical4.33
0.49
Agree
4.29
1.04
Agree
college graduates
17. Poor
societal
attitude4.17
0.39
Agree
4.50
1.16
Agree
towards technical education.
18. Societal perception that4.25
0.45
Agree
4.40
1.25
Agree
technical education is for all
and unintelligent students.
19. Societal perception that4.33
0.65
Agree
4.29
1.28
Agree
technical education is for the
less privilege in the society.
20 poor societal recognition of4.08
0.29
Agree
4.37
1.12
Agree
technical education
21 Member of the society4.50
0.67
Agree
4.18
1.34
Agree
awareness in the objective
and prospects of technical
education.
22. Elitism
4.08
0.67
Agree
4.27
1.19
Agree
23. Inferior status accorded to4.92
0.29
Agree
4.15
1.35
Agree
technical education.
Grand Mean and S.D
4.33
0.49
4.31
1.22
Table 3 under societal factors, the principals and teachers agreed with item statement 16-23. The mean and
standard deviation as perceived by principals are 4.33: 0.49, 4.17: 0.39, 4.25: 0.45, 4.33: 0.65, 4.08: 0.29, 4.50:
0.67, 4.08: 0.67, and 4.92: 0.29 while that of the teachers are 4.29: 1.04, 4.50: 1.16, 4.40: 1.25, 4.29: 1.28,
4.37: 1.12, 4.18: 1.34, 4.27:1.19 and 4.15: 1.35 respectively for item statement 16-23.
Research Question 4: What parental factor is responsible for low enrolment of students in Delta State
technical colleges?
Table 4: Shows the Perception of Principal and Teachers on Societal Factors Responsible for Low Enrolment
of Students in Delta State technical Colleges
S/N
ITEM STATEMENT PRINCIPALS
TEACHERS
Parental Factors
Mean
S.D
Remark
Mean
S.D
Remark
24.
Poverty
4.58
0.67
Agree
4.48
1.06
Agree
25.
Parents believe that4.00
0.74
Agree
4.42
1.15
Agree
technical education is for
dull and unintelligent

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26.

27.

28.

29.
30.

students.
Parents cannot afford4.08
education
cost
of
technical education due
to the high cost of
equipments, materials,
and hand tools for
practical.
Parents
want
their4.33
children to read courses
that have better prospect
and recognition.
Parents believe that4.67
technical education is for
the less privilege of the
society.
Socio-economic status of4.67
parents.
Parents believe that4.33
technical education is for
handicapped.
Grand Mean and S.D 4.38

0.79

Agree

4.48

1.14

Agree

0.49

Agree

4.13

1.26

Agree

0.65

Agree

4.39

1.16

Agree

0.78

Agree

4.10

1.31

Agree

0.98

Agree

4.18

1.16

Agree

4.31

1.18

0.73

Table 4 under parental factors, the principals and teachers agreed with item statement 24-30. The mean and
standard deviation as perceived by principals are 4.58: 0.67, 4.00: 0.74, 4.08: 0.79, 4.33: 0.49, 4.67: 0.65, 4.67:
0.78, and 4.33: 0.98 while that of the teachers are 4.48: 1.06, 4.42: 1.15, 4.48: 1.14, 4.13: 1.26, 4.39: 1.16,
4.10: 1.31, and 4.18:1.16 respectively for item statement 24-30.
Hypothesis 1: There is no significant difference in the mean response of principals and teachers on
government factors responsible for low enrolment of students in Delta State Technical Colleges.
Table 5: Shows the Test of Significant Difference on the Perception of Principals and teachers on Government
Factors Responsible for Low Enrolment of Students in Delta State Technical Colleges.
Group
Mean
S.D
N
Df Z-Calculated Z - Tabulated Decision
Principals
4.68
0.51
12 94 1.8301
1.96
Accept
Teachers
4.33
1.12
84
N =96, df=94, p<0.05, * Accept since z-calculated is less than z-tabulated.
Hypothesis 2: There is no significant difference in the mean responses of principals and teachers on school
factors responsible for low enrolment of students in Delta State Technical Colleges.
Table 6: Shows the Test of Significant Difference on the Perception of Principals and Teachers on School
Factors Responsible for Low Enrolment of Students in Delta State Technical Colleges.

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Group
Mean
S.D
N
Df Z-Calculated
Z Tabulated Decision
Principals
4.47
0.46
12
94 0.7116
1.96
Accept
Teachers
4.34
1.15
84
N =96, df=94, p<0.05, * Accept since z-calculated is less than z-tabulated.
Hypothesis 3: There is no significant difference in the mean responses of principals and teachers on societal
factors responsible for low enrolment of students in Delta State Technical Colleges.
Table 7: Shows the test of Significant Difference on the Perception of Principal and Teachers on Societal
Factors Responsible for Low Enrolment in Delta State Technical Colleges.
Group
Mean
S.D
N
Df
Z-Calculated Z Tabulated
Principals
4.33
0.49
12 94
0.1062
1.96
Teachers
4.31
1.22
84
N =96, df=94, p<0.05, * Accept since z-calculated is less than z-tabulated.

