Você está na página 1de 405

A STUDY OF THE

MADHYANTAVIBHAGA-BHASYA-TIKA

A Thesis submitted for the Degree of

Doctor of Philosophy
of the Australian National University
April, 1988
by

Richard Stanley

This thesis is the result of my own


research carried out while enrolled as a
Ph.D. candidate at the Australian

National University 1984 - 1988.

Richard Stanley

Dedication
for Hannah and Ellie

ABSTRACT

This work contains two main components: (a) an English translation of the
Sanskrit texts comprising the Buddhist Yogac:ara philosophical work known as the
Madhyantavibhaga. It includes the verses (karika) of Maitreya/Asanga. commentary
{bha~ya)

of Vasubandhu and sub-commentary ika) of Sthiram&ti. (b) Text critical

remarks for the establishment of the Sanskrit text of Sthiramati's commentary based
upon: (i) a photographed copy of the original ';lanus<.:ript, (ii) the Edited San"krit text
prepared by S. Yamaguchi and (iii) the Peking and Dcrge (sde dge) editions uf the
canonical blockprints of

t~le

Tibetan bsTan L,!yur.

The Madhyantavibhaga contains an exposition of the analysis (vibhl1ga) of the


middle way (madhya) in relation to the various extreme views (un(a). It is arranged in
five chapters: The first chapter, "the defining characteristics"

(lak.~a!1a)

provides a

detailed account of both the natu:e of the phenomenal world and the way that it is
imaginatively constructed (parikaJpyate) ill consciousness. as well as the Yogadira
understanding of emptiness (siinyaca).

Chapter two identifies the main obscuratiofls

(livara[Ja) to enlighteument for the srlivaka, the pracyekabuddl1a and the bodhisattva.

Chapter three provides an explanation of the ten realities (tattva) and their intrinsic
relationship with the three natures (svabllava). i.e the imaginary (pari,hlpica), the otherdependent (paratancra) and the perfected (parini$panna).

Chapter fot;r is concerned

with the development of meditative practices (bh3vana), the various states (av3scl1li) of
the latter and the resuhs (phaJa) obtained from those .Hares. Chapter Five extols the
virtues of the universal vehicle (malJaylina) in comparison to the other vehicles
especially in regard to spiritual practice (pralipattJ), objective suppon (aJambana) and
full attainment (samud.iIgama).

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to express my sincere thanks to all the people who, in various way",
made this study possible.

Firstly, I wi~h to th:mk Professor J. W de long for his

guidance both during my early years


and

10

the preparation of this work.

le<:ming the completed

WOI'k

;3S

a student of the Sam.krit language and literature

Without the benefit of his scholarly expertise an:.1

would ccrtain:y have been of a much

must also thank my co-supervisor. Dr. Tissa

Rajapa~irana.

lo\\~~r

qandard.

whose infinite p::it;<'nce and

skills as a teacher of the Sanskrit and Tibetan :anguages made it possl;le for me to
embark upon this pwjt:ct.

This work has also benefitted immensely from hi~

corrections and suggested changt.'s made after reading through the entire work in its
final stages.
I am abo in debt to my friend Dr. Mh,:haeJ Comans
student at the A.N.U"

WIth

whom. as a fellow Ph.D.

I had the good fortune to share an offICe for tnret" years.

Michael's discipline and dedication to his tJ!>k

IS

an Insp.rauon to all who work w;lh

him. To Peter Oldmeadow. a [me ka/ylI(I:lmiITa and fellow Ph.D. studl!f;t, lowe much
for having sparked my initial inter. in IndIan ReligIons e~pecially in regard to the

theory and practice of Buddhism. The value of our

di~cusslons

on the subject over the

years has been immense.


Thanks are also due to the other

membe~

of the South

aOt. \\ est

Asia Centre: Dr.

Luise Hercus, Dr. Richard B arz and Mr. Yogendra Yadav for meir friendship and
help. Special thanks are due to the Secretary of the Centre Mi~lo. Betty Kat \\;Iose good
humour, abundant energy and willingness to be of assistance have eased the difficulties
on countless occasions.
I would like to express my gratitude to Professor Gadjin M. Nagao who kindly
provided mt with photocopies of the actual manuscript of the Tikl used by Susumu
Yamaguchi in the preparation of his Sanskrit Edition. ll1anks are due to Dr. Johannes
BronkhJr:i( of the Kern Institute who generously provided advice concerning the
proper interpretation of a Sanskrit grammatical term used by Sthiramati.

I must

acknowledge the help of Professor Michael Hahn who first suggested that I i'nquire of
the Nepal-German Manuscript Preservation Project on the expectation that the original
manuscript of

re

Madhyamavibhaga-tika may have been rt"'-discovered there and I

must ahv express my gratitude to Dr. Hona Drinkhaus of the Nepal-German


Manuscript Freservation Project who supervised the copying process and ensured that

the copy was despatched to Australia without undue delay.

vi

I am indebted to Professor Monika Theil-Horstmann and Dr. Akira Saito for their
generous assistance in the translation of some articles in the German and Japanese
languages, respectively, which were essential to my research. Thanks are due also to
Mr. Yasuo Tsukada for material suppon given in the true spirit of dIna.
Finally, I wish to thank the Faculty of Asian Studies for the excellent facilities and
opponunity to carry out this re'1earch.

ERRATA
p. v.l
p. xii.4
p. xiv.7
p. xiv.l6
p. xiv.29
p. xv.3
p.xvi.7
p. xvii.41
p. xviii.25
p. xix.27
p. xix.28
p. xx.5
p. xx.9
p. xxi.5
p. xxi, n.38
p.xxii

p.xxiii.7
p.2.22

p. 3, n.9
p.9.28
p. 9, n.46

p. 11, n.S1
p. 15.24
p.17.10
p.21.25
p.28.1
p.35.24
p.41.1
p.43.23

p.49.19

p. 49, n.283
p.76.7-11

Theil-Horstmann; read: TIliel-Horstmann


h1ah~yana;~ad:h1ahayAna

as well his; read: as well as his


Stcherbatsky's and well annotated; read: Stcherbatsky and is well annotated
Sanskrityayana; read: Sankrityayana
19767; read: 1976
were listed; read: might be listed
accomodate; read: accommodate
imminent; read: immanent
incumbent; read: future
Heavens; read: Heaven
Abhisaml1yiUaqtkara; read: Abhisamayl11aq'lki1ra
h1adhyrunika-prasangika; read: h1adhyamika-prasangik<l
upadhyifya: read: uplfdhyllya
Geistesgeschte; read: Geistesgeschichte
Insert immediately prior to the reference to Saqtyutta-nikliya:
Saqtdhinirmocana-sutra #20.2 L99 & 219
N43.11
"
YI33.1213
contempory; read: contemporary
(a) by demonstrating what is expressed; read: (a) by demonstrating that it is
expressed
nan pal; read: nan pal
common to the bodhisattvas and the srllvakas together with their novices46 ; read:
common to the bodhisattvas and the sravakas etc. who are inferior [to them]46
Delete and replace with: Read: salVam apy etat soltaraSrllvaklfdfnmp slldMralJarp
bodhisattvaniLrp in place of sarvam apy etat sottarilc chrllvaklldibhi~ sildhllralJarp
bodhisatlvanfirp; Tib.(DI93a.2): de dag thams cad kya.l1 bJa ma dan bcas pas bya.l1
chub scms dpa' mams dan nan thos la sogs pa dan thun mor) stc
Si1!asuilIlata; read: C'ii!asuilIlal1l
devoidedncss; read: devoidncss
possess a nature; read: possesses a nature
refer to the six; read: refers to the six
Insert the following sentence after "... subjcct.": The three natures are thus included in
the imagination of what is unreal.
Noble Ones and ordinary people etc.; read: Noble Persons etc.
from that matured 'seed' which has undergone a special transformation; read: from
that special transformation which is obtained due to the maturation of the 'seed'
It is due to suffering that the world is completely defiled, by binh.
old wage and death: reaq: h is due to being made to suffer by binh. oldlise and death. that the world is completely defiled
It is due to suffering that the world is completely defiled. by birth,
Old-age and death 290 ; read: It is due to being made to suffer by birth,
oldwage and death. that the world is completely defiled 290
fflIJon par; read: mnon pUT
even when no counteragent has arisen. . ..liberation would be in vain.;
read: even when no counteragent has [yet] arisen, because of WI:;
absence of defilement. all sentient beings would be liberated quite
without effort. But if. even when the counter-agent has arisen, should
[emptiness] not be pun:, the under-taking [of etton] with a view to
liberation would be fruitless

ERRATA
p.77.6-9

p.77.17-20

p.81.22
p.83.9

p.84.8

p.84.15
p.84.20
p.84.22
p.84.31
p.85.16
p.85.19-25

p.85.25
p.85.27
p.86.32
p.87.12
p.94.3

p. 108.11
p. 114.20
p. 114, n.155

p. 114, n.157
p. 114, n.158
p. 118, n.173
p.122.7
p. 123.7
p. 126, n.220
p. 150, n.27

p. 151.23
p. 154.14
p. 171.20
p. 189.7

even when no counteragent has arisen ... because of the absence of


defilement; read: even when no counteragent has [yet] arisen - because of
the word 'even' this [would be] like [the case where the counteragent] had arisen then, becaus: of the absence of defilement. all sentient beings would be
liberated quite without effon421
Now, even when the counteragent has arisen . liberation would be in
vain; read: But if, even when the counteragent has arisen - because of the
word 'even' it [would be] like [the case when the counteragent] had not arisen should [emptiness] not4 25 be pure, then the undertaking [of effort] with
a view to liberation would be fruitless
!1keptics who believe that [emptiness] is subject to defilement and purification; read:
those who are uncenain whether defilement or purification will ensue in this way
refers to obscuration consisting in both moral defilement and the
k.nowable; r-.:ad: refers both to obscuration consisting in moral
defHement and [obscuration] in regard to the knowable
refers to obscuration consisting in hoth moral defilement and the
knowable; read: refers both to obscuration consisting in moral
defilp,ment and [obscuration] in regard to the knowable
lnsen: "[obscuration] in regard to" after ..... consists in moral defilement and"
that consists in: react of
sphere: read: objcct
Delete: .. [those consisting in moral defilement and the knowable]"
that consists in; read: of
Similarly, ... as is ignorance; read: Similarly, nescience in regard just to the sphere of
the truth of suffering etc. is not [nescience] in regard to other spheres known as
ignorance and moral defilement. In regard to other spheres it is just nescience, and
neither ignorance nor defiled. Hence, since this [nescience J is known as the
obscuration of the knowable because of obstructing the activity of direct intuition
only in respect to the knowable, moral defilement, karma and rebirth are not
produced as is ignorance
that consists in: read: of
that consists in; read: of
and the knowable; read: and that in regard to tht;; knowable
that consists in; read: of
from from; read: from
a craftsman; read: knowledge of craft
a craftsman; read: knowledge of craft
Delete and replace with: Ms.(Z6a.1): paripiifQaSukladhannll ca, but Y's emendation
to paripiifQaSukladhannaS ca is preferred.
siiitllni; read: siitritllni
SVaTilQan; read: av~avalJ
lnsen: "which should be deleted" after "... sentence"
relevent; read: relevant
relevent; read: relevant
p;1I$anJnM)deJe$U', read: pM$anmaIJdalt!$u
Delete and replace with: Read perhaps: -pratik$epo 'pavadadarianam iti / grahakapratik$epa ill cintyam elat in place of: -parih!ro ... elat; Tib.: spon ba ni skur pa
'debs par Ita ba'o zes zer te / 'dzin pa spon ba 'eli ni bsam dgos pa (D244b.3).
in regard existent; read: in regard to existent
does exit; read: does exist
karrnadh!rya; read: kannadhl1raya
SliQlkya; read: Sllqlkhya

ERRATA
p.197.12
p.199.12
p. 201, n.280

p. ~10.26
p.211
p.211.2
p.211.5
p.211.33
p.212.1
p.212.4
p.212.11
p.212.14
p.212.18
p.212.19
p.217.7
p.217.8
p.218.2
p.218.3
p.218.5
p.218.6
p.236.18
p.237.20
p.265.12
p.266.27

p. 272. n.9
p.274.4
p.274.13
p.274.23

p.274.29-31

p.276.3
p.277.12

p.278.15-19

p.283.10
p.283.13

heretics; read: Nihilists


Iimpossible; read: Impossible
tathtilgatacakmvartinor, read: tathagatacakmvartinor
goes forth; read: obtains liberation
Insert: N48 on line 1 in left-hand margin
goes forth [as a mendicant]; read: obtains liberation
goes forth; read: obtains liberation
goes forth [as a mendicant]; read: obtains liberation
goes forth; read: obtains liberation
goes fonh; read: obtains liberation
goes fonh; read: obtains liberation
a going forth; read: liberation
a going fortH; read: liberation
a going forth: read: liberation
going forth; read: obtaining liberation
going forth; read; obtaining liberation
going fonh; read: obtaining liberation
going forth; read: liberation
going forth; read: obtaining liberation
goes forth; read: obtains liberation
respecively; read: respectively
unnourised;read:unnourishcd
(k) the higher meditative development; read: (k) the inferior meditative
development
(k) The higher meditative development; read: (k) The inferior meditative
development
analagy; read: analogy
(c) prerogative; read: (c) service
(c) the highest degree of prerogative; read: (c) the highest degree of
service
(c) The highest degree of prerogative is due to the prerogative for
deeds of benefit for all beings; reaq: (c) The highest degree of service is
due to the service of deeds of benefit for all beings
(f) The hi'Jhest degree of non-hardship ... through h;s approval alone;
read: (f) The highest degree of non-hardship is due to the fulfilment of
the perfections merely through the act of approv-ing of the generosity,
etc., of others
while rejoicing in the birth of a Buddha; read: and attains [re-hinh]
when a Buddha is living
[3] The highest degree of prerogative is due to the prerogative for
deeds of benefit for all beings; read: [3] The highest degree of service is
due to the service of deeds of benefit for all beings
Delete paragraph 7 and replace with: The highest degree of non-hardship is
due to the fulfilment of the perfections merely through the act of
approving of the generosity, etc., of others. The bodhisattvas with joyous
mind express their approval of [all other] beings' roots of the wholesome consisting
in ,cocro.ity, etc., in luch a way that men=1), lhrouSh tho agt of apprQvtn. of mom,
the perfections of generosity, etc . are fnlfilled [in themselves).
which consist in the transfonnatlon; read: which are transfonned
while rejoicing in the birth of a Buddha58 ; reao: and attains [rebinh]
when a Buddha is living58

ERRATA
p.283.16-18

The action ... in each of one's rebirths; read: The actions pertinent to this are the
attainment [of rebirth] when a Buddha is living in each of one's births and
engagement in generosity etc. at all times
p.288.17
Having paid respect to it. the giving of the written works etc. to others81 ; read:
The giving of the written works etc. to othen8l , carefully.
p.288.18
Having paid respect to it, liltening when it il being recited by another; read:
Listening carefully when it is being recited by another
p.321.1-4
These are due to .. .is non-existent; !~ad: These are due to imagin-ing
that: <a> there exists a personal entity whose destruction emptiness
brings about. or else, (b> insubstantiality [means that it] does not exist
pp. 333.28 to 334.4
emptiness is for the destruction of ... that insubstantiality does not311 ; read:
these are due to imagining that: <a> there cxi&ts personal entity
whose destruction emptinesl brings about. or else, <b) insubstantiality
[means that it] does not exist. If [knowledge) does not cause the dhannas to be
empty through emptiness [knowledge) because they are empty by nature. then, (a)
tl.ere exists a personal entity whose destruction emptiness brings about, or else, (b)
insubstantiality [means that it) does not exist because of the absence of the personal
emity; for. without an adverse element. there is no counteragent. Therefore, the
existence of the personal entity or its absence due to its insubstantiality311 is
necessaril y to be accepted
p. 357, n.408
Sa5tra; read: -sastra. cllrya; read: Acarya

vii

Contents

Pages

Acknowledgements
Contents

vii

Abbreviations
tntroduction
Index by Par~graph
Chapter One
The Defining Characl~rhdcs:
1. ThD Imagination of What is Unreal
2. Bmptinca&
Introduction
The 'Body' of the Treatise

1. Tho Imagination of What is Uon,al:


(a) The Characteristic ofExistenal and Non-existence .
(b) The Iridi'lidual Cltarncttrislic
(e) The Characteristic of the Totality
(d) Th. Characteristic of the Expedient for Enll)' into the Charnctelistic of

"Ion-exlstm:e .

..

(e) Th" ChaJ'3Cttristic of tho Differentiation


(f) Th! Characteristic of its Synonyms
(8) The Actualizing CluIracttristic .
(h) The Characteristic of Defilement
The Summary Meaning of the Imagination of What is Unreal

II
18
25
28
35
37
39
43

55

2. Emptiness:
lntroduclllt'y

(.) The Characteristic of Empdness


(b) The Synonyms of Emptiness
(e) The Meaning of ute Synonyms of Emptin..,
(d) The Differentiation of Emptiness
The Sixteen Kind.. of Emptines, .
(e) The Logical Proof of Emptin."
The SummlU}' Meaning of Emptiness

S6
S7
6!
62
64
66
16
80

Chapter Two
The Obscurations
1. The Five 01:scnrations Beginning with the 'Pervading'

83

2. The Obscuration that ConsislS in the Nine Fetters to Application

87

3. The Obscuration Pertinent to the Bodhisauvas:


(a) The Obscuration to the Tenfold (Qualities] Beginning with Virtue
(b) Th~ Ten [lnstn"'"'tltal] Causes .

9S
t 06

Vlli

.1. '!l,e Obscurations to the facters !hut

Cl}l1tnbut~

to Enlightenment.

Ih" Perfection, and ,he Spiritual Lovels:


(a) The Obscuration! to tl1e Faclors Ih~1 Contribute 10 Enlightenment
(b) Th~ Obscu.ratlons 10 the I>ert'""dol'lS
(e) Th. Obsclltation, 10 Uu, Spiritual Levels

1 IS
121
12"

5, The TolAlity of Obscuration

139

The Summary Meaning of Obscuration

141

Chapter TMe
Reali ty
In!rodlli:fOry

144

I. fhe Basic Reality

146

2. The Reality of Characteristic

1.9

3. 1'"" Reality Fn:e from Erroneous Inversion

153

4. The Reality of the Cause and the Result

IS8

5, Gross and Subtle Reality

163

6. Well Estnblisht,i Reality

168

7. The Reality of the Sphere of Purity

172

8. The inclusion Reality .

174

9, 11,. Reality of Differentiation

176

)0, The Reality of the Skills


(a) The Mcarung of the Ag~ates
(b) Th" Meaning of the Elomonts
(c) The Meaning of the Sense-fields
(d) The Meaning of ~dent Origination
(e) Th. Meaning of the l'ossible and the Impossible
(!) The Meaning of the Faclillies
(8) Th. Meaning of tbe Times
(h) The Meaning of the Four Truths
(i) 'l1t. Meaning ofm. Three Vehicles
(j) Th. MWling of the Conditioned and the Unconditioned

I.

195
198
203
207
208
210
212

217

The Summary Meaning of Reality

Chaptef
1. The
2. Tho
3. The

180

187
189
191

Four
Meditative Development of me Count"ragent
Slale Therein
Result

Prologue
The Meditative o..veiopmem of

221

me Counteragellt:

!ntmduclofy

(a) The Four Appllcations of Mindfulness


(b) The Four Correct Ex!!rtions
(e) Th. POOf Bases ofP.ychic !'ower
The Five Faults .
The Eight Formative forces That Facilitate Relinquishment.
(d) The Five Fa<:ulties

221
222
227
229
231
232
2H

IX

(e) Th.l'lve

2,

I'o",e;~

23'1

(f) Tho Seven Um~s of Enlighummcnl

24!

(g; 'Tho I1isht Umbs of the Path


(h) 111. Diff<lenti.uoo of Ole Med1t3Uv. Dovolopment .,;' ,h. C!)"m,ngelll

244
249

'nl'

253

Slalo Th""'in

3, The Allfiiumont of the Result

260

The Summary Meuning of the Meditative Development of tho


Coumerngelll, Th. SraIC 'j11emill and The Result

265

Chaptr.r FivQ
Th~

Supremacy of the

V.hicl~

I. TIlu TIm:e Kinds of Supremacy

270

2, Tht Supl'tlmficy of Spilituul Practice


(a) Th. Highcst Spiriwru Practice
(b) Splriruru Practice in Relation l~ MenUll Atcention

2"/3

(e) Splriwal Practice lha! COIl(Omu wllh th. [)harma ,

That Which Becol1leS Free (rom Distraction


Free from Erroneous Iflver.;iun

'Tho! Which Becon.,.


The Ten Vsjra Words

(d) Spiriruai !'rococo Which Avoids the Two Extremes


(e) Spedlic and Non-specific SpiriUlld PractiC<l

3. Th. Supremacy of the Objective Suppon


4,

TIle Supremacy of Full Attainmem

274

284
290
291

294
309
318

341

343
348

The Explanauon of the Name of the Treatise

352

The Summary Meaning of the Supremacy of the Vehicle

354

Appendix I Sample of Tlk! Manuscript

358

Bibliography ,

359

i\bbreviatioQs

AS lG ...
,,\5 (1'. ..

V.V. Gokhalo's edition of the AbhldharmDsamuccaya: .EnULIM!ll1


frruruhLt2bhigluLl1!l!!}.!I!l!!!;!1@Y' of r\$@IJ1!lJ!.
1'. Pradhan's edition of Ihc Abhidh.l111asamuccllya: APJlli:'13rm!!.

AS.Uhn~ya

Abhidhanna,amuccayaBhD$Y

HI3

N. Dut!'s edition of the Bodhisnnv:lbhllmi: !L<lliil.l~I1l'J!!1hlLl)\..L.Qf


,i:)1lli&.i!

~ml!froiu)L~!\!!n&~.

lJh~,ya

MndhynntavibMga.llhU~yn,

BHSD

F. Edgenon's !Illi!!!!lnLI:!rl'.ri\LSJ!llil<JiL~Y.

llSOAS

Bulletill of the School of Onental and African Srudles.


Oergc (sd~ dgc) Edition of the relevllnt Tibetan (ext.

o
DD,Vrtti
DS
do long
Jaini

Kosa

J. Nozilwa edition of the Dhamuldham,atllvibhnga nnd Yf\h: S1Yl1lrui


in (mlQlo,g)( aJlllJ!~
J, Rahder'. edition of tile DahbhOmika SIlITa: DaSabhllmikUPJ1ll.,
1. W. de long: "NOles on the Sec<lnd Chapl~r of tho:: Madhy~nta
vibhnga\!kll" in S::~Il!l'lL&si~tic JOUl:nM, Vol. XXI, 1977.
SalL~krit Fragments of Vinnadeva's Trif/lsiklHlkS"
in llY.!.k!iILLthe Sctlru1J.....llL.9Mllfa! And Mf.ign Studies, Vol.
XLVlI/ Pan 3 198.5

I'.S, Jain!'s: "The

P. Pradhan's edilion of' the Abhidharvnakos,,Bhn~ya: Abhidhllnna

LvP Kosa

lIYt:!!1bDsYBm of Vasub.!!l.!ll!Y.
A. Hirakawa et a1: Index ~.AbhidhannakQ.iabh~ Pan One
IJ. Wogmara's edition of the Abhidhannakosa-Sphulllrthayyru..hyll:
~l!.I<!l!..rthll Abhi$ll!i!makQSavyDl<l)vD by Ya~omi.!.m.
Baron A. von StaeiHolstein's edition of the KMyapaparivana.
L.. de La Vallee Poussin's translation & annotation of the

Ms.

Copy of the original manuscript of the MadhyDntavibhllga-TIkn reo

Kosa Index
Kosa Vynkhya
Kl'

Abhidhamlakosa-Bh~ya: L'Abhid1lannak~

de Vasubandhl!.

discovered in Nepal by the Nepal Gennan Manuscript Preservation


Project.
MSA
MSA (UB ... )
MSG

Mvy.
N. Amend.

o
p

Mahny~naSiltrllaI\lUra.

S. Levi's edition of the MahDyAnaslltrllal\ll<nra re-edited by S.


Bagchi: MahlltlM:Snt{alank~ra 0.( Asa"'g~.
It. Lamotte's translation and Tibetan edition of the Mah~y~na
salTlgraha in tWO lomes: La Somme du Grand V6hiclg p'Asarlga
(MahDynna samgq!)a)
Mallftvyutpaui.
G, Nagao: "Collation of the Madhylll1tavibhllgarfkS with irs
Manuscript, Chapter I, Lak~al'apariecheda" in Annual. of Onelltal
a.,p Rt:li~ Srudies (Suzuki Gakujutsu Zl.idan Kenkyu Nempo),
No.IS 1978.
E. Obennillcl's review of the O. Tucr.i &; V. Bhanncarya edition of
the Madhynntavibhftga nkll, Indian Historical OuanerIY. Vol. IX,
March 1933.
Peking Edition of the relevant Tibetan text.

Siddhi

P()u.~in', Ir.n~lali()n and IIilnolation of the


Vijo"plimDtrntAsiddhi: YJ.mMlIi,fll..!l!:;11Bllil4t1,i;___Lit.MIIIJ1J.i.Jk.J,li.Iu!.n.:

t, je L. Vallde

:'::&lUl1t,

SN

E, Lamono's lramlation and Tibetan "dilion of U1C Sandllillinnocuna

SI.

Th. Stchcrbatsky's tran,lation & annotalion of the


Madhyamavibhnga'TlkA (Ch. I): !!lli!l..\!.,~e on DiscrirninatiQn

'!' & n

O. 11~ucd & V, Bha.u!ic.ftr)'a's edition of the MadhyAntavibhilga.T1k:l

Satra:

;1!!ll.\!lli111l1lll!.<a!ltiPtm-L'lhoH~ll!iQ!L<laMnl!ru.

lJsl~ttmJ'dl!A!!L~-i!n!! "l\l!~S!'

(Ch. I):
'f -Bhn~ya
UCR

V- Vrtti
y

MII!1.h.Yl,ll1!!Yl.bM.!Wl1JIll1l1illYll.llkl\..

S. l.<lvi', ~dilion of Ihe rril11slk! .. Bhn~yn: YiiUg'1!lmUIIJ!W11I.lI1li.


Uiliversity of Ceylon Review.
S. Levi', edition of ule Vi'llsatikll-Vruj: yijilaptimrur.i!ll~iddhl.
Susumu Y~maguchi's .dilion of the Madhyama\libI13gaTrk~:
Sl'.1iram~li MadhY3mpl'ibhng3!rk~.

.11

Intfudu;::tion

Th~ M3dhynmavl1}h~gn

(MA V) comains a COrtlllrehensive and detailed account of

rh" phllo$opl"""1 thought of rhe Yogac3ta ,cheaP of M.1hftyana Buddhism at an eafly


jwge of irs development

p.""ective of the curly

As a systematic

YoSnc~nI It

e.~posi!ion

of the Mahayana from the

is unique; thus its understanding is fundamental to

a proper apprecilllion of Yogncara thought.

1/\ tllO Indian Y(}gUcllrn tradition the MA V comprises three eSSential works; raj the
Knrlkn tex, mnbUled to MAnreya I Asanga, (b) Vasubandhu', Dh5*ya and (0) the Ttkn

"l' SthimmutL Consldenng that all three of thes. works have been available for more
than fifty yotlr.l it Is remarkable that they have not beon comprehelt~ively studi~d todale. Th. French (runslation and annotalion of the Vijiiaptim;ltrat3siddhi by Louis de
La Vnll~e Poussin in 1928-29 2 remains the most authontative study of the YQgac3ravijflaptimntm doctrine.

However, this work is not representative of the Yognc3ra as a

whole but is heavily Influenced by DharmapAla's interpretation of the thought of


Maitreyu and Vasubandhu and has fundamental differences from Sthiramatl's
interpretations as contained in the MAV-nU 3 . Apart from a flurry of scholarly
aellvity that coincided with the publication of the Sanskrit Editions of Sthiramati's
rrkn 4 In the early 1930's and Vasubandhu's BM~ya5 in the 1960's, the MAV has
received ollly plecelfical attentjon,
There are three main reasons for this neglect; (a) The MA V- TtU stands virtually
"lone as a broad ranging account of early Yogc!ra thought; consequently It is often
not possible to s k help from other parallel texts for a proper understanding of some
of ilS more complex passages.

The MaMyAnasiltr!llamkllra (MSA) is closely related

to the MA V and a study of Sthiramati's commentary will undoubtedly shed more light

on the MAil ; however, the MSA reflects a more practice oneuted doctrine and many

of its idear, are generally al an earlier stage of development. There are other shorter
works in ~xist.nce that obviously share common docttinal elemerns with the MA V,
such as the Dh.rmadharmatUvibhnga and Vasubandhu's VijiiaptimAtratblddhl;
how"ver. these works are relevant only to specific asper-IS of the early YogDclira and

Commonly knOWll also as the vijdllnavlld3.


y~ddhi - L. Sjd4hi de Hiuan-Tsi!Jl@. TonlOS I &: II, Paris: Librairie Orientalis!e
PaUl GOuihn.f. T928-29.
cr. Y. Ueda: "Two Main Streams of Though! in YogBcm l'IIi1osophy" in Philosophy East and
~

17 (JWI-QcL) 1%7, pp.!SS65,

TE.
.. te,sUi!l!ln~~~~~~~~~1\l~
N~oya,
l. Edited by V. Bha!1l1clllya WId O. Tucci

cr.
S iramati
Edit",ny
SUS"
lW~.Edited

by Gadgin M, Nagao. Tokyo: Suzuki Research

~~!:!!!\~~->!J.~~. Edited by N. Tatla WId A, Thakur. Tibeum

Jayaswa! Research Institute, 1967.

xiii

are themselv"s in need of further 'tudy,

(b) An additional hindmnce

10

Ihe slIIdy of

Illi, "chool II .. in Iho fact Ihat Ih. precise llI~afiing of mony 01 tho words and concept>
employed by Slhi,amali is often of quito an

~nigmatic

nature. 'ntis i. due partiy

10

his

h!p.io commtHuutinl sfyle hut also because the reader's familiarity with many of lhe
mbJccls discussed IS assumed and no .uempt is made at further clarification.

"ddilion, when presenting the altomntive

ViCW5

In

held by other scbools Sthiramati never

idemithl. lhe panlcular school intended; presumllbly becau!ltl mis is also assumed t(' be
~01l1t)1(Hi

knowledge.

(c~ '11110

third

f~l.ctor

that has had an inhibiting influence on the

study of Ihe MAVis Ihe quality of Ihe Sanskrit text of Sthiramati's Tlkn edited and
puhlished by S, YamaguchI.
fm'"

tl

The manuscript used by Yamaguchi was hand,eopied

badly damaged original,

1\ larg~

portion of whi<.:h was reconstructed wilh the

holp uf Ihe T!bew!l IrJnslations, Sillce it i. often impossible to recDst much more !han

ill. known technical 1<lr111S from !he Tibetan imo

Sans~Iil

with any cortainly. such an

emerprise is never entirely satisfactory and this edition stands ill need of improvement.
It was Ihe French scholar Sylvain Levi who first discovered the Sanskrit

manuscript of the MA V -11H in Nepal in 1928 and arranged to have a copy prepan:d

by hand,

Inevitably scribal error.; were incorporated during the copying process.

m"miolled above, the original manuscript was incompler,


of all the folios missing on the left-hand side.

wim

appro~imately

As

one third

The copied manuscnpt was then

entrusted to Susumu Yamaguchi who prepared a Sanskrit edition. the first two
cnaprcrs of which were published over the next couple of years ill variO!JS issues of
Otani Gakuh1)6.

Meanwhile. the MA V -11U was discovered for a second lime in

Nepal by Guiseppe Tucci. who. with the help of Vidhusekhara Bhanncarya. also
engaged ill the preparation of a Sanskrit edition. AI!hough originally intending to edit

and reconstruct me missing portions of !he entire text. !hey eventually published only
me first chapter in 1932 7 TIus is a work of good qualiry (in devanllgll11 script) and the
reconstructed semences are sometimes preferable to those of Yamaguchi's editionS, In
1934 S. Yamaguchi published an edition of the comple!e Sanskrit rellt in five chapter.,

(in Romanised foml) which includes !ho ponjons rec.st from !he Tibetan 9. Although

mis edit;"n of th. MA V" rrle! has many shoncomings, it must be regarded as a
Significant and valuable scholarly lIchievement;

mi. edition is used as tho basis of

til.'

r rosen! srudy,

Vol. XI, 1930. pp.S76-602: Vo!.

pp.5999.

xn.

1931. pp.24-67. 307-335, 719-775; Vol. Xu!. 1932,

MsdhyllntavibhBgasUIrAbh1Sy.tlU of $thiramati. Part I. Calcutta Oriental Series No.24,


1932..
This work was reviewed bye. ObermiUer in lliQ, Vol. IX, 1933. (pp.1019-!030) where he
suggests some valWlble ailmlarive tCJIdings. especially in tlle recoostructcd portions.
9

Cf.

ro. 4 abo.~ this edition was reprinted in 1966 by the SlI%ulri R..s.......'h Foundation, Tokyo.

A }apn"ose (ronslalion of the MAVJ1kft was published by S. Yamaguchi on


1935 10.

Tho follOWIng year thl! gronl Russian scholar of Buddhism Theodore

Slchernalsky published an l!nglish I.anslation of just the (1'~1 chapter I I of th" MA V.


')"rk~.

'111i5 wo.k which im:ludes a Iranslalion of Vas~b.ndhu's Ilhn~ya from Ihe

Tibetan is bosed on Ih. Tucci and Ilhan)lcnrya edition of the Tlkll (1.5 well as the Tibetan
Inmslation.

As far UJj tho translation is concerned, it is not a very useful work since it

suffers both from SlchllrbulSky's somewhat florid and free style as well his many
philosophical misconceptions regarding Ille Yoglcnra doctrine,

critical remurks and anna unions where he often provide'

,~

However, his lext

more liteml lranslation are

quile valuable; many are diffkult to .mprove upon and are Incorporated

"Iudy,

At

Ih~ sam~

In

the present

lime that Slcherbatllky was preparing his Iranslalion, the DUlch

s<,holar David I'riedmann was also translating Ihe first chapter of the TlkA baSed on
Yamaguchi's edition, When he discovered that the Russilln scholar was translating the
same work, Friedmann almos! abandoned his translation but fortUnately ",as persuaded
by Stcherbatsky himself to complete his studyl~.

genel1llly superior

10 that

The ~esuH is a good translation,

of Stcherbatsky's and well annotated particularly through its

references to the LVP Kosa and Siddhi; however, no anempt has been made to rectify
the Sal1llkril te)(tual

pro~lems.

The MAV-Bhnsya then became the focus of scholarly attention with the
publication in 1937 of S. Yamaguchi's edition of Vasubandhu's Bh~$ya which
included the Tibetan transla1ion and the Chinese translations of Hsiian-tsang and

Paramnrtha 13 . In 195354 P.W. O'Brien published an English translation of the third


chapter of the Bhn~ya in two issues of Monumenta Nipponica 1.

l1lis is a very

Ihorough and readable work based Oil the Tibetan and Chinese translations and
includes abundant refereoN' to Sthiramati's Tlk!i (Yamaguchi's .d,) and also 10 the

LVP Kosa and Siddhi. An important. contribution to the study of the MA V was made
in 1964 when Qadjin M, Nagao pul:lished a Sanskrit (Romanised) edition of

Vasubandhu's BM$ya which incorporates the K,lrika text ts . It was prepared from a
manuscript discovered in the Ngor Monastery in Tibet by Rahula

Sanskrity~yana

1934 and i. an exceptionally fine work requiring only a few minor corrections,
publication of this edition now
'j\k~

11
12

13
14
15

mad~

in

The

it possible to revis 'c'.maguchi's edition of the

since the latter contains many quotations from the Bh~ya that were reconstructed

AAl!.e .shadY.1Q ChOhenfun!lelSuronrSUil!ll. Nagoya: Hajinkaku, 1935. Reprinted in


1966 by Suzuki Research Foundation. To yo.
Madhyil.,ta-vibhanga . Di,couLlie on Discrimination Between Mil!!1Je and E.1reml!!!, English
fI1Inslation and annotation. Reprint, Calcua: indian Silldies : Pasl &; Presen~ 1971.
Sthiram.ti MadhyUntavibMgaUkjl, Analni. qf the Middl~ Path and the EX1remes. English
fI1Inslation and annotation. Utrocht, 1937.
~JishO SenchQilenm!l, Nagoya: HajinkBku, 1937. Reprin!ed in 1966 by the Suzuki
Research Foundation, Tokyo.
Vol. IX April 19S3, No. lI20 pp.277303 and VoL X April 1954, No. 112, pp.227.269,
Madhylntavibh!!gabh!lSl'l'. Tokyo: Suzuki Research I'ounda!ton, 1964.

hum the Ti!:,etllll. Tho


<If the San,klll.

Uiln~y"

componelll of tlw pres"lll study is bused on lhis edition

Nngno also published a Japanese flan.latlOn of ct."Plers I and III of

1110 IJhn~yall' ,'nd a Imnsluuon of the whole llMIYU in 1976'/t7 Another edition of the
Sanskrit flhn~y" was published in 1967 by Nathmul Tluia and Anantal.1 Thakurt&.
An allempt was made to improvo uP"" Yamaguchi's editioll of the
Indian ,dtolar R,unachandra Pandey a who published
incorpomting the

U!t~~ya

'Uld

Knrik~

tex!.

11

Trk~

by the

revised edition in 1911 19

!n the introduction to

tillS wor~

Pandeya

claims that his carree.tions to Yamaguchi's Gcltioll are made on the basis of the Tibetun
translntion (PCklllg Ed.).

Pundeyu's edition

lOllS

reviewed by J.W. de long 20 who

demoHstnHed that In mAny i11st31l(:es his emendations appear (.0 01! made quite

arhltmrily witltout recours. to the Tibetan


not been

cO!L~ult<ld

te~t

and for this reDS"" Pan<loya's edii,ion has

in the present study. In his review, de long resolves many of Ille

textual problems of the seeond chapter of

th~ Tlk~.

In 1982 Thomas A. Kochumuttom published aitudy of the essential doctrines


from thll works of Vasubandhu 21 which includes an English translation of ll".~ firs!
chapter of the MA V -BM~ya as well as selected parts of the TIka.
trnnslation of the

Bhn~ya

Although his

is generall! quite accurate. his translation of the Tlkn

passages (upon which much of his interpretative comment depends) is


Pandeya's edition which,

liS

we have seen, is not completely reliable.

[t

b~sed

on

should be

noted tltat Kochumuttom's understanding of the philosophy of Vasubandhu is


cOllirov.rsiul for he argues that it is open to interpretation as a system that embraces
"realistic pluralism".

All English translation of tho whole

MAV-Bhn~ya

was included

in a publicatio,t b:, Stephan Anacker in 198422 . This is an unsatisfactory work which


abounds with errors and tnisundefllta.ndings~3.

When my own project was first conceived it was envisagco. to have three main
components: (a) A translation of the Klrikll.
and Yamaguchi's respective editions.
edition of tbe

TTkn

Bhn~ya

and TIkll texts based on Nagao's

(b) Text-critical annotations to tho Yamaguchi

with the help of the Sanskl'it

Bhn~ya

and twO versions of the

Tibetan trnnslatiofl. i.e. the Derge (sde dge) and Peking editions, with the 2im of
making a significant contribution ,awards the establishment of a more reliable Sanskrit

16

17
18
19
20

21
22
7.3

Sekai no meicho. Vol. 2: DIDiO bulten. Tokyo. 1967, (pp.397-426),


DaHl:) butten. Vol. 15 (TOkyO ChUllkoronsha). pp.215-358. 380-409.
Madhynnta-~~. Tibetan Sanskrit Works Seri... Vol. X. Pama: KP J.yaswal
Research InsUtute. 1967.
Madhyllnll-vibhllB.-sbtra Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. 1971.
"Notes on the Second Chapter of the Madbyllntavibbagallkl" in Central Asiatic IOlUllai. Vol.
XXl. 1977, pp.lll-117.
1\ lluddhiU l:l!l!.1gjn~COOl, Delhi: Motiial Banarsi<iass. 1982.
Seven WIlliSJlf. Vasubandbu - The BUddhist fsyb9!Qg~. ReUgions of Asia Seri..
No.4, Delhi: Motilalllanarsidas.$. 1984.
cr, my review of this work in Indo-Iranian IQurn"" VoL 30. No.1. 1987. pp's7-60.

>VI

rlk~

lext.

(<.OJ Time p"mlJlling,

also hoped 10 produce a preliminary exege,is of the

work.

Severrtl momlis aftor beginning my study I was fortunate enough to discuss my


rcsear~h

with Professor M. rialtn of the Indologi.ches Seminar of the University of

i)onn who waS visiting the A,N.V. at th. lime.

Following his suggestion I contacted

'he Nepal-Gorman Manuscript Preservation Projecr in Kathmandu, Nepal, on the


chllnce thut the origin.1 manuscript of the MA V -"/1U were listed among their records.

TTka had indeed been discovered for a

As it turned out, this was in fact the cnse - the


third time and was catalogued and microfilmed
n"llHhs later I managed to ,:ecure a copy of
from Il,. microfilmed copy.

n,"

Ih~

In

1970 by Illat organization.

Many

manuscript which was photographed

script of the manuscript is clearly" vatiety of Nevari

and the reproduction is generally of a very hIgh quality, most characters being quite
leaible

,18

can be seen from the sample. shown in Appendix I. It soon became obvious

that it was rhe

VCIY

manuscript found by

although a little worse for wear.

L~vi

and Tucci more than fifty years earlier

When compared with Yamaguchi's edition. the

lacunae coincide almost exactly; the only differences being caused by funher
deterioration along the damaged side of some folios whe!"". up to ten characters may be
losl. 111e first folio (lb) is in a palticularly bad state wilJ1 only a small fragment that
can be read with cenainty.

Also, twO folios are completely absent (3lb and 323

equivalent to Y105.15 to 106.27).

The microfilm is kept in the National Archives,

Katlllnandu, Nepal. and the details found on the title page are as follows: Manuscript
No.5 - 233 vi bauddJ:adarSBIlS 66; Catalogue: brh,ll samk$iplS sDcipauam; Title:
MadhyGmavibhaga-knrik3; No. of leaves: 85; SilO: 56 x 5.5 em.; Date of filming:

22.9.70; Remarks: palm-leaf - half of the fall. very badly damaged; Reel No. A3811O.
The fe-discovery of the original manuscript of tho MAV-TTka has thus made it
possible to inclllde new material in this study, material that is particularly relevant to the
establishment of the Sanskrit text.

By comparing the original manuscript with the

Yamaguchi edition it has been possible

10

detect and rectify many mis-readings and

scribal errors that were incorporated into the Yamaguchi edition. This aspect of my
work has been funher complemented through the acquisition of a photo-copy of the
actual manuscript used by Yamaguchi which was kindly supplied by Prof. G.M.
Nagao.
As my research progwssed it became apparent that iliere would not be time to carry
out the third component originally envis2ged, i.e. the exegesis of the text; "'dther, the
completed study would be restricted to the troWSlarion and textual emendations.

In

addition to the textual problems encountered in the Sanskrit TIk~. the Tibetan
translation is also quite corrupt in many places, thus compounding the difficulties in
establishing the Sanskrir. Although I am now l'CP.Sonably satisfied that the majority of
the textual problems have been resolved. the completed work cannot not be regamed as

uefinitive ur conclusive.

The MA V -Tlkn will no dQubt yield greuter coherence to

future scholarn and many of

i~~

mo ..e

enigm.~ic

passages will be translated with more

certainty only after tho writings of Sthimmmi am understood in Rroaler depth. Suffice

it to say that, although theM is considerable scope for improvement through future
research, it is intended that this smdy may serve
Sallsirrit tOXI of the

Tll<n

a~

the basIS for a critical edition of the

and that the trnnslation wHi be of value to those seeking a

proper und,;rstanding of the philosophy and doctrine of the early


The main materials used in the prepa:ation of

thi~

Yog~cnra.

study are as follows:

1.

12\l!hL<!\I.!LP..l!lli!.h...!:!1;111.L!!i!.!"..l!.l!Y~lll:!i.!&!1i.s...!!;.!.L4.t..9.y,.-'!UlJ!, Tibetan Tripitaka,


DMS" (.~dc dS") l)ditjon, Sems T,am. Vol. 1, 1'10.4021. Tokyo: University of

Z.

PJ2.IJJLQ.;1!L!mlill.!.L.m.!!!!L!1Jlr

Tokyo, 1980.
108. No.5522.

hb~.I!..QJ!, Tibetan Ttipitak., Peking Edition, Vol.


Kyoto: Orani Univernity, 1957.
-

3.

MadhY!!JlltYil>hnli~.::.~ll' Sanskrit text edited by GadJin M. Nagao.

4.

~1I1\

Tokyo: Suzuki Research Foundation. 1964.

IJllhgh_ffillJll.J1Jlr bby~d pqhLbgmLpa, Tibetan Tripitaka, Derg. (sde


Tokyo; University of Tokyo,
1980.
Phlls dan mthah mam par hbyed Dah; hgrel lla, Tibetan Tripitaka, Peking
Edition, Vol. 108, No.5528. Kyoto; Otani Univelliity, 1957.
Mi!illlY~ntq.vjbhjlga-Tlka, Sanskrit text edited by Susumu Yamaguchi.
Reprint, Tome I, Tokyo: Suzuki Research Foundation, 1966.
ttI..!ll!hy!ntavibhnga-nl<a, a photographed copy of the Original manuscript
from which S. Levi prepared the hand-written copy used as the basis for the
Yamaguchi Edition (6. above). The Ms. was re-discovered and cawlogued in
1970 by the Nepal German Manuscript Preservation Proie~t. Kathmandu,
Nepal.
Madhyantayibhha. Tik~, a photo-copy of the actual hand-written copy of the
msnuscripl thaI was used by S. Yamaguchi to prepare his edition. Courtesy
of G.M. Nagao.
Dbu. dati mthah mam pdr hbyed pahi hgrel bsad, Tib~lan Tripitaka, Dcrge
(sde dge) Edition, Scms Tsam, Vol. 2, No.4032. TokyQ: University of
Tokyo, 1980.
dge) Edition, S.ms Tsam Vol. 2, No.4027.

5.
6.
7.

8.

9.

10.
11.

Pbus dati mthah mam par hbyed pahi hgrel bsad, Tibetan Tripitaka, Peking
Edition, Vol. 109, No.5534. Kyoto: Otani University, 1957.
Madhy3ntavibhDga-lli!. [Chapter One] Sanskrit text edited by G. Tucci &
V. BhaWlc!rya. Calcutta Oriental Series, No.24, 1932.

Synopsis ot the Madhyintavibhflga.


As its title suggests, the central theme of the MadhyllntavibhAga is the analysis
(vibMga) of the traditional Buddhist concept of the Middle Way (madhya) in relation
to the various extreme views (;mea) recast to accomodate the spiritual perspective of the

Yogacara.

The extremes are normally identified as belonging to two essential

categories, i.e. as the extreme views which lead to imputation (samilropa) or negation

('lpIIVBd'l)

Ihoy

afO to

in regard to the

~xistcnce (bhSYa)

Th~

be understood in reality.

MAV is ."""sed in five chapters which deal

with Seven main subjects: (a) the defining cha<acteristics


(.7VII0(18).

YIii

of phenomen" in COntrJst to the way thai


(/ak~ap.).

(b) the obscUf;ltions

(;0) IllC realities (tattva). (d) the meditative development o~ counte<agents

(pr"tipak~a"bhiJ,'aJlil). (~) th~

various states (avaslhd) in the IUlter. (f) the attainment of

results (phaia-prNptl) and (g) the supremacy of the [universal I vehicle (yAn3nulIarya).
Elich chapter concludes with an abridged summary (pin(/IJrrhu) of contents which.
according to Sthirnmati 24 , is included to enable the s!Udell[ to ea.sily remember both the
cements and sequential order of the subJect$ explained.
Th. firs! chapter. which is [Jossibly th: most complex of the nve, proVIdes a
detailed aoroum of the essential philosophy of this school.
IWO

partS: the de/lning characteristics

(lak~alla)

rhe chapter

IS

divided into

of: (a) the imagination of what is unreal

("bMc3"pa.rikaJpa) and (b) e",ptiness (silnyat!j. Part (a) .xplores both the narure of the

phenomenal world whioh i. understood in essence as unreal (abhi/ra), and the Wly in
which it comes into being or is imaginatively const",cted (parikaJpa). TItis part is
divided into nine sections which

explatlations of the three narures Uri"

inclu~p

svabhiIva), the dynamics of the ac!Ualizing consciousnesse. (pravrtli"vijril/!!Im) and an

extremely detailed re-interpretation of the theory of cOependent origination (pralfIY'"


samllcpSda) .ccordir.g to this school.

