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An organization is in the growth stage of the organizational life cycle. It has five locations, one in the U.S.

(headquarters), two in
Asia, one in South America, and one in Europe. The company has decided to utilize a geographic organizational structure.
Although the foreign locations are relatively new, each office has focused on building both technical and managerial talent within its
own site. Therefore, each location is fully operational each running fairly independently.
However, once a year the executive team from headquarters visits each office to meet with the managers at each site to discuss
the coming fiscal year's strategic goals and objectives. Which of the following factors does NOT play a factor in determining the
global staffing approach in this scenario?

A) Strategic plans identified by headquarters

B) Fairly locally responsive strategy vs. global integration across locations

C) Relative maturity of each global location

D) Global growth strategy of organization

[Ans: D]

In this scenario, the company is likely in the multinational stage of globalization. However, this categorization does not
indicate the corporate global growth strategy. Examples of global growth strategies are mergers & acquisitions, greenfield
operations, strategic alliances, joint ventures, franchising, contract manufacturing, building turnkey operations, and
management contracts.

However, some factors that may influence the overall global staffing approach in this scenario are the firm's localization
strategy and the relative maturity of each global location. Since the offices seem relative independent and mature in
building technical and managerial talent combined with a fairly locally responsive strategy, the organization may consider
pursuing a polycentric approach to staffing.

However, other factors that may impact the overall global staffing approach are external factors, expected levels of social
responsibility, and IT capabilities. It is always the case that departmental plans and objectives should align with the
strategic organizational plans.

A Singapore-based restaurant chain is experiencing phenomenal growth. The chain offers a unique service for demographics
experiencing the growth of two-person income families. It offers a variety of affordable, healthy alternatives to the fast food chains.
The corporate headquarter is trying to decide whether to offer one single line of products shared throughout each chain or to offer
one single line of products shared by each region. This scenario is an example of which of the following types of tensions common
in global expansion?

A) Global integration vs. local responsiveness

B) Activity measure vs. results measure

C) Value creation measure vs. standardization

D) Localization vs. privatization

[Ans: A]

The scenario above is an example of the tension that occurs between global integration vs. local responsiveness during
global expansion. Global integration (also referred to as standardization) refers to the standardization of policies,
processes, systems, and people across borders.

On the other hand, local responsiveness (also referred to as localization) refers to the need to adapt policies, processes,
and systems to the local culture and context. In contrast, activity, results, and value creation are all ways to evaluate a
business. Finally, privatization is the process of changing a public entity or enterprise to private control and ownership.

Which of the following stages of globalization is an organization likely in if it is pursuing a polycentric staffing approach?

A) Transnational

B) Domestic

C) Multinational

D) Global

[Ans: C]

Polycentric staffing is an international staffing method where the locals have the opportunity to fill in key positions in their
own country because of the belief that local managers have a good understanding of the local culture and language.

According to the Bartlett and Ghoshal framework, there are five stages of globalization that enterprises may go through. In
the first "domestic" stage, corporations focus on domestic sales and international sales make up a small portion of total
revenue.

During the second "international" phase, although the focus still remains on domestic sales, one or a few international
divisions may be added to oversee global operations and growth. International growth related to foreign operations is often
more opportunistic.

In the third "multinational" stage, a firm usually has several offices throughout the world. However, each of the offices are
treated almost as separate units where key decisions are made by headquarters, the locals manage most of the day-today operations and organizational strategy is often poorly coordinated between national sites.

During the fourth "global" phase, all offices are managed as if one unit developing one shared strategic business plan.
Talent often moves readily from one location to another as specific needs arise, and the world is viewed as one market
instead of multiple regional markets. However, similar to being in the "multinational" stage, key strategic decisions are
made by headquarters.

Finally, in the last "transnational" phase, organizations achieve the epitomy of globalization where decisions and planning
is made across borders, but local offices are able to retain their flexibility. They have intensive organization-wide
coordination and shared decision-making. If a company has decided to pursue a polycentric staffing approach, it is likely in
the multinational stage, where locals manage most of the day-to-day operations. If a corporation were in the global or
transnational phases, they would likely utilize a geocentric staffing method. On the other hand, a firm in the domestic or
international stages would probably engage in ethnocentric staffing approaches.