Decision
Accept

Hypothesis 4: There is no significant difference in the response of principals and teachers on parental factors
responsible for low enrolment of students in Delta State Technical Colleges.
Table 8: Shows the Test of Significant Difference on the Perception of Principals and Teachers on Parental
Factors Responsible for Low Enrolment in Delta State Technical Colleges.
Group
Mean
S.D
N
Df Z-Calculated Z - Tabulated
Principals
4.38
0.73
12
94 0.2835
1.96
Teachers
4.31
1.18
84
N =96, df=94, p<0.05, * Accept since z-calculated is less than z-tabulated.

Decision
Accept

Discussion of Findings
Table 1 revealed that poor provision of infrastructural facilities, consumable materials, qualified technical
teachers; poor funding of the state technical colleges; poor governmental policy on technical education;
inadequate numbers of technical colleges in the state; and poor retraining scheme for technical teachers.These
findings are in agreement with Amoor (n.d) who posited that the causes of low enrolment in technical colleges
are government lukewarm attitude towards technical and vocational education. Moreso, Ediagbamua, Agbaje,
and Suberu (2012) reported that the inadequacies of facilities/instructional materials, qualified teachers and
career counselors have equally not helped out in boosting enrolment into technical colleges.
Table 2, revealed that poor public relations practice by technical college students, teachers and administrators,
poor teaching methods employed by technical teachers and instructors; location of the technical colleges;
dilapidated infrastructural facilities; poorly equipped libraries, workshops and laboratories; teachers
nonchalant attitude to upgrade their skills; and un conducive school environment as school factors responsible
for law enrollment in technical colleges in Delta State. These findings are in agreement with Ediagbamua,
Agbaje, and Seberu (2012) when they reported that the inadequacies of facilities instructional materials and
qualified teachers are responsible for the low enrolment of students in technical vocational education
programme.

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Table 3, revealed that discrimination of technical college graduates; poor societal attitude towards technical
education; societal perception that technical education is for the less privilege in the society; poor societal
recognition of technical education and poor awareness on the objective and prospects of technical education
are societal factors responsible for the causes of low enrolment of students in technical colleges in delta state.
This is in agreement with Aina (2006); Amaewhule (2000); Hubert (2006); Okwori (2006); Olaitan (1992);
Oranu (2003); and Yakubu (2006) identified major factors responsible for low enrolment of students in
Technical Vocational Education programme include among others; low societal estimation of technical
vocational education as education for lowest class of people, and education for last resort.
Table 4 revealed that poverty; parents perception that technical education is for dull and unintelligent students;
parents inability to afford the high cost of technical education; parents want their children to read courses that
have better prospect and recognition; socio economic status of parents; and parents perception that technical
education is for handicapped. This findings is in agreement with Osuala (1992), in Ozianya (2011) who
reported that, at the heart of our society and economic problem is a national attitude that implies that
vocational technical subjects are designed for somebody else children and is meant primarily for children of
the poor. This same attitude is shared by students, this, it makes the students to lack interest in the study of
technical vocational subjects. Table 5, 6, 7, and 8 revealed that the hypotheses that were formulated in this
study were all accepted.

Summary
The study revealed that, the following are factors affecting enrollment of students in Delta State technical
colleges:

Poor provision of infrastructural facilities

Lack of consumable materials

Lack of qualified technical teachers

Poor funding of the state technical colleges

Poor governmental policy on technical education

Inadequate numbers of technical colleges in the state

Poor retraining scheme for technical teachers.

Poor public relations practice by technical college students, teachers and


administrators

Poor teaching methods employed by technical teachers and instructors

Location of the technical colleges

Dilapidated infrastructural facilities

Poorly equipped libraries, workshops and laboratories

Teachers nonchalant attitude to upgrade their skills

Un conducive school environment

Discrimination of technical college graduates

Poor societal attitude towards technical education

Societal perception that technical education is for the less privilege in the society

Poor societal recognition of technical education

Poor awareness on the objective and prospects of technical education

Poverty;

Parents perception that technical education is for dull and unintelligent students

Parents inability to afford the high cost of technical education

Parents want their children to read courses that have better prospect and recognition

Socio economic status of parents

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Parents perception that technical education is for handicapped.

Conclusion
Based on the findings from the study, it is concluded that various factors were responsible for low enrolment
of students in Delta State technical colleges. The poor enrollment is as a result of government attitude towards
technical education, the administration, management, and implementation of technical education in technical
colleges, and societal and parental attitude to technical education in Nigeria.

Recommendations
Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations were made;
Government should revitalize technical vocational education institutions in Delta State.
Government should organized awareness programme for members of the society on technical
vocational education programme.
iii.
More technical colleges should be constructed across the state at least two (2) in every local
government.
i.
ii.

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