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Chapter 006

Definitions
Motivation Defined
A set of energetic forces that originate within and
outside an employee that initiates work-related effort
and determines its direction, intensity, and persistence
What do you do?
How hard do you do it?
How long do you do it?
Expectancy Theory
Motivation is fostered when the employee believes
three things:
That effort will result in performance
That performance will result in outcomes
That those outcomes will be valuable
--describes the cognitive process that employees go
through to make choices among different voluntary
responses
employee behavior is directed toward pleasure and
away from pain or, more generally, toward certain
outcomes and away from others
Instrumentality: If I perform well, will I receive the
outcome?
Outcome: will the outcome be satisfying?
Goal setting theory
Motivation is fostered when employees are given
specific and difficult goals
Rather than no goals, easy goals, or "do your best"
goals
Equity Theory
Motivation is maximized when an employee's ratio of
"outcomes" to "inputs" matches those of some
"comparison other"
Thus motivation also depends on the outcomes
received by other employees
Psychological empowerment

An intrinsic form of motivation derived from the belief


that one's work tasks are contributing to some larger
purpose
Fostered by four beliefs:
Meaningfulness
Self-Determination
Competence
Impact
How is motivation gauged?
Direction of effort
Intensity of effort
persistence of effort
Expectancy
represents the belief that exerting a high level of effort
will result in the successful performance of some task
Expectancy is a subjective probability, ranging from 0
to 1 that a specific amount of effort will result in a
specific level of performance (abbreviated E -- P).
Self-efficacy
the belief that a person has the capabilities needed to
execute the behaviors required for task success
things that drive self-efficacy: past accomplishments,
vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion, emotional
cues
Instrumentality
In expectancy theory, a perception about the extent to
which performance results in the attainment of
outcomes.
It's a set of subjective probabilities, each ranging from
0 to 1 that successful performance will bring a set of
outcomes
(abbreviated P --> O).
Valence

reflects the anticipated value of the outcomes


associated with performance (abbreviated V)
-can be positive, negative, or zero
Expectancy Theory (cont'd)
What exactly makes some outcomes more "positively
valenced" than others?
-In general, outcomes are deemed more attractive
when they help satisfy needs
-Needs can be defined as cognitive groupings or
clusters of outcomes that are viewed as having critical
psychological or physiological consequences.
Extrinsic Motivation
a motivation that is controlled by some contingency
that depends on task performance
Intrinsic motivation
motivation that is felt when task performance serves as
its own reward.
Motivational force
(E -> P) x [(P -> O) x V]
The [sigma] symbol in the equation signifies that
instrumentalities and valences are judged with various
outcomes in mind
-motivational force equals zero if any one of the three
beliefs is zero.
There has to be a belief that effort will beget
performance
performance has to beget desire
desire has to beget outcome
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
a method of classifying human needs and motivations
into five categories in ascending order of importance:
physiological, safety, social, esteem, and selfactualization
meaning of money
the degree to which people view money as having
symbolic, not just economic, value.

specific and difficult goals


result in higher levels of performance than assigning
no goals, easy goals, or "do your best" goals
self-set goals
the internalized goals that people use to monitor their
own task progress
feedback
consists of employee progress toward goal
achievement.
task complexity
How complicated the information and actions involved
in a task are, as well as how much the task changes
S.M.A.R.T. goals
goals that are specific, measurable, attainable, realistic,
and timely
comparison other
some person who seems to provide an intuitive frame
of reference for judging equity
equity distress
an internal tension that can only be alleviated by
restoring balance to the ratios
cognitive distortion
allows you to restore balance mentally, without altering
your behavior in any way
internal comparisons
They refer to someone in the same company
external comparisons
comparing oneself to someone in a different company
Job equity

compare w/ others doing the same job in the same


organization.
most powerful driver of citizenship behaviors
company equity
compare w/ others in the same organization doing
substantially different jobs
occupational equity
compare w/ others doing essentially the same job in
other organizations.
most powerful driver of employee withdrawal.
educational equity
compare w/ others who have attained the same
education level
age equity
compare w/ people of the same age
psychological empowerment
reflects an energy rooted in the belief that work tasks
contribute to some larger purpose
meaningfulness
captures the value of a work goal or purpose, relative to
a person's own ideals and passions
self-determination
reflects a sense of choice in the initiation and
continuation of work tasks.
competence
captures a person's belief in his or her capability to
perform work tasks successfully.