Part (b) defines the correct undemanding of

emptiness (SUnyatll) in tile comext of YogAcAra thoughL This includes a sixteenfold


differentiation of "",pliness and conrains

som~

of the

(<lOre

enigmatic portions of the

text particularly where emptiness is described as having some sort of positive


ont010gical value, i.e. the characteristic of
nOD"ens.

emp~,.ess

is defined as the exisrence of a

One of the most predomina:lt themes throughout this chapler is the

constantly re-stated significance of the imminent relationship berween the conventional


understanding of phenomena (dhMma) and their real nature (dharmatd).
The second chapter has a more practical oriemation than the firsl insofar as it
examines the main obscurations (Jvarapa)

[0

eniit::lltenment (bodhl). These are n:duced

to two broad cate!,ories, namel:', the obscuration thaI consists in moral defilement and
that which consislS in the knowable (kJe "jileya-livarafla).
obscuration that is

~Otlllaon

Firstly, it identifies

to the i,.'vaka, the pratyekabuddha and the bodhisattva. II

then concentrates specifically on the bodhisattva by defining the obscuration. to his


attainment of (aj the factors that contribute to enlightenment (bodhi-pakQya), (b) the
perfections

(p~ramjc!j

and (c) the spirirual levels (b"JllU).

The thinl chapter provides an explanation of the ten realities (tallva). TIlese are
identified as the ten main areas where one's understanding of phenomena as they are in
reality (yathli"bhDta) is susceptible

10

confusion especially in regan! to erroneous

inversion (viparySa), imputation and negation. F,mdamenlal to the ten realities are the
24

Cf. MAV"Tlkl\; Yl09.5-6 & 164.2:iff.

XI'
three namres (lIi-nabh6va), i.I'. the imagillill'Y (plUika/pir.1), the

I)ther-depend~1II

(PIll'S-

tanu.1) and rhe perfected (plUim$psnna). These rhree namres collectively comprise the

basic rCRlily (m Illa-tattva) which has an imrinsic relationship wirh the other nine
realities. The laner half of tht. chapter is devoted solely to rhe tenth reality, the reality of
the skills (kausa/ys-rsuva), which leads iOlo a detailed explanation of many of the
essential Buddhist doctrines from the Yog!carJ point of view. II includes explanation
of the meaning of 'he five aggregales (pJJnca-skandha). Ihe elements (dhiltu) and rhe

sense-ticlds (Byatana).
Chapter four is

divid~<i

into three sections concerned mainly wilh desc,iption of

various aspects of .piritual praclic" (praripsm). These are:

(a)

the comet practices of

meditative development (bhavanJJ) for the generation of rhe !hirty-seven factors rhat
con,ribut~

to enlightel'ment (bodhi-pak"a). The practices are examined !hrough their

modes as counfcragcnls (pratipa.,s) 10 particular adverse elements

(vjpl!k~a).

These

factors include the applications of mindfulness (smfTy-upastMna), rhe correct exertions


(samyak-prahilna) and the bases of psychic power (rddhi-ptlda). (b) The nine stales
(avaslhl) which define the progress of the bodhisattva engaged in these meditative
pr~clices.

(c) The respective results (phs/a) that are 8nained by rhe bodhisattva

stationed in any of these nine stales.


The fifth chapter extol$ !he virtues of the universal vehicle (mahJJyllna) and indeed
its superiority over rhe srilvaka-yllna and the praryckabuddha-yllna. This superiority is
explained in relation to three categories: (a) spititual practice (pratipalu) rhat is based on
the tcn perfections, (b) objeclive support (J/ambana) which is twelvefold and (e) full
attainment (samudllgama) which is tenfold.

The chapter depends heavily on the

KUyapaparivarta section of !he RamakJta for a scliptural basis.

The Authorship of the Madhylntal'ibhllga


The Madhylntavibhftga [-K:lrikal is one of me five trealises which the Mah3ylna
Buddhisls traditionally ascribe to Maitreyanltha. the bodhisattva and incumbent
Buddha who resides in the Tu,ita Heavcos.

The legendary accounts in the Tibetan

tradllion2S tell of his materialiution in the presence of rhe Arya Asanga after he had
completed !Welve gruelliug years of

medi!llti'.~

practices. After II'lIIlSporting A.sanga to

rhe TUfila Heavens. it is said that Maitreya losU1!cted him in rhe fundamental doctrines
of the Mahlyilna and then passed

00 [0

him five importlllll treatises to be laught for the

b=neflt of senticnt beings. They are:


2S

am

Cf. E. OOOmtiller: Thc


of 8uddh~m in India and Tibet by 8u~n. Translation from
Tibetan. Reprint. Delhi: Ii 8f3uru. 198 " A. Chauopadhylya and Chimpa: ~
~istgry re.uddb;sm in Indj.. Translation from Tibetan. Simla: Indian Institute of Advanced
IUdy, I 7 .

MadhyantavibhAga
DhBcmadhBnnatAvibhnga

MahD yftna3 0Irat UI]1 k3ra


RamugOlfUvibhGga [UttarawmraJ
Abhisamnynlaljlknra
The first three of these stand in dose relaticn as works belonging to the early slnIta

of the YogncPra.

The fourth, wherein th~ cach3gatagarbha

prominently, has some link'

""u. the

doctrine

features

YogAcAro (particularly the MSA) but is clossified

as belonging to tho MadhyDmikn-prnsangika school by certain Tibetan writers, notably


Tsoll kha pa 26 . The fifth is generally regarded as a Madhyamaka work which presenrs
the bodhisattva path based on the PrajIinparamitl literature.

For the past sixty years scholars have remained divided over the precise identity of
Mairroyanntha with some, notably Ui 27 and Tucci 28 preferring to expl:lin him as a
historical personage.

Others such as Obenniller29 and Demh!ville K argue quite

convincingly that Maltreya is intended as the tutelary inspiration of Asanga and


disclaim the need to read all unwarrant0d historical facticiry into the legendary material.
Obermillor 31 has already drawn attention to the fact that it is in the MAV-nkn32 that
Maitreya is explicitly described as the bodhisattva who has reached the tenth spiritual
level and is separated from Buddhahood by just one bi.m. - thus adding credence to his
idemification as a tutelary entity.
No such confusion exists concerning the historicity of Vasubandhu, the author of

the MA V.Bh3~ya; r.ther, it is over the actual number of Vasubandhus that


contemporary scholars are unable to reach agreement. Troditionally it is beHeved that
there was only one Vasubandhu, who was the younger brother of Asallga.
Paramnnha 3J reports that he was born in ~apura (modem day Peshuwar) in the
eleventh century after the parinirvllfla of the Buddha and thai he was initially allied with
varioll. sarviIstivJ1.da schools.

During this time h" composed his defimuve work

illustrating the vaibhll$ika and sautrilntika doctrines in the Abhidhannakosa and


uh~ya..

Although originally he was a staunch .keptic of the Mahayana, it is said that

through the effortS of Asaliga he eventually became convinced of its theoretical and

26
27

2l'
29
30

31
32
33

Cf. e. Obenniller. "The Sublime Science oiMaitreya" in Acta Oriontalia. IX, 1932, p.83.
H. Vi: "Mailley. as a Historical Personage" in Indian Studies in HORQ' of Charles Rockwell
L.anm1l11. Cambridge.. In9
O. Tucci: On Some ASP!1<!LQf the Doctrines of MaitreYa{n3thal and Asanga. C21cutta:
Univelllity of Calcutta. 1930.
E. Obermiller: "Sublime SGionce of Maitrey." ... pp.81.306.
P. Demi~vme: "La Yog!lcArabh!!mi de Sangh~a" in Bulierin de !,!!cole Frar"aise dlO.~
QJiIIDl- No.44. 1954.
cr. E. Obermiller's review of V. BhanacArya &. G. Tucci', Sanskrit edition of tho fIrSt chapter ()f
the MA V-/.'ll<lI entitled: "MadhyllntavibhagasOtrabhasyap.I<a of Sthiramati.. : in J]1e Indian
Hisl9rlcillJ:.8!i!iWrlY, Vol-IX, Man:h 1933, No.1. p.I024.
cr. Yl2.
i. Talcakusu: "TIle Life ofVasu-bandhu by Parl!lll~a (A.D. 499.569)" in ~ VatS,

190>1. p!'.269296.

~xi

practical

int~grity.

M"hBy~n",

II i. repol1ed that when he made the decision to euter the

fl Vo hundred of his disciple. also made the transition.

He is credited with

Ihe authorship of numerous original work. and commcntarics l4 alld hi. reputation for

exc.llenee in medltati y.
Ir.dl~.

~ractices

and leaming was knuwn throughout the Non:'t of

Aflor the df.alh 01" AaaJ\ga, Yasubandhu became upsdhyya (Abbol) of NUla.t!da

lind 1'nranntha records Il,at he was

I'Ilspon.~ible

for the creallon of 654 Dharma centre.

in and amund Magndha.


The dntes of Vasubnndhu are problematical. Some scholan; argue In favour of the
accoptance of more than one author with this nante during the period of the third
fifth centuries A.D., while others maintain that tho available

for such an InterpretalionJ5 .

~videnc"

10

does not allow

It is a pal1icularly hazy area of study that is based

essentially on attem;1ts to reconcile the Tibetan and Chinese historical accounts and
henc" necessarily contains considerable supposition and speculation.

Suffice to say

Ihat Vasubandhu, the author of the MA V -BM~ya, probably lived during the third and

fouM centuries A. D.
Bu-ston describes Sthiramati as a pupil of Vasubandhu who was more learned in
Ihe Abhidhnnna than his teacher. He is reputed 10 have joined Vasubandhu al dIe age
of seven and worked diligently at his studies uotil becoming proficient in all the five

science.. According to the Chinese pilgrim I_Tsing36, Sthirarnati was at NlIlanda for
some years before moving on to Valabhl where he eSlablished a monastery and

composed mOSI of his works. He was a prolific writer who wrote sub-commenwles
to most of Vasubandhu's commentaries in addition 10 numerous other works 3?
Scholars are in rough agreemenl conceming his dates which can be put approximately

al 500-570 A.D.l8

For a complete list of his works as recoooed in the Tibetan bs Tan !)SYW see L. Chimp. & A.
T:lran~th.s Hism ... , pp.39S-7.
The most recent studies in this regard are by: E. Prnuwallner: 9n the Dato of me Buddhist
Ma\!!!r of til. Law Vasubandhu. Rome: Serio Orienu!e Roma ill, 1951 & "Landmarks 1n the
HislOry of Indian Logic" In Wi
.i
1lW.I:m. Band v, 1961,
pp.12S-148; P.S. Jaini: "On the Theory
in BSOAS. Vol. XXI, 1958,
pp.4S-S3; A. WayrtU!n: Anal is f the
. University of California
Press, 1961, pp.19-24.
I. Tuuusu:
ROC91 of the BuddhiSt ksli~n as Practised in Ingjaand thlLMrun
MhillSl!!,\lo (A.D. 671- 9Sl by r-TS. Reprin~ lhi: Munshiram ManoharJaI, 1966.
For a complete list of !lis works as recorded in the Tibelm bsTan pgyw see L. Chimpa & A.
ChaltCi\1adhyaya: nranalh~..., pp.399-400.
Cf. R. Frauwallner. "Landmarks ... & Y. Kajiyama: "Bhavaviveka, S!hiranulli and Dhannapllla"
in B.ilrtge zur GIli.srmg=hte Indi.ns - Festschrift ftlr Erich FrauwaJlner, Wiener Zei!Shrift fUr
Chattopadhyaya:

35

36

37
38

rue Kundi: SUd-un". OstaSl~ Blllld XIIxm, 196811969, pp.193.203.

Worka Cited in the Bhlhya and

11k!.
?og. & U No.

WorKcilbJ

or Ohair' or T1tA

MnJJhima-niknya'5utta No.IZ!

N 18.4ff.

KnAyapapollvona #60

YIS.2Uf.

AbhisamayBlaQlkDra V.21

Y29.7.g

Abhidhartna-sUtra

Y34.1'2

AIIguunrnnlkAya tn.54

Y4Q,22ff.

MnhnynnasntrnlalllkA,a X1.60

Y66.28-29

DasabhUmika-s!lli'a R26.12ff.

NlS.22/'f.

R2S.21 ff.

nOO.19ff.

R33.15ff.

YlO!.21ff.

R42.2ff.

YI03.9ff.

AbhidharmasGtra

YI12.81!

SalllYuttaniHya

N45.4

BahudhBlukasutta (cf. Majjhima-niknya 115)

N.46.20

Dhqmmapada 223

YI.50.13-14

Ka5yapaparivalta #52

Y233.13ff.

#63

Y243.13-14

#64

Y244.18

#66

Y245.12ff.

#67

Y246.! Iff.

#68

Y247.12ff.

#69

Y248.llff.

#70

Y249.11ff.

#71

Y2S0.12ff.

Notes on the Translation.


The arrangement of topics and subtOpics under their respective headings follows
Nagao's edition of {he SanSkrit

BhD~ya

and sometimes differs slightly to the

arrangement of Yamaguchi's edition of the Tlk!.

The

K~rik~

and Bh3sya teXI is

translated in bold type and is placed imm..diately above the relevant TIkI text. When

the KlIrika or

Bh~~ya

is quoted in the Tlka. Ihis is also

rend~red

in bold type. The

numbers in the left-hand margin indicate: (a) the page number of the Sanskrit texIs
when a page break occurs or (b) {ile page and line number of the Sanskrit texIS at the
beginning of a new topic.

Tlte paragraph divisions of the TIki generally follow

Y;lmaglJchi'1! ;UTtHlgcment ahhough this is

rn.~aJSjonnlly

dumgt!d (or the sake of a

mon~

({)herem scpf.iriuion of Sthiramatfs argulUcrn and discussion.

1 have (limed for consIstency in lhe choico of an English temt for its Sans bit or
Tiberan "qui",!,"t .1111I)\I&h dus Ilnncipl" is """",ionaBy waIved whell it is felt thot the
'OlHc!xt dc:m{mt~,s a diff.:tent nuance,

For e.\ample. svabh!1va is usually tra.nslated JS

"ownbeing", but when usod in Ihe context of dIe IIj.,vabhRva doctrine, it is rendered

:lS "nalum" os is Ihe norm ill prllclice of most conteOlpory commentators. Due to their
Illulli".l""! meaning nnd cumbersome English equivalems, some Sanskril words have
not been tnmslatcd: Lhe word dharma

i~

fiot translated when its senSe as "constllUctU of

reality"; or "oiUological category" etc, is intended; when it is used to refer to the


doctrlno or t,;aching. of the Buddha, it is r<:ndcred a5 "Dhannn".

kwma is us,ed chiefly in the


tmnslated when it

i~

SCItse

of "action" it is tt3nSlaled

a.'i

Where the word

such, however, it is not

clcaf that its other more abstract mornl COllllotations (;IS the fruition

of tho actions of fhe past) afe intended.

The word jri,1na is usually rendered as

"lluoY/ledge" and occasionally "cognition" except when il signitie. the knowledge that
is free from conceptual discrimination (nirvik"Jpa), in which case it is translated as
"direct intuition". TIlis lalter sense is often clarified by the Tibetan translation which
renders it as ye ses rather than se.~ pa.

My fundamental prinCiple when translating both Bh~ya and TIk~ h23 been to take
If it reads differently to the Tibetan but

the Sanskrit tox! as the reference point,

maintains coherence both syntactically and philosophically, its reading is adopted in


preference

fO

the Tibetan and the lalter is noted as a variam.

In t10e case of the TIM,


If a

any difference between the manusc,ipt reading and YamaGuchi's text is noted.
coherent rendering is not possible from the manuscript, the

Tib~tan

forms the basis of

the mmslation and an emendation to the Sansk.rit is suggested. The translation of the

missing ponio;;. of rhe manuscript is always based on the Tibetan, and an


improvement is annotated where

reconstruction.

( am unable to agree with Yamaguchi's

.!LXIV

Index by Paragraph
Chapter One
Introduction

'111\) 'Ilody' of the Treatinc

The Dofining Characteristics


1. 'l1H' ImaginatiQn of What

i~

Unreal:

(II) The Charactoristic of Existence and Non-existence


I. introouctot)'
2. Roj"ctlon M the flegalion of tho dh.rrmu
.I. Til. Impgi""",," of what is unreill (.bhlllapanJ:.Jpa) is a 'barn' eXisle"1 oJ"void of
\he dulility of sub;.,ct and Objecl
4. Avoiding Uio oXlremes of imputation and negation (samll.'"()pRpavDd.1)
5. The I'elationship belWcon defilement and purilkauon
6. i1bhUt,1parikaJpa

7. The ch ...cteriSllc of emp"\1..s (SOny,,!)


8. All dh/IITllas are e:srablish<!d as neith., empty nor not empty
9. This is tho middle way
(b) The Individual Chnraclcristir
I. Th. individual characteristic (svaJa.k$apa) of abhO/Bpa.rikaJpa
2. n,o""tlIbHshmem of the sense (acultie. ,enseobje1:lS and consciousness (vijdtln.) in
relation to abhat.pwaipa
3. abhD/8psrikaJps is the essendal nature of conscionn s
4. The four kinds (l( appearance (prstibhlJss)
5. Th. appeMancc as obj""l (aJTil~) and sentient boing (saltv.1) is withoul aspecl ~nirllkiJta)
1M ~ as s.If(Stnlan) and representation (vijnapu) is a false appeMar,,.,
( viWh.-pratibhSSa)
6. Th~ obj""l cannot bo differentialL'd from the nallJ.re of consciousnoss
7. Since the istence of Ui. Qbje<:t cannOI bo established. consciousness - as discerning
agent .. is non-existent
8. Consciousness does nOl exist as such, nor is it non-existent
9. Why Ui. non""isl.nC., of consciousnes, is not accepted
10. Why consciousness doe3 nOI oxi>! in the way in which it manifests
(0)

Th. Characteristic of the Totality


l. The lhreo natures (svabbSva)
2. Explanation of the tIIt<e n.llJ.res in tho ooo""t of .bhDta,...rikaJps
3. abhDtllpa.rikaipa is "'l".valenl to ti'. othor-dependem nSlUre (pat3lBntIlHvabhSva)

(d) The ChafAQleristic of the Expedient for Entry into the


Characteristic of Noo-existence
l. Tho characteristic of non-existence ref~ 10 !h~ non-existenc.. of the duality
2, The poICIlption of repl'eSentlltion",.iy (vijtlBpri-m!tra) is Ui. oosis for the non-perreption
of the ob;.,ct
3. ConlCi.:,u,n... arises in the niltUl"e of lb. appearance of Ui. object
4. The nat)lre of the objective suppon (il./amb8tJ.)
S. Rejection of L~' various 'alOnti'tic' theories as anempL. to .ccmm! for Uie obje1:tive

support
6. Rejection of Uie ,;&" (nimim) as Ihe ob;.,ctive support
7. Re;.,ction of nOll-resistant manu (apraogh.", rOpam) as comprising the objective
support
8. Re;.,ctioo of the theory that the. obj""tive suppon derives from past uperience

<xv

9, Tho nQn'I"'n:~I~i()" of !It. obj!);! 15 l1ie b.. ,. for dI. non'p<n:'fIl'itll' of I1tl""knlllli'ln
only
10. T1,. '<quo","'1 pl'O!l ..... 'on of tho /Jodhj8ttV" undmUlndiJ18
"onp;m:eptioo h..
",lI1'~<!J>!l()fI for itl bosls
11, 'The cnemial rHuUro of ~q,.ltioii is nonEJ*'C(lptiofi
12. NOll' ~ep!ion ls equivol~m 10 pon:eption
13. Al!=olive exp"",ation of 12
14. 2nd allcrnaUvo plonation of 12
I~. lId l\J~ma!iv. explMlotion of 12

,ha,

(0) The Cl1aracletb!lc of tho DHferclltialion

I. Why the dJrrernnlJation Of Dbharaplll'il:3ips II n!!(!usnry


2. 3bhUtnparik,'lJplI ron,i,!.S in mind .nd the momal concomitaJ1ls of Ih.
Ah,,",ativ~ "'pl""ation of Ihe dim"~nU.tion
4. 2nd altJ!mativ~ planatlon of)
~. 31d .lIem3Iiv~ pl"".ti.," of)

),

dll~

realm,

among realms

6. 4lh lIltllm""ve .lplarmJon of J


7. SUlhl'MtJl <If dI. dif("",ntialion
(f)

The ChMtlctariarlc of Its Synonyms


I. WlJy tho synonyms am relevant
2. Yh. perception of Ih. objocl ponains (0 Ibe objoct; !Ito pen:eption of particulars peRains
10 Ihe mon!.tl conCOmiUlltIll
3. RejcctiO>l of the view Ibat ill. meo!.tl ooncomiWlL~ are spocial modes of mind

(g) Thn Actualizing Characlerhdr:


I. Th. callSe I result dynamics of consciousness
2. Th. slOnHoll$Cioosneu (lll,ya-viftjJlna) u die c~u~a1 condition for ill. other

consciousnesses
3. TI,. !leNal r..onscio\lSncS$CS (pN/V(tti.vijIlJlns) are the basi. of the SeIlse eJtperiences etc.:

!he slOre..:omciou.",eu u' nol


4. TI,;, relationship of senSCI ".peri.,."., discrimination and stimulation 10 Ibe .. respoctive
~

5. Aloomative "planation of.j


(II) Tho Charaoteristlc of Defilement
I. The explanation of dependent origination ifi die context of sbhOtapllrikaJpa
2. Phenomena, QIl they are in relllily, are concellled by ignorance
3. The latent ~iolU are implanted by rhe fonnative fon;es
4. The 'st<!d' of tho new .lli~ is conducted 10 the place of rebirth by consciousness
5. Tho individual nll1Ul1i is <::tIClIpsuLllted by name/fonn
6. The individual nalllre is comPleted by die .ix .enseflelds
7. There ..... 1ilrec mode$ Qi discrimination through conlOCl
8. Them is sense experience !hrough SOl'ISatiO"
9. Th. rIC.. existence 1.1 attrao;tcd Ihrough craving
10. COtUcioumess ifl fettered Ihrough gruping
11. The kllmlR pe!fcrtne<lo811.!4tS tho bmJ,\!.result ID bo diroctcd lOwaros the now .~is .. nte by
becoming

12. The world is <icfiled by birth, okl-age and death


13. Explanation of; 'tho wood u defllO<!'
14. Thteefold.lWofold andsevenfolddefllemenl
IS. Thn:efold de~~ (a) mcmI dclilemen~ (b) bmIa and (e) rebirth
16. Twofold defilement (a) cause and (b) lesull
17. Sevenfold defilement (a) ~$ invenion. (h) projoclioo, (e) I...alR!" (d) posseSSion,
(e) SM$e ~~ (f) ~on and (g) agiwion

18, Mora! defilement ..,d karmo are the general and spec;iI'ic causes respec;lively
19. There is no >gent of action CIC. tllal i. demO<!
21). 'Then, .... ""0 kinds of dependent <'<iginalioo: (0) that charncteriud by projection (:;.k~epa)
and (b) dill! c~ by >ClUalization (abhiniIvrW)
2 L All defil~ment IlUI!lifeslll from abbUI$pMikaJpa

The Summary Meaning of the rmagination of What is Unreal

2. Umptineu:
Itlltoduo!ory
l, E"plamu.ion of rho subjectS djscu~1.ed in rellldon ID emptinu!I

(a) The

Chara~tothUc

Blllptincu

0'(

1. Emptiness b chanicteri.ted by the e.1se:miaJ nature of a non..exine:ot


2. Empdnen il "'luivajenl to Ih. a!J,olule fi,.."".iSlence of the subj(!(;11 ol>jccl duality on
Iho pon of abhDr'plllihlp.
3. '111"cntial nBm", of ompllJle$S "cilhor ~.is .. nor 00<1 it nm cxill
4. The chllf3Cl.ri,Uc of emptin... I. neither dilferent from nor idomlcalto .bhUraplllikalp3
5. Why Ihls ,!If(..n from Ihe Nil1lrnnlha doctrine of Ill. Jain,
6. Summary

(bl Tbe Synonyms of I!mptlncu


!. '11",

11". m8m synonyms ....: (a) lath.tJ, (bi bhat.kO/I~ (e) nimillil. (d) pmmarrMrhnd

(~)~

(el The Meaning of tho Synonyms of EmptillDss


I. TM meaning of tho five main synonym>

(d) The Olffcrontiation of Emptiness


1. Emptiness is dlffmnriaud as dl!filed or pure
2. [f II posses,es the quality of chMgc. why is emptiness nol impetmanont?

The Sixteen Kinds of I!mptiness


I. Although its essential nalUh!! is undifferentiated, It can be differentiated in relation to (O~!
foondRJj;:n, (vasru; gil)
2. n,e f011l foundsu0I1$ arc: (a) me enjoy..... (b) the .njoymen~ (e) the physical body ~nd
(d) the in ..limatc world
3. Th. six_ kinds of emptiness are: (a) Internal emptiness
4 (b) Ihtemal emptiness
S. (e) Internal anr;lextcmal emptiness
6. (d) Univellal emptiness
7. (e) The .mpanOla of emptiness and (I) tho emptine.~ of the absolute
8. (g) Th. omptiness 0/' Ihe cooditioned and (h) th. emptiness of tho unconditioned
9. (i) Absolufe emptiness
10. (j) Emptiness withoul ~eginnlnB and end
11. (10:) Tho emptiness of nonrejectiofi
12. (l) InUinsic emptiness
13. (m) 100 emptiness of the chlll1!Coostic rruub of a supreme being
14. (n) The omptin.8i of all dhamtlU
IS. (0) Tho omptincS! of noo-<!xislOnce and (p) the emptiness of the ,,-o;scmial nanmo of noD
exJ.s~

16. Reasse&Smem of the fourteen kinds of emptines, in the light of the two kinds of
emptin.., mentioned in t
17. The obi""t oml "",,Dtial nature of .mptiness and tho aim of the meditative development
of emptiness

(~)

The LOllieal Proof of Bmptinell


1. If It were !lOt deftled. all being, would ~ _ llberlUed
2. If it wore !lOt p<lre. effon would be in ,ain
3. l! is neither defiled nor undefiled, neitller PU"" nor iltlpW'O
4. The justiticalion for the la_ fourfold diffcrentlatiOil of emptiness

The Summary MoaninS 0: i!mptinllSl


I. In IcntU of its ch=teristics
2. In terms of its establishment

x.xvii

Chapter Two
1. The Five Ob6cW'lIItionl Beginning with the 'pervadillg'
\. Tho 'pef'/iIdlng' iJ penlnenl II} tho bodhisattva
2, 111. 'limited' pel'Uins to til. sf'v,;ka aie,
), The 'excenive' p<:IlJIins to tho bodhi.Mfv. and sell ..... e!C,
4. 'J'OO 'qual' P"I1.o.lns to til. bodhis~rtv8 and Srav~ka~tc.
S. The 'itrXe-pUll\C4 and mjoction' of '''llUJlnI (J'lttaJns to ,h. bodhlsatfva
6, Summary the tive obscurmloM

er

2, Tho ObSCUtlltion that Consists in the Nine Fetters 10 Application


l. The nine f.nel>
2, Attachment and repugnance 1'010'0 UlliAAiety and quanimily
1. Pride obscures the clear "omprchomsiOn of tltC false view of individuality
4. IgnOOlllcc obscure' tho c1w comprehension of the (QQndation of !hi; I~uer
5, Pal,,, view obscUI'OS tho clear compmhension of tho lI'1Jln of , ..salion
6. Clinging obscum the clear comprehension of the truth of the pl!lh
7. Doubt obscures tho clou comprchen,ion of tho 111= 'jewels'
g, Envy obscures the clear comprehension of gain and honour
9. AvlUie. obscure. the clear comprdltnsion of au,teriry
10. SUIlU1W')' of 1110 nine fetIC'"

3, The Obscuration Pertinent to the Bodbisanvas:


(a) The Ob3curation to the Tenfold [Qualities) Beginning ",th
Virtuo
I. The len qualities
2. Why Ille3C are relevant 10 enlightenment

3. Tho Sl1lquetuial order of me development of Illese qualities


4. Th. obscurnriom '" tho wholesome art): (a) I... ~ of application, (b) the application 10
u"worthyobjects and (e) 5uperlkialapplication
5. The obsc\o.rations 10 aniighICnmenl ate: (a) the non-i!risins of tho wholesome, (b) lack of
menlJll al1'emion ",,<1 (e) ir.oomptetC a<;Cwnulations
6, The obscuration. 10 complete at:Ci!pWlCe IUl!; (al deprivation of spiriruallincage,
(ll) deprivation of good friends and (c) menlJll exhaustion
7. The obscuration. to inteiligC1,"" are: (a) dcpnvatiOli of spiritual pra<:!lcc, (b) living willi
foolish poop,," and (c) living with pernicious people
8, Tho obscUl'8uoll 10 absence of error are: (a) the disquiet of error, (b) Ille defile"",nt of
p!!SSiClll 1'lC. aM (e) tho non-mallltation of wiJdom
9. The obscurations to the relinquishment of obscuration ....: (a) innatll disqui.~ (b) laziness
and (e) care\OMIlO$$
10. The obscurations 10 ITallSfonnlllion are: (.) auachmentlD existence, (b) attachment to
e:tjoyment and (c) fllinilteart_
11. Tho obscul1!tlons to lack of feat are: (a) a low opinion of people, (b) lack of firm
conviction and ,c) IlIlduo (\eUb",uion on the literal ..... ""ing
12 The obscUl'l1tions to lack of avarice are: (a) lack of enthusiasm. (b) enthusiasm for gain.
etc. and (e) 1.lCk of compassion
13. The obs<urations 10 mas!e<y are: (al loss of what h leam~ (b) learning IJUI. and (e) lacl<
of the ~ary pt'I!p&'aIion for sam1ldhi

(b) The Ten [Instrumental] Causes


1. The ten instronv:ntai causes
2. Tho causes for origination
3, The causes for !hi; continuation of enlightenment
4. The causes for the suppan. i.e_ bodhicirra
5. The cauSes for the manifestation of intellJgern::e
o. The CllIIS"" for tho modifitation of ...-or, i.e. inlO non~r
7. The causes for the disjuIICdon from obscurntion
8, Tho causes for !hi; trllI\Sformation into universal enlightenment
9. Th~ call'''' fot belief
10. The causes for be/i..fin otllers

IIxviii

11. Th. C'!lUes for til. aLwnmem of mastery


12. Altemative e.pllUlation of !he ten cause. by way of a ''''lutntial progroosion
13. Summary of til. len c.u.... il1two aIltMII-s/ok;;o

4. The Obscurations to the Facton that Contribute to Enlightenment,


the P~"ectiona md the Spiritual Levels
I. Intl'oductory

(a) The Obscurations


Bnlightenment

10

the Pacton that Contribute

10

I. Inuoductory
2. Lack of skill as obsl:uration Lo Ihe application. "f mindfuln s
l Laline., .... absell"lion to til. complele relinquishments
4, TheLwo deficic'tlc!es in s.mMhi ... ob,cumtioo, 10 tile b..... ' of psychIc power
j,111e non-engendering of elements conducive 10 liberalion as obscurations 10 til. (;!Cuilies
6. Th. weakness of !he facultie ..... obscuration 10 !he powers
7. False views as obscU11ltion to til. limbs of enlightt!nment
8. DisquieL as obscuration 10 Ih. limbs of tlle Vatll

(b) The Obscurations to tho Perfections


1. 11tese are shown through the obscuration 10 the 1'I10.lUll result of each perfection

2. The obscuration to dominion and sovereignty

3. The obscuration 10 tile propitious sures of existence


4. The obscuration 10 til. non-ablUldonmenL of beings

S. Th. obscuf1lllon to tho diminution of faults and til. augmentation of virtues


6. Th. obscurntion to til. gui<laJu:. of those to be trained
7. The obscuration 10 liberation
8. The obscuration 10 the imperishalnlity of generosity etc.
9. The obscuration to !he emetgence of til. whoi~ome elements
10. The obsclll1llion to dIe assutallCe !hal the
wiu arise
II. The obscuration 10 !h. enjoyment of the Dlutrma and dte mJltunltion of otI1en
12. Substantially, til.,.. aNI six perfections; nominally, til.,.., are ten

1.=

(e) Tho ObacuratioDs to the SlIiritual Levels


1. Description of tOO bodhisarta's progression tllfOugh tile len spiritual levels
2. Undeftled nescience (81:1#111111 ajrll1nsm) is a tenfold obscuration 10 e31;h spiritu.,
level

3. On til. first spiriwalle.el tile bodhisarrv. penetrafl!S tile all-pervadingness of the


dht!ansdhJtu
4. On the second level he peneU1l!eS !he latter as foremost
5. On tile lhird level he p""etrates that which flow. OUI o( tile dhannadMnl as being p....,.
eminent
6. On til. fourlh level he penetrates til. dhumildhltu as being devoid of po...... ion
7. On !he fiflh ievel h. peneU1ltcs it as a non-differentialion in mental continuum
8. On dIe sixth level he pen.mues it as devoid of deftlcmont lUld purity
9. On the seventh level h. penetrates il as being devoid of multiphcity
10. On the eightllievel he penetrares it as being neither diminished nor increased
11. Mastery is fourfold: (a) llUISfI!ry over conceptual differentiation. (b) mastery over the
purification of the 'field'
12. (e) Mastt!ry over direct intuition
13. (d) Maslet)' or/!>" kllflllB
14. Sur.:mary

5. The Totality of Obscuration


1. All obscuration is subsumed in two: (a) obscuration thal consists in moral defilement and
(b) obscuration tIl.t consists in til. knowable
2. The obscutation to the Buddha le.el

The Summa.ry Meaning of Obscuration

~hapter

TIlrce

lntroductory
1, Tho differentiation of realities (rarrva) is nec",ary to enable the understanding of their
essential nalUl'e'
2, The relevanc. of tho realities, in brief
), Alternnt/,'o explanation of 2
4, Various views on lh6 realities

1. The Basic Reality


I, The blL~l~ teality comprises the three natures
2, Why 1l1. tl,ree
,hould be studied
}, The Imaginary nalure (paritRlpitNv.bllSva) is eternally non islent
4, TIl. otheNlcpendent natu.rc (pmWlITa-.vabhnva) exists. but nOI as a reality
S, 'The perfected nature (pllrinilpanna-svabhJva) both exists and doe, not exisl as a reality

".tII...,

2. The Reality of ChariICteristic


I. The roality-characteristic in relation to the imaginary nat"",
2 The realhy characteristic in relation to the otherdependent nature

3, 'The reallty characteristic in relation to the perfC(;ted narure

3, The Reality Free from Erroneous Inversion


I, The reallty free from errOneous inversion consists in Ihe k:nowledge of what is
impermanent (lIlliry.), painful (d~.), empty (SallY') and ins.bsllIIlu,1 (nair3tmya)
2, 'The ll1reefold n,1UI'e of Ihe impermanent obj..:t
3. Suffering that is due to appropriation
4, Suffering thaI is due to 1l1. characteristic
S, Suffering ll1at is due to association
6, Emptiness as: (a) non-existence, (b) existence as somell1lng oll1er and (e) inlIinsic nature
7, InsubsllIIltiaiity as: (a) Ihe absen<::e of characteristic, (b) a difference in characteristic 'OIl
(e) the int1ividual clum!cteristic
8, Explanation of <h_ differenc~ b_un emptiness (SUnrsrlf) and insubsllllltiality
(nairSanya)
9, Tho three Idnds of irnpennanenco as the counteragenlS to imputation and "egation

4. The Reality of the Cause and the Result


1, The reality of cause and result "'fen 10 L~e four nob!. lJ1uhs
2. The truth of suffering
3, The truUI of origination
4, The truth of cessation
5, The rtuth of Ihe path

S. Grosa and Su')t!e Reality


1. The gross and suntle .-ea/ities refer to the conventional and the absolute
2, The conventional as desigMtioR
l. The convcntiollul as k:nowledge
4. The conventional as utterance
5. Explanation of the three aspects of the conventional
6, The absolute consislS in lit. pert'ected n,1UI'e
7. The absolute as object is thYSness
8. The absolute as attainment is nirvJl{la
9, The absolute as spiritual practice is ll1e path
10. The perfected nawl'o includes boIh nirvll{la (the uncoot1itioned) and the path (the
conditioned)

6. Well Established Reality


1. What is generally established is due to the imaginary nature
2. Wbat is established through reasoning is due to the three natures

xX>

7. The ReaHty of the Sphere of Purity


I. Tile sphere of purity Is twofold
2. Th. removal of obscuradon that consisll in boch ".,raJ defilement and the Imownbla
3. 11.e twofold sph"'" of purity is due just to the pcrfoctod

,,,,lin,,

8. The inclusioll Reality


I. The five categori
2. TIle call.llIslgn (nimifta) .":~ concepu,llI difl'etCl'Iti.tion (vikaJP8) are included in ,he olher
dependent 3nd the nanw i. included in the in\llgir~
J. Tl1USM!S oOd COITCCI dlrecl intuition lire included in me perfecloo nalum

9. Tile Reality of Differentiation


I. The reality of d1rfmnti.tion is sevenfold
2. The """ginary and o'herpendenl consi." in 'continu,,"ce'

3. The I.uer tWO also consist in 'armngement' and 'wrong coul1e'


4, The perfocled con,l'll in UIO 'chru'octerlstic', "epl\liletttations', '"ulilleatioe: and 'correct
spiritual plaetir s'
S. Alternative e.pIM.uon of the sevenfold differentiation

10. The Reality of the Skilla


L TIle ten false views in regald to Ule existonce of a self among the aggrega""
2. The skills at'C included wichin the basic reality in tenns of: 101 the imaginary
(parik;JJpilll), (b) concep!UaI differentiation (vikaJpal and (e) real natute (dhlll1t!atlf)
3. The latter thn:e apply equally to aU five aggregates
4. The aggregates in relation to the thn:e natures
S. How tho imaginary nature can btl conceptually differenliatod
6. The refutation of the theory that the Object is generated by the lIame
7, Summary

(a) The Moaning of the Aggregates


I. They are considered In the sense of: (al multiple, (b) collecled and (e) dispat:lte

(b) Tho Meaning of tho Elements


I. They an> considered in tho sense of the 'seeds' of: (a) !he subjoc~ (b) the object Md (e) the
JJOl'Ception of these
2. AlteI1lativc explanation of the lllay.-vijll1lDa as suppan for the three groups of olomen\3

(e) The Meaning of the Sense-fields


1. Thes. an> considered as the medium of origination for the experience of: (a) sensation and
(b) che discrimination of the object
2. There is no 'agent' of experience, nor 'object' of experience
3. Explanation of the sense-field theory in tho Ught of the vijd.p';-mBtra doctrine
4. Reply to the Objection that the lauet confii~\3 with the trolditiomll Iheory
5. Reply In the objection .that the vijrl.pti-mSIrIl interpretation does not allow dIe
appear""" (i1iItJhSSa) of the object to be differentiatod from consciousness

(d) The Meaning of Dependent Origination


I. Considered in the ,;en", of an absence of imputation and negation in regard to cau,e,
result and efficacy
2. The imputation of causality
3. The negation of causality
4. The imputation of the result
5. The Mjlation of the resnlt
G. The imputation of efficacy
7. The negation of efficacy
8. The absence of imputation and negation is duo to the absence of these six

(0) Tho MOBnlns of the POlllblD and the ImpolliblCl


I. 'n.. possible and the n.)t possible should be understood in the sense of a sevenfold
dependency up<ll1 something olllu
2. DepcndeACy in mJation to what Is not desin!d
1. Depo!'ldency in relation to whu is desin!d
4. Dependency in relation to purity
S. Dcpcndcooy in reladon U) 1110 concumnt births of twO rsthlSatSJI or twO camvlllfins

6. Dependency in ntladon U) sovereignI)'


7. Depilndency in relation U) complers auai",""Pt
8. Dcpenlkncy in relation U) behaviour
9. Summary
(f) Tho Meaning of the Paculties
I. The twilDl)'-two faculties exen;ise an inIluence in fiv< main atel\S: (a) pelCj!ption.
(b) duration. (e) conrinuil)'. (d) expericntc and (e) the two purities
2. The sense faculties ate !he inIluences in the perception of the object
3. The viLlI facull)' is the inlluence in die duration of life-span
4. Tho female and IItIIe faculties are the influences in the continuation of the family
S. The faculties of sensation "'" III. influenus in experience
6. The faculties of fallll eu:. are the influences in mU/lfJane puril)'
7. The facull)' of ulldmtanding wllal Is nIX undmtood is lIIe influence in 5upramundane
puril)'
8. This urangemcnlls diffCRIII for Ihe YOllkllnl
(g) The Meaning of tho Times
I. The pen;eption and non-pen:eplion of cause and result
(h) The Meaninl of the Pour Truths
I. The 1111111 of suffering is considered in lIIe sense of sensation
2. The !roth of orillin.uon is consid.ered in the sense of lIIe pr2CIice caused by I
3. The !roth of cessatiC"l is considePld in the _e of the appeasemem of 1&:2
4. The !roth of the path ;s considoPld in the sense of lite counlenllent

(I) Tho MeaDins of tho Threo Vehicles


I. In order (Q 10 forth via the sa..k, vehicle
2. In order to go forth via the pnryol/abuddh. vehicle
l. In order (Q go forth via the wli",ma\ vehicle
4. A1l1m1a1ive explanation of the dilfm:nu'llion of lIIe dua! vehicles

U>

The Me.niDI of the Conditioned aDd the UncondltiODed


I. The condidoned consists in the causal-sign accompanied by bolll its dosiflllition and

cause

2. Varlous a1l1lmalive views Oft the defInJdon of !he causal-sign


J. Th. elemenlS int:orpmaled in the acWal coIIICiousness are: (a) mind. (bl apprehending and
(e) conceptual differentialion
4. The unconditioned consists in: (a) lr.UIquillil)' and (b) 111_ - the object of lr.UIquillil)'

The Summary Meaning of Reality

Chapter Four
Prologue

1. The Meditative Development of the Countcragent


Introductory
I The counlmlgents ate the factors that contribute U) enlighl8llJllllll

Ju,:c.il

(a) The Pour Appllcatlonl of Mllldfulnllsl


I. Tho iMdlrativo <!dvolopment of tho appliclltlollll of mindfu1nen leW 10 tho undcnlanding
of Ill. four IruthS
2. Disquiet (dIlu,/huly.) is made llWIif.. tlhrough the body
J. The cause of craving is sennt10n
" Mind Is the foundatiGn for notional anachmentlo Ille self
S. Tlte inv..tigation of the dharmss leads to tho comprehension of the lruth of Ille path
6. Explanal' ,n of Ille .ffoclS I)f the four mindfulnesges
(b) The Pour Correct Ilxertlons

I. Tlte undenWldlng mgenllen:d by mindfulness prodw;es afourfold vigour for the


.madication of adverse elemenrs and the production of the counteragents

(C)

The Pour Bases of Psychic Power


1. The psychic powers incol])OralJl the mental stability thal ",suhs from Ille above
mentioned fourfold vigour

Tho Flvo Paults


I. Explanation of Ille five flults

The Illght Pormativu Porces That Facilitate Relinquishment


I. Pour are counlel'allestCS 10 Ille fauh of laziness

2. Pour are counlel'agestlS 10 the other four faults

(d) The Pive Faculties


I. The five are: (a) wiU-power, (b) application, (c) non-loss of objective support, (d) nondiffusion and (e) analysis
2, Ahemative explanation of the latter

fiv~

(e) The Plve Powers


I. Tho five elements beginning with faith are caned 'faculties' when mixed with adverse
olemenu and 'powers' when Illese are OIlIdicaled
2, Wby they can be desaibed both as 'faculties' and 'powers'
3. The faculties that comprise Ille elemenu conducive 10 liberation
4. TItlemenlS conducive 10 penetration
S. Tlte suues of 'heat' and the 'summit' are faculties: the 'rcceptivities' and 'higbest mundane
realizations' ate powers

(f) The Seven Limbs of BlIlightenment


I. Definition of terms
2, TIt. seven limbs are: (a) mindfulness, (b) the analysis of tho dharrrlBS, (e) vigour,
(d) deligh~ (e) quiescence, (0 meditative concentration and (g) equanimity
3. Further explanation of the laller three limbs
4. Alternative explanation of equanimity

(g) The Bight Limbs of the Path


1. The eightfold path is established by way of: (a) accurate determination, (b) attainment for

othors. (c) the confidence of others and (d) the coun.....ent IC ad_ elemenu
2, Com!Ctviow is Ille limb for the accurate determination of the path of vision
3. Correct intention and correct speech are the Urnbs for attainment for others
4. Correct speech, correct action and correct livelihood are the limbs for confiddnce on the
pan of others
S. Conect effort, ccrrec:t mindfulness and conect iMdltative concentration are the COURteragenrs 10 the oIdvene elemenu

(h) The Differentiation of the Meditative Development of the


Counteragent
I. The threefold dlffOn!ntiation
2. TIt. threefold differentiation for the bodIUsatrva

2. Tbe State Thm:in


I. There m

limo SIlWlS in rile medilalive devel"""",,,1 of lIle counbinlgent: (I) !he c.uslll'

SQIe

2. Cb) 'Arriva!" (e) preJJaralOry. Cd) ....ult. Ce) 'with dull.. () be performod', (0 'willloul
dulies 10 be performed'. (s) excellence. Ch) 'superior' and Ci) 'UJ\Sutpassablo
3. Tho! nine SLlIa in Ill. conleXl of Ibe spirilUlII 1...1. and rile iluddh. Bodies
4. Those ,!aleS ate dlffelllfttillUld as threefold in relation U) 1M dhllml1ld/J.ru
,. The ,tala as Ibl! criceria fot rile assessmenl of individuals

3. The Auaitlll:lIlmt of the Result


I. Tho live main results are: (a) lIle k.vmIJ.result. (b) s!!'englh. (e) inclination, Cd) growlb
and (e) puri/lc:ation
2. AllCmative description of Ibose ilve resullS

1. T~n additionalresulll

The Summary Meaning of the Meditative Development of the


Countcragent. The State Therein and The Result
I. The summary meaning of Ibe medllalive developmenl of the cOURlCr3genl
2. The sunmwy meaninB of rile staleS
3. The summary meaning of the .... ults

(''hapter Five
1. The 'I'hree Kinds of Supremacy
I. S;lIce Ibis is rile final topic. il is now explained

2. Th<lre arelluee sUPftlmacies: (a) splriwa! practice. (bl objective support and (e) full
aaainmall
3. Suprenw:y consists in die UBivmal

Ye~le

which possesses a sevenfold univmality

2. The Supremacy of Spiritual Practice


t. Spiritual practice is sixfold in relation 10 !he perfections

(a) Tho RiShol' Spiritual Practice


I. The hlghesl spirilUal practice is lWelvefold: (a) Ibe highesl degree of magnanimity
2. (b) The highest degne of duration
3. (c) The hlghesl degMe of pmrogalive
4. (d) The highest degne of w~._!ibility
'S. Alternative explanation of 4
6. (e) The hlahes! dec<ee of ~ontinuity
7. (f) The hlghesl degtee of nonhardship
8. (g) The Idghesl degm of wealrb
9, (h) The highest degtee of possession
10. (i) TM highesl <lagree of enwprise
II. (j) ThlI highest des- of acquisilion
12. (k) The hiShes! des- of nllbltlll oulCome
13. (l) The :UaheR degMe of ,.;complishmenl
14. A1ternalive .'pllllation of 13
IS. Theae twelve pta:dces 11'0 conllincd wilhin rile perfections
16. The ten perfecdons and rile actions peninenllO each: (a) through his generosity. Ille
bodhisattva assists beings
17. (b) Through his morality.1be IJodbislltflfa does IlOl injwe beinas
18. (e) Thtoagh his pIIi8nce, he endu!a !he injury infJiclCd by otllers
19. (d) Throuah vig_. he ini:reaIes his vinues
20. (e) 'l'brousb !he medil8dve absorpIions. he inldares beings
21. (f) Through his wisdom, he Ubaata beings
22. (g) Throuah !he pe'i'fec1lon of sIriIl in expedients. his ,onerosity ell:. becomes
inDxbauaIible
23. (h) Througlldle pedecIion of vows, he engages in generosity eIC. at all tiJnes

24. (I) Through tho perfection of !nOath. he engaaes etcmally in aoncrosily cU:.
2S. (j) Through llIe perfection of dlrecl intuition, he e.periences llIe enjoymenl of Ill.