Which of the following stages of the International Assignment Process model is the most critical in determining the success of an
international assignment?

A) Assessment and selection

B) Pre-departure preparation

C) On assignment

D) Completing the assignment

[Ans: A]

Similar to filling any position, the assessment and selection stage is the most critical in determining the success of an international
assignment. After finding the most suitable candidate, the pre-departure preparation, training while on assignment, and assisting in
completing the assignment can fall into place readily.

The International Assignment Process model involves five stages: (1) assessment and selection, (2) management and assignee decision,
(3) pre-departure preparation, (4) on assignment, and (5) completing the assignment.

During the assessment and selection phase, selection criteria should reflect those success factors relevant to the entire scope of the
international assignment. During the management and assignee decision step, the corporation makes their final decision and documents
the assignment plan in detail. The assignee then decides whether or not to take the assignment. The pre-departure preparation stage is
filled with a countless number of details in regards to the move, the required work permits, and cross-cultural training. Once the expatriate
is on assignment, they should receive an orientation and continual support to assist in the initial culture shock and adjustment. Finally,

after the expatriate has completed the assignment, the company should help them transition into their new role, whether it is on another
international assignment, back into their home country, or the assignee is localized into the host country.

A U.S. based high tech company has built a R&D office in Bangalore, India. Four years have passed since the greenfield operation
was successfully built. During this time, the new location has taken on higher priority engineering projects and has trained and
developed managerial skills of its newly recruited managers in Bangalore.
Headquarters wants the office to take on a new engineering project that would expand its business by adding a new product line.
This project has been identified as the most important objective for the corporation in the mid-term. However, the site still lacks
technical knowledge in a particular area. Which of the following types of international assignments is the most appropriate in order
to fill this knowledge gap?

A) Long-term expatriation

B) Localized transfer

C) International commuting

D) Short-term assignment

[Ans: D]

In order to determine the most appropriate type of international assignment, we need to identify the key characteristics of each of them.
Long-term expatriation refers to someone temporarily working in a country and culture other than that of their upbringing and/or legal
residence for a period of one or more years. On the other hand, a localized transfer is an employee that simply stays put in the host
country and is absorbed by that overseas business unit. In contrast, international commuting occurs when an employee travels often to
the home country.
Finally, a short-term assignment describes relocations for a short-term assignment for a period of at maximum 12 months. In this
scenario, it would be most beneficial to pursue a short-term assignment. It allows for continual technical guidance on the project, unlike
during international commuting. In addition, a short-term assignment allows for the efficient reallocation of that knowledge base once the
project is done, unlike a localized transfer or long-term expatriation.

A U.S. based high tech company has built a R&D office in Bangalore, India. Four years have passed since the greenfield operation
was successfully built. During this time, the new location has taken on higher priority engineering projects and has trained and
developed managerial skills of its newly recruited managers in Bangalore.
Headquarters wants the office to take on a new engineering project that would expand its business by adding a new product line.
This project has been identified as the most important objective for the corporation in the mid-term. However, the site still lacks
technical knowledge in a particular area. Which of the following types of international assignments is the most appropriate in order
to fill this knowledge gap?

A) Long-term expatriation

B) Localized transfer

C) International commuting

D) Short-term assignment

[Ans: D]

In order to determine the most appropriate type of international assignment, we need to identify the key characteristics of each of them.
Long-term expatriation refers to someone temporarily working in a country and culture other than that of their upbringing and/or legal
residence for a period of one or more years. On the other hand, a localized transfer is an employee that simply stays put in the host
country and is absorbed by that overseas business unit. In contrast, international commuting occurs when an employee travels often to
the home country.
Finally, a short-term assignment describes relocations for a short-term assignment for a period of at maximum 12 months. In this
scenario, it would be most beneficial to pursue a short-term assignment. It allows for continual technical guidance on the project, unlike
during international commuting. In addition, a short-term assignment allows for the efficient reallocation of that knowledge base once the
project is done, unlike a localized transfer or long-term expatriation.