DIuItmlI
(b) Spiritual Practice In Rolatlon to Montal Anonlion
1. The meluAl alll!ntlon to the OhMna lhnlllSh the Ihn!e modes of wisdom
2. Menial attention acquires virtue through these three modes of wisdom
3. This spiritual practice is 8IIsocialtd With lite Itn &el! of lito Dharma
"
4. Only In tho universal vehicle do these Oharmic IICts resuilin the immeasurable collection
of merit
$. Altomative explanation of 4

(e) Splritua! Practico that Conform a with the Dharma


I. [t is twofold: (a) without distraction and (b) without CITOneouS inversion

That Which Becomes Proe from Distraction


1. There are six kinds of distraction: (a) inn.... distraction
2. (b) Extenlal distraction
3. (e) !nlCmal distraction
4. (d) The distracdon of signs
S. (e) The distraction of disquiet
6. (0 The distracdon of ment.1 .ttention

That Which Becomes Prco from Erronoous Invorslon


I. The absence of e:rroneous inversion marulesl! in relation to II!:n things; they are:

(.) syllables
2. (b) Th, object
3. (c) Mental activil)'
4. (d) Non-disponal of mind
S. (e) The IndividlUll characteristic
6. (0 The universal characterlslic
7. Th. dilf..ence betw..... the individual and universal characteristics
8. (al The dhannldha/u~ lack of puril)' and puril)'
9. (h) The adventitious natw'e of 8
10. (Il The absence of feat and (J) absence of anogance
11. AilCmative explanation of the lack of fear
12. Neither the pvdgl/Ja n(,O' the dhll)'TlW exisl - It is aU dependent origination
13. This is intended in the convenlional sense. not the absolute
14. The ten absences of e:rroneous inversion in relation to the three n.tures

The Ten Vajra Words


I. Explanalion of the ten vajra words which conespond respectively with the ten absences of

erroneous inversion
2. The 'body' of the vajra words is established as fourfold:
3. (a) By way of the three nalureS
4. (b) By way of the objective suppon
S. (e) By way of the absence of conceprual dilfer:nlialion
6. (d) By way of objections and tIIeir reliltations
7. The second explanation of the 'body' of the vajra words in relation 10 e:rror and non-mor
8. The ten vajra words summarizod as two anlll1ll-ilokss
9. Summary of the ten absences of e:rroneous inversion
(d) Spiritual Praetie, Which Avoids the Two Extremes
I. That which is llIught as the Middle Way in the Ratnakuca
2. The extremes in regard to separ....noss and identity
3. The extremes of the rrtthikllB and Srlvakas
4. The extremes of imputation and negation in regard to the pudgala
S. The extremes of Impulalion and negation in regard to the dhllm/JlS
6. The extremes in regard 10 adverse alamonl! and their COUftlCrSgenl!
7. The extremes of etemalism and annihilationism
8. The extremes in regard to the subject and object
9. The extremes in regard 10 defilemenl or purification of the dharmadhDru

xxxv

10. The seven Idnds of dual exnmes consisting In COncePlIIal dlffemnladon: (a) in Illgard 10
ealsuont and non....istent entiti"",
II. (b) In rcaard 10 tlto object of appeasement and the act of appcuing

12. (el In rqml 10 the obJctt orrear and rhcdrcad arrha laner
13. (dlln resard 10 tile subject and object
14. (0) In regard 10 correcmess and fal511Y
IS. (f) In regard to tho pclformance of action and illl non.porfOl1JlOllCe
16. (g) In reBard to non-originalion anti simultaneity

(e) Spoclflc alld Non-specific Spiritual Pract":c


I. The pelfecdons that predominate on specific spiritual levels

3. The Supremacy of the Ob,l"lctive Support


I. There are twelve kinds of objective support considered to be supreme

4. The Supremacy of Full Attainment


I. There are teon kinds offuIJ attainment; tltoy are: (a) absence of defcclS in conditions
2. (b) Tho fton.rejoclion of the universal vehicle
3. (e) The absence of distr.lction to tho less.. vehicle

4. (d) The fuI/llmenl of the pclfccdons


S. (e) The genetalion of the noble path
6. (I) Tho development of the IOOIll of the wholesome
7. (a) Tho pliabiliry of mind
8. (h) Nonfixation in samslnl or Ilirvllla
9. (I) The absence of obscll13tion
10. (j) The non.intemtption of the Buddha level

The Explanation of the Name of the Treatise


I. II consblll in the analysis of tlte middle in relation to the e'[femes ...

The Summary Meaning of the Supremacy of the Vehicle


I. Supremacy IS threefold
2. The highest degree of spiritual practice
3. The absence of erroneo.... invenion

Chapter One

The Defining Characteristics:


1. The Imagination of What is
Unreal
2. Emptiness

Introductory

(Homage to the Buddha)

After honouriDg the

17. )

author of thb

treatise, tho SOli of tho ,ugat., alld


the 0011 who expouoded it 10 us CIC.,

I shall urive for a critical cumllIatioD of ill meaning.


[Sthinulinti]
(Homage to the Noble Maiajuarl KumArabhOta)

ISince pre.eminent people, as a rule, engage In activities after paying homage to

VI

their preceptor and to

tll~ir

tutelary deiry, in order to show thai he too was a follower in

the course of pre.eminent people, [Vasubandhu] wishing to compose a commentary on


the MadhylntavibhAga SOtra says: "the author of this m:atisc etG.", demonstrating that
he has undertaken an analysis of its meaning after paying respect 10 both the author and

the expounder.

What virtue is obtained when this Is done? When respect is paid

10

one who possesses virtue and is beneficent, metit is accumulatcd; when merit is accu
mulated, with little effort one completes one's enterprise which is unafflictcd by
impediments and hindrances.
Alternatively, in order to g~'1erate reverence towanls the author, the expounder, the

Y2

SIIIrn and the commentary by stilting that: (a) the author had undertaker. the treatise and
(b) the expounder [had undertaken] the commentary, he says all this: .. the author of this

treatise (Otc.]". In this respeCt. (a) by demonstrating whal is expressed by the author2,
I'everence is generated towards the SOu':\ for the Noble Maitreya is the author of this
treatise in verse fonn. Since he is separated [from the attainment of Buddhahoodl only
by onc birth, he has reaChed the highesl perfection of all tho bOdhisatrvas' higher

knowledges, mystical formulae, analytical knowledse. meditati vo concentration,


mllSteries 3, intellectual receptiviry and emanCipations. He has also dispelled the obscu
rations in thoir entirety on all the bodhisattva levels. (b) Through the correCI presen
tation of the expounder, i1Iverence is generated towards the commentary (of
The fiBl folio or lIIe MS.(lb) is in a panicuIarly bad condilion will! jusloccasional WOlds lIIat
can be relId willi any cena!nty, hence !he Ir.UISlation of thi5 folio is based essentially on the

Tib. (0\89b.2 1901.7).


Read (with S~ p.ll fl'k 19): prIlI0rrokl"6pRdalillll1 in place of prB{III vaklum upadi6tJt; Tib.
mdzad PIS biBd PM bsr.m PIS (D189b.6).
Read (willi SL p.14 fn.26): vaiillin place of indtiya:TIb. dblll(D189b.7).

Vosubundhul. for tlte pounder he .., is the Noble Asal)gu4 Th. VeMl'Ilblc Acarya
10

il.

Reverence is gcncl'Iltcd towords tile commentary because the meaning of the SOIl'll

15

Vnsubnndhu. Bfter receiving the I ching (rom him. composed the commcnrary

uneningly sIDled in it because these IWO. since 'lley possess the highest wisdomS. are
able 10 understand, n:UI'n and ""plaul (ill. without etring. In thi. way ",veRlnee arises
towards both the SOtm and the comm.mary on ihe pan of Ihose who rely on Ih.
aUlltonly of Individual people 6. ,\Iso. on Ihe

pan of those who rely on the Dharma,


reverence arises low:lrds b,lh Ihe aUlhor QUO the upoundllr becauso after the true
meaning of Ula SDtra and tile commentary h.& oeen underslood. when a posillve deler
mlnAtion

OCCUI~.

it is brought aboul

tl~rotl8h Ihe

undersl/indi.lg of

the

author and the

e'l)j)umler; bUI IS nOI accomplish~d thmullh jusl speculation and scriprural tradilion 7
thus reverence is

gcncrn'~d

(owald. tho author and the expounder.

This now should be discussed: wh\lt is the nDture of a treatise and why is il
[described asl a sll.tfa?

A trealise consiSIS in

reptesentaIiOns/conc.ptuali~aUons

appearing as groups of n_m03. words. and sy \tables.

Or ralher. a trealise consislS in

representalions uppoaring as specific words that cause the alUlinment of supnunundane


direct intuition.

(Objectionl: How can representalions8 be i""",ulated or commented

upon? [Rcspon6ol: There is no fault here since Ih6 hearer's representations arise flom
rhe represe'ltatiollll of rhe aurhor and the expounder? It is a treatise (Ilsua) tecau.~e il
is
Y3

an instruclion for novices

(.ii$ya.sJ/sana)tO. In order 10 generate excellence in moral

ity. meditative ooncenttation and wisdom, an inswction for novices dissuades them
from the actions of body. speech and mind thaI do nOl produce the accumulalions (of
merit and direct intuitionl. and induces them (\0 engagel in actions that produce the
accumulations. Alternatively. il is a treatise because il coRfonns with the cbaracteristic
of a treatise II. The characteristic of a treatise consislS in the fact that. when the leaching
is practised. one R:linquishes moral defilements along with their latent impressions and
is also protected (Nm both becoming and the wretched states of existence which are

8
9

10
11

Rcad: vanl by BIl1II}'IsBQgu lIS per Ms.( IbAl; in placo 'voktl pI/nar 8ldclq' Asadgas but
Tib.(DI89b.1).: slob dpon (lIdt;r4) fot lIya
Read : unsm.pnjlllvMlrl. ..sD~'Jnham abhrlnr.m upadi'ara iii in place of unam.praitlav8to
....Ql1IItho 'l'lm!ittam upadilta iii: Tib.de gdis tyad ses nib mchog dad /dan pM... 'dir mdo'i
dOlI nIB DDt Da bstall /0 (D 190a.I).
Read (with SL tn.l2 p.IS): ye pudg41apramJtlikJs in place of pudgaJa/ll pramapliauvanri; Tib.
gill dsg gill zlIIllShad IlIIU byed PB (DI9Oa.2). Ms.(Ib.S): .Js /e#1Ip.
Read: ciicaya eM urpadYIIIJ 8'I!"II'~VlIbodhld lIPi pnbhJvito bhavali na IU tarkagama.
m.trep. ptIIbh.vito 6h,v,tlli... m place of jlla ca niic,ye iy.m Pl'llllorur vakw c. pnltIlya
prabhJV&I!'1I11U tarkSlamam'lI\!lll prabhlvaned... ; Tib. lIl1S PB styes n. \Ii mdu.d PB <fall 'chad
PB >:Ill rrogs pas tab IU phye ba yin gyi I rrog go dlll/ull ISBIll gyis IlIb IU phye bllr rJi ma ZJld
do:res .. (D19Oa.3).
Ms.(lb.7): -jlfllPltlylt!; disJeKard Y's tn.7 p.2.
Read: iravB(J8vijtlaplfa'/II in place of pllljif.plInllp : Tib. dan pa1 roam par rig PB roams
(Dl9Oa.Yj.
Ms.{Ib.7): Iysilsllllllcchlstra.
Read: ./ha vi ilslnlaklBllayogllc chlsaam in place of a/ha v3 ilsua/aki'l/asya iJsanac
chlltram; TIb.
bstall beos II:yi mlShan did du '/had PB1 phyir bslan beos tt: (DI90a.6).
Cf.

S~

yad.,.

fn.44. p.19.

fcal1ul

011

ace-oUiu of their manifold

sllffering~

which are

Imen~el

conunmd and

long~

IlIsllng,I2 '111.'''(0'''. it ha, the charnctoristic of a t.... lise (.JSlrs) ooc.u", it ,ules over
(.<.lsllniJ) the enemyllk" moral defilomenu. and bocaus. It 1''''leel' (lr.'l(l8)IJ (rom
.~iSleI1C.,

becoming and 1110 ""'Iched stutes of

Moreover. this pair

IL.,

'ruling over'

and 'protecting'j are found In "II works of the IIDivenll1 vehicle ;no! in their Inte,!"",
tntions . but nowhere else hence this [work) is a treatise (sJsrr.ll, It is ,;lId:
That which rules over the enemy-like moral

defilcmcn\s in their entirety; which rescues


{being$1 from the wretched 31ales of existence an.ti becoming. is a lre:uise , by virtue

<If ils authority and PIUloction. These two

are

non~existent

itl any other doctrinal view.

Of this; th. term "of this" is a direct reference to the verses of the Madhylntavibhaga .USlr. which is a compendium of seYen topics and enables the relinquishment
of obscuration tl,at consists both in moral detilement and the knowable, by way of the
triple vehicle since it is fin.nly fixed

In

the [author's] heart.

The author refers to the composer. Although this verbal root [nil has the sense
of 'conveying', nevertheless, ,ince it i. compounded with the prefix pra, it is to be
understood io the sense of 'effecting' (lit. 'making']14, for it is said:
The meaning of a verbal root is forcibly
changed through the addition of a prefix.
juS! as the sweetness of the waters of the

Ganges [is changed through mixing] with


the waters of the sea. tS
16

Yi>

Tho son of the sugara; the sugata refers to one who has excellently gone

(sU$(hugal!l) to the niJvapa in which [the bodhisattva] is not permanently fixed which

is [fre.] from the obscurations that consist in moral defilemenlS. together with their
latent impressions, and the obscunuions that consist in the knowable.

relinqUished the obscurations of

an

One who has

latent impressions, who has the understanding of

all the dll8J'mSS, in every respect, for hi. essential namre. who is ..he basis of all might.

12

13
14
\5

16

Read: tac ca iBsuaillk$8Ilam yad upad..o 'bhy.syamane savBsaniJk1".prohlll,llll/l niran13r.dIrgh.v;v;dhaIfVTlHiu/lkhllbhltadurg.ribhyo bhavJJc calIilQIll/l bhov.1i in place of rac Cil illsuaillk~lll'alj1
yad upadoio bhRsamano 'bhy.stl$ savlJsan3k1&saprahSpSyRpadyate nirantar.dIrghavividhatImldll/IkhabhItJyilS c. dw-g8tM MavSe co slll/ltr!.ya/lO; Tib.: Juri mnos ps goms par bras pas bag
chags dM bcas pn'j 11'00
'gyur ba dM I bill' chad med p. yun rtII bo'; .dug
bsdal drag po sna ~hogs
an sori roams dtlll I srid pa las skyo~ p. gtlll yin pa de
ni bSWl bros kyi m~hllll
).
Read: 1Iil~1lc ill place of sal)lllrc; Tib. skyob pllS. Thi. reading is more appropriate in the
conre~t of this etymological explanation of lhe word illstra.
Read (with T&B3.!1): W8{lc in place of vise$iJIthako on the basis of the Tib. byed par
(OI90b.3).
This v...... is also quoted in Ca.ndralclrti's Prasannapadll Madhyamalo:aVJtti~; ct. Y's fns, 3 & 4
p.3 for more details.
Th. Ms,(2a.3) inserts a pas,OS. here whicb. according \l) the Tib. 3lT3JIgemen~ belong. in a
subsequent portion of tho text; cf. Y', fn.6 p.3.

whose body 17 posscnes inconceivable Il'lwcr like the wishf'ulfilling gcmll, who i5
capable I)f perfonning all bclltlil ror all sentie;'!' hctings affonlessly and wlto has the
ntllUrc of Iho e.caUcnco of direci Inluilion free from conceptual ,ljfferenUation - h s

d.o suguls, HIs nnrure consins in lh~ thusnr.ss of plllity l9. Since his direct inruitlon
which is flu from conceplU~1 differentiation is broughl fonh 20 fmlll the laller, th.

$1>"

of tho sugBra is bom from, or in, thaI (thusnes. of purily I.

AllOmatively, h. is the son of the sugata insofar as he is bon. in the nature of the
sugHta; as has been said in another SOua: "he is born in the lincage of the lalMgala

because he has Jblained the essenlial qualities of the laner". This being the ens., an
emilY thai is 10 be kmlwn21 in .U its aspects appears 10 bodhisallv, established on Ihe

Ie nth spirituul level like a myrobalan fruil on the palm of his hand; however il is as
though his eyes were covel1!d by a fine silk. veil. But for the Venerable One, the eover,
ing over the eyes is removed as it were - this is the difference, By the term "son of the
.wgdls" in this

conle~1

(i.c. here sugars means perfectly understood), the perfeci under-

standing of realilY is indicaled on tho pan of tho author of the tNalise 12 , and similarly
perfect compassion and perfect wisdom (are indicated] through his authorship of the
tl't!atiso withoul regard for gain and honour,
Tho expoundor; i.e, the agem of exposition. This (term 1 is connected with the
words "after honouring". Others believe thai the term "son of the sugals" also refers 10
him. Moreover, he is the Noble

Asa~ga,

for this tl't!atise ;vas disclosed and elucidated

to him throu&~ the [meditative concentration namedl 'str'ca:n of dharmas'23 due

[0

the

Noble Maiu'\\ya's miraculous power.


24 [The word) and has a conjunctive sense or it is a superfluous word, i.e. it is an

expletive. It also implies thai he [Vasubandhul pays respect to the other Buddhas and

'is

bodhisauvas, nQt only to the author and the expounder.

In response to the question as

to whom it is cltpounded, he replies: to us etc., which means that 'we etc.' comprise

those of whom we are the first; it is to the latter that "to us etc." refers. Hereby it is
shown that we ourselves have been instructed in a reliable manno,;!'.

!7

Tib. omits: vigrahatr; cf. DI90b.6.

18
19

Ms.(2a.4): cinrlmBllir1lmavart, die reason for Y's parenthesis is not clear.


this sentenco is omitted from die Ms, and is inserted on tile basis of die Tib,; cf. y', m.l p.4.
Read: tstprabh'virBIV'o in place of IsjjlUlirllVlJtJ; Ms.C2a.S): -vitalVlll, Tlb.: tab IU byud bS'j
phyfr(Of90b.7).
Read! jdeyavasrull!l per Ms.(2I1-S) in place of jdoyaql vasru.
Read (widl S~ m.70 p,2A): alr/I sugarllm/da iri i/ls/npTIIII~lJls IIIIl\'IVabodhasa~1Il1 nirr:liJ/I... in
placo of aua hi sup,.IJtmajas rasyaiv8 iJI/npTllllaylllWY,vabodhasBIIIPI' pradanilll; Tlb.: 'dir oi
bd~ bill' IlSess JNl~ bdag ilid las skyes pll8 I bstan bcos mazad de kho na /hUllS su chud pa phun
sum /Shogs par bsWl pa. .. (019111-2).
Read: dharnwtOlllS' in place of dhllllllasa/lltl/neQa; rib.: chos kyi TIJYUlI JJYis (D 191;1.4).
In dlo Tlb. the second pan I)f dlis paragraph precedes the fusl pan, i.e. il begins from kebhyo
vakllltam. -su Is 'chad pa ie n. (0191;1.4).
Read: lIl1et1a vsyam ova avisaqlvldfna upsdi,,, iii dariiram in place of anenS/nJlUlo '","'y3
upadflio bhlsamllIo dirr:li.s/atr; Tib.: 'di ni lJdag did kyi mi slu ~8 las lull mnat par slon 10

20
~I

22

23
]A

24

(0191;1.4).

Aftor bonourlnl; i.e. after paying rnpecl (10 lumJ as though he were .clully

pl'\lsem and positionod "carny. Arter honouring, i.e. after paying respect with body,
speech and mind. Having paid respect to the author of !he treatise and lIS expounder,

WhDt should you do then? He says:


I shall llrive for a critical ClIaminatioD of its mllaniDg; i.e. I shall

IIl1dcrtpko tho

~(f<1rl

10 ~rihep.lly ~AmiM il$ meallill!\ and 10 eApluill illl meanina or \0

milk. diSl;ncliOI\. between Ihing..

And hrre the locallve case l6 (in the terms arrha-

vivacnnc otc. J has the sense of purpose; what is meant is: fllr

the purpose or a critical

examination of its meaning.

The 'Body' of the Treatise.


N17. b

In Ibla rOllard, tho 'body' of the treatiso is respectively determined


from tho boglnnln,.
(a)

tho

characteristic,

(b)

obscu-

ration. (1:) reality, (d) the meditative


developmont

of

the

countorasent,

(0) the Itase therein, (f) tho attain-

ment

of

the

result

and

(g)

tho

supremacy of tho vehiclo.


For thoso soven subjects are expounded In this trutise, namely: (a)
the

characteristic.

(b)

obscuration,

(e)

reality,

(d)

tho

meditative

development of tho counteragont, (0) tho Slato iD regard 10 that meditativo dovolopment of tho counteragont, (t) the attainment of the reault
and (g) the supremacy

ot

the vehiclo which is tho sncnth subject.

[SthiramBti J
The subjectS hero [compriseJ tho 'body' of tho treatiso because of the state-

Y5.10

ment: these IOVOD subjects are upoundod In this lrealilo 27 Wby has this
treatiso been composed? (a) In ordor to generate cometl8 direct intuition devoid of
conceptual differentiation belonging 10 the Buddhas, the Venerable Onos, (b) because
direct intuition lhat is free from conceprual differentiation is gcneraled on account of the

26

27
18

Tib. omits s/IPI.w. cf. DI918.7.


RoIId: ...ccbJlsIl1lIl1W1iiYIIlJu, in pl!u:e of iJlsIl1l "khylylllla; cf. Bh~ya NIH.
Ms.(2b12): SSlIIvlIlvillitvibJpa contrary 10 Y'. fnol p.s but his emendation 10 samyagnilViblpa is pmem!d; this tmn is omiued from Ibe Tib. (d. D19Ib.l).

tcachins29 Qf the ilislIbstamialhy of tho dhlU'mBS, and (e) due to the practicc of tho lalter
[the bodhi.8l1val obtains the comploto relinquishment of obscuration consisling in both
ilie knowable alld moral defilement tOKether with their latent

imp~ssion.,

Funh~f

morc, conccrning the insubstantiality of tho dharmas, this treatise is undenaken in order
to present the insubstantiality of the dhlll1llBS as it is in reality by refuting these two
II1cllIllpatiblo views: (a) that the Don-existence of an dhsrmas is [equivalent to) the

insubslamiulilY of tho d/Jarm.s, and (b) that llle nonexislence m .n imemnlly active
beins is (equivalent to)

ulO insubslllntla~lty

of the dharnlas)O.

Others believe [the treatise is undonak.n) in order to remove both the lack of
IIlsighl and wrong insight on tho pan of those who lack insight or possess wrong
insight in regard to the cllaracterislic and obscuration ctc. through the gonem!io!! of
correct undemanding.
Alternatively, [the trealise is undenakcnJ in order

\0

remove the faintheancdness of

the bodhisattvas who, in regard to the fivefold objects of knowledge consisting in the
realms of31: (a) the world sphere, (h) scnlicnt beings, (c) dharmas, (d) moral discipline
and (e) expedienlS, may believo that these are difficult to discern individually because

of their infinite differentiation; hence he says:


(a)

the

characteristic,

(b)

obscu-

ratio!!, (cl reality etc.

Y6

In this regard, the 'body' of the treatise is respectively determined


from tho beginning 32 . "In this regard" (means): in regard 10 the critical examination
of the subjects of the treatise, or elsc, in regs
rung" (means J: from the very

OUtseL

the treatise (i1SC1f] , "From the begin-

The tern, ,/'Ilatise" ha~ already been elucidated 33 .

Its 'body' is an abridgement or summaty meaning; or it is the 'body' in the sense of a


basis, For, just as the physical body, wldeh has tho external and internal sense-fields
for ilS basis, is described as a 'body', similarly, the subjects upon which a treatise
depends and proceeds fonn its 'body'; and these subjccts are seven, beginning with the
characteristic.

29
30

31
32
33
34

By "respectively determined" is meant: 'designated', or, 'cxplained'34,

Read: dtlianays lIS per Ms,(2b.2) in place of dtlianslsyll; Tib.: bsran pas (D19Ib.2).
Read (ossentlally in agreement with SL m.SI p.26l: dhsrmanllirillmys", punar sarvadhsrma
nllSlilvs", dhsrmanairllmYIIII an/lllVyIpImpUlU8anllSlirva", ca dhanrteJu nairllmyam iry etayor
\'illlllBvldayor pmi$6dhItll. y.lhlbhuram dhsrmanairl.any.praliP'..danlrrham illSrrJrambhab in
place of ')'l1l/I punat'dhBrmanairltmyIlSY. vUodh.vlQo yat sarvadh1lnllSr.lhitaa dhannanaiarmyam I antarvy'plmpunJ$snhiu.t1l c. dhsrman.titJanyam iry SIllS rarprari$Bdhena I.lhlbhatan.titlrmyapralip!dsnlIfham ilslf1rambhiW; Tib.: chos I, bdflll ~ p. ylUl chos IhIl1ll$ cad mod
pa!lid chos II bdBg II1I!d pa dBJ! I Dad DI bYfl/l pai skyes bu II1I!d pa did chos mama II bdBg ~
pa'o it1f mi mlhuD P."': S/lIlll ba. dfIIl btll6 pas I chos bdll6 med [111 ylUI dll6 paiji Ira b. bUD
du bsW1 par bra bal phyirbsrmllcos bltWfJ mo (D19Ib.2),
Tib, omitS dhlru; cf. DI9Ib.4.
Road: ilsrrai~ VZ.v.ulhlpy.ra in place of ilISrraiartravy.vsslh'fUIlIam; cf. Bhl$ya N17,6;

Ms,l'2b.4): raa1ldilli/l illSlnlimflatp vyava-,


Read (with T&B6,18): lI)'athy.mm in place of vivBlB(Iam; Tib, bUd par zad(D19Ib.6).
Read: lI)'.vaslhlpyara iii praj/fBPyars I nitrliiyall iry atthab in place of vyavaslhJpanam iii
praj/faplir u(;yam .bhidhllnllll iry atthiW: TIb. lIIanJ par siaI- bya b. Di bellS pa sttl I hiad
ellS by. ba'i dis IShig go(D19Ib,7).

IObje<:lion]:

IS

it not so Ihut th .. 'budy' will b. discerned just Ihrough an und.r.iranding

of the treatise and thus iL'l respectivo detemlinot.ion at (he beginning serves no purpOS!!?

IRespon,e): No, it is lIot Wit/lOut purpose for the subjects are helpful for novices
hecau:ie a novice who has an appreciation of the subjects understands the details with

"'asc when Ihey are being discussed, like a ho". galloping without fear 011 familiar
ground lJ , if is lIot for any otller reason. Por the3e seven subjects are
oxp'lllnd~dJ6 in !bb treatise.

What is meant by this stalement is th~t lh~ 'bOIly' ,)f

tho treati." i. complote 3'l. By "thes,," (is mcantJtho {subjcml beginning wilh the chara:.;wli:aic thol are Ii~ted. "Seven" is their number; it is lin enumeration in order to reveal

the IOln138. TIleY:lre subjects (Jrrha) because they are sought (anhy.wte), i.e. msofar as

they are understood. By "in this trealise" is meant: in (this work] litled the
vibhnga.

Madhy~nta.

By "."pounded" is meant: ".<pluined" or "ascenained"l9. Namely40; this is

tho lem, that introduces these subjects.

The characteristic; it is a characteristic

(li!l:,;all.l) insofar as [things] are characterized (/ak$y,1nte) by this.

And it is twofold:

the characteristic of defilement and the characteristic of purification. Of these. the ChM
ncteristie of defilement is ninefold, beginning with: "there is unreal imagination" (1.1 a),
and concluding with: "because of the seven kinds of unreal imagination" (1.Ild). The
characteristic of purification is explained in the remainIng half {of the first chapter'.
[Objection]: If it is said that it is a characteristic because [something] is characterized
by it, this being the

Y7

case,

the characteristic would be something different from defile-

men! and purit1cation. (Resp<)ose]: This is not so because the characteristic of something is none otl.er titan its own-being.

For example. the element earth has the char-

acteristic of solidity. and the elemeLlt earth is not something separate from solidity41.
Alternatively, it is a charnetetistie insofar as [something] is charncterized

35

that.

for

thus, defilement and purification are characteristics insofar as [something] is charac

tetized as being of the nature of defilement or purification. Or again. the characteristic


of both detil~ment and purification is a twofold characteristic: the individual character-

istic anJ the universal characmristic. Obscuration


e()nceals

(~vrI'OI1)

(~varapa)

is so-caned because it

the wholesome dharmas; or else, it is an obscuration (Jvar.1!la) since

the wholesome dharmss are concealed (vriyanre) by it since it prevents their arising.
Furthennore, these obscurations have lifty-three modes,
35

36
37
38

Reality implies that 'this'

Read: <irsl.bhaminifliankllivavllhanam iva in place of <mID bhlJmw nifliarlkam aivavllhllllam


ive: Tib. dkyu sa kyis bsclllI pa)'1T3 /hags thpgs med plJl' rgyug p. hiin 10 (01923.1) dkyu sa
kyis is problematical and should possibly read: dkyus kylS sa; cf. St's m.SS p.29. Ms.(2b.6):
<mrabhIJminiflilnkllivavlli,s- ; disregard Y's fn.l p.6.
Read: upJlrusyanra in place of udli4l3; cf. Bh~ya N17.9.
Ms.(2b.7): ..ml!pcyllIth~. Y's rondering is better; cf. his m.2 p.6.
Tib. omits: pa.ry8D1Sdbigamllffham uplldlln.m and the sentence order does not agree with the

SanskriL
39

40
41

Read: upadHyanC1/ iti aiIdisyance "inJayanre va in place of uddi~(ll icy upadis(ll vmiiei,! v3; Tib.
'chad <= by- ba oi b5UIJl pa 'am gC3llls "/Iebs pao (01923.3).
Read: yod uteti in place of [atheli; cf. Bhllya NI7.9.
Read: piThjvrdhltu~ khskkhslaJak$.f/O n. c. khakkha,aIV8t as per Ms.(3a.l) ill placo of
piThMdllltu~ khsralakslf{lo na cal:hBlllIVRI; disregrud Y's m.l p.1.

her< is none odler dum 'tha,'; tht state (bhRv.1 - .(va) of 'IJ,at' (rat) is 'reality' (I:Itt".1);

what is mc:mt is: it is froC! ftom

errOneous

inversion and it has

cIlIIQlentgent is tIl. side thaI ha, the relinqUIshment of the

aim it i.

th~

len

adv~r:'ie

modes.

Tho

elemenl, for its

parl1; Ihe practIce of that is meditative development. TI,e stale refers

!O Ihe pantcul.r Istatesl of Ula! {pathl which arise in a continuous

nineleen modes beginning with Ihe

SIi1l~

sequence. This has

of Ihe ,pintual lineage. The attaiament at

the reault42; i.e, obraining Ihe 'fruil'; Ihis has fifteen modes beginning wilh the kilrma
r.SIIII" Tho s\lprQmQ~y of tho vehi.le; it b a vehi,le, jinc. one travels by ii, and
since it .s a vehicle and is also sup",me. it is Ilesclibed as

1.110

supremacy of the vehicle.

Fufthol't1l')l'e, it is threefold beginning witll the supremacy of spiritual practice,

SlllteS

':1Il1

He

th.s is the seventh subject so as to delimit {the exact number of subjecIsj

and also to {show I their sequential order. lust this


u'erc are none other than these.

OlUIlY

subjects are explained. i.e.

Now, this sequence is for conformity wilh supramundane direct intuilion; l'or thus
the bodhi,~allva stationed at the spiritual level 4J of one who courses in finn conviction
and is eSlablished in morality. should firstly become sk.illed in defilement and purifi
cation. TIlen, thaI particular obscuralion to each wholesome dhilrfflB should be know"
because liberation is no! possible without relinquislting it; and one is unable to relin
quish what has not been discerned 44 since the fault is not seen. TIlen, that objective
suppon through which the mind is liberated from a panicular obscuration should be
understood as reality4S. Afler thaI. the application which deslroys Ihat obscuration on
account of that panicular objective suppon is to be known as the medilative develop18

ment of the count.ragen!. Then. owing

10

the diminution of the adverse elements and

the increase in the coumeragen!. the state in regard to that meditative development of
the coumeragent should be known as the state of Ihe spiritual lineage etc. Following
(!'Om that there is the actual presence of the supramundane dharmas. i.e. the results

which should be known as the result of winning the stream elc.


[sequential progression] is common

[0

And this whole

the bodhisatcvas and the srllvakas together with

their novices46 as has been stated in a SUtra: "this recluse is trained in the il1lllructions.
conduct. associations and modes of address of the srR vaka. is trained in the inslructions. <anduct. associations and modes of address of the pracyekabliddha. is trained in
the instructions, conduct, associations and modes of address of the bodhisattva."
However. since the supremacy of the bodhisaccva is not common [10 the others].
supremacy is the seventh subject
42
43
44
4S
46

Ms.(3 .. 3): phaJaprSpr"" but y's rendering of phaJapI'llptip is better; cf. his fnA p.7,
Tib. omits bhUmi; cf. DI92b.S.
Re~ .viidSIitr{! as per Ms.<3a5) in place of .viilllI1l3/1L.
Read (with O. p.1027): tat t.ltVam icy aVBgBnlllvyam in piac~ of tal tIltV8171 vedil.vy.m; Tib.
d. ni dB kho naym par khOt! du chud par bya\)(Dl92b.7).
Read (with O. p.I027): s.oiqyaiI'lJ"akAdIn!m in place of sollllfllcchr3vakldibhi/r. Tib. bia ma dan
beas pIU (0193&.2).

10

However, another [school] say. thU!

th~

charnetelistie [is .xplained] at the begin

ning in older to generate skill '" resaul 10 the characteristic of detllomollt and purifi.
cation.

Of these, defilement is [equivalent

[equivalent

10 J "

(0)

obscurnlioll, .ad purification is

",ality; and since the relinqui;hment of obscuralion is due to the

understanding of realit. honee Ute [subject. of] obscur,uion and reality [follow in
successive order].

After that comes the counteragent together with its associated

clemellls, i.e. tile path, in order to dem<hllllfate the expediems for Ihe relinquishment of
that fobscurationl.

'Mu:

S{3tc

therein [is then explained) in order

to

demonstrate the

weak, middling and high.r diffel'entiations47 III relation to ule beginning, middle and

end of Ihe path.

And since >he st.ate brings a corresponding resulr 8 , the result [is

expluined) immediately after that.


srav~ka

All these are common to the boJhisacrva and the

etc., thus the supremacy of the vehicle [i. then explainedl in order

ilia! the universal vehicle is

10

proclaim

not common [to the .irnvaka etc.J.

Others again say that the characterishc is Slated at the beginning in order to show
the characteristics of existence and nonwcxistcnco.

When the characteristic is known,

obscuraoon should be relinquished and reality should be realized, thus, immediately


after that, obscuration and reality [are explained}. The meditative development of the
counteragent [is explained n.xt] since this is the expedient for both the relinquishment
and realization [respectively] of the laner two and the special stales are [equivalent to}
the successive degrees of that [meditative development).
quishmont caused by the latter.

In order

[0

And the result is the relio

demonstrate that immediately afler that

[comes) the supremacy of the vehicle, this sequence [haS' been explained},
Other; now believe49 that the explanation of the characteristic is for the purpose of

Y9

relinauishing negation and imputation for one who

i~

confused about the existence or

non-existence of the dlJarrnas. Obscuration is for the purpose of [developing] skill in

regard to obscuration for one whose confusion has been relinquished. Since reality is
obscured by the I aller, reality comes immediately after that for the purpose of
[developing] skill in regard to reality. Since there is the relinquishment of obscuration
through meditative development which penetrates reality50, the meditative development
of the counteragent [is explained] immediately after reali!)l. In order to develop skill in
the classification of these [counteragents} the slate (is Ulen explained].

And since the

result is constituted by the state, immediately after the state comes the result in order to
generate skill in that. The suprem"cy of the vehicle is explained .t the end because this
whole [sequential progressiol! takes place] owing to the universal vehicle,

48

Ms.(3b.l) line begins: .bhedapradariani1IthIUfl... ; these words are not reconstructed as y's text
suggests; cf. T&B8.2()"22 which accords with Ms.
Read avO$rhR C!UurfIpaql as pet Ms.(3b.1) in place of 3vO$thlllurDpam; disregard Y's m,l

49
50

Read aparo 'pi many.re in place of /IIIyac ca ...IIVO$ya; Tib. gUn yall sems p. (D\93b.\).
Read prati,'IXlba as per Ms.(3b.3), in place of pratividdha.

4')

p.8.

II

The Defining Characteristics


l. The Imagination of What is UlU"cal.

a. The Characteristic of Existenl:;e and NonExi.stenc~.

~ Ii

Therein, concerning the characteristic, he says:

.I)

1.1 abed

There is the imagination of what i$


unreal;

the

dusH ty

is

not

found

therein; but hei'e emptiness is found


and the fonner i. found in the laue ...
~ 18

In this [verse), the iOilgina!ion of what is unreal refers to the con


ceptual differentiation of the apprehended object and the apprehending
subject.

The duality refen to the apprehended object and the appre-

hending subject.
Emptiness is the absence of apprehended object and
apprehending subject 00 the part of that unreal imagination.
When he
says: "and the former is found in the lauer". ["the tormer" refers toJ the
imagination of what is unreal.

Thus. the characteristic of emptiness

which is not erroneously invertod is sbown by this quotationS I ; "One


perceives [phenomena}

~5

they arc in reality by realizing that where

something is non-existent, it is empty of that, and furthermore on.


correctly comprehends [phenomena) as they are in reality by realizing
that wllat is left as a remainder in
1.2 abed

thi~

respect does really ellist here".

Therefore all is established a. neither


empty nor Dot empty. becau~., of
existence,

non-existence

and

asaio

existence; and this is the middle way.


[All] is neither empty of emptiness and unreal imagination. Dor not
empty of the duality of tbo apprehended object and apprehending
subject.
"All" refers to both the conditioned [phenomena] which are
called 'the imaginatioc of what is unreal', and the unconditioned

[phenomena] which are called 'emptiness'.


[means] "is cJ;plaincd".

51

The term "is established"

Because of the ellistence of: unreal imagin-

G. Nagao has shown that thi' passage probably comes from ~ Sa/asuMIlIa suClJl(Majihima
nikaya sutta no. 121); cf. his "What Remains' in Silnyatll: A Yoga<:m Interpretation of

Emptiness" in MaMyDna Buddhist Meditation ....

12

atloll; because of the non.,exislcoce of: the duality; and because of the
.xlstence of emptiness in tho imagination of what is unreal and (the
e~istcncc

of] the imagination of the unreal in the former.

thhl la the middle way.


nor

lire

they

absolutely

Moreover.

All [phenomena) are neither absolutely empty

not

PrajiilplramitU etc.: "all this

empty.
I~

Thus.

this

passage

in

the

neither empty nor not empty". is in

agreement.
[SrJurlifilu[il
[I)

no

Therein. concerning the characteristic. he says:


I.1 abed

TIler" is the imagination of what is


unreal:

the

duality

is

found

not

!herein; but here emptiness is found.


and the fonner is found in !he latter.
Therein [means I with reference to, or with regard

[0

the characteristic, among [he


~

seven subjeclS mentioned above, such as the characteristic and obscuration, he says:
"[there is} the imagination of what is unreal"52 Considering that the e~planation complies with the way [the subjects} are listed and the characteristic was listed firstly,

hence, the explanation of JUSt that Isubjectl

IS

undenaken initially rather than the other

[subjects I.
(2)

Some believe 53 that all dharlllas are devoid of own-being in every respect. like

horns on a hare. hence. in order to refute their w[al negation he says: "there is the
imagination of what

IS

unreal"; the ellipsis here is: "by way of own-being".

[Objection}: Is it not so that such a statement is at variance with the Siltras because it is
said in a Sutra: "all dh:umas are
bP,C811SC:

empty"~

[Response): There is no comr.diction

"therein the duality is not found".

For the imagination 01 what is unreal is

described as empty, i,e. as devoid of the essential nat"re of tho apprehended object and
appreliending subject, but not as devoid of own-being in evory respect; consequently. it
is nOl at variance with the SUlras.

[Objection}: If the duality is thus non-e,istent in

.very respect, like hams on a hare, and unreal imagination does exist by way of ownheing in an absolute sense, then emptiness would be non-existent. [Response): This is
Y11

nOt so because: "but here emptiness is found".

For. since tltis is the vel)' emptiness

which consists in the absence of the apprehended object and apprehending subject in

the imagination of what is unreal, emptiness is not non-existent. If emptiness is free

52
53

Ms.(3b.5): abhUtap.or;k31pa ity3di. contrary to Y's rendering of 3bhUt~pIlrik.1po 'sri itySdi


which agrees with the Tib. (d. DI93b.5)
Rezd: k;o m81!YlUlce in pi"". of ke cid vimndhsali: Tib. 1a 1. d.g... "lam du .oms p.
(Dt93b.6).

13

from Ihe dualily and exiSI8 in ullreal imagination, why is it lhal wo are not (a]",,"lyl
lib~nlted;

and if it wore something existing, why is it not apprehended?54 . In order to

remove such a doubt, h. says: "and the I'Of mer is found in the laner'; because the
imaginnllon of what is unreal is found in emptiness 100, therefore one is not (already!
liberated.

And this is why (emptiness! cannot be perceived, like the clear water

element [carmot be perceivedl, becnu,e it is aCGompanied by stain.

(31

Alternatively, in order to refute that [false! view of those who believe that mind,

I.he mem.1 con~omitants and also form exist substantiallySS, he says: "there is Ihe
imagination of what is

unreal'~.

TIle latter certainly

~xists

substantially but form does

riot exist sep.rotely from it; [form] does no! exist substantially.

What is the reason?

Because: "the duality is not found therein"; for, the imaginatioll of the unreal is not the
apprehending of som.;thing nor is it al'prehended by anyone. What is it then? [t is JUSt

a 'bare' existent devoid of the apprehended object and apprehending subject. For thus,
form and the like are not apprehended externally to consciousness; consciousness
arises in the appearance of foml etc., like In dreams etc., and if it has a cause, its arising
in the absence of one is not tenable. Therefore it is devoid of an objective support, just
as in dreams and the like; elsewhere too it is to be ronciuded that consciousness IS produced in the appearance of the object. due to the maturation of an individual 'seed'. The
existence of the apprehending subject is no! lenable if the apprehended object does not
exISt because, if the apprehended object does not exist, the apprehending subject [too]

does not exist56 . Therefore, fOtm does not exist separately from unreal imagination.
(Objection]: If the apprehended object does not exist, there can be no liberation because
Yl2

of the absence of an objective support of purity.

[Response]: This is not so because:

'but here <mptiness is found"; the word "but" has the sense of "because".

For,

emptiness is the objective suppon of pUrity51 and since it exists as an absence of the
apprehended object and apprehending subject in the imagination of what is unreal,
liberation is not nonexistent. [Objection]: If it exists and is present in unreal imagination, what is the reason that it is not apprehended? [Responsel:!t is no! apprehended
because it is obscured by unreal imagination, like the stainlessness 58 of space [is not
apprehended] but nOl because :1 does not exist.

In oeder to illustrate this point he

says: "and the fonner is found in the latter".

---_._--54
55

56

Ms.Ob.8): grhpsrB but g[hyalll is preferred as suggested by N. Ame:"l. 1'.19.


Read ath. va cirt3lJl caitasik'I/I '" rilpa", c, ,lcavyaro 'stIli in place of ath. va cjttacajttebhyo
'Dyalt8 rUpDdayo dravyarv.na sSlllrri; Tib. YM na sems dan sems las byuri ba mams dBIi /
gz.gs dBIi rdzas r!.id du yod PM... (Dl94a.4). SL (p.43 fn.11) is probably correct when he
suggests lbPl abetter rendering of this statement would be: "fonn "xislS suhswntially like mind
and the mental concomit:lnts", in agreement with TBh~ya (L16.9).
Read (with SL p.44 fn.IS): gtilhy3bhave gtilha!:asyabhBvad ..ali grahye grahakabhByO n.
yujy.tJ> in place of grahyabMve grahakasyllbhav3d gtilhye s.ri gtilhako 'stu", na yujyate: Tib.
~h~u~~~PM~~~h~~~~~PMrni~_

57
58

(Dl94b.I).
Read: viiuddhyJamrunam as per Ms.(4..3) in place of -lIIamb"",.
Read: llkaianairmalyavat as per Ms.(4 ..4) in place of ,nairmlllyavat

14

[,II

Alternatively, in order to refute all noglllion, he says: "lbere is lb. imagination of

what is unreal"; considering that it is nO! entirely non-e. Stellt, nor does it have

~le

IHllum of an e:d:uent since it exists in the nature of the tran.lJformulie'n of con.sciousness,


How~vcr,

thore arc dIose who believe that form etc. exists, by way of own-being, in

'''Betly ,hat way in whkh they manifest. i.e. as separate from ulU'eal Imagination. Witll
regard to such [people I lind in order to refute imputation in regard to what is unreal 59 ,

he says: "tl,e duality is not found therein". The intended meanIng is that there is JUSt
'bare' unreal imllgination.

TI,. non-existence of the duali ty 60 is apprehended by some

as of the nature of annihilation 61 . like [the absolute non.xistence of] the son of an
infertile woman. The absence of an internally active being is said 10 be [equivalent tol
the emptiness of Ibe dharmas by others. lience, in order to refute the negation of
emptiness, and in order to reveal insubstantiality ;n reality, he says: "but here emptiness
is found". [Objection I: If emptiness exists in Ibe imagination of what is unreal, Iben all
living beings would be liberated effortlessly. [Response I: This is not so because: "and
the former is found in the laner"; since there is no liberation in an emptiness that has
not been purified and [emptiness I that has been defiled62 is punfied by a mighty effott,
thus there is no libel'ation without effott.

[51

Alternatively. there is no characteristic other tIlan that mentioned in regard to

defilement and purit1cation, hence in order to explain the characteristic of defilement


Yl.J

and purification, he says: "lbere

IS

the imagination of what is unreal".

Defilement has

the imaginatiOD of what is unreal for its own-being because it is characterized by error.
How should the fact that it is characterized by eITOr be understood?
duality is not found therein".

Because: "lbe

It is Imown to have all essemial nature that consists in

error because it manifestS in the aspect of the apprehended object and apprehending
subject which do not exist in its own nature. Now in order to .x.mine63 the nature of
purification, he sa),s: "but her~ emptiness is found"; for the own-being of emptiness is
purification because its own-being consists in the non-existence of the duality. And in
this context. Ibe inclusion of both the path and cessation should be understood because
they are constituted by emptiness. In order to demonstrate that the side of purification
is to be sought from tht side of defilement and the individual continuum does not exist
separately64, he says: "here". The question arises: if the duality does not exist, hC'w can

59
60
61

62
63
64

Ms.(4a.5): abhUlaS.mlrop. u- contrary to Y', fn.1 p.12 but his reading of .bhOta.amaropaprati,edharthsm is preferred on the basis of the Tib.
Read: kaii cid dvayabhavo in place of dv.yam abhavo; Tib. kh. oig gdis po trnld po (D194b.6).
Read: vandhyilpuCt3vad ucchedMfIpo as per Ms.(4a.6i in place of -PUCt3V.1C ch~po.
Read: ssmJdi$l. c. as per Ms.(4a.7) in place of SI11/IkJiS{ai ca.
Read panqartham which agrees with Y's original reading in place of pradarianartham since D
has brtag po'i phyir, cf. Y', errata p.llS.
Read perhaps: n.! puna/! prthak: S\'asa1/1tll11. asyllstfli in place of n. PUIlil/. prthaktvam :<sy3StJli
on the basis of the Tib.: ran gyi rgyud gud na med par (DI9Sa.5): cf. St's fn.33 p.4S.
Ms.(4b.2) pe.thaps: n. pUll8/> pf'lhak ,aUvIUll asyllstJti, but is not clear.

15

the w'Jrld be in erml' if thaI [emptinessl uisrs'i

Hence he says: "and tho (omlor is

found in the llitter".


(6)

differ~ntjilion65 of lhe apprehended object and

'-110", is the conCOpl\141

apprehending mbject, Just like the aspecls olC. of elephants (which lite imaginedl
in a magical crelltion Ihllt is empty of the .specls of elephants .tc. 66 II is tho imagination of what is unreal (abhOwparikalpa) since the duality which is unreal (3bhDw)
is imagined (pnrihlpyalc) in it, or by it,

this [phenomenal world] does

1101

By the word "unreal" he demonstrates Illat

e>is! in the way in whIch i! is imagined. i.e. as the

[dichotomy of) apprehended obje<: and apprehending subject.

By the word

"imagination" he de,,:onstrates that the way in which an object is imagined [qua ist
.nt object I. it do.s not exist as such. Thus the characteristic of this [unreal imaginationl is revea/L,i as being quite devoid of tlte apprehended object and apprehending
subject.

What tlten is it? The mi.od and the mental concomitants of the past. present

alld Ille future, which consist in cause and result, which pertain to the three realms of
existence, which exist from time immemorial. which end in nil'v3(1a and which are in
conformity with S8f/ls3ra, ate, without exception. unreal imagination; but especially it
Yl4

refers to the conceptual


subject.

differenti~tion

of the apprehended object and apprehending

Therein the conceptual differentiation of Ille apprehended object refers to

consciousness with ils appearances as objects and sentient beings.

The conceptual

differentiation of Ille apprehending subject refers to the appearances

as the self and

mental representations.

[7J The

duality

refers

to

the

apprehended

object

and

apprehending

subject; of these, the apprehended object refers to form etc.; the apprehending subject.
eO eye consciousness etc. ror, emptiness is the absence 67 , C' devoidedness, of the
apprehended object and apprehending subject on the part of the imagination of
what is unreai, however Ille imagination of what is unreal itself is not

non-e~istent;

juS!

as a ro~~ is empty of the own-being of a snakc 6 & because never at any time does it
possess such an own-being. but it is not Illat a rope69 is empty of own-being. It is the
same in this respect [i.e. unreal imagination is not empty of own-being].

When he

says: "the fonner is found in the latter", ["the former" refers toJ the
imagination of what is unreal; for Illus it has been described as not apprehended

because it is defiled by adventiuous obscuration. like the [clarity of the J water-elcmem


etc.

Thus...

65

Ms.(4bJ): vikaiPOCOlltrary to Y's fn.1 p.l3.


l'ib. is slightly different "just like a magical creation appears as an elephant Ole. but is empty
of elephants Ole: (ef. DI95 .. 6).
Read: vir.hitat3 in place of rahit8tR; cf. Bh~ya NI8.3.
Ms.(4b.6): sarpasvabh3ven. although. as N. Amend. (p.19) notes, Y's Ms. teads sarpatva
bhS no whlch agrees with 1'&B (d. fn.l28 p.12); Tib. sbrul Byi dries pos (D195b.4).
Ms.(4b.6): rajjulr. disregard Y's m.l p.14.

66
67
68

69

"one

perceive.

[phenomenal...

by

realizing

that where

16

30mo!hing 70 is Don-cxi!lcnt, it is Qmpty of tlIaL


The dunlity (does

tlot

What does not exist in what?

exist) in the imaginBtioo of the ullreal; consequently, one sees

Ihnt the imagination of the unreal is oml"Y of the duality; ... ar.d furthermore what
Is teft as. a rcmaindc!" in this respect doos realty exist here......

IS lcfl US a remainder hero" The imagination of the unreal and

emptin.~s

Just Wh;ll

- since bolll of

these exist heroin, seeing without superimposilion aud negation. ono correctly
comprehends [phenomena) as they arc in reality.
silion in this

fi' gard

because one sees th. ab.eRC" of

th~

It is free from superimpo


duality in the imagination of

the unreal; and it is free from negation because one sees. the existence of both lhc
imagin(ltioll of the unreal ;Ind empllness.

The cha-acteristic of emptiness.

which Is not erroneously invetted, Is shown ... ; because of Ihe actuul exine nee
of that which is empty and because of the non-existence tllerein of thaI which it is
empty of. If on the one hand all [dh.n1IlIs) .xist or on the other, all were non-ellistont,
Ihe characteristic of emptiness would nOI b. !lon-erroneously invencd because this
would lead to th non-existence of emptiness ilself. If thaI which is cailed 'empty' were
non-existent. emptiness would not be tenable. because real nature (dharmard) is dependell! upon something existent, like the impenn.lnence [of what is impennanem] etc. If
the duality did exist, emptiness would nol exist. [Obj'ection): if [the nonoexistence of]
the duality is just like the [absolute non-exIstence of the) horns of a hare 71 , how is the
emptiness of Wt [duality) on the pan of the imagination of the uOI1:al possible, for that
the one is empty of the other has [already! been seen? For example, a hermitage can be
[empty! of monks 72.

[Response):

This is not so73; JUSt as a rope74 or a magical

creation, although non-existent in themselves, appear in tile aspect of a smlke or as men


ele. and are described as empty of tile snake and men etc. in order to check
Yl5

~ne

grasping

of any (entily) there. Similarly. the imagination of the unreal too, which manifests in
the aspecl of the

appreh~nded

object and apprehending subject which are non-exislent

in themselves. is desclibed as empty7S of the duality in order to induce naive people to


abandon their attachment to ,uch a notion 76.

[8]

Ua

! Therefore

all

is

established 1 as

neither empty nor not empty.

70
71
72
73
74

75

76

Read: y.dyafnl in place of y ... min Ylill;of. BM~y. NtS.4.


Read: Jaiavij1l(labJpam ova as per Ms.(5a.2), in plac<l of -taJpcaIL
Read: vihfnu,v' as per Ms.(5a.2), in place of I'ihlJram syiln.
Tib. omits naillld ev"",; cf. DI96&.3-4.
M. (5a.2): f1I,jjur. di....gard Y', m.l p.14.
Rea<\; ,floya iii as per Ms.(Sa.3), in place of sany.m iti.
Read: (Mgmo lIS per MS.(5a.3), in pl"". of IIIdgrVIa.

17

For whnt reason was this verso composed?

In Qrder to show that nU conditioned :md

"ncondilloned (dhllfI1lIlS) 3fll devoid of the dunlk/77. I'or mll. 78 , by rejecting absohll~
11.~'

the inended meamng of the quo!lltion from the Prajnftpftramith is made

cvident 79 , "All 1.111$ is neither empty nor !lOt empty".


would be an inconsis!eney botw."n tile fonner and the 1.1Ier.

wa, composed) in otder to

<lemul~\trUle

rot olhcrwisc 80 mere


FunhemlOr~,

[this verse

the middle way: otherwise it would lead to the

.'II"mes of !lllll which is absolutely empty 011 the one hand; and dlUI which is not
empty

Oil

the otherS l . Altemar.ively. it was composed tQ sum up the refutation of bolll

negauon and imputation, '111e imagination of whut is unreal is conditioned because if


POSSC$$

it

oaoJre 82 r,h:n is bound to causes and conditions; however, .:mptincs-s is

unconditioned because it does not depend on these.

quoted in the

Prnjli3plramit~s

and omer works.

"Is established" [means) is

Because of existence, i.e. of the

imagination of wbat is unreal . that which is conditione.d is not empty since it has
the nature of me imagin.tiM of the unreal.

Because of non-existence, i.e. of me

duality . it is empty of the nature of the apprehended object :lnd apprehending subject.

And because of existenco, i.e. of emptiness in the imagi'latioD of WhD.l is


unrcal 81 . considering mal mat [emptiness) is me real nalUre of the lat,:er; the imagin.
ation of the unreal is found in emptiness too in the nalure of the possessor of thn!
dhanna. Similarly, even whal i. unconditioned is not empty of me oalUre of real nature
but is described as a nonexistent ia<ofar as il is empty of a nalure mal consists in the

dUality8.1.
[9J And this is the middle way, i.e. mal which is taught in me RalnakO!a ar,d
other works 85 ,

"To say it exists, 0 K~sy3pa. this 86 is one extreme and to say it does not
exist

i~

a second extreme; that which lies between these twO extremes is

described as the middle way, 0 KMyapa, since it consists in !lIe investigation, f


me reillity of me dhilnUas. "87

77
78
;9
80
8\

Read: dvayBIllhifJIfVsjl1!pllIJllitham in place of vig.radvay.rvamjI!DpllllllItham; Tib. gllis d:lIi brnJ


b. did du SItS pM by. b.i phyir roo (DI96o.6).
Road: .vam hyomilling c. as per Ms.(Sa.4).
Read: abhipray.tA"i~ as per Ms.(5a.4) in place of abhipraYIUR ni#qta.
Read: anyarha hi as pef Ms.(S .4) in place of anyarh,.
Read: anyarlt! ek3nrena sDnyasyaiva aiDnyasya va anlas syOt in place of any.rlt.ik3nrik.
iilnYBtaiv!iilnySDfO 1'1 sylr, Tib.. gillD du nl ni geig ru SfOli p. kho as 'am I mi .<fOri pa'i

mrltil1' 'gyur m (D196a.7).


82

83
84
85
S6
8,7

Read: s1IIlaJRbhatvDd as per M,.(5a.5) in place of 3analSbhRd.


Re.ad (",ith Sl tn.54 p.S8): sOny.tlyls ru sarrvac coli abhlllapllrikal!'" in place of Uny
flySs lu ."",lllTl abhDt3plll'ikSlpe; cr. Bh:i$ya: s.ttv!" ca' silT/yatay! .bhUt3PllfikaJpe
(N!8.13!4).
Read, .bhBv. iii dvayllIilpa(l8 sUny"'" in place of .bhSvlUlHI!jifilt;"". dvaY118 sl'uDp'
sonylIIT!; Tib. ddas po med C"I bya b. gms kyi rio bos stod pO'o (D196b.J).
Read: R.tnaklIllJdim.dhye yat pa(hyare 's!lri; omitting yat pa/hyatll from line 24 as suggested
by N. Amend. p.20.
Ms.(5ai7): k!iyepSYIIm; disregard Y', fu.6 p.lS.

From KP

.6().

18

Tim middle way is thus in agreomcnl 88 Iwuh the laltel'l. All refers {o {he condi

YI ()

tinned and unconditioned Idhnrmasl; {hey ore neilher absolutely empty, because

of thr. actual ,,,;iSlenc,, of both the imasination of what is unreal anll Ihe emptiness of
(har. nor arc they

8b~olutely

not empty, because of the

duality. If all Idhurm.;.~1 W"re 10 .XlSI, or all


be tremes ilnd not the middle way

Wel'l!

non~e;l;15tence

of (he

non .. istent89 . these would indeed

b. The IndividUal ChatactGristic.


~18.

Thus, having stated both tho cbaracteristic of existence and the char-

[9

acteristic of nonexistence on the part of the imagination of the unreal,


he states the iodividual characteristic:

1.3 abe.d

Consciousnes~

comes into

being in

the appearances as objects, sanlient


beings, the self and representations,
although its object does oot exist.
Due to the non-existence of Ihe
latter, !be former toO docs not exist.
Tbe appearance as objecl therein refers 10 that which appears as an
entity of form etc.
The appcaranc~ as sentient being refers to that
which [appears] as the five sense-faculties witbin onc's own and otbers'
mental continuum.
The appearance as self refers 10 the defiled mind

~19

because this is associated with delusion about tbe self etc. The appearance as representations refers to the six consciousnesses. "AI!bough its
object does not exist" . because !be appearances as objects and sell\;~nt
beings is without aspect, and because the appearances as self and repreoentalicns arc false appearances.

"Due to the non-existence of the

laner, !be former too docs not exist" - because of the non"6xistence <If
the latter, i.e. the fourfold object to be apprebended, namely, form etc.,
!be five sense faculties, mind and !be six consciousnesses, the former
tOO

does not exist, i.e. the apprehending consciousness.

1.4 ahe

Consequently.

it

has

heen

proven

that !be imagination of what is nnreal


pertains
88
89

to

this

[consciousness];

Read: .v:Juiomiro bhavBli in plac.l of anulomai:;tJ; d. Bhll:jya N.1S.16.


Re\1d: sSN8Ill!tirve s.tN.!slirvo as per Ms.(5a.S) in place of S11.I'V1ll1.!stiIVaJp S11.I'VI.stilVllq!.

!9

beCBU!e it docI 1101

e~ist

as such, nor

Is it non-cxlatcllt ill every respect.

!locau.. II docs nc
a.neo,

.>i91

In that way in whicb it arisell as

i1l)r Is It non-existent in C'very

of 'baril' error.

fl".lSpect

811

3ppear-

because of the production

What Is the renson theJl that its defiuite Ilon-existence is

no! accepted?

llec8use .. ,

1.4 d

Liberation is considered as being due


fO iu extinction.

Otherwise tbere would be the faul! of the negation of defilement and


purification since neither bondage m1f liberation could be established.
[Slhiramati)
Y16.5

III Thus, having stated both the characteristic of existence and Ihe characteristic of non-existence on th" part of the imagination of what is
unreal ... ; the charn.:terislic of its existence is existence itself since this is charncterized
by existence; what is mOllnt is: he demonstrates the existellce of the imagination of
what is unreal by this

st~tement: 't~.ere

is the imagination of what is unreal". Similarly,

non~e"istence

is nonexistence itself since this is characterized

the dlaracteristic of ilS

Funhennore, this refers to that which does no! exist as It appre

by non-existence.

hended object and apprehending subi'!cl; because the dualil)l does not exist in unreal
imllgination therefore it is said tllat um-eal imagination 100 does not exist in the narure
of Ihe dualil)l.

Now he states the individual characteristic.

What is the differ-

ence between the characteristic of existence and the individual cr.aracreristir? The characteristic of

existe~ce

What would be the

is a universal. but the individual characteristic is a particular.

consequenc~

if Ihe individual characteristic wetC not stated here?

The 'body' of the imagination of what is unreal would nOI be mentioned, hence, in
order to clearly illustrate its 'body' it ;s said:
[2]

1.3 abed

COllsciousness

comes

into

being

in

the appearances as objects. sentient


beings, the self and representations.
although

its

Due

the

to

object does

not

non-existence

e"ist.

of

the

lauer, the former too does nOI ."ist.


Alternatively, it is not known how Ih. sense faculties, sense-objects and consciousness
are estabiished in relation to that 'bare' imagination of the unreal referred to above as the
",istence of

JUS!

the 'bal'e' imagination of the unreal devoid of the apprehended Ilbjecl

20

and IIppr~hending subject 90 ; ,hils in order to shaw 9! that mey are established in ,elation
'0 'hn! (lCcording !o their differentilltion as the appeatllllc"", of tile imagination or' ,h.

Y17

"nr.ol, h. ,tate. the individual charnctensric of tho imagination of thc unr l: "in

apl}earan.;cs as objecL" sentient I)"ings, the self and representations"

,h.

elC,

(3] AllelMlivllly, by Ih0 (wof<h) "Ihere Is tho imagination of what is unreal", ilS 'bare'
existenco is mllde known n bUI not its own-being; and if Ihe duality'. non-exi,tolll, Ih.
",o,'on for the notional attachment to the app,"hended object and apprehending s'JbjecI
is not discerned,

Also it has flot b<,' n dis"ssed .s

10

why it is recognized

th~l

the

duality doe. nOI exiSI, hence ill order to clearly iIIustfllto thi., he says: "in the appearances as objects, sentient beings, the self and representations", In this reglln:!, Ihe imagi-

"ation of th. unreal is the own"being of consciousne." and consciousness logether


with ilS associated elements is intended here 9l , but it is chiefly consciousness itself that
is referred to, The ground for that notional attachment to tile "prrehended

obje,~!

and

apprehending subject is Ihe appearances as objects and sentient beings etc, 94,
"Almough

i~~

objecl does not exist. Due to the non-existence of th" laner, the fanner

too does not exist" this is the reason why llIe duality is non-existent The appearances
as objects and sentient beings therein refers to the store-consci<lusness
associates; and the latter is definitely undefined because it is the

,~,

tog~ther

with ilS

arma-result. The

appearance as the self refers to defiled mind together witl, its associuc,," elemenlS; and
that is described as obscured and undefined because it is associated with '",)tal defilement The appearances as mental representations ,efers to tM group of the six bp-ginning with eye-consciousness logether with their associates; these are wholesome,
unwholesome and undefined.

In this way, tllese eight consciousnesses, together with

their associated elements, come forth in the appearances as objects, sentient beings, self
and representations in tile five respective stales of existence, from the store-consciousness which depends upon co-operating conditions and which incorporates the [noble)
tnlth of the ilrising [of suffering].

Thor.. is a certain 'special transfoi1llation' of the

latem impressions of tile wholesome, unwh(llesom. and undefined dharmas in the


store-consciousness and through the

90

91
92

93

influenc~

of that, consciousness comes iIllo being

gr!hYS$rlhWrahil~bharaparilr:aJpsmatrasyllivllsfilvam ilY uddi$re rasminn


abhUtapsrikaJpsmSlra mdriyavi$ayavijd!n!n!q! yatha vyavasrbR na jlJayara iii in place of arb.
v! grlIhyagrDhak",.hiUlbhDuparikaJp.mSlracety uddiSfam I tasyllm abhataparikaJpam3traC.'ly!m iOOtiy1iVi5ayaviji1ln8!fl yath3 vyavasthiram n.jllayara iei; TIb_ yad n. purl b. dad '<Wn
pa med pa'j Yad dl!g ps l!IIl yin pa hm rrog ps lSam did yod' do I iet; bstlUl pa yllli dag ps m.
yin pa kim rttJg p. tsam ere Is I dlJllIi po dad yul dIUi I roam par 'os pa ji 11M mam par giag
pa mi ios PM (0197a.3). P moilS yod.
Read: tIldvyavasrhetijrlSpanW1l1I128 per Ms.(Sb_3) in place of ladVY8vasrhilijtlSpan3JllJam.
Read: jIlSpyBIt> in place of jnsySl/l; rib. ses parbyed kyi (1)197a.5).
Read: UIC c~ vijt!!naIn $IlS8!fIpJ'llyO/lam a1r.! .~/Upn:t1im as sUllSested ~Y N. Amend. p_~O III place
of laC ca "Jlllnanl aUII sas'lflll",yoKam abhipreram; TIb_ mam par ses ps de Yad dir mrshlllls
.ow Idan ps dIUi be.... pardgruls ~(D197a.6)_

Read; ama v,

Read: .!Ithasatrvildiprati/)h!sam rasyaiv. grMyagrghakAbhiniveSasya nibancJh8!l~ in piocc of s.


eva grnhy.gn.hiJl.~bhillivoil) 'nhasatrvildipratibhasanibmdhllJltW: Tib_ pud ba dIU! 'dzin pa fa
IYlJiOJl pM itt! pa d. did kyi fVlI III doo dad sew ('.;m Is sogs parsnad b. (DI97,,-7)_

21

in mUlunliy differentiated .lppearancc.. (Objeclion): How does consciousness a.ise in


th" appearance of lhose lemilies) if the objects etc. do not exist. for when 01ere is no

person Iprescntl a p<)519~ does not appear a~ a person? (Responsel: This is nO! a fault
I'M l1uiv~ Il<!opl. afc nOlionully ~lI"ch"d to consciousness in th" appearance of objects

Ole. as llbjects thut exist separately from consciousness, like Ih" 'hair-nels' secn by a
Y III

perSon wilh impaired eyesight.


lltlllChment

I()

'nt.refore, in order

10

induce lhem to abandon their

lhose [objects elc.) it is said: "this is just consciousness that lIrises in the

apP,,"ranccs of Q.njecls etc. a.lthough devoid of

obj~c!S

and sentient beings etc., just as

lllcre IS the appear:Jnco of 'hair-nels' etc. for ,hOSd people who have ophlhalmia". Thus

il is said dm! the otherdependenl [nalure) willI its "mitie. of the eight consciousnesses
,;ampris the imagination of what is unreal.

[41 ... As an entity of form etc.


sound, odollr,

IDSte,

[Consciousness) appears in the /lalure of form,

contact and non-sell5ibles because ,t arises in such an aspect. The

appearanco as sentiellt beings refers to that which [appears] as the five

sense faCilIties within one's own and otbers' mental continuum96 ; Ihe torm:
"appears" is understood97 . Wim regard to the live sense faculties, mere is me appellation SBltvs because it is the locus of excessive attachment (SakI!); it is semient being
(sattva)

since it is attached (sajjatc) by, or

in such an aspeCI, consciousness

10,

po~sesses

ther,e [sense faculties). Because it .,ises

that panicular appearance. The appear-

allee as self refers to defiled mind becaase that is associated with


delusion about solf elc. 98 ; because defiled mind is .l ways 99 associated with
delusion about ,elf, the false vi~w of self, the craving for selflOO and self conceit.
Since mose [four) have the self for meir objective support it is proper lOl that the

"ppeamnee as the self pertains to dotiled mind. The appearance as representations refer to tho six conaciousnesses.

The appearance as representations

[occurs] on account of the arising of the aspects of those [consciousnesses) through


Ulan; festing in the nature of apprehenders n(

se~-objects.

[5] "Although its object does not exist", i.e. [the object which arises) in these

four aspecls, because the appearances as objects and 'sentient beings are
without aspect, and because tbe appearances as self and representatiofls

are false appearances.

Since the appearonces as objects and sentient beings mani-

fest in the nature of me apprehended object, the reason for me non-existence of the

95
96
97
98

99
100

101

Read: sth!{Jujl as per Ms.(5b.7) in place of slh!{J1$.


Ms.(6a.l): santllyo/l is amended to sanr.!nayo(lin!lle margin: disregard Y's fn.1 p.18.
Read: PI1lribhIlsRf3 iri adhikrtam as per MS.(6a.l) in piaco of PI1ltibhSsa iii
Read.: ~t",apt'8ribh.!si!JfJ k141.JJ)l man..~ I. Itmamoolldis.JJ)lPI1lyoglld iii in place of JrmapralibMw" !tImlmoolJdisamplllyuXlBMr k14f8l/1 m8.118 iii; cf. Bh~ya N 18.2S.
MS.(6. 2): c. nitySI/T, disregard Y's fn 2 p.IR.
Ms.(6. 2): !/1!Jilfl'$payl allhough th.0 T,.b. M.;g la <hags p3. would suggest ItllULSneha as is the
lerm employed when these four ""OU are I'sled '" die T-Bh~y.. (of. L2l.11-17).
Ms.(6a.2): dtm1l1.mb""RlVM yutwn: disregard Y's m.3 p.IS.

22

object is pll!cisely that it is without aspect, because of the imp<Jssibility of il3 being a
false appoaraoco. However, because the other twO [i.e. self Bod ",p",senIBlionsJ mam
fe~1

ill th~ nature of tho apprehondlnll subjeCl, thoy an) nol without aSpIIC:1 and tho

reason Ili ven for thO non-oxistence of the object (in those cuscs I is precisely thut they
consisl in falso appearances.

For the aspect is the mode of Ihe 'Iaking hold' of the

objective support in the natu"' of something impermanent etc. and this docs nOI exisl in
the [former] two [i.e. objecls and sentient beings) because they manifesl in the nal\lre
of the apprehended object. Hence, "because it is without aspect" means: because there
is no

appreh~nder.

Alternatively, the aspect consisls in the correcl knowledge of the

objective support and since this is ncnexistcm on the pan of the laner [i.e. objects and
sentient beings), they
support l02 .
[6)

a",

without aspecl because of the nonexistence of Ihe objective

[Objection): If both [objects and sentient beings) .re without aspeCt and have

natu",s that 8"' mutually dlfferentialed, i. . jusl .s there is form elc. on Ihe one hand
Y19

and sight etc. on the other this being so. what is this exceptional essence belonging to
consciousness rather than form etc. and sight etc. which are well known both generally
and exegetically, whence, after rejecting them, consciousness is perceived to have a
nature that is not differentiated from them? (Response): Because il i. impossible that
the object [exists) separately from that [consciousness].

This is ",spectively deler

mined as follows: consciousness in the appearances of different objects elc. is brought


forth from an individual 'seed' each one appropriated l03 by each particular determination of the mental continuum, although the essennal nalUl"CI of the different objects
does not exist.

"8

for example, the pre!as see [a river] filled with pus, excrement

and urine elc. guardod on both sides of the river by mon with sticks in their hands 104 ;
however, humans and the like perceive il as filled with pure, clear waler and as quile
inoffensi ve 1OS. Aloo, the ascetics, who practice mental attention in ",gard to impure
things etc., see the ground completely covered by skeletons; and likewise, in regard to
(all the topics of contemplation) such as [the element] 'earth', they see everything

pervaded by earth etc.

Moreover, the generation l06 of a consciousness which

possesses a nalUJ'l) thaI depends upon an object is nol tenable without that object, nor
[is the generation of a consciousness tenahle] whose aspects are different from the
essential nature of the object. Therefore it is ascertained that it is JUSt cOllsciousness

102
103
104

Read: JJamban!bhlvlld in place of upahbdhysbMvld; Tib. dmigs pa mod pa'j p/lyit(D198a.6).


Read: praryelf:am upl/lalll in place of praryeklrmag/1lflam; Tib. 50 50s %in pa (DI98b.l).
Read: pte~ pI1Y'pw1$aml1a1Jdjp!Jlt!ftJ sant(> d8{ld.~bhir ubhay.ta/I puru$aitI 5aqrraqyamll{!'/I pBiyanu as per Ms.(6a.6) in place of Pllltp~ paY'purt$.ml1!t'lldipl/tp' dhrtad8{lrJ'p!qibhir ubhayata/t putlJ$ai/t Ut/It3QY'mII{!S/! paiYBDd; disregard Y's fIls.I, 2 &; 3 p.19.

cr. V.vltti (U.H).


lOS
106

Tib. expands nirvibandhl to: "fil to bath i,; and fit to drink"; b/cur nul b. dati btud du nul ba
(D198b.3)
Read: pml1lir as per Ms.(6a.1) in ptace of pnsulir.

23

that is brought fonh in all its appeurances t07 as ollj.clS and sentiellt beings etc. without
(the

e~istenco

of! such an object.

(71 !loth Ule appearances as the self and

thoy

ll1anifQ~1 in

the

~apoc[

of tho

representalivfL~

~pprehending

aro false appearances because

subject although the apprehended

object docs not exist. Alternatively, Ihe object does not exist in that way in which it is
irnllginalively

cOIl.~lluct.d

by c<lllSciousness; it is a false appearance because it is .\ false

objective support, just as when sounds etc. [al'o imagined as the roaring] of tigers etc.
Similarly, it is an established fact that mental representat.ions tOO are devoid of a nanJre
Illat is imaginatively constructed l08 by another representation. Hence the object of the

Y"o

appearances

a,q

the self and representations also does not exist. just like [the objects) of

{he appearances as objects and sentient beings t09 . Because of the non-existence

of the ... obJect, ... the former toO docs not exist, i.e. consciousness ... ; it
is described as consciousness ("ij,iIla) since it discerns (VijJIlilrl)110. If tho apprehended "bject does not exist, the [existence of the) discerning agent lll is not tenable.

l'lOrefore, due to Ille non-existence of the object, consciousness does not exist as a
discerning agent; but n!)t so (regarding consciousness) in the appearances of

objecL~,

sentient beings, the self and represemations, for, if the latter were non-existent it would
result in total nonexistence since there ""n b. no explanation for the essential nanJro of
consciousness apart from this.

If its essential nature were different from this how

wlluld [the existence1 of that consciousness be tenable? How could one be differentiated from the other'!

Thus, because of the non-existence of the apprehended object and the appre-

[81

hending subject and due to the actual existence of consciousness in the appearance of
the lauer, that which was asserted previously, i.e. "there is the imagination of what is
unreal; the duality is no! found therein", "as been established. In order to demonstrate
this, he says:

L4ab

Consequently it has been proven that


the

imagination

of

what

is

unreal

pertains to this [consciousness);


TIlat the imagination of what is unreal pertains to these four consciousnesses has been
proven. By "consequently", is meant: by reason of what was JUSt stated, i.e. "because
of the non.. existence of the object, the former too does no! exist."

!O7

108
109

110
111

Furthermore, in

Ms.(6a. 7): nirbhllsaqr, disregard Y', fn.S p.19.


Ms.(6a.8): parikalpironatm8I!3; disr<gard Y's fn.8 p.19.
Read: aw cSrthasatcvapratibhllsasyev3tmavijllllj'cipracibhllsasySpy arrho nllsciwhich agrees with
Tib.: deY phyirdon daDsems Gall du saari ba bzin du I bdagdari mam par rig p.snari bo'i dOli
,van mcd dQ (D198b.6-7) in place of atai c3!thasatrvavijrJilnasyevsrmavijllaplipralibhllsasy3py
,uriJSbhlvall..
'rib. (DI98b.7) mam par rig pa~ nd m.mpar ses pasre - viji/aplir iii vijrliln.m
Ms.(6b.l): vijllnllJlSpy but vijllSl(tlpy is better as amended by Yon the basis of the Tih.; see
his fn.2 p.20.

24

ordor

[0

prove rhe ~.is!"nc. of unreal imuginatiOll l12 and in olllet to prove rhe non-

existence oC the duality, he says:

l.4c

Because

it does

not exist

111

such,

nor is it non-existent in every rtlSpoct

etc.
Alternatively, by "consequently" is mean!: by rhe reason tllat will be staled below. hI
order to demonstrate just this, he snys: "because it does not exist as such, lIor is it nonexi$tent in overy respecl."

[lecaus~

it does no! ellist as such and because it is no! not.-

existem in every respect !consciousness) .rise. in the .ppea:-ance of rhe apprehended


object and apprehending subject.

Alrhough, in rhis regard, rhere are four modes [of

ailpearance), rhere is no apprehending subject because [rhe first twO modesl are without aspect and because (the laller two) are false appearances, respec'.ively.
Furrhermore, rhere is no apprehended object because all [four modes) are devoid of a

Y21

o~tuf" that is imaginatively constructed"> by .norher representation.

Nor is it non-

existent ill every respect b~causc of the prodUction of 'barc' crror l14 ; rhal
which appears in

,In

aspece, alrhough non-existent in itself 11S , is described as "error"; it

is like a magical .;reation. The wolll "bare" has rhe sense of rhe exclusion of what is
additional to it.

This is what is being said: bocause of rhe 3ernal existence of

consciousness that consists in error, (consciousness) is not non-existent in every


respect.

(9)

What then is the

reason that the

definit~

non-existence of that

consciousness rhal consists in error is not accepted, like rhe Ilon-existence 116 of rhe
apprehended object and apprehending subject [is accepted)"

If [such a question]

implies rhat its existence is unable to be imagined by anyone since it trallScends rhe

domain of all consciousnesses [the answer isl because ...


t

lAd

Liberation is considered
iL;

a8

being due

it!! et(tinction l17 .

Hence its definite non"existence is not accepted; on the contrary its existence is
t

inferred because of its capacity [as a basis) for rhe sides of defilement and purification.
Otherwise, if its definite non-existence in .very respect is accepted, rhere would b.
neither bondage nor liberation! t8. If 'bare' error also did not exist, bondage too would

112
113
114
liS
!16

117
118

Ms.(6b.3): abhataparikillpilstirva-; disl'eganl Y's m.S p.20.


Ms.(6bA): parikaJpirena; disreganl Y's fll.7 p.20.
Read: bhrSDtimlUrnsyotpild3din pi"", ofbhranti!l!81T<Jfp8d1/d. ct. Bhnsya NI9.8.
Read.: atmllJllI.<ad api yad JkilreQ. pratibhllsa", in place of Btm.tvenSbhILvo na tu yad ilkilrella
ptlJribhR.ISte; Tib. bdag fUd kyis moo kyad I m8m par snad ba ~ad yin p. (0199 . 6).
Ms.(6b.S): grYoyagrlLbak.bhSvavsr but " amendmont to -RlJhilvavar is pref.rred; cf. his m.1
p.:!!.
Read: l1liQaySll in place of tatk;epSll; cf. Bh3sya NI9.\O.
Tib. omits nB moqa; cf. DI99b.2.

2S
not exist because tbp.re would be no defilement.

Liberation too wou,d not exist,

considering that it i;; from a previous state of bondage that one is released.
[lO)

Alternatively, in order to exclude other interpretations which beg the Questions:

"why is [consciousness that consists in error) not considered as existent in that way in
which it manifests I 19, or else, as non-existent in every respect? He says: "liberation is
considered as being due to it:; extinction"120; what is meant is: when that is not completely extinguished l21 there is bondage. This is what is being said: 122 otherwise
there would be l23 the fault of the negation of defilement and purification 124 since neither bondage nor liberation [could be established). If
[phenomena} were to exist absolutely in exactly that way in which they appear as the
apprehended object and apprehending subject for [all beings} from cattle upwards l2S ,
this being the case, defilement would be eternal and thus there would be

DO nirv~pa.

Similarly, if 'bare' error were also non-existent, there would be no defilement, and
purification would be eternal. Thus in both cases, the effon of those who seek liberation would be in vain and consequently, the existence of the imagination of what is
unreal should necessarily be admitted

as

well

as

the non-existence of the duality.

c. The Characteristic of the Totality,


Having thus stated the individual characteristic of the imagination of

~19.14

what is unreal, he statel the characteristic of the totality, i.e., the way in
which there is a totality of the three naturea when there il th.; ',bare'
imagination of what il unreal.

I.S abed

The

imalinary,

and indeed

th~

tbe

other-dependent

perfected are taulht;

on account of tbe object, the imagination of wbat is unrn} and the non-

119
120
121
122
123

124
125

Read: kath~ yathl prakhylti tathl bMvo DelY. in place of kathaIJI na yathl prakhy3ti tachl
bMveJJeJyate; Ms.(6b) line 7 begins: yathl pnkbylti yayhl bhlvo tle$yare.
Read: talt$ayJtJ as pel' Ms.(6b.7}in place of taft$eplD; cf. fn.112 above.
Ms.(6b.7): ~ disregard Y's fn.3 p.21.
Ms.(6b.7): ity anbllJ ultam but Y's emendation 10 ity anb~ / etMI ukWJr is preferred; cf. his
fn.4 p.21.
.
Read: syJlin place of bh.tvati;d. BhI$yaN19.12.
Tib. replaces vyavadJDa wid! nitvl(Ja (myalWJ las 'd&f pa), cf. DI99b.4, but Tib. Bh_ya:
lIW!I par byad ba (D2b.6).
Read: yam. 6fl/tyl/f1lhlbtvelJa paiupnb~ pratibhlso 'pi yadi tatb. sylt panmlrthlJtaI) in
place of y6thl6llhYagJ'lbwtvrma bJuflJtir udbhlsitlpi yadi rathlsylt ~ Tib. gal te
ji liar gzwt ba cUD 'dzin pa tJkJ dJJ phyup yatJ ch.td I .$IUd ba yat1 gal ~ de biin dJJ doll dam par

gyur na IJi [D199b.4J.

. .

26

c;tlltcncc

of

the

duality

[resp .. "tively].
The object consists In the Imaginary oatu!"e; the Imagination of what
i~

unreal consills In the other-dependent nature: the non-existence of

the

apprehended

object

and

subject

apprehending

coosists

in

the

perfected naturo.

[Sthirarnati)

r'

[I) He states the characteristic of the totality.

[The tem.

salflgraha-lak~af1am

may be resolved as a karmadhl1raya compound, i.e.): the totality itself is the characteristic, or [as a rarpuru$a): the characteristic of the totality, i.e. that by which the totality is
characterized. And why is it melllioned"! Because it was stated in the above that there
exists juSt the 'bare' imagination of what is unreal devoid of the apprehended object and
apprehending subject. Furthelmore, the three natures are taught in other Sutras. hence,
in order to demonstrate thaI were is no contradiction with other Stitras, their totality is
This is why the author of the commentary says: ... when there is

described here.

the 'bare' imagination of what is unreal lZ6

I.S abed

The

imaginary.

the

other-dependent

and indeed the perfected are taught on account of the object, the imagination of what is unreal and the non-

existence

of

the

dua!ity

[respectively).
Alrhough both the apprehended 3bject and apprehending subject l27 are unreal because
they are empt) of own-being, on account of the fact that the latter is imagined to exist.
it is described as imaginatyl28.
[the imaginary)

.~

Moreover. although trus does not exist substantially.

described as a .nature' since it exists in conventional expression. Th.

other-dependent [naturel is subject to others because its arising is dependent on causes


and conditions. It is said:
It is non-imagInary. is produced from con
ditions and ;s inexpressible in every respect
- because the other-de;>endent nature is the
sphere 129 of mundane purity;

126

Read

3bhOc3parikalpam~tre

sami in place of abhacaparikalpam3tram even; cf. Bh~ya

N!9.IS.

127
128
129

Ms.(7a.2): cllsvol:hJvd-. but Y's ."",ndation to ca s.abMv.- is preferred; ct. his fn.2 p.22.
Ms.(7a.2): parikalpiC4 lICy.le; disregard Y', fn.3 p.ll.
MS.(7z.J): -caralr. disr.,gard Y's fnA p.22.

27

'1110 perfected nature is thl~ absence of the duality on the port of the imagi~8lian of the
unreal hecause it is un<:ond.itioned and because it is perfected on accaunl of being
devoid of change, It is suld:
That aosolute emptiness of the imaginary
nature on the palt of that [other-dependent
nature] is the perfected narure. the sphere of
direc:t intuition free from conceptual differ-

l:otintion.

"On account of the objee'." [means]: owing

10

the intluence of the object; the same is to

be staled with regard to the [other two 'tatemenlS from verse 1.51: "on aecount of the
imagination of what is unreal", and "on accuunt of the non-existence of the duality",

[2} The object consists in the imaginary nature 130; in thi.s context l31 the object
123

refers to form etc,. sight etC,. self and representations; and since it is non-existent in the
imagination of the unreal in a nature that is imaginary, being non-existent I 32 , it is
described as the imaginary narure, It is said:
Conceptual differentiation devoid of conceptual differentiation 133 is imagined by
another conceptual differentiation; itS nature
here which :s imagined by another conceptual differentiation. does nol exist.

The

imagination

of what

is

unreal

consists

in

the

other-dependent

nature; it is other-dependent since it depends on. or is produced by, other cuuses and
conditions but does not exist in itSelf,
object and
describ~d

apprehending

The non-existence of the apprehended

subject <,onsist"

in the perfected nalllre; it is

as perfected because it is perfected insofar as it consistS in both perfection

devcid vI change and perfection devoid of erroneous inversion,


[3} For, in this context. the abser,.;e of the duality on the part of the imagination of the
unreal is described as the non-existence of the apprehended object and apprehending
subject, but not merely the non-existence of the duality, Thus. it is just the imagination
of the unreal

~hat

is other-dependent because it depends upon causes and conclitions,

The latter also is imaginary because it manifests in the natures of the apprehended
object and apprehending subject which are non-existent in themselves,

The latter is

also perfected because of itS absence of the ,apprehended object and apprehending

130

131
132
133

Read: arrhs!J parikaJpirab svabhBva ity as per Ms,(7aA) and Bh3$ya N19119 in place of arrho hI
parikalpitasvabhBva ity.
Ms,(7a.4): athorUpRdayai, but y's emendation to arrho ITa rlJpRday.i is preferred on the
basis 'of the Tib,; cf. his fn,6 p,22,
Ms.(7a.4): amQ but Y's amendment to asaf1l is pref.md; of. his fn.1 p,23,
Read: ,ri1<:alpo :lJTvikalpo in piace of akalpiro vikalpo; Tib, roam reog mam par m; rrog Ili
(0200.. 6),

28

subject. After considering it in this way, having clearly comprehendedl34 what is to be


clearly comprehended and having clearly comprehended what is to be relinquished, that
entity of the imagination of the unreal

th~t

i. to be realized, has been shown.

d. The Characteristic of the Expedient for Entry


into the Characteristic of Nonexistence.
1119.22

Now he reveals the ,:haracterist!c of the expedient for cntry into the
characteristic of non-existence in regard to that imagination of what is
unreal.

N20

1.6 abed

Based upon perception. non-perception comes into being.


Based upon
non-perception.

non-perception

comes into being.


Based upon the perception of representation-only. the non-perc.ption of the object originates.

Based upon the non-perception of the

object. the non-perception of representation-only originates as well.

In

this way, one enters the characteristic of the non-existence of the


apprehended object and apprehending subject.
1.7 ab

Consequently, it is proven that the


own-being

of

perception

is

non-

perception;
Because. in the absence of the object to be percei ved, perception is
not tenable.
1.7 cd

Therefore, it should be known that


non-perception

and

perception

are

equivalent.
Because perceptiou is not proven to be perception but is described as
perception insofar as it consists in the appearance of an unrea.! object,
although it has non-perception for its own-being.

\34

Tib. is slightly different; cf. Y's fns.3 & 4, p.23.

29

[Sthiramali]
Y23. 19

[1 J Since the "hur.cteristic of non-existence has not been cl.arly comprehended. Ihe
imagination of whut is unre.1 leads tO l35 the defilements of moral defilement. karma
and rebirth.

Consequently, in order

10

clearly comprehend the characteristic of nOll'

existence. and in order to demonstrate the expedient for that 136 , he says:

1.6 a
Y24

Based upon percelltion etc.

Since it is indicated implicitly within the imaginatil)n of the unreal. or ralher since it is
the imagination of the unreal, the characteristic of non-existence is that very non-existence of the apprehended object and apprehending subject - the entry into that is
[equivalent tol ils understanding. The expedient for the latter is that through which one
enters the characteristic of non-e<istence.

Mcreover, this consists in a twofold skill.

i.e. a special b.tsis lJ7 for rbe application to penetrllte 138 the all-pervading sense of the
dharmadMtI1. This verse was articulated in order to indicate [all] this implicitly.

[2]

Based

IIpon 139 the

perc~ption

perception of the object originates.

of

representation-only,

the

non.

This absence of an objective support is the

fact of representation-only; [collsciousness]l40 arises in the appearance of form etc. due


to the macuration of the individual 'seed' However, since there is no object consisting
in form etc., one thus enters the nOli-perception of tlle apprehended object based
upon l41 the perception of the apprehending subject.
[3] It should be deliberated upon in this way: consciousness l42 , whether in the process

of arising, or, already arisen, wo.:ld depend upon a sense-object.

In this respec!.

to

depend upon a sense-object while in the process of arising is not tenable because
[consciousness I does not [yet) exist wilen it is in the process of arising. Nor does it
exist when it has already arisen because it arises in the nature of tlle appearance of a
sense-object; and since there is no "ther activityl43 on the part of consciousness with
the exception of its arising in the nature of the appearance of the sense-object. it is said
that consciousness depends upon the sense-object while performingl44 that activity.

[4J Alternatively, if the functioning of the objective SUPPOlt [occurs] when consciousn,ISS is already present and not when it is in the process of arising, then consciousness

does not arise 145 with the objective support for its causal condition. This hypothesis is
135
136
137
138
139
140

141
142
143
144

145

Read: slY/lvartace as per MS.(7a. 7) in place of slll1lPravartate.


Ms.(7 a. 7): tlldup3ylY/l but Y's amen<imenlto taduplya- is prefem:d.
Ms.(7a.8): niSrayli; disregard Y's fn.2 p.24.
Read: prntivedha as per Ms.(7a.8) in place of pracibcdha; disregard Y's fn.1 p.24.
Read: niSritya in place of amtya; cf. Bh~y. N20.3.
vijillnlY/l is not found in me Ms. but is inserted on the basis of the Tib.; cf. D200b.7.
Ms.(7b.l): niSritya; disregard Y's m.3 p.24.
Ms.(7b.l): vijllllnlJI{r, disregard Y's fnA p.24.
Ms.(7b.2}: kriyS 'sti; disregard Y's fn.S p.24.
Ms.(7b.2): kurvar, disregard y', fn.6 p.24.
Read: utpa/tib in place of utpSdska.{!; Tib. skye b. (D20Ia.2).

30

meaningless, for, if there is the 'seiz;ng' of an objective support thaI exislS, that would
annul the theory of momentariness l46 , and in the absence of an exceptional nature, like
in the laner case, the 'seizing' of the objective support by consciousness is not tenable.
Or 0180 147 , it is considered to have IlII exceptional nature at the time of the 'seizina' of
the objectlve support -

ev~n

so. due to the observation of ar. exceptional nature only in

the other case, it is concluded that [consciousness) 'seizes' only the other objective
support that has already arisen.
y:!)

(5) Another [school) believes that only the object that ceases to exist [from moment to

moment) is the causal condition that is the objective support for cOIl.<ciousness while in
the process of arising and that this is distinguished from the [three) other causal conditions by the fact that it is the cause of consciousne,u148 in the appearance of individual
aspecls, Thereby, either atoms of fonn etc., or a collection of them, is imagined to be
the objective support although, in bOlh cases. the objective support does not exist
because all consciousnesses arise in the appearances of jars and clothes etc" but not in
the appearances of atoms.

Moreover, consciousness appearing as one thing in the

aspect of the object cannot have an objective support which is different l49 , since even
sight IlIId the other [sense faculties) would be objective supports. Moreover, one may
believe that an accumulation of atoms forms the objective support but the individual
[atoms) do not - this is also a non-argument. for although they may be accumulated
they can only be considered as objective supports individually - not as an occumula:ion.

With regard to Ihe laner [view), consciousness I so does not arise in the indi-

vidual appearances of atoms, for [il arises) in the appearance of an accumulation of


them; therefore [the notion) that aloms fonn an objective s.Jppon is not possible. Nor
is the objective support a collection of atoms because caUSality is not possible on the
pan of that which has [only) nominal existence, because like the immediately preced-

ing-causal condition etc. 151, the objective support-causal condition is also considered to
be the cause of consciousness. Therefore. it is not possible that something that ceases
to exist [from moment 10 moment) can be the objective support-causal condition lS2 .
Likewise, if that which has actually ceased to exist fonns the objective suppon 153, this

146
147
148
149

Read: J::oaqabhll}gabldhlW syStin place of Ql/{labhll1lglldo,o bhav.ti; Tib. skad ci{l pa Jig pal
good par ;vur(020 Ia.J)
Ms.(7b.3): /11th" but Y's rendering of athais preferred; cf. his fit.7 p.24.
Ms.(7b.4): jdln" but Y's rendering of vijdlna b preferred; ct. his fit.1 p.lS.
Read: II. cllrthllkllnisy. anyspraribhlsuy. vijdlnuy. '.IIIY.d Ilambanam asri in place of WItlnli c. vy.rirekara(l praribhlls.mSnarp vijlllnam" a. tv lIambana/ll vyaririkram; Tib. don gyi
roam pa giaa d. snll1l b.1 roam par
pa 1dmigs pa oi gian m. yia CO (0201a.6).
Read: vijdlnarp in place of jdlnam; Tib. roam par ies pa (0201 a. 7).
Ms.(7b.6): -pratyay.vlld; disregard Y's fitol p.2S.
Read: tumln as oirudhYllIlllnO py IlIllI11ban.pratyayatl sSJIlbh.vali in place of tumlin aa
oirudhyamlno py Ilambanam; Tib. del phyir 'gag pallShe yll1l dmigs pal rkyen du mi Slid do
(D20lb.I).
Relld: ama c. oiruddha evllIambanlJlll in place of atha ca nirodhatvam llIambanam; TibJi ate yad
'gag pallid dmigs pa yin na(D20Ib.i).

sos

ISO
lSI
152
IS3

31

being

S'J,

Ihen pust and Ihe fulUre [time) would be sense-objects and it has been proven

Ihnt consciousness is dovoid of the sense-object in dreams etc.


[6J Some believe lS4 that Ihe consciousness in dreams etc. is not without an objective
support because it has Ihe sign (nimilta) for

iL~

objective support. But, the sign is the

roflcclcd image of the object which has tho dissociated fonnative forces for ils ownbeing, for if tbe object does not exist in dreams etc., [the existence of] its sign is not
tenable, like in the absellce of a face etc .. its reflection cannot be established l55 .
[Response]: Consciousness, whether in the process of arising or already arisen, does
not have the sign for its objective support because both it. non-existence and cessation
have already been described.

Consciousness itself consists in the reflection of tbe

object because of the fact that it is an appearance of the object, hence it is not tenable
that the sign has the nature of the dissociated 156 fomlative forces. Moreover,
Y26

consciousness is to be admitted necessarily as possessing the aspect of the object, for if


it were without aspect, one could not determine the apprehended object and apprehending subject.
[7]

However, others believe that non-resistant (I.e. transparent) matter forms the

objective support in a dream and in the [meditative contemplation] of ascetics upon


impure things etc.; but [the notion th&t) the latter are non-resistant and belong to the
domain of mind alone is contradicted by the fact that they have culour and shape etc.
Also, nOD-resistant matter other than mere non-information (avijiiapu) is not taught in
the sBsuas; therefore this is no more than a hypothesis.
[8] Others again consider that the object of past experience fonns the sense-object of
consciousness in a dream because there is no perception of the colour blue etc. in
dreams for one who is born blind.

[Response]: It is not that one who is blind from

birth does not perceive colour in dreams, rather, because [the object's) conventional
symbol has no! been explained to him, he does not know it by name and hence cannot
communicate it to others. Moreover, if it only what has been experienced [in the
past] that one

$~es

in a dream, then why is it not considered that one who is blind from

birth also does not see colour, for colour certainly was perceived by such a person in
previous !ives I57 .) Also, it is not that only what is perceived in the present life appears
in a dream, for there is no distinction whatever between one who sleeps and one who
is awake in relation to past, future and present experience. Therefore, it is purely
hypothetical to assert that conscious[,ess 158 has an object of past experieuce as its

154
155
156
IS7
ISS

Reoo: iii kecitas per Ms.(7b.7) in place of iii k.. ~t


M. (7b.7); -pl1ltibimb.valbl!t Y's emendation!O -pl1llibiml:ilJsiddhsv8I is preferred; cf. his fn.3
p.2S.
Ms.(7b.8): l'iprayutm-; disregard Y's filA p.2S.
Ms.(8a.2): -janmasu rlIpam; disregard Y', fIl.1 p.26.
Ms.(8a.3): jiISDsm but Y's emendation to I'ijiISDam is preferred On the basis of the rib.; cf. his
fIl.2 p.26.

32
s~nse-objecl

In a dMam. Moreover. because tho pasl (experience) is non-.,lUSlent II Is

conain that consciousness. although devoid of a sense-object, arises in the apllCarancc


of Ihe object in a dream. Thus, (lhe notion of] the non-pen:eption of Ihe sense-object i,
cultivaled because its perception (occurs) as a mOnlal representation-only.
(9) Based upon tho non-perception of tho object lS9 , the Don-perception
of reprosentadoD-only OriliinalCI .B well. Just as one enlCrs the non-exlstonce
of Ihe apprehended objecl 160 through the force of ,cprescntation-only, since the imaginary apprehcnded object does not exist "xtemally to consciousness; similarly, one
understands the non-elUslencc of ropresenladon-only toO through the force of the nonexistcnce of the appMhended object.

II is not tenable that the apprehending subject

exists if the apprehended object does not exist because the determination of the
subjectivity of that is dependent upon objecdvity.
Y27

In this way, one ODtSrt th.,

characteristic of the Don-exlstenco of the apprehended object and apprehending subject which have an imaginary natuM; however, [the entry into the
characteristic of the non-existence! of the imagination of what is unreal has not been
shown l61 .
[10] What then is the reason that just the non-existence of representation-only wss nOI

delennined l62 from the very beginning?

[Response!: Because the apprehending

subject is dependent upon the apprehended object - when the object

[0

be supponed

does not exist one easily eOlers [the non-elUstence of representation-only I due 10 the
destruction of the entity which has the nUlIlre of the objective suppon l63 . Otherwise
there would be a definite negation 164 of elUstencc because the appMhended object and
apprehending subject would be tiovoid of the relation of mutual dependence. At the
conclusion of rhe first immeasurable !ieon [the bodhisattva!, progressing without interruption in the accumulations [of merit and direct intuilion! enlers this level of diMct
intuition which tranSCends ~Ie conceptual diffeMntiation of the appMhended objecl165
and appMhending sl,bject. Thus, while cultivadng 166 the non-existence of form e!C.
based upon this [doctrine of] representation-only, he realizes the meditative concentration known as the state of heat (ulmagara), together with its periphellil elements.
This is the essential nalUrC of the first (stsge) of the supramundane path. Following

159
160
161

162

Read: arthlnupaiabdhil/l nUn/yll in place of v~.ylnupllabdhim lliricy.; cf. Sh!$ya N20.3.


OrnilllllllJO as it is nOI found in the Ms.(8a.4) nOf in tho Tib.(0202a.4).
Read: daniillll/l as per Ms.(8a.S) in place of datilllJatr1
Ms.(8a.5): vibh'vayaa but Tib. mam par szag p. (02021.5); perhaps vyavasth'payaa. is a
~ rendering.

163

Read: grJhyapraabJI.ddhld dhi grJhabsyBlambbylrlhSbhJve llamb8lJal1Ipavasruvinlliat sukhena


pnlviiaa in place of grJhyapnl/;bJl.ddhaMd dbi ,ahabsyopaiabbylrthlbhSve sukhlllll praveiatr
syld Ilamb_abhlvlvin.i.~ Tib. 'dzin pa m pud ba II "' las pai phyir dmiJts par by. ba1
doll mild a. I dmigs paY dO 001 dJlos po 1'8 pas bde blag ru Jug par gyur gyi (152023.5).

1M
165

Ms.(Sa.6): -pavldam; dlsregard Y's fn.l p.27.


Ms.(8a.6): ca grIlIya- ; dlsreganl Y'. fool p.27.
Read: -bhJv.yato in place of -bhlVllIJl/; Tlb. -r bsgom pa ni (0202a.7).

166

33

from thi. (comea the concenualionj known as the summit (mOrdhao);


aflor 1l18t comes tIto concenuation knoW\! as receptivity to knowledge

Immediat!lly

(k~SnIJ)

which is

conducive to the non-JXlrception of the apprehender and is due to the non-perception of


the apprehended object in ill! entirety. Immediately after that, based upon the non-percaption of the object, while cUItivaling l61 the nonperception of even representalion
onlyl68, [the hodhisattvu), in accompaniment with wisdom etc .. reali~es the meditative
concentration known as the highest mundane experience (laukikllgryadharma) together
with iu peripheral elcmenu. Immediately after that [he aru.ins) the path of vision and it
is only here that he enters the first spiritual level due to his understanding of the allpervading dharmadhlltu. TItis is a mental attention directed towards reality; it is not a
mental Bttcntion towards finn conviction l69 like the (four) immeasulllbies arc.
(II) In order to demonsuate the fact that perception has nonperception for ill! ownbeing, he says:

1.7 ab

Consequently, It is proven that the


own-bl;ling

of

perception

is

non-

perception;
Alternatively, that which was previously asserted, .nat the duality does not exist in the
imagination of what is unreal, has been proven because it is introspectively knowable
in this aspect. It is in order to demonstrato this that he says: "consequently, it is proven
Y28

that the own-being of perception is nonperception".

Consequently, I.e. because

there can be no perception if there is no object to be perceived I 70. The term 'perception'
could be construed as anyone of: (a) a state, (b) an agent, or (c) an instrument;
however this trio is not tenable due to the non-existence of an objective referent 111
(karma) - "consequently, it is proven thar the own-being of perception is non-percep-

tion". TIns is why the author of the commentary says: because. in the absence of
the object to be perceived, perception is nOI tenable.
(12)

1.7 cd

Therefore. it sbould be known tbat


non-perception

and

perception

are

oqulvalent.
Since perception has non.perception for ill! own-being, thereton: they are the same; i.e.
tIto fact thar they arc equivalent should be known because there is no difference insofar

as there is neither tIto non-perception of the object nor is there perception consisting ill
representationonly.

10 order to remove mutual contradiction between the wf,rds

'perception' and 'non-perception', he says: ... but is described as perception


167
168

169
170
171

Read: bh''fay.ro in place of bhlv.yan; Tib. r bsgom iiJl (D202b.2).

Ms.(8a.1}: vijiIaprimJtra but Tib. roam JW sea pa (D202b.I).


Ms.(8a.8): aJdbjmukri-; disregard Y's fn.4 p.27.
Tib. reads simply: "because of the absence of the Object to be pen:eived"; ct. Y'S fn.1 p.28.
Reod: kllmllbhJvlll in place of abhJvlllJ; Tib. las IMd pas (D202b.S).

34

!"'Jofar .a It conslata In tha appoaranco of an unreal object; but since


nothing is perceived by that (perception] because of the absence of the object, hence,
there is no comradlction in an absolute sense because he says: ... altbough having
non-perception for ita own-bclnll72.
[13] Othe!'ll say that on the one hand ilIon:> is tho peroeption of the Qbjecl l73 by naive

people. although then:> is no object, and on the other hand then:> is the non-perception of
the object by the Noble Ones; both of these should be known to be the same because
their characteristics are equivillent, like in the [perception and] non-perception of an
erroneous snake. This is why he says: " ... but is described as perception insofar as it
consislll in the appearance of an unreal object, although having non-perception for its
own-being 174", like in the statemem about the non-perception of an erroneous snake.
[14] OthO!'ll again say that on

me one hand there is the perception of the apprehending

subject by naive people; and on the other hand there is the non-perception of the apprehending

subj~ct

by the Noble Ones, because of the absence of the object. Although in

the two cases both perception and non-perception should be known to be the same
because there is no difference insofar as there is no apprehender if there is no apprehended object. This is why he says: ..... insofar as it consists in the appearance of an
unreal object".
[15] Howover, others believe that in order to counteract imputation and negation he

says: "therefore, it should be known that non-perception and perception are equivaY29

lent", I.e. because of the absence of the object aod since perception17S does not have the
essential nature of perception, it is described as not having such an essential nature.
[Response]: [The notion] that perception has perception for its essential nature is not
excluded 176, nor is it interpolated that it has non-perception for its essential nature. l77
What is it then? Both of them

are

the same owing 10 the absence of conceptual differ-

entiation. Therefore. regardless of imputation and negation, the fact that then:> is introspective equality on the pan of both non-perception and perception should be known.
It is said:
Nothing should be excluded from it and
nothing should be interpolated. The real

172
173
174
175
176

177

Read: oupalabdhi.vabhlv/lpi.1Illti as per Ms.(8b.3) &; Bhlfya N20.1O in place of "nupalabdhi.vabh.ve "pj sallti.
Ms.(8b.3): "nhopa/spaJambhll/l but V's reading of: arthoptdambhll/l is preferred.
Read: anupsJabdhisvabh'v/lpi sail as per Ms.(8b.4) in place of anupaJabdhisvabh've 'pi .alf, cf.
fn.ln above.
Ms.(8b.5): upsJabdher, disreganl V's fn.1 p.29.
Read: nopa/abdhor upsJabdhisv.bh,vo 'panIjBt" in place of upsJambh. tpsJabdhisvabhlvo
ll.pan.ryaa.; Tlb. dmigs pIl Ia dmigs pill r.uI biin b.si bar bya ba ... med c/J:i (02031.5).
Ms.(8b.6): -bhlvabh'v'pralqipy.te, but V's emendation 10 -svabhlvll/l praJqipyato is preferred:
cf. his fn.2 p.29.

35

should be seen in its roaUty - ono who sees


the ronl is Iibernted. 178
If this is so, why is perception 10scribed as representation{.onlyjI79? Because it is
acknowledged us such, both generally and didactically, as tho appearance of an unreal
object, ..... a1ll1ough having nonperception for its own.being" 180,

c. The Characteristic of the Dif.ferentiation.


Now he states the characterbtic of the differentiation of that imagin-

N20.12

ation of what is ullreal.

1.8 ab

Tho

Imagination of what

Is unreal

conslstB in the mind and the montal


concomitants that pertain to the three
realms of existence.
According to their differentiation among the spheres of sensedesire.
form or formlessness.
[Sthiramati]
Y29.14

[I] He states the characteristic of the differontiation.

There are various

modes of differentiation of the imagination of the unreal as being of the nature of 181 the
realms of sensedesire, form and formlessness. Since the differontialion itself is the
characteristic, it is the characteristic of the differentiation [I.e. the term prabheda.
Jak~a!lam

is a karmadhJlraya compound] because the imagination of the unreal is char-

acterized by this differentiation 182 , What is the reason that the characteristic of the
differentiation is declared"

Because the [."istence of the) realms of sense-desire and

form is not tenable if thero is JUSt the imagination of what is unroal. [If] the differentiation of Noble Ones and ordinary people elc. is not made according to the differentiation 183 of realms of existence as the result of the differences in the adverse elements
and their counteragents,

the~

would be a great calamity on the

par~

of the teachings;

[hence). in order to dispel such a fear. the chalacteristic of the differentiation is stated.
178
179
180

AbhisamaylllamkDra, V.2!.
D insens lIam (203&.7).
Reael: -svabhlvlpi sail as per Ms.(8b.7) in place of -svabhJve 'pi salt, cf. tns. 172 and 174

181
182

Read: ItmIIlcarvam as per Ms.(8b.7) in place ofStmakam.


Read perhaps: 4IIena prabhodenfbhataparik:aJpo laJqyata iii in place of 4IIena prabheden.bhataparikaJpasya laJqBllI~ Tib. tab tu dbye ba 'dis yari dag pa ma yin pa Jrun flOg pa mtahon pa I
phyir(203b.1).
M. (8b.8): -bhedena; disteganl Y's tn.6 p.29.

above.

183

36
Alternatively. some believe that the imagination of what is unreal is found only
wherc l84 thofC\ is conjectul'C and deliberation and not otherwise; hence. in order to reject

(2)

YJO

'uch a [notion). the characteristic of the differentiation is mentioned.


1.8 ab

Tho

imaginadon of what

is

unrOll

consists In tho mind and the mental


concomitants that penain to the throe
realms of existence.
Out ilOt JUSt where there is conjecture and deliberation.

Just as form refers to the

primary IRS and secondary elementary maner; similarly. the imagination of what is
unreal also refers to both mind and the mental concomirams and not just to mind alone.
Moreover. these are the own-being of the three realms of existence. i.e. they pertain to
the three realms accmrdjng to their differentiation 186 among lila spberss of
sense-desire. form and formlessness.

The realm of sense-desire therein refers

to the twentyt87 modes [of existence) in the aspects of the narakll$ etc. which manifest
from that unreal imagination. The realm of form refers to the seventeen modes [of
existence) in the aspects of the brahmakllyika etc. The formless realm refers to the four

modes [of existence) in the aspects of the IkIlSJlnsntyllyarana etc.


(3) However. another says that the realm of sense-desire i88 refers to those who belong

to the sphere of sense-desire i89 , i.e. whose passion for sense-desire has not been relinquished a"d whose notions aboul form have not been abrogated. The realm of form
refers to those who belong to the sphere of form 190. i.e. whose passion for sensedesire has been relinquished and whose notions aboul form have not been abrogated.
The formless realm 191 refers to those who belong to the sphere of formlessness 192. i..
whose passion for sense-desire has been relinquished and whose notions about form
have been abrogated l93 .
(4) Others believ~ that the realm of sense-desire refers to those with a propensity for

the passion of sense-desire. the realm of form refers to those with a propensity for the
passion of form and the formless realm refers to those with a propensity for the
passion of formlessness.

184
18S
186
187
188
189

190
191
192
\93

yalra is not found in 0 (cf. 0203b.J.4). bUI is found in P.


M.(98.1): bhDtllDi; disregard Y. fn.3 p.30.
Read: -bhedena in place of bhedSr. cf. BhD$ya N20.1S.
The Ms. genemUy does nol distinguish between ASS and 1\1; cf. Y. tn. 4 p.30.
Tib. omirs kllm.!dhltu; cf. 0203b.7.
Read: klm4vac~rS/I in place of kllmRvacarn/r. cf. fils. 190 &: 192 below.
Read: tDplvacarll as per Ms.(9a.3). contrary to Y's emendation to the singular fonn; the plural
should be retained in the light of irs usage in the subsequent paragraphs; cf. 0204a.1. Tib.
omirs rDp'vacll1f.
Tib. omirs ITDpyad.bBtu/l; cf. 0204a.1.
Read; clTfJpylvacBl~1 as per Ms.(9a.3l.
Ms.(9a.3): vibhalArt;~y~ bul Y's emendation to vibhatarDpya i. preferred; cf. his fn.6
p.30. Tib. gzugs kyi 'du Ses dBli yBli bra} ba mams (02408.1).

37

Othen believe that tho realm of sonse-desire refors to those who are constantly

[S)

distracted and have become the basis of [special)

sons of mental dissatisfaction. The

realm of fonn refen to those who are meditatively composed and whoso modes of
mental dlssatisfaclion have been dispelled. 'The fonnless realm refen to those who are
meditatively composed and whose modes of pleasure and dissatisfaclion have been
relinqllished.
[6) Othen again believe that the realm of sense-desire refen to those who have nOI

relinquished odours and tastes and their appearances in consciousness. The realm of
form refers

10

those who have relinquished both odoun and tastes and their appear-

ances in consciousness. The formless realm refers to those who have relinquished the
appearances of the fifteen elements.
Which is most relevant among all Ihese explanations? [t is only necessary that

[7)

what was described in the firsl explanation be mentioned since the [subsequem)
Y31

explanations are only correlative 10 it. This is a further reference to the imagination of
what is unreal in the chapter on unreal imagination because it waa interrupted by [the
explanation of) non-perception.

f. The Characteristic of its Synonyms.


N20.17

He Slatos the characteristie of the synonyms:

I.8 cd

Vision in regard to the object consistI in consciousness. but in regard


to its particulars. it consists in the
mental concomitants.

Therein. vision in regard to the object alone consists in consciousness; vision in regard to the particulars of the object consists in the
mental concomitants, luch as sensation.
[Sthiramatil
Y31.I,

[I) He states tho characteristic of the synonyms 194 By demonstrating the

particuJ8f1I as belonging to the mind and the mental cOncomitanlS l9S he states the characteristic of the synonyms of the imagination of what is unreal. How so? Because the
mind and the mental concomitants manifest as imaginative constructions in regard to
194
195

Read: paqJyaJalqll{l'l/I cs khylpay.lId in place of PBIY'yaJalq/l{l.l/I cedi lib. roam gralI. kyi
mtsban did kyall SfOIJ Ie (0204a.6)_ Cf. Bhliya N20.17.
Read: cittacailfavikfapradadanena in place of cirtac";/13n1Jp prabhedaJp pndarSayitv,: Tib. sems
dall soms las byud b. mams ley; bye bIag rab IU bS/an pas (0204a.6).

38
boill the own-being and the particular of an unreru!96 entilY thaI i~ to be imaginatively
constructed. Since the vision! 97 of an object's essential nature and patticulars cOnSiSl'i
in both the ment!!l concomitants and unreal Imagination they are included as synonyms,
however, the particular nocs not .xist in the object.

[2J Therein. the vision in regard to tile object alone l9R consists in consciousness.

The word 'alone' is for the purpose of excluding the particulars 199; what

is meant is: the perception of Just the essential nature of an emity


not 'sei d'.

<0

the particulars are

Vision in regard to the particulars of the object 200 ~onsislS in

the mental concomitants,

~uch

as sensation; because they function With regard

10 that [Le. the objecl!201 in various patticula. forms.

In this regard, the patticulars of

joyJitlness or sorrow can pertain to an entity and the 'seizing' of the condition of wellbeing etc. belonging to that is 'sensation' (vedanil). The pal'tlcular of an obje,:t is the
sign 202 which consists in a conventional expression. such as 'man' or 'woman' and its
apprehension is 'ideation' (saIJ1jiii!). The other respective [memal concomitants] should
also be construed in this way. 'Thus these 203 are associated by having ille same nature
in regard to (a) basis, (b) objective support, (c) time and (d) substance, but not by
having the same nature in regard to aspect too. because it would be non-distinguishable

from consciousness.
[3J Some [schoolsJ understand that it i~ just ille special modes of mind (ciuavise$a)
that are intended as the mental concomitants in this context and that same consciousness arises in variegated appearances, like the eyes on a peacock's wil, in forms etc. that
arc similar204 .

[Objection]: How can it be both singular and variegated since, with

regard to a singular entity205, the world does not accept a variety of [incompatible ]206
characteristics? Otherwise it would be said that a singular entity has a manifold ownbeing.
Y32

[Response]: This fault would apply if the own-being of a dharma were ;>er-

fected, but this fault does nN relate to 'bare' error because of the statement: "because it
does not exist as such, nor is it non-existent in every respect"; (1.4 .c).

This is not so because it

cont,..dic~~

[Objection):

this statement from a Sulfa: "these dharma. known

as sensation (vedana), ideation (s'JIljii~), mind (citta) and consciousness (vijrlJna) are

mixed together - they are not discrete; and close-colltac! (saJllsarga) indeed belongs to

196

197
198

199
200
201

202
203
204
205
206

Ms.(9a) in.em abhata in the margin; cf. Y's fn.1 pJI.


Read: .:JnriJ citra- .., per M. (9a.6) in pi""" of drslicitta-.
Read: t.atrarthamatre drsfit in pi""" of tatrarthamatradrslir. cf. Bh~ya N20.19.
Read: viiej!lplJ11ayanBy3- in place of viS~aniroslU1enQ-: Tib. khy.d par seJ boi phyir (D204b.I).
Read: arrh.vii~e drslis as per Ms.(9a. 7) & Bh~y. N20.19 in place of arrhavise$adrslis.
Ms.(9a.'1): t.atr3hhipraVTf/e(l; disregard Y's fn.3 p.3\.
Read: -njmittam in place of -Jaqil{lO on the basis of TIb. mrshan rna (D204b.3).
Read: ""i$.tm
disregarding Y's fnA p.3!.
Read: -riIpdin~ h' place of -svarfJpBdinB; Tib. lio bo J. sags par (D204b.4).
Ms.(9b.l): naikaJlT, disregard Y's fn.5 p.3!.
Tib.(D204b.5) inserts mi mthun pa -viruddha

asr."a-

39

existent [entities! and is simultaneous 207 ."

[Response!: For Olle who considers Ill"

own-being of the dharm8s to be non-perfected [i.e. the yog!c.'lrin!. this SUtra


valid source 208 in this sense.

IS

not a

g. The Actualizing Characteristic.


~20.22

Next he states the actualizing characteristic:

~21

The first is consciousness as causal

1.9 abed

coudilion;

the

second

pertains

to

sense-cltpericnce:

the

mental

comitants

are

sense-experi-

therein

COG-

ence. discrimination and stimulation.


Cunseiousne.. as causal condition is the store-consciousness .inee
it is the causal condition for the ct.... er couciousnesscs.
Actual con-

sciuusn:ss. which pertains to sense-experience, has the latter fol' ilS


causal condition.
refen to ideation.

Sense-experience refers to zensation.

D,scrimination

The stimulations refer to the formative forces of

consciousn"ss volition and mental attention etc.


[Sthiramatl]
YJ 2. 10

[1] In order 10 demonstrate that when there is the 'bart' imagination of the unreal and

nothing else, its differem;alion as cause and result is no! discerned. [hence] he states
the acrualizing characteristic.

It is a characteristic since the imagmation of the

unreal li' characterized] as cause and result on account of this. [Since] the actualizmg
itself is the characteristic, it is the acruahzing characteristic [i.e. the term pr.vrlli
Jak$a(!Bm is a kannadh.'lray. compound].

Furthermore, this acru.lizatioll 109 is twofold:

(al the acrualization as a regular successIOn of momentary instams under the mlluence
of which there is the defilement of senseexperience in the present lifetime and (b) the

acmali' tion as another rebirth under the intluence of which there is the defile",.n! of
moral defilement, karma and rebirth, in the future.

The acmali,atiun as a regular

succession of momentary instants in this context is described as the actualizing characteristic.

The actualization as another rebirth wi 11 be stated as the characteristic of

defilement [in the next section].


207

Tib. omits na visllJflS($fB from the p=eding sentence and reads instead: 'dres pa ies by. ba oj
inO:.f!~':::::a~fc~:.t~;;:.a:c':"(l:~::.!~ oy.o (D205 . 11: "Tha. which is mixed together is

208

ajfl3pakam: Tib. JdJuris su mi nui (D204b.7).

209

Ms.(9b.J): PI'Ovrtti!r, disregard V's filA p.32.

40

The flnt ia consc;(>usneol as causal

1.9 "

condition etc.
In the above. "the fil1ll" ref~11I t(l the slore-consciousness ZIO . Since il is .the cause. I.e.

rile basic causal condition (herupraryaya). of the rema,ning seven consciousnesses. il is


consciousness as cdusal condition.

The

l.9b

second

pnrt8llls

to

sense-

.xperienco.
Y3)

The word "consciousness" remains in force [from the prec.ding

s~ntenceJ.

The

ellipsis is: il is the result of the latter (i.e. the slore-consciousness]; moreover. it is
sevenfold. The actual consciousness pertatn. to sense-experience because it has senseexperiencing for ItS purpose.

The mental concomitants therein are

1.9 cd

sense-experience,

discrimination

and

stimulalion.z II
It is the fact thaI the mental concomitantS therein. i.e. in consciousness. are also the
resul! of that [slore-consciousness] that is referred to because they are [constituents of]
cOllsciousness aDd because they share itS auainmenlS and protection as one.
(2] Consciousness as causal condition is the store-consciousness since

it is the bASic C&llsal condition for tho other consciousnesaos2l2. It is


[described as] a store-house (iUays) since. in itS mode as result, all impure 213 tlharmas

are collected (llly.nre) there. and. in its mode as cause. it collectS in them. It is

COD-

sciousness because il causes the represeotalion of the world of sentient beings and
inanimate things through appeal'ing as such: moreover. because it consisls exclusivelY
in the karma result. it is undefined. It is consciousness as causal condition since it is
the basic causal condition for both the 'seeds' of all impure dharmas that follow in
consequence of it ZI4 and for the other actual consciousnesses.

Actual conscious ..

ness, which penaina to sense-experience. bas the latter for its causal
condition; what is meant is: since it arises (praryetl) from that store-consciousness. it
is produced with the laller for its causal condition (calpratyaya). How does it arise?
The actual consciousness. while in the process of manifesting from the sloreconsciousness. fostel1l in thaI

s!ore-cu:,~ciousness

a 'seed' which is the progenitor of an

actual consciousness which has not yel arisen and which is of the same genre. [Then]
210

211
212

Ms.(9b.4): lIaya. ; disregard Y's fn.6 p.J2.


In the TIb. this v....e segment has been paraplu1lSed: cf.D20S ..4-S.
Read: JHayalrijdiIDam 1III)'e$lm vijdiIDilDl/Jp ,'lerupraryayarvSl prary.yavljrl3nam in place of :H.v&,-ijrJlnasya hy myavijdiIDBpraryayatvSt praryayalrijrliIDam; cf. BhlI.ya N21.l. TIb. /cun gii maIO
PM sea pa m mam par
pa IIzm dIIg (g1)' rgyu'j rkyen yin pas rkyen gyj mam jJJ/T ies pa'o
(0205 ..5.0). The act\lal reading heR! is ni rather than gi: cf. TIb. Bh~ya Dla 7.
Ms.(9b.6): sasn.a; disregard Y's fn.l p.l3.
Read (with S~ p.IZ3 fo.2S): sarvas4fravadharmabrjJnubaddh3nQlp in place of satVI!Ill/I sasnvanl/Jp dhannl\l.fl/l bfjam anubadhy-. TIb. zll6 pa dllll bcas pa I cllos thams cad kyi s. boo rjes su
'bre./ bn dIIII (0205.. 71.

w.

213

214

41
illl ""tunl cOMCiOU81lCSS of Ihe same genre is produC<!d again fmlll Iba\ 1lI61\ucd 'seed'

which has undergone a spedal 1t3Ils(oml.lion liS . 11m Ihal "Clul (oIL~ciou,ncss216
has tlWt Istoreconsciousness! for II.! causal condition 211.

111

IObjecllon!:

15 il not .0 Ihal 21S Ihe .Ioreconsciousness also penain! 10 sense

expel'ience. and Ihe 3clual consciousness can be (construed as! Ihe consCIousness as
cRu~al

con dillon because Ilhe storeconsciousnessl is the ba.is of Ih.. wnseexperiencc

of non'paintul and non-plca5urable scn.,oliolllJ and also becalL~e lIle lalent imprnssions
are acrivalcd 219 in Ihe storeconscioufmCss1 There b no olher ilctivation of L~e latem
1lnl,ressioIlS220 except as caulIAl corKlitions. an has been staled in Ihis verse (rom tha
Abhidh~mlaSUlr3:221

All dham.BS arc collected

In

con.cillllsnes

and likewise lIle laller In the former - as


result and cause of each olher. elemally.
(Rr.spolt'le): It need not lead to lIlis conclUSIOn. Why?222 Because of Ihe diffi~"lty in
distinguishing lIle sensalion Ihot belongs to It. Ilhe store-consr.iousness! is not recognized as being pertinent to sense-experience. like actual consciousness is. or it should
be known as something pre-eminent. like Ihe sun.

Accordingly. only actual

consciousness is !he basis for lIle sense-eltperience of lIle Ihree kinds of sensation - lIIe
s!Orccon.~ciousness

is not.

Moreover. in lIlis COntext (Ihe store conscIOusness) is

intended as lIle bask causal condiic,.I. not just a causal condition. Likewise. under IIIc
influence of wholesome and unwholesome dhilrmas. the store consciousness incorponllcs the lalenl impressions consisting in both the karm3-result and the natural
outcom~resull. wh_reas 21J under !he influence of dIe undefined dharmllS [it incor

porates] only lIle latem Impl1:'ssions lIIat belong

'0

the natural outcome-result Hence

IIIc Slore consciousness is !he basic causal condition (or all impure dharm3S in Iheir
entire\)'.

However. Rcrual consciousness is III. predominant causal condilion (or lIIe

slore consciousness . II is not the basic causal condilioll224 . Thus. lIIat Ihe actual
consciousness is a causal condition is nOI a (wrong I conclusion.

215

216
217

218
219
220

Rend (with SL p.123 (n.16): labdhapuio'nuviiC$Sr in place of pui{llIm,v,sC$31,bh.r. Tib. 'gyut


bat bye brag "'ed ps .. Jas \D20Sb.2).
Reod: /ill pravrttivijlf3n.", as per Ms.!9bI8) in plar.e of pr.IVf!rivijll3nam. allllough tal is Omilled
from lhe Tib. (cr. D205b2).
Ms.(9b.3): llIrpra/ylyam; disregard V's m.4 p. ).
R.ad: n"'u eM'Y'- as per Ms.(9b.8) in plac.. of nanv :naya-.
Read: vlslll!'bhlviun'Min place of vJ/UnJbh'vm'r. Tib. bag chags bsgo bat phyir(D205b.3).
Read: na ... any. v.lsan.bh'vit.lsti in place of na ... vyatileke(l3nyJl v.lsanJbhJvanls~; Tib. bag
chags bsga bsgi.m!mld de(D20Sb.3).
This v...., is also ciled in MSO (LIJ in Tom.. 18< 0).
'rib. inserts ei'i ph)'li'which is not found in Ibe Sanskrit Iel<L
M. (lOa.2): CUli$yand.; disresa.lI Y's mol p.14.
Read: pravrttivift!lnt.m JJ.yavijillnuyldhiplriprmy.vQ nr heruJlnlyaya iri, omitting: (ahOWpr.ltysyarvJtj from Y.14.I3: M.(IOa.J); .1.y.,'ij6Inasy,dhipaopraryayo os h~lupt:JQ'aya ici.
Tib.}ug ps, mampus..s pi nj lam Iii m.mpuwpa. bdltg po. Jtyr.nlrll ..,yu1 tkyen m.
yin pas (D20Sb.7).

42

I,ll Senaeuperienc. refer. 10

~en3l110D;

It is (describr,d .51 $ensc.xpenence

,,,lCo jllM Ihe [hllle mode. (of ,ensation[ ate 'JlllIlak~n 01'225; what IS meant is: Ihey are
.'I"',i.need, Scns;llion

I~ IIk~

the " ... nco of Ihe tlavour of ",eoce. Due 10 Ihe InUer,

11IIive pc.ople :ue aUD,hcd 10 sCl1se.objccls l16 for the 'iakc .If lhe full sensory expenencc

of Ihelll, 011"", boli.v. th:1I ,ense'exponenc. rcfer3 lhit Ju,t to ,ensallon bUI also 10
Ihe percopuon of ,)bJOCIS, bUI Ihi, is nOI so because

tl

IS III cllnlradicllon wilh

IV,mlbundhu'll (OflHllemnry which stales: ","n,e perience refers 10 sensallon",


Mllreover, Sill". Ille flere"pllOn of an obieci is nOI differem from CllnSCIOysness. il
",nuld not be II)glc:lIly len:,bl. 22 : Ihut it can h. " mental concomll3nt. The discrimi
nalion of whal h:l, been sensed r.fon 10 idealion, because it .;on,isls In the appre-

hanBion of Ihe p.rticulars, such .s ",hal is pleasurable.

The stimulations lowuds

,"nseexporience and ideation refer to the formative forces of conscious11651 228 ,

{5]

volition and mental ~t!~orion etc.

Alternatively, he says: "sense.xpenenc. tef.,.,. to ,ensalloll", because one e.peri

ences an objective suppon according to its nature; and because one experiences the
k;lrma of what is 10 he sensed as plea.sute etc. Thu5 229 , Since sensation COItSIS!.S in Ule

SCI1IOry e.perienc. of both senseobjecls and Illeir karma, it is sensee.perience.


YJ S

Ojstllmin.tion refers 10 ideal;on sine<: it discriminales rhe mark (cihna) of the sellseIlbj~cl,

I.e. iL. conventional sign (vyavahi1r8-nimilla). The stimulalions towards differ

ent objective supporu on the pan of conscious"ess are the fonnarive forces 210 ; hence,
Ihl'Ough Ihe influenc. of volilion etc .. consciousness 'partakes or a different objective
SIlPl1011 231 . WiIIpower a.od Ille like are referred 10 by the lenn "elc.".
'The aClUalilJng (charncteristic) has no\\' been described in lenns or fTOm whence (it

manif!s), what kind of nalUre 2Jl it possesses and ils purpose.

225
226
227
228
229
230
23l
,.32

Read: up.bhujyara as per Ms.( lOa.ll. i.o place of up8bhul<Y3'a.


Re.ad (with T&B): vi$')'e;. "1Y""'" in place of vi$.yam sbhiniwsanfi; 'fib. yu/ mams I. chags
(D206a.2).
Read: ,vujya", as per Ms.(lOaA) in place of praYlljy,te,
Rr.ad; upsbhoge W1'j!lJyi!J]l ,'3 prer.!kJ!o ...ms.~.w viJi13nasy~ in place of upsbhcge 'llI/1jli3yo2iTl C;J
v,jrt!ln~pravomk!jl $~I1t;}(~ cf. Bh~y. N2U.
Ms.(10a.5): mUll OJ; (fu"'gard Y's in.4 p.:l4.
Road: Jlamb",o pru!jl '" pi ..", of Jl.",b"". JMogJ,); Tib. amigs p8 ...I. Jug par byed ps Ii.g
ni\D2060.5).
Ms.( 10.. 6): mb31l~nmr."", dismg.ro Y's in.l p.35.
Read: "AtJ yata yM(if yad.lJth3 Cd f'r3Y(ffiI it.i J.S pet Ms.( 10,,-6) in pl..:c of IIkflll/1 y.co y3drio
yadanhJ ". praV(itir iii.

h. The Charactoristic of Defilement.


Now he

N;' I. M

SIBIU

I1IQ charlcllllhtlc of defilement:

Duo to: ('1 eonceallna. (b) irllpllnl'

"IO.bed

IllS. (cl conductlllil. (d) onc.paulal1o,.

(0)

complellng.

discriminating.

(g)

(f)

Ihroefold

lonlo-uperlcoc-

iog and (h) attracting;


1.11 ab

(II

Petterlns. (j) directing and (kl

suffering 1110 world il defiled.


In the abovo: (a) It I, duo to concealing. because of the

ob~truction

of [ooe'll villoll [of pbenomeoal .1 they are io reality. by Ignorance.


(b) It i. due to Implantioa. because of the ellablishmeot of the laleol

impro3l10Da of karmll in conlcloUlnOIl. by the formative forcoa.

(c) II

Is duo to conducting. becaule it II made to reich tbe place of robirtll. by


(d) It i. duo 10 eocapsulaliog. of the iodividual nature

conlcioulnen.
by olme I form.

(0) It Is due to completinll. by the six sense fields.

It II due to threefold dlscriminatiug. by COOlncl.

experlenciog. through ./nllliion.

(h) It il duo

(f)

(s) It i. duo 10 lonlll10

Ih.o auractinll. of Ihe


(I) It is dUll to the

new exlslence projected Ibrougb learm by cravinl.

fOllcring. of conlciouane.. to tho lense-deslres etc. thaI are conducive


to rebirth. through the

gnlpins~.

(j) It is due 10 directing. because Ihe

learma that bas beon performed is directed towards Ihe provision of tbe
learma-result in Iho

DOW

(k) It is duo to

existence. by becominl.

suffering thaI Ihe world is complct.:ly defiled. by binh. old-alc and


death.

This:
Threefold.

1.11 cd

defilement

twofold

and

(manifests)

sevoofold
frolll

tbe

imagination of wbat is unreal.


Defilemenl is

threefold: the defilement of moral defilement. tbe

defilement of kuma and I.be defilement of rebirth.

Of thes ... the defile-

ment of moral defilement consists in ignorance. craving and graaping.


The defilement of kuma consist. ill the formative forces and becoming.
The defilement of rebirth consills in the remaininl [seven) elemonts.
Det1i"m~llt

:l2c
Of

the~,.

is Iwofold: defilement as causCl and defilement as result.

the defilement as cause includes those elements wbicb have

moral defilement and kuma for their own-being. Defilement as result


includes the rem.ainiog [elements).

u
SOY'lIfold defllomellt rofen to tho laven typn of cautea: (a) tho

orrolleoul illYOfiloo. (bj tho

caUls of

CIUle of projection, (e)

Iho caulo

of leading. (d) tbo call" of POIlIUloll. (01 Illa nun of leolc-uperienea. (f) tho U.II"

of attraclion Ind (II) 1110 caltle of .0.iOI,,231.

Of

th"... the cau14 ot .rronooue Invenlon II ilootaneo.


prDJooIlon II tho formative rOtcoa.

The

nOli.

OIUI.

The calllO of
Tbe caule of leading i. conscious-

of pOllotlion II aamo I fonn and 1110 sill leDIG-fields.

The CIUle of lonla-upeNlllce II contact and 10IlS.tlOD.


birth. old -IS" aad dOalh.

The eluse of

Tho c.u.~ of anxioty Is

Inucllon Is cravlnl. sruplna and becomlnll.

And all of 111010 defilements mlnirel[ from tho

Imtalnation of wblt il unreal.

ISlltiramali I
YJS. /j

[I) Now h~ SlateS Ille characlerislJc 214 of defilemeDt. The characlerislic of

delllcmcnl refers

10

Ihot mode in which Illc delllements of moral defilement. karma and

rebirth. while in Ilte process of manifesting. lead

10

Ilte complete delllement of Ilte

world. Altlloullh it is ins~bstAntiaI2Jj. S8l'{lsilra is generated JUSt from Ilte imagination


of whal is urueDI. [n order

10

demonstrate Iltis il is stated:

Due to: <a) concealing. (b) Implant-

1.10 ab

Ing. (c) conductiog . (d) oneap,ularin, etc.

These Iwelve clements of dependent origination are shown willt reference


aClUali~ing sio~

(2]

10236

the

(af cOllSciousness).

In tho above. It II due to concealiog. . .. that 1110 world is defiled; f.he

laller ponion of

Illi~

stalement (Le. "the world is defiled" I refers to aU (twelve

elements). How is il thaI [the ,,'Orld) is defiled due to concealing and by what is it concealed?

Hell~

phenomena]

he says: because of the obStruction of [one's) vision [of

.s Illel' are in realiI)'. by

illnof4llce.

Since ignorancc 2J7 consists

in the absellC'l of vision. when Ille splteA! of ooc's vision of reality is hidden. tho vision
of what is real does not arise. ConSllquentiy. because it obstllIcrs Ilte arising of one's

vision of Ihe real, ignorance is an obstruction to (lhe arising of) the vision of what is
real; furthenllore. lite vision of the real consisrs chiefly in supramundane wisdom. The
lauer. which is subsequently auained because it arises subsequently [to the palh of
vision I and whic.h consists io luming. reflection aDd meditative developmcDI which

233
2>4
~35

This passage concerning the seven causes is omitted from th. fib . i.e. from vipary3saMiu/r to
udveglherui claf the Bhl$ya (1'122.2 - 22.4): cr. Tib. Bhl$yaD4a.1.
Ms.(lOa.6): ./ai$.,,,,, cr. disregard Y's fn.2 p.lS.
R.~d: f.lC CI nlitll1flY'!f! IPY in place of QIc c3s1lO 'py IfmlUlO; Tib. d4 oi lHJag med par ,an

(1)206a.1).

236
237

Re.ad.: SidhiJq'!ys as p M.(I0J,71. in place of .:Ihi.


M.s.{ 10..8): ,11dY8yl but Y's emendation In kvidylyl is pmerred; d. his rnA p.35

purify H b~r.ulJ'~ o( ~Ial undolll31ldlng, IA de"nbcd III the vISIon of Ihe real na .
lIecAula il ObSI.nJCIJI lhe viaion

CIlndlUlln ior

Q(

lh~ (!lImO!1V" (o~u,

",hal IS real. illn!ll1ltlce is described as Ihe causal


;llus II II laid: "dllo to concealing by ignorance, Ihe

world 1$ defile"".

I3J II II duo 10 Implantiog; llult

,he world is defiled . Ihis IS undenilood.

As to Ihe

Isonl, locus and objcCI o( implanting, he says: o( 'hOI lalool impreuiona of

nil

hm,. In
(m'Ce~

~no.uiou'II''',

by Ole rOnDllive rONOI.

Therein. Ihe (ormalive

conlhl III "Arm. of body, speech and mind and ils osseollol naNRI can l)c vir-

!llIlUl. non,Yill.uous or neulral. II is n form~live (oree (S4111SI<6ra) since il formatively


IIlfluencas (abhiu'IIs/o:ar()/i) the new exillflhce; whal is meant is:

1\

Implan\s whal was

not previously implanlcd 239 ; il I~ jU51 OIis (sense! that is expressed by Ihe lerm

"formalive force". bUI nOI all (ilJ meanings). Moreover. since they have me

c~patily

10

projcci me new nislcnce because of tile influence of ignorllnce 240 and not merely on
accoum of their exislcnce. il IS said mal Ihe formalive (orces have ignorance for meor
causal condition.

Accordingly. OIey bring aboul the new exislcnce for or.e whose

knowledllol41 hDJI nOI yet arisen. but


ance is nOI described as

th~

nOI

for ooc whose knowledge has arisen. Icnor-

causal condition for the formative forces merely as the

predominanl {causal condition I because it is the general causal CORdi lion in me


manifeslation (of the new exislencel

all

well, for ignorance is

li~wise

assoCiated wilh

all moral d.lilemeDL Ius! as it is me causal conditio.. in general for the alising of me
moral delilomonts Ihal do arise 242 , so 100 is it [the causal condition I for rhe Yolilions
which arise243 from !he lalter. Even when me (meritoriouslZ44 formativo forces mani
fest. i.e.

1ll0$C

mat follow as a consequence of the g(lIuine wish forl4S the special Slales
10 them 246 is m~ir general

of .~istcnce and enjoymenlS. ignorance which is iMate

causal condition. Also. lwher .here is tlte arising! of neulral l47 Ifonna:jve forees! OIal
arisc 248 with tho nOlion that one can escape to those levels 249 ignorance. which is

238

239
240
241

242

243

244
245
246

247

248
249

Read: tllJIIlfbodbh.v't tllpff/h.t/,bdh' 1.tdJ"bodhlc e, IIdv;iod.t/rsirucacinrJlbh'v'"'mayr


bhOt..tmBII'm ify ucY'I~ in plac~ of wpn/hodbhn'c uIPmh.llbh3t I.d...gam'c ca
/atpTlyogsinwlCin/.bh'vmlm.yI bhOc,dMi..".m icy ucy,c~ MS.(lOb.I): m'yf.... nOl m
'PI ... as TolD's reading indicates; (ct. l!l.l).
Read: MOpif8rp ropay.1Ily utII~ in plilCe of ~~ihiWf1 ro/IlYlIll/y mh~: Tib. m. bcab pa
'debs Us bya ba'j do. ahil (\)206b.6\.
Ms.(lOb.2): clvid)'ldhipa/yJ~ disregard Y's tn. I p.16.
Tib.;avidy'(m, rig pal for vidyJ(cf. 020611.6).
Read (willi T&B30.14): y.rb. kleiasmtuttbln!qt slmlnY"'" (SllIIuttbllIU)pnI/y'Yas in place
of ym. Slmuttblnskleiln!qt s.mJnyapnl/y'YU: Ms.( IOb.3): mlnY"". sunuttbJnapnllY'Y*
"lib. omi!5 samuttbJna and has:ji 11M tJM tIIOII$ pa kwr 01$ 'bywi ba mams kyi spyi'i tk)-en
rinpa(D206b.7207a.1).
Ms.(lOb.3): Slmun:h_~ disreaard Y's fn.4 p.36.
Tib. i6sms: PUOyli.!I!f1 (bsod IIams) which is 1101 four.1! in tilt Ms.
Ms.(IOb.3): pr;ln:/INllllnyJll.lm; disregard Y's tn.6 p.36.
Read: fA!5ah.bhUr ,,';dy! as per Ms.(IObJ) in plao.:e of cM$ahlllhOllvidyl; disregard Y'. rn. 7

p.36.
Ms.{IOb.l): Ini6jylnlm; disregard Y'S tn.S p.Jf.
Read: -swuttblnl/i1 u per Ms.( IOb.l), in pllP of samuttblnlnl/i1.
Tib. omilS bb.mi (cf.02011.2).

d6

hmdlO 10 rhcm Uo ii their IlcIICI'1I 2jl CJUDI wl1dilion. 11,ul IllS dM<llibed M lho /UlU$a1

cOllllhlon for the form.Uve fon:c.. In Ille aboye. !he ,!O",":ollllCioU$nctl IS intended

by 11111 lerlll: "COfLI<lltlUlncu". and ItOt the .,,'ual conliC,OU"M' .. because of

Ulft

impossi

10 the Iliac" of ",blnh by the aClu.1 .:ons~il)l!.na5S whuse


conllnully i. IntcmJllled1n 3.nd al$o heClIu.se tho lalent impreSSIons of hmla are not
bUlly of oomll

cOllvcy~d

.slobllihcd tl,arcln by rhe (onnall.e (orces SInce bolh Ihe wholesome ar.,d defiled
IltlMfnJ .. 1C.Mllt be broulht fDlclhar. WhIIn (Valubandhul uys: "[il is due 10 the
implanllna) of lho lalcnt imp",ulOna of kum ....... jllS! whal is this thaI is described as
the laLent ilnp",ulon of' tMm.? II is the 'seed' of the (umre b'rth 2H , I,e, a <lamal enuly.
I'or c!XIl.mple. a &nun of ri~<l is Ihe seed. i.<!. Ihe causal emily, (or th'.l arising of d Sproul

(which develop!) Ihrou&h a I11Insfonnalion in dependence upon special condillons slid,


YJl

as soil. aah and manure BeclUAO of the utabUlhmoDt .. ,; this lenn npreSSQs
impla~llnll ssain through a differenl synonym, Funhennore, "eslablishmenl" in this
contell refen to Ihe augmenl31ion of that 'sced' in the continuum of consciousness
(rom tho very be8inninfl2~., by these jfonnalive forees); (Ot, no previously non
e~illl!nt 'sced' of any dhlU'mB Ihat is accompanied by impuril)' is generated, like in the
~ase of ona without impurity. III thIS W4Y. Ihe world is defiled due 10 the generation of
tho 'soed' of the new exislence in conscIOusness. by the (onnaUve forces.
(4) It II due to cODductiDg; that the world is defiled,

Since the aSMt. locus and

object of conducting is lIot diso:emed. he saY$: ,becauso it is made to reBch2~S the


place of robil1h 256 by cODicioUIDI:SI,

Conductiog refers 10 the conveying of

the latenl impressions of the 'seed' of !.he new exislence. (rom the place of death 10 Ihe

place :.of rebirth, by consc',,"sn'S$ which is fully developed by karrnl! and which
functions as a CQntinuum2H. After con.tidering il in this way2S8. Ih~n the consciousn..ss at conception canllo' have the (ormative forces for its causal condition; and il has
b<!en demoustraled thOI only the consciousnes. belonging 10 the previous existence has

.he fonnanve forces for irs c.auSill condition. becaus~ Ihe ariSing of an effect (rom a
that has perished is not tena"'e. Since those who have gained Ihe formless

C3U.e

attainments are reborn in thaI very p\,c-. where they die. how can they be conveyed 10 a
place (,~ ,~"inh in the fonnlcss (realmsi1 [Rather) it should
the circumstances. as ;s !he case wilh name I funn,
250
251
252
253
254
2SS
256

257
258

be

underslood according to

Cf, (n, 246 above.


Ms,( lOb,)): Slm.IGy.; disregatd Y's m.9 p,.l6.
Read (willi T&B30.20): san/lJlocChcdftla prn(ftiviftJlMtt' rolpll1i" in place of vyupml1l3ptavrnil1jdllnUy~ Tib, IJYIUI chid pa tbJj 'jug pai mam pH ks pas skye bal ID207a.3).
Tib, omill janm1llO; cf, 0207a.4,
urpntrh&mlW; Tib. dos moe tr.J/ kJoo
(D207 ..S),

O.t'

Read: S8fll1)tJpaqJd in plllCC ~ sam~1d; Ms,(IOb.6): _111$10 n:ad: SB~willl lite


Qa txpuniod;
Bhl$ya N2!.14,
"tp.itti, bUIBhl$ya upaparti; cr, 1'121.14.
M.(IOb.6): vijlflnM~ disll:1atd Y's m,2 p.l?,
Read: ovam Iqrv' in place of arb. c. sOli; Tib, ~ 11M bra u. (1)207.. 7l.

cr,

47
[5J It 18 dUll to oncap.ulatlng259 ; that the world is defiled. As to the agent,
locus Z60 and object of encapsulation261 , he says: of tho individual nature. by
llamD I form.

Oecause name I form are [equivalent to] the five aggregates.

The

laller. after appropliating cOllception, while in tile I1mt, second, tIlird. fourth alld fifth
stages of embryonic dcvelopment 262 , and before the six sense-fields have arisen,
comprise name I rorm which have consciousness for their causal condition. Thus, tile
differentiation into different homogeneous groups is accomplished tIlrough a special
activation within tIlat [name I form]. And when the laller have arisen, tIleir individual
nature is differentiated due to the difference in homogeneous groups, such as between
human and animal; thus it is said tIlat the individual nature is encapsulated by name I
form. Ahematively, it envelops tile whole individual nature up until death263 because
tile whole is determined as a causal state from the beginning. Or else, a1t1lough it is not
differentiared264 , the individual nature is enveloped by name I form, thus he shows it to
138

be separate; just as everything conditioned is included in the five aggregates (yet are
separate from themJ; however. only265 the sense fields of ~reatures of miraculous birth
(aupapllduka) have consciousness for their causal condirion 266 [and not name I form).
Consequently. it should be known tIlat name I form have consciousness for their causal
condition, according to the circumstances.
[6J It Is due to completion; that [the worldJ is defiled267 . As to the agent, locus~68
and object of completion, he says: of the individual narure which is included in name I
form 269 , by the six sense-fields. For the individual nature270 is described as
incomplete in the state of name

form because of the absence of the sense-l1elds of

sight etc. Moreover, although the tactile and mind sense fields do dxist in that state,
they too are definitely incomplete because as a ['l1eld' comprising] both that which is
based [i.e. the object of the senses) and the basis [i.e. the sense organs], it is incomplete. Furthermore, the basis271 is complete in the state of the six sensefields because
of the acruaiizatioD of sight etc. The tactile sellse-field is also complete because of tile

259
260
26!

262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271

Read: SarpparigrahL. in place of parigrahsj, ct. Bhll$ya N21.14.


Tib. insens tva (gaIl du); cf. D207b.2.
Read: sarpparigrahlt in place of parigraM~ ct. Bhll$ya N21 14.
Read: kal.l/lrbudaghsnapeiIpra3lkhavastha as per Ms.( IOb.8) in place of /calallrbudapei1ghsnaprailkhlvasthB; disregard Y's fn.4 p.37. Cf. Mvy. # 406771.
Read: J llUJlDlIJltas per Ms.(lla.!) in place of "nIara!I.t.
Read: abhinno 'pi in place of ablWm.m .pi.
Ms.(11a.2): ored; cIlsregard Y's fn.2 p.38.
Ms.(lIa.2): vijillIn.prary.YBm; disregard Y's fn.l p.38.
Tib. insensjagat(groba); cf. D207b.6.
Tib. insertS: tva (g/JII du); cf. D207b.6.
Read: nlmartIpas'l/IgrhItasya Itm.bhlvasy. in place of n'martIpasal/lllrMtal/l iarfnlm; Tib.
miJI dati gzugs su bsdus pal lus te (D207b.7). Ms.(11a.2): n'martIpasamgrirIta-.
Read: .tmabh.vo 'parip/ltpa ucyate in place of sarfnlm aparip/ltpam ucyate: cf. ibid.
Ms.(!1a.3): lliritl, but Y's rendering of .!iraya is preferred.

48

completioll of sight etc. which is based on it 272 . How is it that sight etc. are based on
it27J? Because their functionibg depends upon it. The mind sonse-field toO, which is
included in the six consciousnesses, is completed al this time bccau5~ of the completion
of 'he basis 2'/4 in its ontirety. Also, since the major and minor members [of the bodyJ

are compiete l7S only in the state of the six sense-field.~276 because the basis is complete,
it is said that the world is defiled by the six sense-fields,
[7J It is due to threefold diSCriminating; "that the world is defiled" is understood.

"Threefold" refen to the combination of sense faculty, sense-object and

consciousness.

Contact refers to the discrimination of the three 'hodes of modifi-

cation of the sense faculty and is conducive to the arising of the sensation of pleasure
etc. It is described as contact (sparSa) since it is an aspect of that likeness of modification of the sense faculty which it lOuches (spr~alJ)277.

Alternatively, contact which

has the six sense-fields for its causal condition, produces a threefoid modification of
the Sense faculty that is conducive to the sensation of pleasure etc.

[8] It is due to seDso-experiencing278 , through sODsation; because sensation


Y39

is experienced on account of craving; what is meant is: 'consumed with relish'. Alternatively, the sense-experience of sensation is due to the experience of kanna 279 that is
virtuous etc, Alternatively, in this context sense-experience refers to the experience of
a sensation and when pleasure etc, is experienced, due to the full development therein
of [sensationsJ such as pieasure, the world is defiled by [subsequentJ passion, hatred
and delusion.
[9J It is due to tho attracting; siDce the agent and object of attraction are not
discerned, he says: of tho now existenco projectod through karma, by craving; i.e. [the attractiou) of the new existence projected due to the maturation of its 'seed'
on account of the fonnativc forces in consciousness, by craving. which can be likened
to the moisture 280 [in the generation of a seed). Then, after securing the generation of
the new existence 011 account of the 'moistening', i.e, on account of the indiscriminate
272
273
274
275
276
277

278
279

2UO

Read (with T&B32.7): tadlJSritln3Ip c~urt/d1n8Ip in place of tacc~urldyairitRn8Ip; Tib. mig /.


sogs pa dill. bIten pa mams (D208a.1).
Read (with N.Amend. poll): katham cakJurlday~ radBSrilatJ in place of kathaJp laccak,UIRdyairiraJp; Ms.(11a.4): -/I. Tib. dililar mig 10 sogs pa de la btten na (0208a.1).
Read: pariplIrila/l as per Ms.(lIa.4) in place of pariplIril'l.
Read: pariplIritai ca in place of pariplIrillJc ca; cf. fn.274. Ms.(lIa.4): paripUris ca
Ms.(lIa.4): ,a(J'yalanavasth'y'm evam, but Y's rendering of -'vasth'yllm ev'- is preferred on
Ibe basis of the Tib.: skye mched drug gi dus did na (cf. 0208a.2).
The Tib. reads differendy: ".. ,since it makes contact through a similarity in aspect of Ibat
which is a modification of the se"se faculty: de bas na dban po'i 'gyur p. gan yin pa de'i mam
pa dJuJ 'dra bar reg pa byed pas reg pa ies bya'o; cf. T-Bhl$ya L20.8: "Funhermore, since
contact touches Ibe sense faculty tbrough a likeness of modification of the sense faculty, it is
described as 'conrac(; sparSa/l punar indriyavilt:atasad(iyena indriyaJp sp,sal1nci.riye{la vI sprSy.ta
iii sparia ueyale. Cf. also St's m.83 p.143.
Ms.(1Ia.6): -(l~ II upathogRd?!
Omit phaJa (Y38.24) sil';. it is not found either in Tib. nor in the Ms.
Read: punarbhavlJSy'pk.tllpayl as per Ms.( Ila. 7): in place of punarbhavasyodakakaJpayl; disregard Y's
p.39.

ze

m.l

49

wish for an individual nature in all statos of exisltlnce, that which establishes the
generation is 'allfaction'281.

[101 It Is due to the fettering: when

questioned as to the agent, locus and object

of fellcring, [Vasubandhu) himself says: of consciousness to tho sonso,desiros


otc. that are conducivo to rebirth 282 , through the grasplngs.
ness. which is projected by karma

Conscious-

by mllns of the four graspings that are char-

acterized by notional attachmelll 283 and the passion of sense-desire, is fettered to. i.e.
fixed in 284 sense-desin:. false view. morality and observances and false view of sel(Z8S
which are conducive to rebirth because consciousness abides therein [in the new birth)
by force of the passion of sense-desire286 .

(11) It Is due to directing; here too when questioned by another. [VasubandhuJ


himself responds:

because the karmll that has been performed is directed

towards tho provision of tho karma-result in the new existonco 287 by


becoming.

Thus. the kamla performed in the past is the cause of consciousness and

as being pertinent to the new existence is in a state of latent impression; it receives ao


existence since the 'fruit' of the karma-result acquires a functional staluS aod is directed
towards accomplishing the projection of an existence288 . Thus the world is defiled due
to directing 289 by becoming.
(12)

It is due to suffering ';hat the world is completely defiled by binh.

Old-age and death290 . Thus, when there is the actualization of the new existence
Y40

due to becoming. from the very outset [!he world) is defiled as the consequence of the
coagulation of consciousness in semen and blood at the time of impregnation.
Similarly. it is defiled due to the to-aod-fro movement [of !he foetus) midway between
the stomach aod the abdomen of the mother.

Similarly. it is defiled because of the

mother's inability to dispel anxiety and anguish when eating and moving about.

281

282
283
284
285
286

287
288

289
290

Read: -Ibhil~yena l1ttrI'Icara(I....a punlll1Jhavotpldalwn upayujya yadutpldabvyavasrbilpanlJl/l


tat kBl1l1l1am in place of -lbhilD$eli yad lnh11qtya punarbhavam utpattlv upayutikta utpanilll
clvasthlpayali tSI kBl1allam; Tib. 'dod pa ios by. bas brian nas yllli srid pa 'byu,; bar lie bar
sbyor ZUi 'bywl ba des par 'jog pa gllli yin pa de ni sdud pa (D208a.7).
upapatti. but Bh~ya urpani. cf. N21.17.
Tib. (D208b.1) insens abhiniveia (1IIJ)01I par ien pal which is not in the Sanskril
~;~:.::~rroi08~~:.te in place of nibandhayary avasthlpayali ca; Tib. sbyor ba byed
Read: armadmilu in place of Itmavldesu; Tib. bdag ru Ira ba dag ru (D208b.2).
Read (with T&B33.8): tatha hi chand:iragavl/iBd vijllllnam tall1lvali~rhate in place of vijllllnlJl/l hi
cchandarSgavaSRt raaa vanate; Tib. 'dj liar 'dun pa'i 'dod chags Icyi dbllli gis mam par ses pa der
gnas (D208b.2).
Ms.(llb.1): punarbhavavipaka-, but Bh~ya (cf. N21.19): punarbhave vipSka-.
The Sanskrit fragments of this passage are difficult to reconcile with the Tib, hence it is
!Tanslated on the basis of the Tib. ji liar sdon byas pa'i las mam par ies pa'i '1:yu yllli byuri bas
bag chags kyi dus su gyur ba mam par smin pa'i 'bras bu 1phyir (I) Jug pa n!ed pas srid pa yod
par gyur ciJJ arid pa btab pa 'grub par mrion du gyur pa ste (D208b.3-4).
Read: Ibhimukhylj in place of Ibhimukhllcar8{llj; Tib. nuion du 'i phyir (D208b.4).
Read: dutr/dlanlj jlryll jatStrJJU'Il{lOna ca ldisyate jagat iii in place of du/lkhilllj jlryljatSmara{1ena
ca killlldiiYBJ1re jagantIli; cf. Bh~y. N21.19. Ms.(llb.2): -khanllj jllryll jarlmarallena ca
(kil/l) idiiyslBjagsd iii; disregard Y's fns. 5 & 7.

SO
SimIlarly, the world 29l is defiled by coming out292 [of tho womb) through a restricted
and Impure passage.

Ag&in, the world is defiled insofar as onc is bom only to be

deprived 0(293 cherished youth and vitality by old-age characterized by baldness and
grey hair Ctc. 294 and lly death which is characterized by the dissolulion29S of name I
form.
[13) Since it ib ill motioll (gacchall), it is [described as) the 'moving', [i.e. the world)

Uagac); Whal is meunl is: il progresses from an homogeneous condition to a momentary


condition. By "il is defiled" is mean': in [alii the three realms of existence, [the worldl
is afflicted on account of birth, old-age, sickness and death etc. and on account of its
incessant marion through a regular succession of moments.

Others believe that rho

term "it is defiled" means: 'il is not purified'. Thus, rhese twelve elements of dependent
origil'4tion which are characterized by defilement, arise on accoun! of these eleven
modes beginning with "due to concealing" as rhe direct counterpan to purification; and.
beginning with ignorance, they form a sequential progression, since each subsequent
elamenl is brought about by each precedinll element.

[14)

How many kinds of defilement have been demonstrated in total rhrough these

twelv~ <IIlemenlS of dependent origination?


CJf

Hence he says:296 these twelve elements

dependent orisination are:

1.11 cd

Threefold.

twofold

and

sevenfold

defilement 297 .
The word" and" has a conjunctive and repetitive298 sense. Since moral defilement itself
is defilement, it is described as the defilement of moral defilement. Similarly are the
defilements rhat consist in karma and rebirth [so-called I, for moral defilement manifests
as defilement [in general] because it is harmful to both oneself and others; as is said in

a Siltra: "one who is enamoured299 and overcome with passion is intent upon hanning
Y41

himself, is intent upon hanning others and is intent upon haml in both [rhis and rhe
next world].
it

i~

Aversion and delusion should be understood in the same way."300 And

defilement because the defilements rhat consist in karma and rebirth are generated;

~ccordingly,

the karma projects the rebirth under the influence of moral defilement.

Since the projection of rhe new existence does not occur for one who has seen the trurh
even when there is karma, because the 'seed' of the new existence is caused to come
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300

Tib. (208b.6) omits jagsl ( 8m bal.


Ms.(llb.3): nirgaccha4 but nirgaccha/i is preferred.
Ms.(llb.3): bJuaiyamlnam; lIi,regard Y'. fn.2 p.40.
Ms.(llb.3): khaJicyapillicyadi-; disregard Y's fn.1 pAO.
bheda; Tib. jigpa(D208b.7l.
Read: icy alii idam as per Ms.(llb.S) in place of iry ala evedanr, disregard Y's fn.4 pAO.
Read: tredhl dvedhl CII samk1"~ sapladh. in place of tridha dvrdha ca s;up/d"~ sapr.Mha; cf.
BhD$ya N21.21.
Tib. go bsnor ba (D209aA).
Read: satre I raJcto as per Ms.(llb.6) in place of satre 'pi raleto.
From Aitguuara-nikllya ill.54.

51

into being [only I on account of Ibe manifestation of moral defilemem and since Ibere is
the bond of conception in a new existence for

\lOO

whose mind is defiled, Ibe defile-

ment that consists ia rebirlh is a ~U8C [for Ibe defilement of tile world]. Consequently,
since lite Arhat does nol possess a defiled mind, th:re is no bond of conception.
Moreover, karma wholb.r pure or impure is [equivalent tol defilement because it bolb
causes bodily and mental fatigue in Ibe present lOl and provides Ibe karma-result in the
furure.

Rebirth too ;. [equivalent to I defilement because it is the locus of all

misfortun~.

[IS] Defilement is threefold; because the cause is differentiated as twofold. The

defilement of moral defilement consists in ignorance, craving and


grasping 302 ; Ibe laner form a trio because Ibey have the nalUre of moral defilement.
The

defllem~nt

of

klll'1II8

consists In the form.ative forces and becoming;

Ibe latter form a pair because Ibey have the nature of karma. However, Ibere is this
difference: karma, in its state as essential nalUre consists in the formative fo",es, but in
its state as 'seed' it consisL' in becoming. The defilement of rebirth consists in
the fIImaining [seven] elements, i.e. consciousness, name I form. Ibe six sensefields, contact, sensation, birlh, old-age and dealb, since these are included wilbin
rebirth.
[16] Defilement is twofold, since the cause is not differentiated.

The defile-

ment as cause includes thosc elements which have moral defilement and
karma for thoir own-belng J03 ; defilement as result includes the remaining elements. Of Ibese. Ibe defilement as cause 304 is peninent to karma and morai
defilement because the latter are engaged

ID

the generation of rebirlh which: (a) begins

with consciousness and concludes with sensation. (b) has the nature of birth and (c)
possesses the distress of old-age and death30S , Moreover, defilement as result includes
the remai:ting elements beginning with consciousness, because they are the result of
karma and moral defilement.

[17] Furthermore, that same process of dependent origination consists in a sevenfold

defilement which refers to seven kinds of causes because they are the causes
of: (a) erroneous inversion, (b) projection, (c) leading, (d) possession, (e) senseexperience, (f) attraction and (g) agitation.
Y42

Of these, the cause of erroneous

inversion is ignorance, for one who has succumbed to ignorance erroneously


iuvens what is impermanent etc. as being of the nature of something permanent etc)06
301
302
303

304
305
306

Ms.(llb.8): tadHlVe; disregard Y's fn.1 p.41.


Ms,(llb.8): 'vidyltmopadllDl!nfli; disregard Y's fn. 2 p.41.
Read: svabhlvair in place of svarfJpair; cf. Bhl$ya Nll.l.
Tib. omits: horusBlJl/deiarvll1/l; cf. D209b.5.
Read: j/Ir8manI{IldInal'a1jl janma; as per Ms.( 12a.2) in place of jsdrmlra{llldinavajanma..
Read: viparyasyati as per Ms.(I2a.3) in place of darianld viparySBa ucyare and contrary to Y's
fn.l p.42; Tib. is slightly different: "... by seeing the nature of something pennanenl in what
is impermanent ere," ... mi nag pa /a sags pa /0 mg pa'; do bor mthod bas (D210a.I),

52
due to his confusion about reality.

The cause of projection is Ihe formative

forces, beeDuse thel .stablish in consciousness the 'seed' of rebinh which consists in
four of

Ihe elcmems lof dCllcndcni originalion). The cause of leading 307 Is con-

sciousne88, because it conveys one who has died here in this world to the place of
rebirth.

The cause of possession is both name I form and the six sense-

fields, because that which is led li.e. consciousness) possesses" Ipanicular) homo
geneous grouping on account of name I form and the six sensefields. The possessiuD
just by name I form was mentioned in the above where the womb of creatures born
from a womb was intended.

lIere, the possession by

L~e

mentioned having regard for creatures of miraculous binh.

six sense-fields as well is


Alternatively he wishes to

s:ly tllat, prior to [its po.-ession) by the laller, just the individual nature is possessed by
name I form; however, since it refers to [the possession)308 of either the completed
[state), or that which is incomplete . there is no contradiction here.

The cause of

sense-experience is contact and sensation 309 , because the senseexperience of


wholesome and unwholesome karma-result is on account of experience, together with
its cause.

The cause of attraction is craving, grasping and becoming; a

naive person

II

"'r:.~"!

karma-result has been experienced. craves for various feelings;

when craving intensifies he cling.s to sense-desires etc. on account of his craving for

both the union with, and non separation from, the latter.

As the consequence of the

grasping for these [sensedesires) his karma belonging to the past, which penains to
the new existence and which is in a state of latent impression. is transfonned.

This

leads to the impaning of the karma result, in accordance with what has been projected,
then after being activated it is 'becoming'.

Moreover, that [karma) is attracted, i.e. is

directed 310 towards the actu.lil.auon of the new existence projected by the formative
forces on account of craving, grasping and becoming. Alternatively, craving, grasping
and becoming are the cause of attraction since they are directed towards one of the two
latent impressions of karma conducive to the passion of sense-desire, on account of

craving.

The cause of anxiety is birth, old-age and death; thus, here one

experiences the pain of binh, oldage and death among the various classes of sentient
beings because of the attrac;ion of birth, as well as [experiencing) an endless variety of
suffering that consists in sorrow, lamentation. depression and perturbation.
Y43

[18) In the above, moml defilement and karma 311 are shown as general and specific
causes [respectively) of rebirth, through the description of threefold defilement. Moral
defilement is the general cau.e [on the gemlinarion) of the 'sprout' of rebinh, just as soil
is [for a plant); however, karma is the specific cause, just as the seed is [the specific
307
308
309
310
311

Read: upan_yah.rur in place of upanayanaherur. cf. Bh1ljya N22.5.


Tib. Insens parigraha ('dzin pal; cr. D2IOa.3.
Read: spari,..,,,J... iii in place of sp.ri.ved.nS iii; cr. Bh1ljya N22 7. Ms.( l2a.5): ve:J.ne iii.
abhimukhlkriyale. btl! Tib. nulon par du byed (abhi .,pskriy.le); cf. D2100.6.
Read: kleSakanniJ{loras per Ms.(12a.8) in place of kle.akarmiJ{lo.

S3

cau,",) for its sprout because the differentiation among rebinhs


differer;tiation in lItat [karma).

,s according to lite

Alternatively. alllto'Jgh lItere are nOl three separate

8egmel'lIs lItat comprise lite past, present and future in litis regard [Le. dependent origination), he nevertheless demonsr.r:lles lItat it does consist in karma. moral defilement
and lIteir result.
[19) Through lite SlatemeD! about twofold 312 [defilement I he demonstrates lItat lItis 313

is merely cause and result and lItat no other agenl of action nor agent of sensation is
defiled in this regard.

Alternatively, lite cause refers Just to karma and moral defile-

ment in litis context because it is seen lItat the presence or absence of rebinh is due 10
lite preseDce or absence of lItese two [Le. karma and moral defilement]; hence. rebinh
is inde~d the result of litem. Therefore, he demonstrates lItat there is neither cause nor
result in this regard. but in every case [Le. in each of lite twelve elemenrs] lItere is a
state possessing the five aggregates.
[20)

Fluthermore. two kinds of dependent origination have been demonstrated

!hroUV.!.1 lite explanation of lite sevenfold causes, namely: lItat characterized by projection and lItal characterized by actualization. Of lItese. lItat choracterized by projection
has been explained Ihrough 1It~ seven elements of dependent origination by demonstrating: (a) lItat by which it is projected. (b) lite way in which it is projected and (c)
that which is projected.

That which is characterized by actualization [has been

explained] Ihrough 1It~ five [remaining] elements [by demo!lstrating): (a) lItat by which
lItere is lite actualization of what has been projected. (b) lite way in which it actualizes
and (c) lite actualization [irself). as well as lite distress [implicit] therem. What is the
agent of projection? The formative forces which have ignorance for their causal condition. How so? After becoming acquainted with erroneous inversion due to delusion
about reality314. [ignorance) formati"ely influences the wholesome. unwholesome and
neutral formative forces.

How is it projected by those formative 'orces?

They

establis.~ it in lite appropriate place JI5 of rebinh du" to lite developutent of the 'reeds' in

consciousness.

What is projected? All lItat penains to the new existence. i.e. name .'

form. the six sense-fields. contact and sensation. respectively.

By what means is lItere

the actualization of lItat which is proJec:ed in this way' As has been said. [it is actualized) in stages from what was previously projected IItrough grasping which has for its
causal condition that craving which has already arisen in dependence upon the
sensation that has arisen in the present lifetime.

How is It actualized through litis

[grasping]'! -:'he karma which is in the state of latenl impression within consciousness
is caused to come into being IItrough lItat [grasping). for many kinds of latent
312
313
314

315

Read: dvidhl... as per Ms.{12b.1) in place of dvividhll. ..


Ms.(12b.l): evedan; disregatd Y's m.1 p.43.
Read (with T&B): k.chlilJl tattvd!lloh3d vipilIYilsa", jll3lV3 in place of yamS tattve mugdhv3
vipar1IBl1I sliIJIjSn3ti; Tib. ji Jlar de kho na Ja nnolls aas phyin C/ Jog tu .... te (D21 Ob. 7).
bhavyatll; Tib. nus pa(D2IOb.7).

S4

impressions of karma exist in consciousness because it is fully developed by various


Y44

kinds of formative forces. That on account of which there is a new existence. because
it is encapsulated by a special grasping, is described here as becoming'. Just what is

this actualization? It is that binh in the future of the name J form etc. that hal! been

projectl'A. Now, when that occurs what is distressful? Old-age and death., because one
i8 deprived of cherished youm and vitality316.

[Objection): What if one were

!O

suggest that the 'cause of leading' is meaningless here? [Response): It is not meaningIC85 317 for [its inclusion) is for the purpose of removing the understanding3lB that, after
the existence that penains to deam i~ severed. there is the arising of a [new) existence
that penains to birth [- thus invalidating dependent origination).

[21)

All thelll defilements manifest from the imagination of what is

unreat3 19,

since the mind 3!ld the mental concomita'lts

are

the basis of defilementnO .

Moreover, it has been Slated thal: 321 "the imagination of what is nnnal consist.< .n the
mind and the mental concomitants that penain 10 the thtee ~a1ms of exislc,,"" (T.S ab).

316
311
318

MS.(12b.I): .jtvata but Y's -jrvita- is pnfetml 01\ die blllis of die TIb.(srog); cf. D2\la.4.
Ms.( 12b.6): atrs tDpanay.lretlll'
nir.lJthSka/l bul. Y's IDpeaylMtIII' numb. iii Cef
nlmrhm/l is preferled on Ihe basiS of TIb.; cr. hit h2 p.44.
Read: .dhigamanitlllrltB{llrtbMp in place of odbig."..". tJiJfhtal)1rtbam; TIb. rtog pII blBl ba1

n.

a,

phyir(D211a.4).

319

Read: sarvu eli,. '4lIIkIeio 1JhDtapstiblplt pravarwa iii in place of ime JIIrvtI umJd~'
abhQt.pstikaJplt pravmanra iii; Ms.( Ilb.1): bhllt.pMikmp.t pRvm,t. iii. Cf. alio

320

Read: cirtaclitainly.tv.t $lJlIkleiasy. as pet Ms.(I2b.7) in place of cilUClitd YnyatvllPl1l'


JdelasYII; fib. $elllS dBlI
las bytul hi mlJJll ni tun nas &on modS pili gnas YIn pII] phyir

321

Read:

Bhl8ya N22.S.
1II(D211~).

' '1Ilt

uktaqI csimd ill place of umm hi tad; Ms.(12b.1): .zkW cllilJld. Tib. ,. ylllJ ..

yin no (D21la.~).

.z. bJiJd PI

ss
The Summary Meaning of the Imagination of
What is Unreal.

N22.11

[To recapitulate]. the summary meaning of the imagination of wbat is


unreal is revealed as consisting in nine type" of characteristic: <a) the
characteristic ?t existence. (b) the characteristic of non-existence, (c)
the individual characteristic. (d) the characteristic of the totality. (e) the
characteristic of the expedient for entry into the characteristic of nonexiatec~e.

istic

ot

(f) the characteristic of the diffen=ntiation. (g) the character-

the synonyms. (h) the actualizing characteristic aDd (i) the char-

acteristic of defilement.
[Smiramati)
Y44.13

[To recapitulate]. the summary meanin, of the imagination of wbat is


unreal...; me explanation of !he meaning in detail is for me purpose of reaching an
understmJdinlr wim ease. Wherell3 me 'planation of !he summary meaning is for the
purpose of remembering it. COll5equently. bolb meanings are stated here: (a) The
characteristic of existence: "mere is me imagination of what is unreal" (1.1 a).
(b) The characteristic of non-existence: "me duality is

~ot

found merein" (1.1

b). (c) The individual characteristic: "consclousness comel into being in me


appearances of objects. sentient beings. !he self and representations (1.3 ab). (d) The
characteristic of the totality: "me imaginary. me other-dependent and indeed the
perfected" (1.5 ab).

(e) The characteristic of the expedient for entry into the

characteristic of nonexistence: "based upon perception. non-perception comes


into being" (1.6 ab). (f) The characteristic of tho differentiation: "rhe imagina.
tion of what is unreal consisla in me mind and me mental concomitants Ibat penain

10

me !bree realms of existence" (1.8 ab). (g) The characteristic: of the sYl1Cnyms:
"merein. vision in regard

10

me object consislS in consciousness, but in regard to

particulars, it consists in Ibe mental concomitants" (1.8 cd).

(h) The actualbing

characteristic: "me first is consciousness as causal condition. the second penains


sensc-cxperience" (1.9 ab),

(i) the characteristic of defilement: "due

ing. implanting. conducting. encapsulating ..... (UO ab) etc.

10

10

conceal-

56

2. Emptiness.

Introductory,
Having

N22.17

thus

stated

the

imagination of what

is

unreal.

he

now

explains the way in which emptiness should be understood.


I.12 ab

Now (a) the characteristic of empti.


ness,

(b)

Ita

synonyms.

(c)

their

meanings. (d) itl differentiation and


(e) logical proof. are to be uuderstood in lotal.
[Sthiramati]
Y45.IS

[I] Having staled the ninefold characteristics of the imagination of what ia

unreal.

he now explains

the

lUanner in which emptiness should be

understood322 What is the relation here [between them]? The two were introduced
by him [i.e. Vasubandhu] a8: (a) the imagination of the unreal and emptiness; and (b)
purification which is preceded by defilement and the correct determination of real
nature (dharma/I) which bas for its basis an understanding of the dharmas. Hence.
immediately following the cxplalLltion of the imagination of the unreal. he explains the
manner in which emptiness should be undentood.
Y46

1.12 a

Now (a) the characteristic fot empti


nessl. (b) it. synonymt 323 CIte.

(a) The ehRrdcteristic. in this regan!. cOll4ists in the denial of both existence and non

existence324 becalOse emptiness pervades all differentiatioll4 32S . (b) A synonym is a


different name326 [for something]. (e) [The possession of) a similar quality on the pan
of the synonym . being the reason for the use of the synonym constitutes the meaning
of the synonyms.

(d) Although [emptiness] is devoid of conceptual differentiation

because it is characterized by non-differentiation. like spa<:e. differentiation [can be


322
323
324

32S
326

Read: ~v.m abharaparikaJpam I~Sllam n.v,vidh'm khylp'yilV' y./hl illttyMl vi.iifey' tm


nirdiiauti In place of ev.", ,bhat.parikaJpala"{I.m n.v'praklnm uklV' ,ath. sany.t.
}1I'Y81O rat khY'paysttti; cf. Bhll$yaNll.17.
Read: laJqSllBm cillh. parylya In place of laJq8Q1lfI .thll parylY8; cf. Bhlfya N22.1i1.
Read (with T&838.7): tatra I~am bh,v'bhJfvapraIi6edhltmlhm In place of t8Ir.IlaJqSllam hi
bh'v'bhlvBprari~'tmaUf; Tib. ~ I. mtshmllid ni dtI01 po dslJ dDoI po rned pa dgBg pal bdBg
llid de (0211 b.5l.
Read: illnyally!/! slIVapnlbhedavylpakaIVlt in place of sarvatra il!nyallpnblldvylpabtv,r.
Tlb. sto.dpa/l,dkyis mb tu dby" ba thams ~d l.khyabpa'iphyir(lnllb.5).
Ms.(13a.3): /JlmlnmlalBll\ but Y's renderina of nlmfnt8/3111 is prefcmd.

S7
made) because of its different states that are associated with or are separate from
adventitious secondaJ)' defilement. Moreover. its differentiation is sixteenfold aecolding to the imputative diffelCnces in regald to the personal entity (pudgala) and the
dharmas. (e) The logical proof refers to the reasoning in regald to the demonstration of

Whal then is the reason that emptiness should be

the differentiation of ;mptinc33.

undelSlood by way of these modes? It should be understood: (a) by way of the characteristic by those who seek purity because it is the objective suppon of purity. (b)
Por the sake of non-confusion ill regald to the excelle0l327 explanations by means of
synonyms in other Sntras [it should be understood) by way of its synonyms.

(c)

When the meaning of its synonyms is understood328 [it should be understood) by way
of the meaning of its synonyms129 because emptiness is ascenained as the objective
suppon of purity. (d) Since it is purified when defilement is removed [it should be
understood) by way of its differeOliation in older to generate diligence for the relinquishment 0(330 that defilcmenL (e) It should also be understood by way of the logical
proof of its differentiation since. although there is no modification. its differentiation is
ea.,Uy understood due to an awareness of the logical proof of its differentiation.

a. The Characteristic of Emptiness.


How should the characteristic be underatood?

N22.22

1.13 ab

The

non-existence

of

the

duality.

which conlilll In the ed,tence of


non-oxistent, Is the characteristic of
emptineaa;
There II the non-existence of the duality of apprehended object and
apprehending lubject. The exi8tence of that non-existent is the characN23

toristie of empdnell.

Thus It bas been revealed that emptine.. hal the

characterisdc of the own-boing of a non-existent.

Moreover, this own-

being of that non-uistent. It:

1.13 c

327
328

329
330

Neither exista not doel it not ellist;

Ms.(13a.4): paryly'grlJliirde'Blv contrary to rs reading; .". is net fOllild in the TIb. (cf.
D21Ib.7).
Read! psry'ylrth.valJodhe in pIa.; .. of psrySyIrth'v,bodblrthlC; Tib. mllm gralls kyi <bn khotI
du chudpsr gytJrlJ.l (D2I1b.7 - 2128.1); Ms.(l3a.4): psrylyltllllv/lbotlhIrtba-.
Read! pmySylrthafll(l in place of psry'ylrth~ in conformity widllhe previous explanalicns.
Read perhaps: .ptlhJ(lSyl/darolpltJallllnJl/uplo place of -ptahJ(l'yI ~ Tib. spads
pa' phyir 'bad pa skyed pal dOlI du (02128.1). Ms.(13a.S): -pnhl(t'yldanotpldMllrth'l/tcontrary to Y's fn.4 p.46.

58

How can it be nOll-existent? Because there is the non-existence of


the duality. How can it be not non-existent? Because there 1& the exiatence of the non-existence of the duality. And this is the characteristic
of emptiness.

1.13 d

Therefore. in relation to unreal imagination:

The characteristic consists neither in


difference nor identity.

If there were difference. real nature (dbarmatil) would be something


other than a dbarma. like the impermanence and painfulness [of something impermanent and painful]. which is not tenable.
If there were
ideutity. there would not be an objective support of purity. [consisting
in direct intuition]33I, nor would there be a univorsal cbaracteristic. In

tbis way, Its cbaracteristlc has been revealed


and difference.

81

beine devoid of identity

[Sthiramati]
Y46.17

[I] How should tbe characteristic be understood? Since the characteristic


was listed initially332, hence it is that which is queried from the very begillning.

r.13 ab

147

The non-existence of the duality.


which conslltl In the ulltence of a
non-ulstcnt. Is the characterinlc of
emptlnesa 333 .
Thus should it be undersrood. There II the non-ulstence, in the nature of an
entity, of the duality of apprehended object and apprehendlne lubject,
because its nature is imaginatively constructed either in the imaginatior. of what is
unreal, or by the imagination of what is unreal. TIus existence of that non-uistont duality Is the char.cteri.tic of emptiness. Owing to the ndes ot prosody in
the above verse, the abstract sufflx334 [i.e. the tI of "DnY.fil) is to be regarded as
expressed although omitted. What is meant by "the existence of a non-existent"? The
nature of a non-existent is existence, otherwise, because its non-existencc would not
exist u an [empty] exhtent335 , there would be the existence of the existent duallty.
This is why he says: Thus It has been revealed that emptiness has the char-

331
332
333
334

335

jilin. is omilled from both Ms. and Tlb. BhlYa.


Ms.(13a.5): prlguddi$"-: dlstegatd Y's fnoS p.46.
Read: dvsy'bh!vo hy ,bh'vuy, bh.vs(J ianyllSYB I~/UII in place of dvayllbh,vo hyabh,.
vuys bh'val c. ianyaJ~lqIsm: cf. Bhlya N22.23.
Ms.(l1a.6): bhlvl!prlltyayo lup".-; dlsn:aanf Y'. fu.7 p.46.
Read: tIld,bhlvuy. bh.vsto (1'Ib. expands bh'v,ro 10 bh'vufJnysfO) 'vidY/l1lllnstvlt as per
Ms.( 138.7) in place of Y's tsdbhlvllSya ifJnyat.vidyamln.rv't or his revised version: tad
bh.vuYB bhllvl!P illnyalO 'vidyllOlSnarvlt (ct. errata p.129); Tib. de1 d.do.J po med 1'6.1 dJios po
,rod 1'6. rntJd pai phyir(D212a.4-5).

59
acteristic of tho own-being of a non-cxJatent336 , i.e. it is not characterized by
the nature of an existent.

[Objection}: The word "existence" is superfluous here

because this meaning is understood as being implicit in the word "non-existence" even
if the word "existence" is omitted, since it is a statement about the denial of existence.
[ResponseJ: It is not superfluous. If it

were only stated thaI "the non-existence of the

duality is the characteristic of emptiness", ODe would understand337 the non-existence


of the dU8lity as just an independent reality, like the non-existence of the horns of a
hare, and not the fact thaI it consists in real nature, like the painfulness etc. [of some
thing p.inful]. Therefore the nonexistence of the duality is thus described as emptiness and the existence of irs non-existence in the imagination of what is unreal is also
described as emptiness.

The fact that

[~mplinessJ

has the nature of real nature is

demonstrated because it is included as the characteristic of the existence of a nonexistent.


[2J Alternatively, since the word "non-existence" in the statement "the nonexistence
of the duality is emptilV'ss" has only general significance, it cannot be discerned here
which nonexistence is intended. Thus in order to demonstrate its ab.iOlute non-exist-

ence it is said: "there is the existence of the non-existence of the duality in the imagina
tion of what is unreal", for antecedent nonexistence [I.e. before coming into being] and
subsequent nonexistence [Le. after passing from being] cannot be spoken of other
than as self.appropriation 338 .

Moreover, reciprocal non-existence, Le. a~ having a

single basis, is not tenable because

[separate] basis is required in both cases. There

fore, because it appropriates the characteristic of the noneAlslence of an existenl, it has


been shown that it is indeed the absolute

non-e~isrcnce

of the apprehended object and

apprehending subject that is [equivalent toJ emptiness.


If emptiness has the nalure of non-existence, how can it be described as the

[3J

absolute? Because it is the object of the highest direct intuition, like the impermanence

[of what is impermanentJ, but not because it is an entity. Moreover, this does not have
a non-e~istent own-being, beC2use this ownbeina of thaI non-exlstenl, i1339 :

L13 c

Neither exists nOr doCl it DOl exist;

How can it be non-existent?


,(48

Becaule thorD is lhe non-c:dstence of the

duality, for if it were an existent there WQuid not be the absolute non-existellc" of the
duali ty 340, nor would there be the real nature of the imagination of what is unreal.

How can il be not non.existent?


336
337
338
339
340

Becausc there is the existence of the

Read: ity abhRv83vabhlvaJllkS4QatvOlfl as per Ms.( 130.7) in place of ity .bh'.83vabhsvo lak$&:natvs/lr. cf. Dh:qya N23.1.
Ms.(l3a.S): ",HlTaI/Smy.te but Y's .""'Relation to .v~v.I//JI7Iy.re is preferred; cf. his m.3 p.47.
Read: svoplldllnld wyano., pe.. Ms.(I3b.l) in place of svoplJd1JnM ""yl.
Read: yai ellS,. tadabhSvll.!vabMvlIQ s8 in place of yll.! tadabh'vaavabhl.,q, sa; cf. BhA$y.
N23.2.
Read: dv.yasyStyll1l~bhavaQ sylt as per Ms.(13b.3) in pi""" of dvayabllJlvasy'tyl!llllbhlYaQ

sr'l.

60

non-existence of the duality, 341 for the non-existence of the duality is not
[equivalent to] the non-existence, by way of own-being, of the non-existent duality_ If
it were Uutt non-existent. the duality would exist aod there would not be the real nature

of the imagination of what is unreal; and. by analogy; [there would be noj impermanonce and painfulness [of what is impermanent and painful).

It is said to be neither

existent nor non-existent because it has the nature of the non-existence of a permanenl
and pleasurable entity which is imputed through ."'oI"I.ou5 inversion on the part of
sentient beings.
:4 J If the emptiness of the imagination of what is unreal

,g

real nature, 342shoutd this

be described as other than that [imagination of what is unreal], or

IlOI

other? Hence he

says: and this 343 is the characteristic of emptiness; i.e. it is the very own-being
of non-existence 344 . Alternatively, e"istence itself has !he D3rum of the denial of non-

existence.

Therefore. in relation to unreal imagination:

1.13 d

The characteristic consis!1 neither in


difference Dor identity.

If there were difference. real nature (dhBrmatll) would

other than a dbartfJlI which is not tenable.

be

Why is it not tenable?

something

Ber-ause if

its characteristic were different from a dharma, real nature would in fact be another
dharma, like any dhanoa other !han if.; however, one dharma cannot be the real nature

of anotller dharma because, in that case, another dharma would have to be sought (ro
account for real narurej and tJlere would be an infinite regress. Like the impermanence and painfulnen [of something impermanent and painful); Le., JUS!
as impermanence is no! other than what is impermanent and painfulness [is not other}
than what is painful 34S , so too is emptiness nOI other than what is empty. If there
were identity. there would not be an objective support of purity. Dor
would there be a universal characteristic.
is purity346.

Since one is purified by it, the path

"The path would nor be an objective suppan, like the individual char-

acteri.,tic of a "harma, because there would be no difference from the individual chary 43

acteristic of that dharma. Therefore, since it would oot be different from !be individual
characteristic, the universal characteristic would nOI be tenable. Also, since it can be
differentiated f!lJm something else, just as !he essential natu .... of onC! dharma [can be
differentiated fl0m another], universality is 10sI. Alternatively, because the individual
characteristic would not be different from this [universal characteristic] there would be
341

342
343
344
345
346

Not.: this section (Y48.2 . 48.11) is translated from the Tib. since it is omitted from the
Ms.(l3b.3). Fn.342 below marks the point whore the Ms. resumes.
Th. Ms. contin"elI from this point.
Read: elac ca as per Ms.(\3b.3) in place of e/JIC.
Re.d: .bhlvasvabhJv, eva in place of .bhavIISya svllrl1pRl11 evK, Tib. _
po med pal no bo
ilid kho n. (D212b.7).

Ms.(l3b.5): du/lkharll CJI thJ/lkh1ld; disregard Y's fuA pAS.


Ms.(I3b.5): viSuddhir: disregard V's fn.S pAS.

61

no difference, like [in the case of] the essential nature of an existent thing347 .
Consequently, there would be no universal as well because the universal characteristic
depends upon the fact of differentiation348 [i.e. such as between the universal and the
individual characteristic]. Alternatively, an objective support of purity is an objective
support for purification; and the individual characteristic of something, if it is taken as
[an objectiveJ support, does not bring purity because all sentient beings would already
be purified.

[51 If [emptinessJ cannot be described in terms of difference and identity [in relation to
the imagination of what is unreal), why is the doctrine of the Nirgrantha not given
credence?

Because one who believes in the Nirgrantha doctrine does not make a

distinction in regard to the difference or identity of something that truly exists349 .


However, since emptiness is not an existent. there is no fault here.
[6J Thus emptiness is: (a) the characteristic of non-existence, (b) the characteristic of
the essential nature of non-existence, (c) the characteristic of the absence of the duality
and (d) its characteristic has been revealed as baing devoid of identity
and difference. The characteristic of emptiness has now been described.

b. The Synonyms of Emptiness.


How are the synonyms to be understood 1

N23.13

1.14 abed

(a> Thulnesl. (b> the limit of what is


real. (c) the signtell. (d) the ablolute
and (e> the dlJarmadlJ'tu are the synonym. of emptiness in brief.

[SthiramatiJ
149.16 [1] Now the synonyms

1.14 abed

are

described:
(a> Thulness, (b> the limit of what is
real. (c) the lignte.s. (d) the absolute
and (e) the dlJarmadlJ'tu are lbe synonyml of eQlPtinel1 in brief.

347
348
349

Tib. is sligbdy different ... there would be no differentiation of the essential nature of an
entity"; dDo.s po'i rU gi do bo tha daJ PI melt do (02131..5).
Ms.(13b.6): bheda-; disregard Y's fnol p.49.
Read: yo hi bhlvuya saw tanvlnyatve na vy'karoti in place of yo hi bh'vuya satu
tattvlDyarveua [n.] vylbroti; TIb. ddOl po yod pa I. '" iJid dIIf gilD du Iud mi SIDlJ pa gllli yin
pa(D213a.7).
.

62

A synonym3SO is well known as a different word3S1 for the one thing. It is describM

as a synonym since it is expressive of a synonymous mC!aning. The one and the same
emptiness is explained in other sntras by these terms. Although these five synonyms
as mentioned in the verse al'e the principal ones, the other synonyms352 that are not

Y50

mentioned here are

to

be learned from the scriptures; for example: the absence of the

duality, the realm without conceptual differentiation, real nature, the inexpressible,
absence of cessation, the unconditioned and nirvlIpa etc.

c. The Meaning of the Synonyms of Emptiness.


N23.17

How should the meaDiDg of the syDoDyms be uDderstood?

US abed

The meaDiDg of the syDoDyms are,


relpectively: (a) immutability, (b) the
ableDce of errODeous iDversioD, (c)
the cessatioD of those [SigDS], (d) the
sphere of the Noble ODes and (e) the
caule of the Doble qualities.

It is thusDess in the seDle of immutability, cODsideriDg that it is

eternally just thus.

It is the limit of what is real iD the seDse of the

freedom from errODeous iDversioD becaule there is DO fouDdatioD for


erroDeous iDversioD.

It il lilo1ell in the seDse of the ceslltioD of

SigDI because of the abseDce of all siiDI.

Becaule it il the sphere of

the direct iDtuitioD of the Noble ODel, it is the absolute for it is the
domain of the highelt direct intuitioD.

Because it is the caule of the

noble qualitiel, it is the dhum.dhltu, for the Doble qualities arise with
that u their support - iD this CODtext the meaDing of .. dhltu" is 'cause'
(hetu).

[SthiramatiJ
Y50.3

[IJ How should the meaDiDg of its Iynonyms be understood 3S3 ? He


shows this as follows: these words are not metaphors, rather. they conform with the
actual meaniDg [of emptiness].

350
351
352
353

Ms.(13b.8): idJWY'Yo; disregard V's fn.6 p.49.


Read: bhimJlisbdatven. prasidd/Jsll in place of bhin1WlbdatvMp pnry'Y'YltT. Tib. sgra th. dad
PM 6R6 1M ate (D213b.2).
Ms.(14LI): JWY'Y'; disregard Y's fn. 7 p.49.
Read: rij6ey. in place ofjlf.y.tr, cf. Bh"yaN23.17.

63

I.1S abed

The meaning of the synonyms are,


respp.ctively: (a) immutability, (b) the
absence of erroneous inversion, (e)

the cessation of those [signs1. (d) the


sphere of the Noble Ones and (e) the
cause of the noble qualities.
It is thusness in the sense of immutability.

What is meant is: in the sense of

unchanging. In order to demonstrate just this, he says: considering that it is eternally just thus 354 . What is meant is: it is unchanging because it is unconCitioned
always, i.e. at all times 355 . It ill the limit of what is /:eal in the sense of the
freedom from erroneous inversion; the real means: the true and non-erroneously
inverted. The limit is the extremity; i.e. beyond this there is nothing to be known.
Hence the limit of what is real 356 is described as the extremity of what is real. How
can thusness be described as the extremity of the ~owable?357 Because it is the
sphere of direct intuition that is purified358 from obscuration consist:ng in the knowable. The words: "in the sense of the freedom from erroneous inversion" are equivalent to: 'in the sense of the freedom from superimposition and negation'. Here now he
gives the reason: because there il no foundation for erroneoul inversion.
Erroneous inversioD is [equivalent to] conceptual differentiation; [emptiness] is not a
foundation 359 for erroneous inversion because it is not an objective support for
conceptual differentiation.

It il ligDlell in the lenle of the cellation of

signl 360 . Signlessness, in this context, is described as the cessation of signs.

In

order to demonstrate just this, he says: because of the ablence of all signs.
Since emptiness is empty of all signs, both conditioned and unconditioned, it is
described as signless. It is signless because of the non-existence of all signs; only that
which is without signs361 is signless. Becaule it is the sphere of the direct
intuition of the Noble Onel. it i. the ab.olute 36Z . For, supramundane direct
intuition is the highest (parama); the object (artha) of that is the absolute (paramlrtha) in order to demonstrate just this, he says: .ince it is the domain363 of the highest direct intuition.3 64 Becaule it is the caule of the noble qualities, it

354
355
356
357
358
359

360
361
362
363

364

Read: nitylllJ tatbsiveti kJrv. in place of nitylIfJ tathJtvld; cf. Bhl$ya N23.20.
Read: slIrVlIcJIe in place of suv.dl; nb. dus tbanu cad (D213b.5).
Ms.(14a.3): bbatakoti; disreasnl Y's ro.5 p.50.
Read: katJwp t8lJgtl jtIeylJlllYlDU ucy.tIJ in place of bthlUfJ e.thlll jifeysm ucyatlJ; Tib. ji ltar
de bUD IJid ieI p6T by. b. mu ia by. n.; (213b.6).
Read: viiuddh. in place of viiodbanr, Tib. nwn par dig pa (D213b.7).
Tib. omilS: vsstu cPJ); cf. 0214a.1.
Read: nimittanirodbJrthetJlnimiarp in plal:e of nimirtBnirodhld animittam; cf. Bhl$ya N23.2122.
Ms.(14L5): minUte., but Ys llDimin.mis preferred.
Read: panmJnhI iti in place of pnrnIrthateti; cf. Bhl$ya N23.23.
gocmr, but Bhl$ya:vipya.
emd eva prad.lriayaIIJIlh. ~d iti, is omitted from the TIb. (cf. 2148.2).

64

ill tho dbarmadbJtu. In this context it is the noble qualities that are [referred to] by
the word dharma, i.e. those beginning with correct view and concluding with correct
liberation and direct intuition; since it is the cause of these, it is the source (dhltu). In
Y51

order to illustrate just this he says: for the noble qualitiel arise with that as
their support. Since this teno dhltu also occurs in the sense of a base for both the
individual characteristic and the [twenty-fourJ secondary forms of matter36S , he says:
in this context, the meaning of .. dbJtu" is 'cause' (bt:tu) ; for example, [a
mine is described asJ the source of gold or the source of copper366 . Other synonyms
that are also mentioned in other Sutras should be explained by way of their intrinsic
meaning in accordance with this method.

d. The Differentiation of Emptiness.


N24.4

How should the differentiation of emptinell be undentood?

I.16a

As defiled and pure;

Thul il its differentiation.

In which ltate il it defiled and in which

is it pure?

1.16 b

It il both accompanied by stain and


devoid of Itain;

When it il accompanied by stain. it il defiled; when that stain has


been relinquilhed, it il pure.

If, after being Itained it becomel devoid

of stain, how can it not be impermanent lince it pollelles the quality of


change?

Becaule its:

1.16 cd

Purity

is

conlidered

al

like

the

purity of elementary water, gold and


space.
Due to the removal of adventitious Itain, however there il no alteration to ita own-being.
[SthiramatiJ
Y51. 7

[1J [VasubandhuJ asks [the following questionJ since the differentiation of emptiness
is not possible because it has the natUJe of the DOn-existence of the apprehended object
365
366

Read: 'VMaq~pldIYIIfIJJM1b""pe in pllce of ,vallQ~opIdIY. rtlJJM1b1ra{w, TIb. rad gi


mtsIwJ 6id daD rJYIU by., ba'i pug. 'dziJJ 1M Ja (0214L4).
Read: ,uvllfJadh.tuJ tJmndh..
. ltur iii in plal:e of ,uVlll{Jadh.tuJ tlmlldhltfl rsupysdhltUt!; TIb.
gsu khwt daD zsdJ khwt biin 110 (2141.5).

65

and apprehending subject; or else, it was stated that its differentiation should be understood immediately following the [section on the] meanings of its synonyms.

Hence,

immediately after the explanation of the latter, he asks: how should the differentiation of emptiness be understood?

The imagination of the unreal is

[equivalent to] defilemcnt - wheu that is relinquished, it is described as purity; and at


the times of demement aOO of purification367 there is nothing else that is subject to
defilement and to purification apart from emptiness. Therefore, in order to demonstrate
that at the times of defilement and of purification it is just emptiness that is subject to
defilement and to purification, he says:
As defiled and pure;

1.16 a

Thus is its differentiation,368 Since it is not known when it is defiled and when it

i.o devoid of stain, he asks: in which state is it defiled and in which is it


pure 369 ?
1.16 b

it is both accompanied by stain and


devoid of stain370 etc.

[Emptiness] is respectively determined to bc accompanied by stain371 and as having its


stain relinquished depending upon whether or not there is a turning about of the basis.
Emptiness does not manifest for those who do not know, whose mental continuum
possesses the stain of defilement of the notional attachment to both

tb~

apprehended

object and apprehending subject and passion etc., due to the faults of both lack of
insight and wrong insight - with regll.rci to slJch [people] it is determined as being
accompanied by stain. However, the emptiness which is unblemished like space manifests cr.-ntinuaJly for the Noble Ones whose minds are free from erroneous inversion
because of their direct intuition of reality - with regard to such [people] it is said to
have had
Y52

if!!

stain relinquished.

The fact that emptiness has a relationship372 with

defilement and purity in this way should be seen, although its own-being does not
possess stain because it is luminous by nature.
[2] If, after being stained.373

Since a differentiation in state is not seen without

a modification, and since modification is logically connected with production and


destruction, be says: how can it not be impermancnt since it poslclsel the
quality of change? Because there is no other modification of emptiness apart from

367
368
369

Read: salfIkleiaviiuddlJitJlsyoi in place of wpkJtiHviiuddhikJl-,: cf. Y51.13.


Ms.(14b.2): asylpnbhQfJ but Y's rendering of asyllJ pnblJedat; is prefened.
Read: lcMylm IVMtb.yIlrJ saJPtIiltJ lcMyllJl viiuddhl in place of leadl sl1Jl/c1isyBte lead.

370
371
372
373

Read: slllJlll nimWJ CI sl in place of $I saman Dirmal. ca; cf. Bhl$ya N24.B.
Read: AM maIms as per Ms.(I4b.3) in place of WIUlI CI.
Read: lpeiJi/clu per Ms.( 14b.4) in place of IpeJqiU; TIb. ltoJ ~ CIlJ (D214b.4).
Read.: yadi ~ bhatvl in place of yadi mnalI syld; ct. Bhl$Ya N24.10.

viiudhyatr, ct. BhI$ya N24.6.

66

[the modification] from a defiled state to a pure state374 , [emptiness], established in


reality, does not take on a different own-being due to the removal of adventitious
stain375; because [its]:
1.16 cd

Purity

is

considered

as

like

the

pUrity of elementary witer, gold and


space.
Therefore, it is not impermanent For example, el:mentary water, gold and space

~o

not possess stain for their own-being because they do not have sllch an own-being;
both when possessing adventitious stain and also when adventitious stain is removed.
while not taking on a different own-being, they remain pure. Similarly, emptiness too
is defiled by adventitious stain and is purified as the result of the removal of that,
although its own-being is unchanged. For, he who determines rhe one and the same
entity initially as having the characteristic of defilement and then subsequently as
having purity for its own-being, does not [avoid the conclusion] that a dharma which is
modified is destroyed due to a modification in its own-being. However. this is not so
when both [i.e. defilement and purity] are adventitious; therefore, this [process] does
not 'touclt' the real nature of cbange [i.e. emptiness].

The Sixteen Kinds oJf Emptiness.


There is

N24.15

another differentiation,

[namely],

the

sixteen types

of

emptiness: (a) internal emptiness, (b) external emptiness, (c) internal


and external emptiness, (d) universal emptiness, (e) the emptiness of
emptiness, (f) the emptiness of the atsolute, (g) the emptiness of the
conditioned, (h) the emptiness of the unconditioiled, (i) absolute emptiness, (j) emptiness without beginning or end, (It) emptiness of nonrejection, (I) intrinsic emptinesa, Cm) emptinesl of charscteristic, (n) the
emptinesl of all dbarma., (0) emptinell of non-existence and (p) em.ptinell of the own-beiDI of non-existence - these should be known in
brief al:
1.17 abcd

The emptinell of the foundation for:


Ca> the enjoyer, (b) enjoyment, (c)
the

body

the Ie

374
375

and

[which il the
Cd)

the

10cuI) of

support.

The

Read:". hi sM12tlilJ!vasthlUtJ ianYltJy' viiuddb'vuthJylm myo viklr&(l in plla of DI hi


sl1!1lr1i$lIvath.tatJ slllJYltlvUuddh.vath'ylm myo vikJra(r; Tib. kuJJ nlS IfoD mods ~'i gnas
sUN 1M stad 1M /lid lD&ID F cbg ~'i gnu $bllr au 'our ~ giu lIJIId kyi (D214b.S>.
Read perhaps: mttvuthiIJyls ".1 nlbh'vlDraram lIJ'padylllJlD.y' in.J.Ilace of t1IttvlSrhitiU tu
svlbh'vlDanm llD'pldYIIDIDI; Tlb.: dill kho DI /lid du gna par rail bzin gZllI du 'gyur bl med
PI ste I 610 bur I}'i dri DU dazj bral bl'i phyir(D214b.5). Ms.(14b.6): -vlDW'1lfJ mlpadYImlDlyl.

67

emptinell of that [knowledge}: Ca)

N25

through which the latter is seen, (b)


the maDDer in which it is seen and
(c) for the sake of which [the bodbi..ttv. aspirel}.
Of theee, the emptinesl of the enjoyer refers to the internal senst'fields.

The emptiness of enjoyment [refers to} the external [sense-

fields}.

The body belonging to thoile il the physical body which is the

locus of both the enjoyer and enjoyment - the emptiness of that is


described as internal and external emptiness.

The foundation for the

support refers to the inanimate world - the emptiness of that is described as universal emptinesl because of its extensivenesl.

Moreover, as

to the knowledge of emptiness through which the internal sense-fields


etc. are seen to be empty - the emptiness of that il the emptinesll of
emptinell.

AlIo, the way in which they are seen in an aspect of the

absolute - the emptinell of that il the emptinell of the . ablolute.

And

there is the emptinell of that for the lake of which the bodbiuttva
aspires.

alpire~

Por the sUe of what doel he

1.18 a

Par

the

attainment

of

the

dual

virtuel;
[Por the attainment] of the wholesome which is both conditioned and
unconditioned.
1.18 b

And

for

the

welfare

of

sentient

beings, alwaYI;
Por the perpetud
1.18 c

welf~re

of lentient beings;

And

for

the

non-abandonment

of

r.;

'r.,

Becaule one who does not lee the emptinell of


which is
without beginning and end, would become wearied and completely
abandon r .
I.18d

And for the

non-extinction of the

wholelome.
That which, even in the lIirvip. that il devoid of the remnantl of
N26

existence, he doe. Dot throw Iway or dilmil'; the emptinel' of that il


delcribed al the emptine.. of nOD-rejection.

68

1.19 a

ADd for the purity of the spiritual


liDeage (gotra);

Because the spiritual liDeage is iDtrinsic siDce it derives from ownbeiDg.


1.19 b

Por the attainmeDt of the priDcipal


and secondary marks;

Por the attainment of the principal aDd secondary characteristic


marks of a supreme beiDg.
1.19 cd

The

bodhi6attva

aspires for the

purity of the Buddha qualities.


Such a. the [teD] powers, the [four] iDtrepidities aDd the special
qualities etc.

The establishment of the [first] fourteen emptinesses

should be uDderstood iD this way.

What again is emptine.. iD this

regard?
1.20 abcd

The

nOD-existence of the

persoDal

eDtity aDd of the dharma.

is [one]

empti.Des. here, and the actual existeDce of their nOD-existeDce in that


[eDjoyer etc.] i. another emptine.s.
The nOD-existence of the personal entity Ind the dharma. is one
emptinell and the actual existeDce of their non-exiltence iD the abovemc;ntioned enjoyer etc. il another em.ptine...

In order to state the char-

acteriltic of emptinesl he respectively determine. emptinell al twofold


at the end, [nlmely], the emptinell of non-existence and the emptiness
of the own-being of 40n-exiltence for the purpose of avoiding imputation in regard to the personal entity and the dharma. and the negation
The differentiation of emptiness
of their emptinesa, in due order.
Ihould be understood in thil way.
[Sthiramati]

Y52.19

[1]

SiDce all differeDtiations of emptiness should be described in the section that

explains its differentiation376 he says thil il another differentiation: the sixteen typel of emptinesl. It is sixteenfold accoming to its differentiation in
relation to [various] entities, however, there is no differentiation in regard to its ownbeing which consists in the non-ellistence of the duality. 'Ibese sixteeD types are taught
in the Prajiilplramitls as emptiness. beginning with internal emptiness and concluding
376

Ms.(15Ll); prdhl& .. ; disreprd Y's m.3 p.52.

69
with the emptiness of the own-being of non-existence. These should be known in

brief as:
Y53

1.17 ab

The emptinelll of the foundation for:


(a)

the enjoyer,

the

body

[which

(b) enjoyment, (c)


is

the

locus]

of

these and (d) the suppon etc.


Emptiness is a universal characteristic because all dharmas have the essential nature of
the non-existence of the duality. Since it is not possible to show its multiplicity in any
other way, he shows its mulrlJ'iicity by way of its multiple foundations.
[2]

From the very beginning, the enjoyer is to be annihilated (through clear under-

standing]377 in order to abandon one's affection and notional attachment to it; for this
affection and notional attachment are impediments to the attainment of liberation and
Buddhahood. Immediately after that, the enjoyment belonging to that [enjoyer] [is to
be annihilated]. Immediately after that, the physical body which is the locus of both of
these [is to be annihilated]. Then, the inanimate world, i.e. the suppolt for the physical
body which is the locus for both [the enjoyer and the enjoyment] is to be annihilated
[through clear understanding] in order to destroy the grasping of and affection for [the
inanimate world] as bC!longing to the self because it is of service to the enjoyer. These
are the four types of foundation - the emptiness of these is described as the emptiness
of the foundation.
[3] Of thele, the emptinell of the enjoyer refers to the intemal lenle-

fieldl 378 , begiDDiJlg with 'sight' up until 'mind'. Because there is no agent of enjoyment apan from these and because they see the eyes etc. as active in the senseexperience of objects, people have an erroneous view of the 'enjoyer' especially in
regard to sight and the other [senses]; therefore the emptiness of the sense-fields of
sight etc. is described as the emptiness of the enjoyer.
[4]

The emptinesl of enjoyment [refers to] the extemal [sense-fielda]379;

begiDDing with 'form' up until the 'non-sensible'. Since they are enjoyed (bhujyante) as
entities of the sensory domain, they are [described as] enjoyments (bhojana). Hence
the emptiness of the external sense-fields is described as the emptiness of enjoyment.
[5] The body belonging to those il the physical body because both the

enjoyer and the enjoyment are established as mutually inseparable [entities]380 in

3n

378
379
380

fibh'vayif1lvyatr, Tib. Pig pM by. (to be desllOyed); (0215a..S).


Read: Idbyltmi&y 'y.ttmlDyin place of ldbyltmik.yaf1llJlir; cf. Bhl$ya N2S.2.
Read: bhojllJuany." blbyIDIti in place of bhojllJaillJJyMl blhyVr iti; cf. Shlffa N2S.3.
Read: JMlUPClviDirblJIpu as per Ms.(15L6) in place of pararparlviDibhlgelJL.

7f)

the physical body; hence the emptinesl of that is described as intemal


and oxtomal emptinoll381 .
Y54

[6] The foundation for the support refers to the inanimate world; because
it is perceived as the foundation for the support of sentient beings in every respect382 .

This is why he says: the emptiness of that is described as universal emptiness because of its extensiveness.

The word "foundation" is connected

individually [with each of the four categories discussed).

[7J To that bodhisattva-yogi who is mentally attentive, through proper mental attention
accompanied by deliberation in regard to the emptiness of the four types of entity383
that are to be known, a different 'sign-grasping'

beco~es

evident, [namely] - that

knowledge of emptinesl through which this [entity] consisting in the intemal


and external sense-fields etc. il seen to be empty384. There is [a twofold] conceptual differentiation: (a) the notional attachment to the apprehended object and
apprehending subject and (b) just this here is an aspect of the absolute according to
what is seen through that knowledge of emptiness. _For the sake of the annihilation
[through clear understanding) of these two modes of conceptual differentiation which
have the sign of elTOr pertinent to the spiritual level of the yogi, (a) the emptiness of
emptiness and (b) the emptiness of the absolute [are indicated], respectively. These are
indicated, bearing in mind that the words "knowledge" and "aspect" are [respectively)
omitted 38S [i.e. the full expressions would be D1Jyatll(jiill1Ja)iil1Jyatll and
param1lrtha(1Ik1lra)ii1IJyatll]. Alternatively, that knowledge is described as emptiness386
because it has emptiness for its object.

The emptinell, of the existence of the

apprehended object and apprehending subject, of that is the emptinell of emptiness.

Also, tho way in which [the lattex-, i.e.) the internal sense-fields etc., are

seen through that knowledge of emptiness al the absolute in this context - the
emptillesl of that aspect il the emptinesa of the absolute.
reason? Because the absolute is empty of the imaginary nature387 .

What is the

[8] The other 'sign-grasping' [referred to above) is harmful to the meditative develop-

ment of emptiness; the essential nature of an entity (bhllva) is imputed upon that for
tho sake of which tho bodbi ttva upirel388 to [the understanding of] emptiness. In order to clearly understand this emptiness has been explained, beginning with
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388

Read: ucchanyatJ 'dhy,tm.bshirrlhliany.tety ucy.te in place of t.cchany.tlldhyltm.blhyaillnYltety ucy.te; cf. BhI$ya N2.5.4-S: 'dhyltmabshirrlhlianyatety is omi" from die
Tib. cf. D2l.5b.2.
Read: uzvatbJ in place of sarv.aa; Tib. tIwns CMI du (D2ISb.3).
Tib.: Pi shoukl rad: bii (D2ISb.3).
Read: -Idi illnymt in place of -Idiillnyam; cf. Bhlfya N2.5.6.
Read: jlJlDJHRJOIJIIII ilM ninJ4te IS pel' Ms.(ISb.2) contrary to Y's fn.l p.S4.
Tib. reads:" ...is described IS empty (stodPl)", and not "emptiness"; cf. D2ISb.6.
Tib. is slighdy different: "because emptiness, which is Ibe absolute, is emp~ of the imaginary
nature": stod PI IIid ni doD dam PI ste lcwJ bmgI PI'i tad biiIJ
stod PI ia by. (D2ISb.7).
prltipMJyaJ#; Tib. sgrub pa, however Bhlfya: pRpIIdyate and Tib. sgrub pM byedpa.

vu

71

the emptiness of the conditioned and concluding with the emptiness of all dharmas.

Por the sake of what does he aspire?


1.18 a

For

the

attainment

of

the

dual

virtues;
He aspires to [thl} understanding of] emptiness for the purity [of all vinues] concluding

Y55

with the Buddha qualities; what is meant is: he cultivates emptiness [for the attain.ment] of the wholesome which is both conditioned and unconditioned389 ,
i.e. the path and nirvlpa390 ; the emptiness of the conditioned and the emptiness of the
unconditioned refer respectively to the latter two.
[9]

1.18 b

And

for

the

welfare

of

sentient

beings, always;
[The bodhisattva makes the following resolve]: "I shall act in the welfare of sentient
beings in every way and at all times". The emptiness of this is absolute emptiness.
[10]

1.18 c

And

for

the

non-abandonment

of

urp61raj

[The bodhisattva makes the following resolve]: "For the sake of sentient beings I shall
not abandon sarpslra". If he were to abandon sarpslra, [the bodhisattva] would not
attain enlightenment because he would remain at the srlvaka-leveI 391 . The emptiness
that pertains to' this is the emptiness without beginning or end; but why is the emptiness of this taught?392

Hence he responds: becluae one who doe. not lee the

emptiness of urp61ra, which is without beginning Ind end, would


become wearied Ind completely Iblndon393 ..rp6Ira.
[11]

1.l8d

And for the non-extinction of the


wholesome 394 .

[The bodhisattva makes the following resolve]: "The roots of the wholesome shall not
be desuoyed 395 by me even in the lJirvlpa devoid of the remnants of exis389
390
391

392

393
394
395

Read: JcuisJ6!YI sl/fJSkrtMylwpskrtasya ca in place of subhadvaYIIJI hi satrJSk1tam asBlJlSk!tam


ca; cf. BhD$ya N25.12.
Ms.(1.5b.4): nirvl.p4lf ca; disreJard Y's tn.l p.s5.
This rendering is on the basis of the Tib.: 'kh bl yoIis su btad nl byad chub ma rtfed par /
UD thot Jcyi sar glJa par Dur bu (D216a.4). The Sanskrit is problematical - Ms.(ISb.6): -va
bocIhbp IrIvabbodh.u VYIV.ti,rhatr. T &: B's ratdering (pAS. 17): na khaJu I.bhl. slIJlSlIrapllirylga eVI bodhilfl $rJvabbhDmJv IVlt4rh.te, is preferable to Y's: SlIIIuare hi pariryakte
'abdhvl bodIJiBttvabodhiIfI IrIVIbbodhlu vyavati,lhale. Cf. also St's fns.1l2 &: 113, p.196.
Read: diiYI. in place of disyltJ; Ms.(ISb.6): _yam (in).
Read: parityljeti in place of parityajltlfi; cr. BhlD'a N25.17.
Read: hliaJ&sylklaylYI ca in place of apylyl iubhlya ca; cr. BhD$ya N25.18.
Y's rendering of (k,ryan)te is difficult to improve upon, although Ms.( ISb.7): -to; TIb. .. .ItSa
ba manu mi ZIIII par bya'o (D216a.S). B&:Ts solution of (sva)to (p.4S.23) is not convincing in
the light of the puallel paUles in the preceding paragraphs where IxUg gis is rendered by
lDI}'I.

72

tence". The words 396 : "he does not throwaway", express the same sense as "he

does not dismiss". If this is so, how then can the nirvlps-realm that is devoid of
the remnants of existence be proven? It is an established fact that even in the nirvifparealm that is devoid of the remnants of existence, there is no interruption to the Dharma
Body belonging to the Buddhas, the Venerable Ones, which is an entity free from
impurity397 because of the non-existence of the body which is the karma-result of the
impure dharmas. Hence, the emptiness of that is described as the emptiness
of non-rejection.
[12]

1.19 a

And, for the purity of the spiritual


lineage (gotra)i

The emptiness of this is intrinsic emptiness; here now he gives the reason:
Y56

b~cause

the spiritual linease is intrinaic: how so? - he responds: since it derives


from own-being 398 That which derives from own-being exists from time
immemorial; what is meant is: it is not adventitious.

In the same way that some

[entities] in beginningless slUfJsifra are endowed with consCiousness and some are DOncomcious, similarly, in this regard some [beings] endowed with the six sense-fields
belong to the spiritual lineage of the Buddhas and some belong to the spiritual lineage
of the irlvaJcas etc.

Since the spiritual lineage consists in a regular sequence [of

rebirths] that is beginningless, it is not accidental like the difference between nonconscious and conscious [entities]. OtheB believe that since all sentient beings belong
to the spiritual lineage of the tarhifgata, the term "spiritual lineage" in this context

should be undeBtood accordingly399.


[13]

1.19b

Por the attainmont of the principal


and secondary characteristic marks;

Consequently, the emptiness of the principal Ind secondary chlracteristic


mUD of I supreme beinl is described as the emptiness of characteristic marks.
[14 J Furthermore,

1.19 cd

The

"odbi.attva

aspires

for the

purity of the Buddha qUllitiel.


Because of the expression: "he aspires" at the end [of veBe 19J. [this expression is to
be supplied] in each case: [for example, what is intended is]: "The bodhisattva aspires
for the attainment of the dual virtues" (I.J 8 a), and "The "odhisattva aspires for the
welfare of sentient beings. always" (1.18 b). Which of the Buddha qualities [does he
396
397
398
399

p." z.

fry at; contrary to Y's fn.8


D:
by. ba ni de (0216&.5).
Ms.(I"'.7): olsra-; disrealftl Y'! m.lo p",'.
Read: svlbb.vibtvld in pIIce of svlbb.vikJd; d. Bbl$ya N26.3.
~ tadJ'jdlt)'lllJ in placeof utbIcvllJljl1eyam; TIb. de biin du

.sa par bYlo (0216b,3).

73

aspire tol?

Hence he said: luch

and the special qualities etc.

IS

the [ten] powers, the [four] intrepidities

In shon, he undenakes [with this resolve]: "I

should strive400 for the attainment of all the Buddha qualities". This is why it is said:
"he cultivates emptiness"401. The emptiness of that is described as the emptiness of all
dharmas.

What is 'cultivation' in this conteA~? The unimpeded engagemenr'02 of

cognition in regard to the object of cognition.

Now the establishment of the

[first] foumen emptinesses, beginning with internal [emptiness] and concluding


with403 the emptiness of all dharmas, should be understood in this way.

Y57

[15] What again il emptiness in this regud, i.e. in regard to the enjoyer etc.?
404What is its essential nature? Hence he says:

1.20 abcd

The

non-existence

of the

personal

entity and of the dJurmu is

[one]

emptiness here and the actual existence of their non-existence in that


[enjoyer etc.] is another emptiness.
The non-existence of the personal entity and" the dlJarm.. is one emptiness and the actual existence of their non-existence in the abovementioned enjoyer etc. is another emptiness.

Of these, the non-existence of

the personal entity and the dbarmas is [equivalent to] the emptiness of non-existence.
The actual existence of that non-existence is [equivalent to) the emptiness of own-being

of non-existence. 40SPor what reason are these two kinds of emptiness respectively
determined at the end?4 06 Hence he responds: in order to state the characteristic
of emptiness407 Why is there a re-statement of emptiness? Hence he says: for the
purpose of avoidin, both imputation in regard to the personal entity and
the dlJarmu and the negation of their emptiness, in due order.

In order to

avoid imputation in regard to the personal entity and the dharmas, he determines the
emptiness of non-existence; and in order to avoid negation in regard to the emptiness
of the latter, [he determines] the emptiness of own-being of non-existence. If the

405
406

Ms.(16a.4): pntitnyam, but V's rendering of pnymtavyam is preferred; Tib. 'bldpM byl bl
(0216b.5).
Read perhaps: t&fmlc cchllDYltllp prabh.vayatlty uC:Ylte in place of tumid vibh.vanOC:Ylte.
Although the TIb.: de'i phyir mam pM bs,omp Us by. Sill (D216b.S) does not substantiate
c:c:hanylll1p pnbh'vlyatny, the insertion of sllnYI1J2 is suggcsled by the Ms.(16a.4): Wm!t
sunYI- (not sUnYlt'- as per V). This statement seems to refers back 10 the words:
sllny/ltlql prabh'vaYltlty anhalt (YS4.24).
Read: Ivib6lJdJwJapnvrttitl in place of IVYlvalJic.pnvrttilr. Ms.(16a.5): -n1J'13~.
Ms.(I6a.S): -PSYlll1t1nlqJ; disreaard Y's fn.6 p.S6.
Note: this section (Y56.22 57.11) is IrInSlated from the Tib. since it is missing from the
Ms.(I6a.S). Fn.405 below marks the point where the Ms. resumes.
The Ms. continues froM this poinL
Read: ...",. dvividhl sllnyltlnte vylV.thIpYI. in place of ",.",. .. ; Ms.(I6a.S): e,1 dvividhl

407

Read: '" !hI sllDYltJlatlaQlkhY'panlltbam in placl of ,tl Ihl illDYltJlaq/IfJlprlcWi.-

400

401

402

403
404

sunYI.
nlltbam; d. B~yaN26.12-13.

74

emptiness of non-existence were not mentioned one may conclude that the dharmas
and the personal entity, whose essential nature is imaginary, do exist If the emptiness

of own-being of non-existence were not mentioned, one mOlY conclude that emptiness
is indeed non-existent and as a consequence of the non-existence of the lauer, the
personal entity and the dharmas would exist like before.
[16] In the above, internal emptiness refers to: (a) the non-existence of: (i) the personal
entity, i.e. the 'enjoyer' and (ii) sight etc., whose characteristic is imagined, among the
internal sense-fields which have the [karma-] result-consciousness [i.e. the storeconsciousness] for their own-being and are regarded by naive people as constituting an
'agent of enjoymem', and (b) the actual existence of the non-existence408 of the latter.
Y58

External emptiness refers to: (a) the non-existence of: (i) enjoymem that pertains to the
self and (ii) form etc., whose characteristic is imagined, among the external sense-fields
which have the appearances of representations of form etc. for their own-being and are
regarded by naive people as objects of enjoyment, and (b) the actual existence of the
non-existence of the latter. Internal and external emptiness refers to: (a) the non-existence of: (i) a personal entity as 'cnjoyer' in thatbody, i.e. the physical body, (ii) form
etc. which is imaginatively consttucted by naive folk and (iii) the body itself, and (b)
the existence of the non-existence of the latter. Universal emptiness refers to: (a) the
non-existence of a world of sentient beings within the inanimate world, (b) the nonexistence, by way of essential nature, of such an imaginative construction and (c) the
actual existence of the oon-existence of the latter. In regard to both the knowledge of
emptiness409 and an aspect of the absolute, the emptiness of emptiness and the emptiness of the absolute refer respectively to the non-existence of: (a) the knowledge of
emptiness, on the part of the knowing agent, which has the characteristic of an imaginative construction and (b) the aspect of the absolute on the part of the personal entity
who is the apprehender of the aspecr4 10, and the actual existence of the non-existence
of the latter. Now, that for the sake of which the bodhisattva aspires, i.e. [the understanding of] the emptiness of the conditioned411 , concluding with the emptiness of all
dharmas refers respectively to: (a) the non-existence both of the dharmas which have

an imaginary characteristic and of the personal entity, among those elementS beginning
with the conditioned up until all the Buddha qualities which are the aim of the
bodhisattva's accomplishmenr4 12 and (b) the actual existence4 13 of the non-existence of

408
409
410
411
412
413

-vay.; diuqard Y's fn.4 p.S7.


Ms.(16b.2): il11JYlljtflDe but Y's renderina of iaDyarJjlflDe is preferred on the basis of the
Tib. slOd 1M wd Ses pa. . III (D217b.l).
Reid: ItInfrnhfrrpudgllllllya CII in place of IkJn6nbIIIpudgllluya; TIb. mam 1M 'dziD 1M po'i
gad ug did (D217b.l).
Ms.(l6b.l):

Ms.(I6b.4): sll/fl$kJWl11Jylltl; disrealRl Y's fn.4 p.,s.


Read (with St. fn.l40 p.2(8): bod1Jiuttv~yojaeJU in place of bodhisIIttvapndplltllV,YeIII: Tib. bylld chub &emS dpII' bsgrub dgOI pIIlDIIlIIS la (D217b.2-3).
Ms.(16b.4): bh"', but Y's emendation to slIdbh.vo is prefened: Tib. cbJoI po yod pa
(D217b.3).

75
the latter. For there exists no personal entity, whether it be 'owner' or 'agent' pertinent
to the conditioned, nor docs a conditioned [entity] exist in the nature imagined by naive
folk. These sixteen kinds of emptiness which penain to the bodhisattvas and which arc
not common to the srllvakas have been explained in brief in order to counteract all
grasping on account of conceptual differentiation, and also, in order to explain all
hidden meanings of the Siltras.
[17] And in this respect. the object of emptiness, the own-being of emptiness and the

aim of the meditative development of emptiness have been shown by the Venerable
One.

Of these, the object of emptiness refers to those subjects bcginning with the

'cnjoycr' up until the Buddha qualities; furthermore, the demonstration of the latter is
for the sake of showing that emptiness pervades all dharmas.
Y59

The own-being of

emptiness refers to both the own-being of non-existence as well as the own-being of


the existence of non-existence414 . Moreover, the demonstration of the own-being of
emptiness is in order to show the nature of escape41S from all [false] views since it
[acts as] counteragent to superimposition and negation.

The aim of the meditative

development of emptiness ~gins with the [aspiration for the] attainment of the dual
virtues (ct. 1.18a) and concludes with the [aspiration for the] attainment of the Buddha
qualities (cf. I.19cd).

Furthermore, the demonstration of the latter is in order to

demonstrate that the culmination of the perfection of the Form and Dharma Body, for
oneself and others, is due just to the meditative development of emptiness416 . The
differentiation of emptinell should be understood in this way; i.e. it
should be mown that [emptiness] is defiled in the stained state and is purified in the
stainless state; and it has a sixteenfold differentiation as just described, beginning with
inte~

414
415
416

emptines.

Ms.(16b.6): itllJy.tlsv.bh.yo abh.yo .bh'yuyabh.va ca. but Y's emendation to saDl'''syabh.yo 'bb'YlSylbh.vo 'bh'ylbhlYlSyabh'yai CI is preferred: Tib. stod pa flid kyi llId biiD oj
dDoI pomedpa'i no bo fliddstJ I dDorpo medpa'i dztospo'i no boflid do (D217h.6).
Ms.(16b:6): Di1u1t'a{J'tma-; dislegud Y's fn.1 p.S9.
Read: ianyatlbh'VIlIId eveti u per Ms.(16b.7) in pllCC of iaDy.tlbh'YID'yl{J pr.py. iti.
Tib. is s~dy different "'(the culmination) ...is auaincd due to meditative development. ..";
stod pa /lid bsgom pa lIS 'tbob bo (D217b.7 - 21ILl).

76

e. The Logical Proof of Emptiness.


How is its logical proof to be understood?

N26.18

1.21 abcd

If it were not defiled, all incarnate

beings would be liberated.

If it were

not pure, effort would be in vain.

N27

If the emptiness of the dharma. were not defiled by adventitious


secondary defilement, even when no counteragent has arisen, all

sentient beings would be liberated without any effort at all because of


the absence of defilement.
Now, even when the counteragent has
arisen, should [emptiness] not b~come purified, undertakings for the
sake of liberation wollld. be in vain.

And so, after considering it in this

way:
1.22 ab

It is neither defiled nor is it undefiled.

It is neither pure nor is it

impure;
How can it be neither defiled nor impure?
intrinsic nature:
1.22 c

[Because] by way of

There is the luminosity of mind417 ;

How can it be neither undefiled nor pure?


1.22 d

Because of the adventitious nature of


defilement.

In this way, the differentiation of emptiness that was listed [above]


is proven.
[SthiraLlllti]
Y59.11

[1] Since its logical proof was listed immediately following the listing of the differen-

tiation 418 , immediately after the explanation of that he asks:

How is its logical

proof to be undentood?419 What is to be proven here? The fact that: (a) it is


defiled by adventitious secondary defilement and (b) it has purity of own-being. In the
above, with reference to the proof of the fact that it is

417
41S
419

~fih:d.

he says;

Verse 22 cd is not found in P or 0 editions of the BhI$ya; cf. N's comments in the inttoduction
(pp.9.10) to his Sansbit edition.
Ms.(17a.l): bItedoddeiJ.; disregard Y's 1iI.3 p.59.
Read: vij6e,YIIJI in place of jlfey.mr, cf. Bblfya N26.1S.

77

1.21 ab

If it were not defiled, all illcarllate


beings would be liberated420 ;

Liberation is [equivalent to] the relinquishment of defilement; the relinquishment of


such defilement is due to the meditative development of the pam. In this respect, if
the

emptiness

of the

dbarm..

were

not

defiled

by

adventitious

secondary defilement, even when no counter agent has arisen; the word
"even" implies that like when it has arisen [it would not be defiled1 - this being so, all
sentient beings would be liberated without any effort at a1l421 becausti of
the absence of defilement.

The words: "without effon"422 are [equivalent to]

'without a counteragent'. However, since there can be no liberation for living beings
without the counteragent, in the state of ordinary people the fact of defilement of thusY60

ness 423 by adventitious stain must necessarily be admitted - the differentiation of


emptiness as defiled is proven in this way.
[2] Now, in order to prove the differentiation [of emptiness] as purified, he says:
If it were flat pure, effott would be
in vain424.

1.21 cd

It is [the effort] of incarnate beings that is referred to.

Now, even when the

counteragent hu arisen; the word "even" implies that like when it has not arisen
[it would not become pure]; should [emptinesl] no4 25 become purified; this
being so, the undertaldnSI for the lake of liberation would be in vain
because even through the meditative development of the coUDteragent, separation from
such stain would not occur and also because liberation is not possible for one who
possesses stain. However, [the undertakings] for the sake of liberation are not considered to be in vain; therefore, due to the practice of the counteragent, the purity of
emptiness, through the separation from adventitious secondary defilement, must
necessarily be admitted. The differentiation of the purity of emptiness is proven in this
way. In this context, defilement is due to the appropriation of the dharmas that constitute defilement and purity is due to the appropriation of the dharmas that constitute
purity. However, neither defilement nor purity is considered to be manifestly pre:;ent
for emptiness426 because real nature is dependent upon the dharmas. This is why he
says: "all incarnate beings would be libeqted".
420
421
422
423
424
425
426

The term "ipcaru.te beings" in the

Read:
YIJIkli#J CI bb.VI!IIJ DIIau muirllJ syufJ sarvadehin~
Cf. Bhl$ya N26.19.
in place of
yadi lU sylt sa wpkleio mubl(! syufJ sarvadebirJDQ
Read: .pUD.,. eva ~ sarvaanv. bb.veyu.fl in place of pray.tDlIIJ arJtare{J. S/llVe Slav!
muktItJ syu.{r, cf. BhI$ya N27 .1-2.
Read: ay.WJaU iti in place of prayltDlIIJ arJl.InI(!eti; cf. ibid.
Read: tatbatly' a per Ms.{l7L3) in place oltMlwJylDJ.
Read:
viiuddhl CI bh.VI!IIJ IlIr1u VY'ylmo ni$p/Wo bh.vet
in place 01
yadi sI viiudtJ/U1l sy.t pnyltDlIIJ aphaJlIII bh.vet Ct. BhI$ya N26.20.
is omitted from Ms.{l7L4) but should obviously be inserted on the bais of the Tib. and the
Bhl$yL
Read: slltJyatlYItJ in place of illtJy.tlyq. Tib. stoJi pi lid I. (D218b.2). Cf. Y60.17 below

II.

-0218b.3.

II.

78
above refers to just the 'ground' (upRdSna; rgyu) of these [i.e. defilement and purity].
Otherwise, if defilement or purity were manifestly present for emptiness, then what
connection would it ha\'e with incarnate beings, on account of which both the purity
and defilement of the incarnate beings is described as being due to the purity of emptiness and the defilement of emptiness, respectively? And when emptiness is defiled in
the state of ordinary people and is pure in the state of the Noble Ones - this t00427 has
been proven:
[3}

I.22 ab

It is neither defiled nor is it undefiled;

it

is

neither pure

nor

is

it

impure. 428
Y61

How can it be neither defiled nor impure?4 29 It is definitely pure because this
is made clear through the use of the double negative.

Here he quotes scriptural tra-

dition: [Because] by way of intrinsic nature:

I.22 c

There ia the luminosity of mind;430

Here it is indeed the real nature of mind that is referred to by the word "mind" for the
[phenomenal} mind is characterized by stain.431 How can it be neither undefiled
nor pure?

On the conuary, the use of the double negative makes it clear that it is

definitely defiled.

1.22 d

Becauae of the adventitious nature of


defilement. 432

He shows that it is defiled but not intrinsically 50433 . Scriptural tradition is also quoted
here: "It is defiled by adventitious secondaly defilement".

[4] When it has been differentiated as twofold, i.e. as defiled and pure, why then is a
fourfold differentiation mentioned? Some say that it is in order to demonstrate434 the
distinction between the mundane path and the supramundane path, for, the mundane
path is defiled by the stain pertinent to its own level but DOt by that which belongs to a
lower llevell because [the fonner] is the counteragent to the latter. The supramundane
path is impure [in one sense] because it is differentiated as weak, middling etc., however, it is pure due to the absence of impurity; but DOt

so

in the case of emptiness.

Again, after describing [emptiness1 as undefiled, .. hers describe it as not impure in


order to distinguish it from the [sense-faculties] of sight etc., because sight etc.
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434

are not

Read: tata idmJ as per Ms.(17L7) in place of . . ~ disregard Y's fn.4 p.60.
Read:
Da kliIII DIpi vWi$" iuddbJ 'iuddhl Da caiWl 51
in place of
Da kliRJ DIpi cIkJ4" SuddbJiuddJdpi lUiWl 51
Cf. Bhl$ya N27 .5.
Read: Dlpy cliuddh' in place of Dlpyaiuddhl; d. Bhl&'a N27.6.
Y's text paraphrases this verse 1.22 cd.
Ms.(17b.l): citt&5yaivwp ~alVlt but Y's emendation 10 cittasyaiva nulaJd:$a{Jatvlt is preferred on !he basis of !be TIb. ". ilid Di dri ma'i mts/wJ lIid kyi phyir(D218b.6).
Read: lc.I&WyI6l1lJtubmta(J in place of d c....tubkJeit:Da; d. Bhl$ya N27 .9.
Read: d kIi$1I Da tu pnirryeti ddyad in place of iliI" III tu pnkrtyi dMiayati; cf. ibid.
Ms.(17b.2) omits pradMiana which is inserted by Yon !he basis ofTib. htaD pi (D219Ll).

79

defiled for they are unobscured and undefined yet m described as impure because they
are not intrinsically pure on account of their possession of impurity.
describing it

a6 undefil~d,

Thus, after

it is described as impure in order to distinguish it from

wholesome [elements] which are accompanied by impurity because that which is


wholesome and accompanied by impurity is not undefiled since it belongs to sarpsiIra
and is pure because it has an agreeable karma-result. Real nature is definitely not 50435
for, in the defiled state it is described as defiled and consequently as being impure. In
this way, the differentiation of emptiness, by way of defilement and purity,
that bas been listed [above] is proven436

43S
436

Read: DlivNJI as per Ms.(17b.4) in place of Dliv&


Read: evalll sfIDyaflyl ucldil~ "lflkleiaviiuddJJj~bbedo

eVaIII illDyalIpnbbetUsya sarrIkleiaviiuddherDitrl6io

1'aJII sldbito bum in place of


1'.l1li sldbito blJavati; ct. B"-Ya N27.10.

80

The Summary Meaning of Emptiness.

Therein, the summary meaning of emptiness should be known both

N27. 12

in terms of characteristic and establishment.


characteristic includes both the characteristic
characteristic of existence.

Of these, in terms of
Clf

non-existence and the

Funhermore, the characteristic of existence

includes both the characteristic as devoid of existence and non-existence and the characteristic as devoid of identity and difference.

Again,

its establishment should be known in terms of the establishment of its


synonyms etc.

In this regard, through these four modes of teaching: Ca)

the individual characteristic of emptiness, (b) the characteristic of

kuma [pe11ineDt to its realization], (c) the characteristic of both its


defilc.ment and purification and (d) the characteristic of relUoning
[pertinent to i.s proof] are made mown - these lead to the appeasement
of: (a) conceptual differentiation, (b) fear, (c) indolence and (d) doubt,
[respectively].
[Slhiramati]
Y61.22

[l] The summary meaning of emptinesll 437 should be understood both in

terms of characteristic and establishment.


Y62

Of these, in terms of charac-

teristic includes both the characteristic of non-exiltence and the


characteristic of existence. It [should be known] in terms of the characteristic of
non-existence because of the statement: "the non-existence of the duality" (1.13 a). It
[should be known] in terms of the characteristic of existence because of the statement:
"which consists in the existence of a non-existent" (1.13 b).

Punhermore, the

characteristic of exiltence... ; because of the statement: "it neither exists nor does
it not exist" (Ll3 c); ... refen to both the characteriltic al devoid of existence and non-elliltence 438 and the characteriltic al devoid of identity
and difference, because of the statement: " ... this is the characteristic of emptiness.
Thenlfonl, in nllation to the imagination of what is UDftlal:" (1.13 c comm.) "The characteristic consists neither in diffenlnce nor identity." (1.13 d). This is the summary
meaning in terms of characteristic.

437
438

Read: ianyattylt! in place of iUnya"-; cf. BbI$ya N27.12.


Read: bhlvlbh'vavinirmutW~,. in place of ,.dbhlvlblJlv& .. ; these words are omitted
from die Ms.(17b.6) mel are inserted 011 the buil of the TIb.: dIIot po yod p& da dJJoJ po med
pa 1" nwn par groJ ba'i mUllan /lid da (0219&7) which comsponds to Bhl$ya N27.14.

81

[2]

How should its summary meaning be understood in terms of establishment?

Again, its establishment should be known in terms of the establishment


of its synonyms etc. 439 What is melint is: its synonyms. their meaning. its differentiation and logical proof.

Through these four model of tl:aching. beginning

with the character. ~ti , (a) its individual characteri.tic. (b) the ch:!racteristic
of karma hlenincnt to its realization]. (c) the characteristic of both its
defilement

lind

purification and

(d)

the

characteristic of reasoning

[pertinent to ;its proof] are made known as the counteragents to the four types
of secondary defi:.;;mem440 . Of these. the individual chamcteristic [acts] as the counteragent to conceptual differentiation; the latter consists in the perception [of things]
as existent, nonexistent, both [existent and non-existent] and different or identical.
The characteristic of karma [acts] as the counteragent to fear for those who, after
leaming of the characteristic of emptiness. do not have firm conviction. for example,
(a) the karma that penains to [the realization of] thusncss that is free from error. (b) the
karma that penains to the absence of erroneous inversion, (c) the karma that pertains to
the relinquishment of all signs, (d) the brma that exists in the spbere of all supramundane direct intuition and (e) in regard to the objective support. the karma that
pertains to the causal ground of the noble qualities. Thus. the characteristic of the
differentiation is for the removal of indolencIJ on the part of lazy people who, just by
leaming of the own-being of '!mptines8 and the karma [pertinent to its realization]
Y63

'seize' ttdS as sufficient. 'The characteristic of reasoning is for the removal of doubt on
the pan of skeptics who believe that [emptiness] is subject to defilement and
purification.

Chapter Two

The Obscurations

83

1. The Five Obscurations Beginning with the


Pervading.

With reference to the obscurations, he says:

N28.3

11.1 abc

Ca) The pervading, Cb) the limited,


Cc) the excessive, Cd) the equal and
<e) acceptance and rejection are
elucidated as the obscurations that
penain to the two.

Of these, Ca) the pervading refers to obscuration consisting in both


moral defilement and the knowable and is peninent to those who belong
to the spiritual lineage of the bodbiuttn because it forms the totalityl.
Cb) The limited refers to obscuration consisting in moral defilement and
is peninent to those who belong to the spiritual lineage of the Brlnka
etc.

Cc) The excessive refers to [obscuration] that penains only to those

who course in passion etc.

Cd) The equal refers to [obscuration} that

penains to those who course in equal shares. (e) The obscuration comprising the acceptance and rejection of ..l,u'n is pertinent to those
who belong to the spiritual lineage of the bodbi.. ttn because it is an
obscuration to the lJirv'pa [wherein the bodbi..ttva is] not permanently
fixed.
Thus these obscuration. are elucidated respectively I I being
pertinent to both, i.e., as peninent to those who belong to the spiritual
lineage of the bodbi .. ttva as well as thole who belong to the spiritual
lineage of the .rlnka etc.
[Sthiramati]
Y64

[1}2 Immediately after the explanation of the characteristic is an appropriate place for

the explanation of obscuration and since [the laner] was mentioned immediately
following the former, [Vasubandhu] says: with reference to the obscurations,
[Maitreya] says:
11.1 abc

(a) The pervadin" (b) the limited,


(c) the excellive, (.:1) the equal and

Read: slkalyll omitting tam. Although the TIbetan (mtbs' tUg II sgrib PI'i phyir 061.4)
would substantiate a lUlling of sJbIy'vln(Ji4 szrjb pallere is probably an elaboration inserted
by the Tibetan translator as is clearly the case in several of the following sentences.
The first few foUos are missing from the Ms. of Ch.n hence the translation of this section is
buecl entirely on the Tib. Fn.lS below indicaIes the point whenl the Ms. begins.

84

(c)

acceptance

elucidated

II

and

the

rejection

are

obscurations

that

penain to the two.


The obscurations that pertain to the two refer to obscurations pertinent to those who
belong to the spiritual lineage of the bodhisattva and those who belong to the spiritual

lineage of the sr!vaka etc. This verse has been composed in order to demonstrate that
the differentiation among the obscurations is in accordance with the difference in
benefit that is obscured.

Of these, the pervading refers to obscuration con-

sisting in both moral defilement and the knowable and is pertinent to


those who belong to the spiritual lineage of the bodbiuttva. It is the
pervading (vylJpi) since it pervades or permeates (vylJpnoti). Because it is an
obscuration in regard to the totality of benefit; the totality of benefit is both benefit
for oneself and benefit for others. Alternatively, it is described as the pervading since
it pervades the obscuration that pertains to the bodhisattva according to the designation
of the two as obscuration that consists in moral defilement and the knowable. Since
Y65

moral defilement is itself an obscuring, it is [described as] an obscuration.

Herein,

secondary defilement is also referred to by the word "moral defilement" because it is


exactly similar in its nature as moral defilement. Otherwise, the words: "the chardcteristie of moral defilement is ninefold" [verse 11.1 d), would not include envy and avarice
since these two are both secondary defilements. It is an obscuration that consists in the
knowable because it is an obscuration in regard to the knowable. Since that which is
knowable is concealed (privrta) on account of this, it is not the sphere of knowledge.
Alternatively, it is an obscuring of direct inblition in regard to the knowable because it
creates an obstruction to the arising of direct intuition in regard to the knowable. 'There
is the omission of the word "of' between the words "obscuration" and "knowable" [in
the compound jiieyJvarapa] as in the [tatpuru,a] compound 'a pot of oil' (tailakup(la).
Furthermore, it consists in undefiled nescience.

Those who belong to the spiritual

lineage of the bodhisattva endeavour in every way to produce the accumulations of


merit and direct intuition for the sake of the attainment of Buddhahood since it is the
culminating attainment3 in regard to benefit for both oneself and others. Because both
[those consisting in moral defilement and the knowable] are obscurations to the latter
[i.e. Buddhahood] they are determined as obscurations pertinent to those who belong
to the spiritual lineage of the bodhisattva. [Objection]: In this respect, given that the
pervading has the whole for its domain and the expression "the totality" means "in
every respect", how does the totality intimate pervading? [Response]: It is described as
obscuration that pervades because it forms the totality by way of its explanation as a
cause. Alternatively, the statement: "because it forms the totality" is made in order to
explain the word "pervading" as having the meaning of totality.
3

D: pbul du bYUJI ba thob pa (220&.,>, Illhouah P: ...thob PI-

85

[2] The limited refers to obscuration coDsisting in moral defilement and


is pertinent to those who belong to the spiritual lineage of the irlnks
etc. It is designated as an obscuration since it is an obscuration in regard to just one's
Y66

own benefit and is described as "limited" because it does not pervade.

Why does

undefiled nescience not I,lCnain to srlvakas and pratyekabuddhas? Because if it is


determined that only obscuration consisting in moral defilement is pertinent to them,
then in that case, [undefiled nescience] is not an obscuration pertinent to them because

srlvakas and pratyekabuddhas [are said to] attain enlightenment even though it exists.
[Objection]: Is nescience on the part of the srJvaka etc. not an obscuration to the
arising of knowledge in regard to the sphere of the truth of suffering etc.? Therefore,
the two obscurations would be pertinent to them as well.

Consequently, perhaps it

should not be said that only obscuration consisting in moral defilement is pertinent to

srlvakas etc.? [Response]: This is not so, since ignorance is detennined just as obscuration that consists in moral defilement because: (a) it is defiled, (b) it is adverse to
knowledge and (c) it is the root of SlUfJslra. However it is not [determined as] obscuration that consists in the knowable. like uncertainty. For example, uncertainty in regard
to the sphere of the truth of suffering etc. is "not [uncertainty] in regard to other spheres

described as doubt and moral defilement, for it is only uncertainty in regard to another
sphere and not defilement nor d(\ubL Similarly, nescience in regard to just the sphere
of the truth of suffering etc. is ignorance aDd moral defilement but not in regard to
other spheres, for in regard to other spheres it is only nescience and not ignorance Itor
moral defilement.

Therefore, since [nescience] is described as the obscuration that

consists in the knowable because it is an obscuration to the emergence of only the


direct intuition of what is knowable. moral defilement, karma and rebinh are not
produced as is ignorance. [Objection]: If this be so, [obscuration that consists in the
knowable] cannot be determined as the obscuration peninent to bodhisattvas.
[Response]: This is not so [since] obscuration that consists in the knowable is the
obscuration pertinent to bodhisattvas because they are characterized by the accumulations of learning. It is said:
Without applying himself to the five kinds
of learning, in no way can a Supremely

Y67

Noble One arrive at omciscience; thus, he


applies himself to

th~)se,

either to restrain or

assist others or, for his own knowledge.4


[3] The excel.ive; even a small aspect of passion etc. that manifests CC'ntinuaU, and
to

an excessive degree in those wbQ belong to the spiritual lineage of the bodhisattv.

86

and those who belong to the spiritual lineage of the srilvaJca etc .... refen to
[obscuration] pertinent to thosCl who coune in passion etc.

Those who

course in passion and the like refers to those for whom any passion manifests continuously and to an excessive degree even in regard to a miserable thingS.
[4] Tho equal; i.e., obscuration pertinent to both those belonging to the spiritual
lineage of the bodhisattva and those belonging to the spiritual lineage of the srilvaka
etc. It is equal because the two modes are absent6; refen to [obscuration] pertinent to those who coune in equal shares.

They who course in equal shares

refers to those for whom moral defilement manifestS in conformity with the object, but
no~

[5]

continuously.
The

obscuration

comprising

the

acceptance

and

rejection

of

.alp.lra... ; the bodhisattva accepts sazpsilra on account of his compassion yet, on


account of his wisdom, after observing the evil of sazpsilra as it is in reality, he rejects7
it.

Consequently, although free from moral defilement [himself), having regard for

sentient beings, he takes rebirth in the lJirv'pa [wherein the bodhisattva is]
not permanently fixed, because he is not permanently fixed in sazpsilra or nirvilpa.
The obscuration to this consists in the acceptance of salpsilra as being overcome by
moral defilement or the complete rejection of sazpsilra without compassion, after
observing its evil as it is in reality. Others believe that nescience is described as an
obscuration herein because it is an obstruction to both compassion and wisdom.
Y68

Alternatively, as has been stated in the Mahlratnaldlta: "His mental disposition is


directed towards airvlpa but his application is directed towards sazpsilra"8. This is the
unfixed nirvilpa of the bodhisattva. In this regard, in order to turn his back on nirvilpa
he accepts salpsilra with his mental disposition and application, just like a sentient
being who has no spiritulll lineage. Similarly, in order to

tum

his back on sazpsilra, he

completely rejects sazpsilra with both his mental disposition and application directed
towards entering nirvlpa, just like those who belong to the spiritual lineage of srlvakas
etc. Thus, both the acceptance of sazpsilra and its rejection are obscurations in regard
to the unfixed nirvilpa of the bodhisattva because they both constitute a falling to one

extreme away from sazpsilra as well as nirv'pa. At the time that they become tath.gatas, bodhisattvas do not remain in salpsilra because they have relinquished both the

obscurations that consist in moral defilement and the knowable.

And because the

Dharma Body continues without interruption in the nirv'pa devoid of the remnants of

5
6
7
8

Read: hIDe pi vastuni; cf. AS-BblfYa '142.


This refers to tile normal state of defilement devoid of bodl the excessively saonl and weaker
degrees; cf. ibid.: ~em~ prKrtist/ull ~ IUtbtYUIIlJdylvivarjiWIIII'vuthe

klei. ity IltIutL


Tib. should probably read,tolI b&9 in place of stud pas (cf.D221a.4).
Read (with de Ionl p.113): nirvI{I..ClryiNyatJ
"ptaYfJlatr. this passage is
iound in KP '16 (p.3S).

''''''''''1'''

87

existence, they do not remain in nirvllpa like srllvakas and the like. Thus they are not
fixed permanently in sarpslra or nirvllpa.

[6J These five obscurations have been enumerated here because they cause obstruction
in regard to: (a) the path of the bodhisattva and the srllvaka etc., (b) their application,
(c) the result and (d) the unfixed nirvllpa [of the bodhisattva]. Thus these
[obscuration. are elucidated] respectively, i.e. as is appropriate. Therein, the
first and the last [i.e. the 'pervading' and 'acceptance and rejection'] are obscurations
pertinent to those who belong to the spiritual lineage of the bodbjuttva.
But that which follows the first [i.e. the 'limited'] is an obscuration peninent to
those who belong to the spiritual lineage of the Brink. etc. The other
two [i.e. the 'excessive' and the 'equal'] are obscurations pertinent to both. In the
above, obscuration that consists in the knowable has been described as obscuration
that pertains to the bodhisattvas; moreover, it is known as undefiled nescience.

2. The Obscuraiion that Consists in the Nine


Fetters to Application.
N28.13

Purthermore,
The characterillic of moral defile-

11.1 d

meot is ninefold.
11.2 a

The fettera are obscurationl;

The nine fetters refer to oblcuntionl that con lilt in moral defilement.

The obscurations that comprile thele [fetten] are relevant to

what?
11.2 bc

They

are

equanimity

relevant

to

and

insight

the

anlliety,
into

reality;

N29

The fetter of attachment is an obscuntion relevant to anxiety. The


fetter of repugnlDce is [ao obscuration] relevant to equanimity because
on a:;count of this, one is unable to be even-minded in regard to the
foundation of repugnance, especially somethinl disalrecable.
The
remaininl [fetters] are obscurations relevant to the insight into reality.
How do they occur?

They occur relpectively ...

88

IL2 d

In the clear comprehenlion of: the


falle view of individuality, the foundation of the latter;

11.3 abc

Cellation,

the

jeweh, gain
aUlterity.

path,
and

the

[three]

honour

and

The fetters are oblcurations 9 The tetter of pride il an obscuration


in the clear comprehension of the false view of individuality because
the non-relinquishment of the latter is on account of the manifestation
of intermittent and continuous self-conceit at the time of direct realization.

The fetter of ignorance [il an oblcuration] in the clear compre-

hension of the foundation of the falle view of individuality becaule the


lack of clear comprehenlion in regard to the aggregatel that have been
appropriated il on account of that.

The fetter that conaistl in false view

[il an oblcuntion] in the clear comprehension of the truth of cessation


becaule the fear of the latter il on account of the falle viewl of
individuality and the gralpinl of extremel and il allo due to negation
by wrong view.

The fetter of clinlinl [to fain viewl etc.] il [an

oblcurstion] in the clear comprehenlion of the truth of the path because


one clinll to the highelt purity with the wrong motive. The fetter of
doubt il [an oblcuration] in the clear comprehClnlion of the three jewels
due to the lack of true belief in the vinuel of the latter.

The fetter of

envy il [an oblcuration] in the clear comprehenlion of gain and honour


becaulle one doel not perceive the faultl of the latter.

The fetter of

avarice il [an oblcuration] in the clear comprehenlion of austerity


becaule one covets the necessities of life.
[Sthiramati]
[1] It is not known: (a) how many aspects there are to the obscuration that consists in
Y69

moral defilement which is the obscuration pertinent to the two [i.e. bodhisattvas and

srlvakas etc.], (b) what kind of essential nature they possess and (c) what it is they
obstruct, hence he says:
11.1 d

The characteristic of moral defilement il ainefold.


It is the obscurationa that are referred to. The characteristic of moral defilement is
[equivalent to] the essential nature of moral defilement.

What are these ninefold

[fetters]? Hence he says: [they are]:


9

'alJIlOiUlnY Ivata(laIP but Tib. hu simply ,.,,11 1M ,m; (D6b.2).

89

11.2 a
The fetters etc.
They are fetters inasmuch as they fetter [people] to various sufferings. The various
sufferings which belong to the group of sense-desire, form and formlessness, refer to
the painful nature of suffering, the painful nature of change and the painful nature of
the formative forces as is appropriate to the three realms of existence. They begin with
the fetter of attachment and conclude with the fetter of avarice. Therein, repugnance
refers to aversion. Envy refers to intolerance in regard to another's success 10. Avarice
refers to miserliness concerning the necessities of Iife H ; these three pertain to sensedesire. The fetter of attachment consists in the passion that pertains to the three realms
of existence. Similarly, the fetters of pride, ignorance, false view, clinging [to false
views etc.] and doubt all pertain to the three realms of existence. The fetter of false
view comprises the false view of individuality, the grasping of extremes and wrong
view. The fetter of clinging [to false views etc.] comprises the clinging to false view
and to morality and vows. Doubt is disbelief in regard to the [noble] truths and the
Y70

[three] jewels. Moreover, those other secondary defilements, such as anger, are definitely obscurations that consist in moral defilement because they are the
natural outcome of moral defilement and they are defiled.

Envy and avarice are

referred to as fetters because of their predominance, for it is said in a Sutra: "0


Kausika, the gods and mankind possess the fetters of envy and avarice"12.
[2] The obscura'-ions that comprise these [fetters] are relevant to what?

Hence he

says~

11.2 bc

They

are

equanimity

relevant

to

and

insight

the

anxiety,
into

reality;
Anxiety is included among the synonyms for despondency, hence it is said: the fetter
of attachment is an obscuration relevant to anxiet)'.

Since the attachment to

the physical body, vitality, enjoyment and femily etc. as well as to the meditative
absorptions and formless [attainments] is on account of this, one does not become
anxious of the three realms, although oppressed by the sufferings of sSlJlslIrs. The
fetter of repugnance ia [an obscuration] relevant to equanimity.

How s07

Hence he says: because, on account of this, one II unable to be evenminded, i.e. free from formative influence, in regard to the foundation of
repugnance, i.e., the cause of repugnance, especially something disagreeable
etc.; it is disagreeable insofar as it is the cause of depression. It is logical that it is not
10

Cf. T-Bh3$ya: lr5ylJNl!BsalJlpattau cetaso vylro10 Iilbhas,tlclrldhravasirasy, Jlbhas,tlclrakullJinairumdIn gU{lavisf:$iIn parasyopaJ,bhya dvellf1Jiiko 'rIwpkftru cetaso vylro1a1r5yl (L30.20-

11

Cf. AS (017): mltsll)'alJl katamat I Jlbhasatlclrldhyavasitasya paripclrelu r1lgltpSikai cetas,


Igraha1J. Cf. also T-bh3$ya (L30.2A-28).
Read: lr5ylmltsll)'asalJlyojanll! kauiika devamanulyl ity uitam; this quotation is also found in

22).

12

the Kosa-vyakhyl (W491.5-6).

90

possible to be even-minded in regard to the foundation of attachment because of the


absence of what is disagreeable.

However, since the foundation of repugnance

consists in repugnance especially in regard to something disagreeable, one is unable to


be even-minded. Hence in order to demonstrate that the latter [Le. the fetter of repug-

Y71

nance] is a greater evil than [the fetter of] attachment, he says: "especially". When one
who is engaged in meditative concentration gains equanimity of the formative forces,

his mind ronsequently becomes even. However, if the fetter of mpugnance reaches an
excessive degree in such a person, then on account of the lattcr, he does not attain
equanimity in regard to the cause of repugnance; and when that occurs the self is
necessarily supported as an objective support; thus, on account of the fetter of attachment he does not find solitude. Conversely, although isolated on account of the fetter
of repugnance he does not attain meditative concentration.
[3]

Furthermore, the remaiDin. seven [fetten] are oblclirationl relevant to

the insiaht into reality, i.e. they are obscurations to true insight.

He asks: How

do they occur? Since this is oot known he says: They occur relpectively:

11.2 d

[In th:o clear comprehenlion] of: the


falle view of individuality, the foundation of the latter etc.

The fetter of pride is an obscuration in the clear comprehension of the


falle view of individuality.

Pride herein refers to that arrogance of mind which

has the false view of individuality for its basisl3 and this is sevenfold 14 according to its

differentiation as pride, excessive pride etc. IS The clear comprehension of the false
view of individuality refers to the insight into the false \iew of individuality through
the discrimination of: (a) a self, (b) what pertains to a self, (c) the apprehending subject

and (d) the apprehended object, as well as through the discrimination l6 of an ownbeing on the part of the dharmas as imagined by naive people. The fetter l7 of pride is
an obscuration to that [insight] because it obstructs its arising. As to how aad when
this occurs, he says: becaule the non-relinquilhment of the latter il on
account of the maDifeltation of intermittent and continuous lelf-conceit
at the time of direct realization18 The time of direct realization of the truth is
equivalent to the condition that is conducive to penetration. In the above "intermittent"
refers to that which is interrupted by the counteragont; "continuous" refers to that
13

14

15
16
17

1S

Cf. T-Bbltya: mlDo hi aInU sarvl evl SltlcJylldntblmliraye{J1 pnvlltl.' SI puna eitt&Syonn.tiJ~atJ (1.28.21-29); Tib. dllJYll ni dl lJYal i. bya bl tbllfU em iyld Ji6 abop II
111 bill linea lW 'byud bl~ 1/ de ni sems kbedS pa'i mablll ifid de (D15SL2).
Read: slIptlvidbam in place of DIIVIIVidbllm; Tib. mam pa bdun (D222b.S). Tbia sevenfold
divisiOllIS substlntiared by Ihe T-BhIoya (1.29.4-17) wbere seven kiDdlof pride lie defined.
Sanskrit Ma.(20a.1) beains here with Ihe wOlds: mIIJ.dibblen&
Ma.(2Oa.1): viUtJl but Y's emendation 10 villlilbm is prefemd.
Ms.(2Oa.l): Sll/fJPRyojllDlITfJ which should probably be amended 10 lIITfJyojlD~ Tib.(D222b.6):
hID du sbyur b&

Read: sID-.vylDtllrlsmj. . . in place of sID,.. Y)'IDIInIPI~---; d. Bhllya N29,B.

91

which is not interrupted by the counteragent. And this should be understood in regard
to strong and weak counteragents [respectively]. For as long as intermittent and con-

tinuous self-conceit19 manifests, there is no relinquishment of the false view of indiY72

vi duality since the arising of self-conceit is only on account of the false view of
indi viduality.
[4] The fetter of ignorance [is

an obscuration] in the clear comprehen-

sion of the foundation of the false view of individuality.

It is the fact that

it is an obscuration that is referred to. The foundation of the false view of individuality
refers to the five aggregates that have been appropriated because it arises from the
objective support that consists therein; as is

s~ted

in a Sutra:

Certain srama\JllS or brahmanas perceive the self as the self and are notionally
atta.:hed to it; it is just on the basis of these five aggregates that have been
appropriated that they perceive and are notionally attached to the latter. 20
Just what is this clear comprehension? It is the perception of the emptiness of the self
and what pertains to the seltz1 and the emptiness of the own-being of the dharmas
which is imagined by naive people in !egard to the aggregates as well as their perception as impermanent, painful, empty, without self or as originating etc. - this is clear
comprehension of those [aggregates]. Bel" now he gives the reason: because the
lack of clear comprehenlion in regard to the aggregatel that have been
appropriated is on account of that.

Ignorance is an obscuration in the clear

comprehension of the aggregates because, on account of ignorance, there is the absence


of clear comprehension of these [as impermanent etc.] in regard to the aggregates
which are obscured by aspects of permanence etc.
[5] The fetter that consists in false view [il an obscuration) in the clear

comprehension of the truth of cel tion; the word "obscuration" remains in


force. 'I1Ie fetter of false view comprises three false views: The false views of: (a)
individuality, (b) grasping of extremes and (c) wrong [view]. In the above, the false
view of individuality refers to the notion that there is a self or what pertains to a self
among the five aggregates that have been appropriated. The false view that consists in
the grasping of extremes concerns that same entity that has been colltltrued as a self and
refers to the notion that it is eternal or that it perishes22 . Wrong view refers to that
notion on account of which one negates an entity, whether it be cause, result, deed or
an actual existent, or else wrongly construes it. The clear (:Qmprehension of the truth
19
20
21
22

Reid: slDtarlIvyaatarlsmimlDalr, ct. ibid.


This pusqe is also quoted in the Kosa (P282.1-3) a1thouah the wonlina there is slightly
different. cr. also LVP Kola Ch.5 p.17 mol where attention is drawn to several other texts
which cite this sune pISSIIe.
ReM (with de Jona p.114): ltm.tmryait1llYltJylll in place of .tnJlllrWt1IIylllylt, Tib. blDg
thJj bdI6 gis sted 1M 1fid.(D223L4).
Ms. (2Oa.7) bqins: dntir nlsttri dMilDMJI, but Y's emendaIion to ilivlw.wwn ucch~
dMUtwrt vi is prefened on the buis of !be Tib.; ct. his m.4 p.72.

92

of cessation refers to [its comprehension) in accordance with the aspects such as the
tranquil. Just how can [false view) be an obscuration to that [clear comprehension]?
Hence he says: becaule the fear of the latter [Le. cellation] il on account
of the false viewl of both individuality and the grasping of extreme I
and is also due to negation23 by wrong view. Therein, on account of the false
views of individuality and the grasping of extremes one fears cessation, thinking: "I
Y73

will not exist in that [state)", also, on account of wrong view one negates it, thinking
there is indeed no cessation. In this respect, on account of the false views of individuality and the grasping of extremes, one does not clearly comprehend [cessation1 as
tranquil, sublime and as escape24; yet on account of wrong view one does not comprehend it as cessation.

In this way the fetter that consists in false view becomes an

obscuration in the clear comprehension of cessation.


[6] The fetter of clinging [to false view etc.] il [an oblcuration] in the
clear comprehension of the truth of the path25 . Therein, the fetter of clinging

refers to both the clinging to false view and the clinging to morality and vows. Clinging to false view therein refers to that notion in regard to false view and the five aggregates that have been appropriated and which are the basis of false view26 , as being preeminellt27 and so on. Clinging to morality and vows refers to that notion on the part of
one who perceives either morality,

VOWl,

both of these or the five aggregates that have

bccn appropriated and which are the basis of that [notion), as being [equivalent to)
purity, liberation or definitive liberation. Furthermore, the clear comprehension of the
path is in accordance with aspects, such as definitive liberation. Just how can the ferter
of clinging be an obscuration in the clear comprehension of the path? Hence he says:
beca""le one clinlll to the [hipelt] purity with the wronll motive 28 ; i.e.
because one clings to purity as either: (a) just morality and vows, (b) an abode of
pleasure pertinent to sense-desire, (c) ascetic practices or (d) the knowledge of enumerations etc. By clinging to a [false] view on account of just which one believes in
purity, one clings to that same [view] as being
fetter of clinging [to f$e view etc.1 one
wrong motive2S'.
23
24

25
26

27

29

Thus, on account of the

the path and dings to purity with the

Read: clpavldJd iii in place of c. t.acUiMvldJd iii; tMl is most likely an elabondoo inserted by
the Tibetm translator and is also found in me Tib. Bhlfya (D6b.4) but no in the Sanskrit
Bb-.ya (N29.l2).
Ms.(2Ob.l): ~-. but Y's emeadation to 1JilJ,wII(I is ~ferred; cf. his tn.l p.73.
Read: ~uaty.".njllDe as per Ms.(D.2) and Bbltya (N29.l3) omiuiDa Iv.npmJ iii wbicb
is an elaboration of the TIb.

Ms.(2Ob.2): dnrylyUtayefu, but Y's emendation to diJryIIn}'elu is prefcned; ct. his fn.3 p.73.
Read: qrldito in place of uw,.,ldito; d. T-Bh..ya (L29.24) which expands: daliJMZfDWiIt!
pdcal1p1d1ollfwJdhelv",.., vir;,. ".,~ JMl'II1UI&i g y.I tbrWwp; Ttb.1IJCbof
dMJ ibpd JMTdu ~ 1M d8I1,DO bo d6I)
JW 1,. 6a,. yin 1M (Dl!59Ll).
ReId: .ayadJI("')iuddbi~in plaI:eof ~ iuddhi~ ct. BbItya
N29.l4.
Read: Uyith. in place of
tv JtJre,-: TIb. 1'IJ"" 1M Pm vi' (0224&.2), ct. B_a
N29.l4 (- D6b.4).

am

28

pre~minenL

!ibando~

u,...

93

[7] Tho fetter of doubt [is an obscuration] in tho clear .comprehension of


tho three jewels; the word "obscuration" remains in force.

As to how this can be

so, he says: because of the lack of true belief in their vimes.

The fetter of

doubt is perplexity in reg&d to the truths and the [three] jewels. There is clear comprehension in regard to the jewel of the Buddha as being the final basis for the
excellence and absence of all vinues and faults [respectively]30. There is clear comprehension in regard to the jewel of the Dharma: (a) as being the conveyance across the
ocean of salJ1si:..

!.

(b) as having the nature of the absolute separation from all suffer-

ing 31 together with its causes and (e) as providing the understanding of the latter.
Y74

There is clear comprehension in regard to tho jewel of the Sangha as: (a) the locus for
the results of monkhood32 , (b) engagement in the latter and (c) the 'field' worthy of
supreme veneration. By acquiring perfect faith through the perception of truth and the
relinquishment of doubt33 one truly believes in the virtues of the three jewels and since
there remains no doubt that is not relinquished, the fetter of doubt is described34 as an
obscuration in the clear comprehension of the three jewels.
[8] The fetter of envy is an oblcuration in the clear compreheDiioD of

gain and honour.

Here now he gives the reason: because one doe I

perceive the faults of the latter.

Dot

For the fetter of envy, which has aversion for a

component. refers to the dissatisfaction of mind in regard to aDOther's success and is


pertinent to one intent upon gain and hoDOurl S. Clear comprehension in regard to gain
and honour is [equivalent to) the awareness that these are the basis of all misfonune3 6

However, on account of envy one does not clearly comprehend gain and honourl 7 as
being adverse to all virtue nor

81

the root of varioUi misfortunes. Hence the fetter of

envy is an obscuration in the clear compreileDiion of gain and hODOur.


[9] The fetter of avarice [il an oblcuration] in the clear comprehension

of aUlterity.

30

31
32
33
34

3S

As to how this

CI4 be

so, he says: becaule one covets the

Read (with de JOIII p.114): SMVllUfI~fbldlJ4(hlDatvetJa buddhmtne


pmi!!1IWJI in pl.:e of SMVllUflat/ofuy. pratn,.".",.,y. PaIYlIlJtJliny.~ buddharatne
panj4JlWp (cf. YI89.22).
Ms.(2Ob.6): ~: disrepnl Y's fD.6 p.73.
Ms.(2Ob.6): .irtma(Jyr. disrepnl Y's m.l p.74.
Reacl perhaps: vidJcj~ in place of praIJI{Iavicikits'yli; TIb. the tJlJom span h'i phyir
(D224LS).
Read: ucyaJe. per MI.<2Ob.7) in place of ncaup.
ReId: .DsylUlllyo""'hi~,.~~caID~
in place of mY".".yojatJalJl hi lJbIJMatHnntIo 'IJ
IbItJriibi Ct!IIaMJ IrDPtr.

Tib. ~ ~ Ii twJ du sby b. iii nIIId pa did I : : r r : : pa _I poi;l~ sum

f.!h!J$! 1M I. u sdM Ii ebar IfOIJ pat _ _ thod IIU 'kluv6IM (D224L6). cr. T-Bbl$ya
(LJO.20): lily' ~ cetaro vylrafO lJbIuJattJrIdby.v.,;,.,./~
inltJtIlJJ,..aviilffJa parllyopalMJIIy. ~ '~vyIn:Jp my.. for the Tib.

ct. DlS9b.6ff.

36
37

Ms.(21Ll): JalYIIJriIIyldalvlYl!bodbo bill Y's .......... ro urvlD.nIJJIrayaw.vMJodho is


preferred 011 die bais of the TIb.: ct. bia fD.3 p.74.
Rail: lJblJaulUralp in place of llblJuatUtay.; Tib. ~ do6li6 iii ttJed pa dad blur !Ii
...mi . . pu (D224L7).

necessities of life.

Avarice which has passion for a component refers to miserli-

ness of mind in regard to goods and chattels on the part of one who is intent upon38 the
necessities of life. Austerity consists in the separation from from the necessities of life.
Its clear comprehension is [equivalent to] the understanding that it is the foundation or
basis of all virtue. However, one does not clearly comprehend it as the basis of all
virtue because one is intent upon the necessities d

life on account of avarice.

ob~uration

in the cinr comprehension of

Consequently, it is said that avarice is an


austerity.39

[10] In [summary of] the above, the fetters of attachment and repugnance are obscura-

tions in the endeavour to reach

an understanding of reality [but the remainder are

not]40. The remainder are obscurations to the understanding of reality for one who has
[already] applied himself [in such an endeavour).
Y75

For this very reason the sequential

order of these [fetters) is given; for eumple, one who desires Iiberation4 1 should, from
the very beginning, necessarily cause his mind to shrink from sarps3.ra.

Following

from that, he should have equanimity towards everything. After that, the false view of
individuality should be clearly comprehended because it is the root of all misfortune.
Then, the foundation of the latter should be clearly comprehended as consisting in
suffering and its arising. Then, the cessation of the latter should be understood. Then,
the path of attainment should be understood. Then, one acquires perfect faith in regard

to the tIuee jewels due to the awareness of their virtues and the vision of the truth.
And since it is only on account of the force of the vision of the truth that one becomes
a seer of the faults and virtues [respectively] of gain and honour as well as austerity,
thus the sequential order of these obscurations should be understood in conformity
with the respective cause of the dbllTlJ.. to be obscured42 . [Objection]: Since it is
possible that obscuration can penain to all [the fetters] at all times43 , the explanation of
obscuration as restricted to each individual foundation is not tenable.
restriction44 to each individual foundation is not employed here;

OD

[Response]: A

the contrary, this

explanation is chiefly in terms of close contiguity.

38
39

40
41
42
43
44

Read: MIJIyavaitalya _ per Ms.(21a.2) in place ~ MlJlyal'aib.


Tib. iJ slightly different: de'i pbyir yo "ylld balwil 1M I. Ipi" bo . . biIId (D224b.3): .. Je iJ
said tbat it iJ an obscunlion ill repnI to 1Ulflrity"
As noted by Y (fn.6 p.74) the nb. iNens: _
lUlIWDS iii IU yill DO (D224b.4) which is
not 10 be found in the Ms.
Read: mumuQUD' u per Ms.(2Ial4) in place of mumuk,Dpltp; nb. thaT 1M 'dod pu
(D224b.4).

Ms.(21a.5): Jv&r.l(llya; clilN&ud Y'. fiLl p.75.


Read: JWJIII.watra ""'Vlnl(llMUlllblJlvldiD pIKe f1l111JlllIIVUI api AIVItnI ~
laJpb"'vId; Tib. tbmJI cad 1. yU tIwJJJ cad ,.nb pa /lid du ,.nb pa7 pbyir (D224b.7).
As noced by Y (fn.2 p.7,>. Ms.(2Ia.6): tJiyama hem, bill pntilJiyaIu ill die previous HIUeIICe;
however nb. des 1M m bodl cases.

95

3. Obscuration Pertinent to Bodbisattv4s.

a. The Obscuration to the Tenfold [Qualities]


Beginning with Virtue.
N29.20

II.3 d

The othen are relevant to the tenfold

[qualitiel] beginninl with virtue.


Moreover, there are other oblcurationl that are to be known in
Biard to the tenfold [qualitiel] , beainninl with virtue.

Which then are

the oblcurationl and which are the [qualitiel] beaimjnl witt. virtue?

11.4 abed

(i) Lack of application, [application]


in relard to unwonhy objectl and
what

is

produced

without

appli-

cation; (ii) non-origination, lack of


mental anention end incomplete

ac~u

mulationl.

II.S abed

(iii)

The

deprivation

of

Ipiritual

Iinel,e and ,ood friendl and mental


exhaultion; (iv) the deprivation of

N30

Ipiritual practice, livinl with ltupid


and pernicioul people;
11.6 abed

(v)

Dilquiet,

that

wbicb

remainl

from the three and the non-maturation of wildom; {vi) innate dilquiet,
lazinell and carelellnell.
11.7 abcd

(vii) Attachment to exiltence and enjoymentl and faintheanednell; (viii)


lack of faith, lack of convicti"n and
delibentinn in accord with the letter.

11.1 abed

(ia) Lack of eathuliam for the true

Dbarma, catbulialm for ,ain Ind


lack of compalioa; (x) lOll of what

baa !:!een learnt, [Ieamial] linte aad


tho lack of tho aecellary prepantion
for meditative conc,nttatioa.

96

-These are the obscurations.


virtue?
11.9 abcd

Which are the [qualities] beginning with

The qualities beginning with virtue


are: (i) virtue, (ii) enlightenment,
(iii) complete acceptance, (iv) intelli-

gence,

(v)

absence

of error,

(vi)

absence of obscuration, (vii) transformation, (viii) lack of feu, (ix)


lack of avarice and (x) mastery.
Which ob!curations are to be known al being pertinent to each of
these [qualities] beginning with virtue?
11.10 ab

The

obscurations

that

pertain

to

these [qualitiel] are to be known in


groups of throe.
The three obscuntioDi to the wholelome are: (a) lack of application,
(b) application in regard to unworthy objects and (c) superficial application. The throe obscuntionl to enlightenment are: (a) the non-arising
of the wholesome, (b) lack of mental attention and (c) incomplete accumulations. Complete acceptance refen to the generation of the resolve
for enlightenment. The throe [obscurations] to the latter are: (a) deprivation of Ipiritual linease, (b) deprivation of good friendl and (c)
mental exhaustion.

Intelligence refen to the bodbiutn'. state.

The

throe oblcuntions to the recosnition of the latter are: (a) deprivation of


spiritual practice, (b) livinS with stupid people and (c) living with
pernicious people.
Therein, ltupid people are [equivalent to] foolish
"people; pernicioul people are thole who bear ill will.
The three
[oblcuratioDl] to absence of error are: (a) the dilquiet of erroneous

N31

i~versioDl, (b) whatever remainl from the three obscurationl such as


moral defilement and (c) the non-maturation of the wisdom that brings
liberation to fruition.
Absence of oblcuration is [equivalent to] the
relinquishment of obscuration.
The three [obscurations] to the latter
are: (a) innate disquiet, (b) lazinesl and (e) carelelsnell. The three
[oblcuatioDl] to tranlformation, on account of which one'l mind is
transformed into other modes and not into supreme and perfect
enlightenment, are: (a> attachment to exiltence, (b) attachment to
enjoymentl and (c) faintheartednell.
The three [oblcurationl] to lack
of fear are: (a) a low opinion of people, (b) a lack of firm conviction in
resard to the Dharma and (c) delibention in accord with the letter II

97

regards its meaning.

The three [obscurations1 to lack of avarice are: (a)

a lack of enthusiasm for the true Dharma, (b) enthusiasm for gain and
honour and for veneration and (c) lack of compassion for sentient
beings.

The three [obscurations1 to mastery, on account of which one

fails to obtain supremacy, are: (a) loss of what has

b~en

learnt due to

the arising of karma conducive to the los8 of the Dharma, (b) learning

little

and

(c)

lack of the

necessary

preparation for

meditative

concentration.
[Sthiramati]
Y75. 14

[I] Are the latter [i.e the obscurations that consist in the nine fetters] the only obscu-

rations? These are common to both bodhisattvas and srSvakas etc. however, obscurations that pertain to the bodhisattvas [alone1 are:
The others are relevant to the tenfold

11.3 d

[qualities) beginning with virtue. 45


Since it is not k.nown as to which sre the obecuratioDl and which are the
[qualities] beginning with virtue46 , hence h{: says:
11.4 ab

(i) Lack of application, [application]


in regard to unworthy objects and
what is produced without application
[etc.1

... are the obscurations.


11.9 ab

The [qualities) beginning with virtue are:


(i)

Virtue,

enliahtenment, (iii)

(ii)

complete acceptance [etc.]

... are the ten qualities. Therein virtue, which is the cause of enlightenment, consists in
Y76

all the roots of the wholesome [dharmas]; enlightenment is the result of it. In the
above, virtue has been listed in general terms but it is not understood by way of differentiation nor own-being, hence, in order to clearly illustrate these he elaborates:

11.9

abcd

... (iii)

Complete

acceptance,

(iv)

intelligence 47 , (v) absence of error,


(vi) absence of obscuration48 , (vii)
transformation,

(viii)

lack of fear,

(Ix) lack of avarice [etc.]

These are described as virtuous. Since enlightenment cannot be understood by way of


own-being through words alone, he describes it as:
45
46
47
48

Read: iubbllUu rlMldbl 'p1rllP in place of IIJYld dUliubbldilu; cf. Bh14ya N29.20.
Ms.(21a.7): -m Ivnoaqr...
Read: kiD wi IValaPlIlI b CI iubhldaYI in place of Iv~11P ktt CI iubhldlYI; cf. Bhl$ya
N29.21 &: D6b.6.
Ms.(21b.l): dJJlnwt3, but BhI$ya (N30.9): dIIlIuttv&
Read:
per Ms.(21b.l) in place of -1111..,.,.

-.,"11tJ'as

98

II.9 d-

... (x) maltery.

[2] Some believe that since the obscurations to virtue and enlightenment are explained

as independent, as are [the obscurations to] complete acceptance etc., they are discerned
in this context just as independent [entities] but not as things that can be listed and
explained. [This is not so]: the obscuration to arising is determined in relation to virtue
and it is common to such things as the resolve for enlightenment because of the
necessity for the production of that virtue. The obscuration to complete acceptance etc.
and the obscuration to the basis are obscurations to complete acceptance etc. and are
different [from the obscuration to virtue]49. Also, since enlightenment is unshakable
and is to be attained, both the obscuration to its maintenance and the obscuration to its
attainment are respectively determined. Therefore, independence does not result here.
[3] And their sequential order in brief is as follows: Enlightenment is to be attained

after perfecting the root of the wholesome in its entirety. In detail [it is as follows]:
From the very beginning the resolve towards enlightenment should be generated
because it is the foundation for the accomplishment of benefit for both oneself and
others. Then comes spiritual practice in regard to [the six perfections], beginninl with
generosity, which conforms with50 the generation of the resolve, and, on account of
which, one is recognized51 as a bodhisattva. After that, as the result of continual
practice throughout immeasurable aeons52 aDd in order to purify one's mental disposition through the collection of the accumulations of merit and direct intuition, the path of
vision, which has the nature of the absence of error, should be generated as the counteragent to error in regard to the personal entity and the dharmas. Then the path of
meditative development which is characterized by the separation from obscuration
should be followed to its culminating point in order to bring about the possession of a
Y77

special purity53. 'Then, all the mundane and supramundane roots of the wholesome
should, as they are collected, be transformed into enlightenment through application
that transcends that of the

Sr.vaka etc. 1ben, one who has arrived in this condition has

no fea,s4 in regard to the profound and sublime explanations of the Buddha and Ihe

bodhisattvas because he is mentally disposed towards universal enlightenmentS5 .

49

s.

The rendering above is on the buil of the Tib. which is difficult to reconcile with the Sanskrit
portion: yllli rUg p6r 'dzin 1M 11 sogs pa II s,nll pa dM1 nm III sogs pa II s,nb pa ni yIli thg par
'dzin ptJ 11 lOIS pa manu kyi s,nll pa
tha dad do (D22SL6). A possible Sanskrit IeCOnstruC1ion would be: samldlaldy'VIIlI(2IIJI dhftyldy.varapllJl CI samIdIIIldy'VIf'IIIIIJII bItinlJaIp
Cl.

SO
SI
S2

S3
S4
SS

Read: cittotpldlnurflpl as per Ms.(21b.4) in place of cittofpldllJllJurflpl.


Read pertlPl: laJqyate in place of IlbhY11e; Tib. mrtoa (D22Sb.2). Ms.(21b.4): a-.
Read: ~yeylbhylSltin place of 'wpihyeyabJpetJlbhyutalJ; Tib. bsbl ba.,ads"
par IOlItS par bya (D22Sb.2). ct. Y27.S.
Read pedIapI: -YQlabm(JlYI in place of -Mirth. . Tib. dM1/d11J". bYI IM1 p.yir<D22'it.3}.
Read: lJOttIaSyati IS per Ms.(21b.6) in place of IJlIrUYati, and disrealfti Y's fn.2 p.77.
Ms.(21b.6): nubl. ..yIiaYltvld with three or possibly four syUables missina: Tib. by. chub
chea por bum r-r mi byetI pu (D22Sb.4). The SCIIIC of the passqe demIndI dial the neaalive
participle of the Tib. be dropped as noted by Y's tn.l p.77.

99

Then, one who is endowed with much leamings6 and undentanding teaches the sublime Dharma for the purpose of brin~ng sentient beings to full maturation. After that,
it is said that one attains mastery, i.e. Buddhahood, when those to be trained are
brought to full maturation in order to liberate them.
[4] Here the obscurations are stated as thirty, but only ten qualities to be obscured [are

stated] beginning with vinue, hence he asks: which obscuratioD. arc to be


known a. being pertinent to eacA of these [qualities] beginning with
virtue?
11.10 ab

The

obscurations

that

pertain

to

these [qualities] are to be known in


groups of threeS 7 ;
In the above, the three obscuration. [to the wholesome] are: Ca) lack of
application, i.e. lack of enterprise. What is the obscuration in this context? One
does not apply oneself on account of any moral defilement, whether it be carelessness
or laziness. Or else, one does not apply oneself to that particular condition, whether it
be undefined or defiled, that possesses the 'seed' of moral defilement. It is described as
the lack of application since one does not apply oneself continually

Of

respectfully

because [one's application] is insignificant but not because of an absence of application,


because if the latter were the case there would be no possibility of obscuration. Cb)
Application in relard to unworthy objectas8 Scriptural works, which are the
'doorway' (dvlra) to the origination of enlightenment and the roots of the wholesome
which bring about enlightenment, are worthy objects (Iyatana). Something other than
the latter is an unworthy object (an'yatana). Application in regard to the latter is appli-

cation in regard to an unworthy object", i.e. in regard to objects other [than worthy
objects]. What is the obscuration here? The nescience or moral defilement that
consists in wrong view on account of which one applies oneself to an unworthy object
as well as that application is the obscuration.

(c) Superfici" application.

expedient60 is something fundamental (yOlU); application that is contrarywise


Y78

to

An
what-

ever expedient one poescsses is superficial (ayoniiafJ) application61 It is \Dentioned in


this very scriptural instruction, namely:
For one who counes in passion, the meditative development of friendliness
is not an expedient for the relinquishment of passion, [likewise] the meditative

.56
.57

58
59
60
61

Re8d: blbuirutya in pla:e of bllhuiruta; TIb. mat du tho6 p& Ms.(21b.6): blhu-
Rud: rrf);Ji rrf);Ji ca .,.". jiJeyltJy Iv~1rIi hi in place of f1f{ri ~ vijlleylrli
Ivata(J1ni
hi; ct. a_a N30.12.
Ms.(22a.2): .".,.". which ba been conectcd in die Ms. mqin ID ady"&
Rud: Dly.,."...",.a as per Ms.(22a.2) in place of 'nly.,., JDY06&
Ms.(22a.3): uplyo; disrqlld Y'I fn.7 p.77.
Ms.(22a.3): -prayD60 DiyotJiiaJ:t but Y's emendaIion to playtJfO 'yoDiiaJ:t is pnferred; cf. his
tn.l p.78.
.

,.Im

100

development of the impure62 is [not an expedient for the relinquishment of


repugnance] for one who courses in repugnance.
Here too, supemcial mental attention or application which has that for its cause is an
obscuration.
[5] The three [obscurations] to enlightenment. ; enlightenment consists in an
understanding that is in accord with its object.

. .. are: (a> the non-arising of the

wholesome, which has already been discussed.


obscuration?

How can its non-arising be an

When the wholesome does not exist there can be no enlightenment,

hence the non-arising of the wholesome is an obscuration to enlightenment. Alternatively, that moral defilement or particular state which is an obscuration to the arising of
the wholesome 63 is also [an obscuration] to enlightenment. for that which is an obscuration to the accumulations [of merit and direct intuition] is certainly also [an obscuration] to its result. (b) Lack of mental attention, is [equivalent to] the lack of the
meditative development of [wholesome elements] that have already arisen; what is
meant is: they are not augmented64 Even though wholesome [elements] are produced
in a particular state, one is not mentally attentive time and again6S on account of moral
defilement such as laziness.
mulations.

This is the obscuration here.

(c) Incomplete accu-

Enlightenment is attained through a certain amount of accumulations.

While the accumulations of merit and direct intuition are incomplete one abides in a
morally defiled condition like before, or else, one has scanty accumulations. However,
another believes that although no distinction is made here, non-arising is intended just
as [an obscuration]66 to those clements conducive to penetration and not to othels.
Also, there can be a lack of mental attention to those [elements conducive to peneuation] that have arisen, although one is being mentally attentive; the non-accumulation of
what has been accumulated [on account of that] is described as an obscuration.
[6]

Complete acceptance refera to the leneration of the re.olve for

enliptenment.

Complete acceptance coaaists in the generation of the resolve for

enlightenment since the accumulations of merit and direct intuition, in their entirety, and
the result of these, i.e. Buddhahood, are to be completely accepted and possessed on
account of the fact that they should cause all sentient beings67 to be establi:;ru:ct in tit,
most excellent nirvlpa realm devoid of the remnants of existence by means oi this
62
63

64
6S
66
67

Ms.(22a.4): -aubhlbh.vmeti but Y's emendation to -aubMbh.vllJeti is preferred; ct. his fnol
p.7S.
Tib. is sliahdy different: yad n. IDu sbbI tyi bye ,.., Ii tshe die ba 1. stye b. 11 sgrib pa1
dOD modi pa gad yin pa (0226&.S-6); ....moral defilement which is an obscuration to the
arising of the wholesome in a particul. swe... .
Read: IV/ll'dhIlJllll iti ill place of lIJupekJi; Tib. spel bar mi byed eel by. ba (D226a.6).
Read: ~ pun,.. per Ms.(22a.6) in place of pllDUpWlyetU; disrealnl Y's fn.4 p.7S.
Tib. insens agnIJ pa (D226b.1) which is not found ill the Ms.
This pasaae is problcmalical. The above renderina is considered Ihe most coherent of lDIIJy
possible interpreWions IIId necessitates the emencluion of sarvUlttvIl to ,arvUlnv'lfJi: It
~hould also be noted ~ wnldey'qJ ~yqJ c.. is not found in the Ms. but has been
insenIId by Yon the
of ~ Tib.: d. his fn.6 p.7S.

_II

101

[resolve for enlightenment]. Furthermore, this consists in the mental disposition to


perform acts of welfare for oneself and others, i.e., it is volition accompanied by willY79

power.

The three [obscurations] to the latter are u

: (a) deprivation of

spiritual lineage; i.e. not having a spiritual lineage or belonging to the spiritual
lineage of the srJvaka etc. (b) Deprivation of good friends; i.e., although one
belongs to a spiritual lineage, one does not meet with those who inspire the generation
of the resolve for enlightenment69 j or else, on account of these [people], one turns
away from enlightenment, or is not strengthened by the wholesome dharmas. Even
when one meets with good friends, there is (c) mental euaustion70

on account

of the sufferings of saqJsJra the anxious minds of those who have wrong insight
aspire for parinirvJpa as soon as possible. What are the obscurations here? (a> A
defect in causes [i.e. gotra], (b) a defect in conditions [i.e. blY'pamitra], (c) lack of
compassion for sentient beings71 or (d) laziness, since

ODt

who lacks compassion for

sentient beings is either exhausted or is lazy.


[7] Intelligence 72 refen to the bodbi..ttn state, for they

are suited to the

careful consideration, in every respect, of all that is to be known, because, in comparison to those who belong to the spiritual lineage of the sr.vaka etc)3, they naturally
halfe keen faculties. And it is just the bodhisanva who possesses intelligence because
of his firm conviction in the profound and sublime Dharma; others do not.

The

bodhisattva SUite consists in spiritual practice that is not enoneously inverted for the
benefit of otbers74 . (a> Deprivation of spiritual practiceH ; i.e. one does not
engage in [the practice of] the [six] perfections etc., for, one who is 'situated in'
spiritual practice76 is known as a bodhisattva. (b) Stupid people are [equivalent
to) foolish people77 ; what is meant is: people who do not investigate [phenomena]

because, stupid people do not know that a particular person is a bodhisattva even
though he is occupied with spiritual practice7S (c) Pemicioul people are those
who bear ill willi i.e. t.hop who bear enmity towards bodhisattvas. These people

68
69
70
71
72
73

74
75
76
77
78

Read: tuy. trftJi (IVIIa(IIaI) in place of tmI~ tri$U; cf. Bhl$ya N30.1S.
Rud: bodbet'aa per Ms.(22b.2) in place of bodbir, TIb. by. chub 1M (D226b.5).
Read: parikbedM:jttatJ in place ci~ ct. BhI$yaN30.16.
Ms.(22b.3): JattvfllU; disrqa'd Y's m.l p.79.
Read: db1maItvazp in place of dbImattI; cf. BhI$y. N30.17.
Read: irlvakJdigotraUlJllp in pllce of irlvatJdj6Qll'ibbyar, TIb. JfaD thai 1. SOlS pal ri6J CBlJ
mams pu (D226b.7).
Read: bocthisattv.t1viparyutl PBIItthaIntipattifl in piKe of the MI. ~ of: bodbisattv.t1
'viJRllYutatl parlrtbaparlpratip.~ (22b.4); Tib. 6yad chub HIllS dpa' /lid ni pan gyi doD
phyiD ci nIB 106 par spb pao (D227Ll).
Ms.(22b.4): pnd,.". QidbUl)'BIJI but Bh..,. (N30.18): pntiplllivaidhUl)'Blll.
Read: pndpattistbo hi bodhiuttvo jiJly." in ~ of~t!Pattivrtto hi bodbis.ttvo jiJeyalr,
TIh. spb pa I. gIlU pa ni by. chub sems ... _", (DZZ7L2).
Read: bjana mtllti.jlllJalJ in place of bj tv mll(jb~.,..; cf. BhI$Y. N30.19.
Read (willl de JOIII): bodhisaltvo yam id najllJlfe in pllce of bodhiuttvopamiWJJ; Ms.(22b.5)
SubSlID1iaees lhis

radin,.

102
fail to see the real virtues of a bodhisattva because they seek79 his point of vulnerability. Having concealed the real virtues (of the bodhisattva] they promulgate nonexistent faults after superimposing the latter upon the former because they see nonexistent faults or have harmful thoughts on account of enmity. What is the obscuration
here?

<a) That which is adverse to the [six] perfections such as generosity, (b)

nescience and <c) dislike.


[8] The three [obscurations] to absence of error... ; error is on account of
superimposition and negation 80 ; its counteragent is the absence of error and is
[equivalent t01 the path of vision; ... re: (.) the disquiet of erroneous inversions. Some believe that this refers to the maturation81 0f the latent impresf;;ons of
Y80

notional attachment to the apprehended object and apprehending subject.

Others

believe it refers to the maturation of the 'seeds' lodged in the store-consciousness of: (a)
all propensities that are to be abandoned by means of [the path of] vision, or (b) undefiled nescience which is an impediment to 82 the facility for an understanding 83 of the
all-pervading dharmadhltu.

O~ers

believe that erroneous inversion refers to the

conceptual notion of the self etc. in regard to the absence of self etc. (b) Whatever
remainl from the three obscur.tionl luch .s moral defilement84 . Therein,
obscuration that consists in moral defilement is the moral defilement such as passion
which manifests intensely and for a long time; it is an obscuration to the absence of
error because there is no opportunity for the application of the counteragent to it.
Obscuration that consists in karma is the karma that brings an immediate result etc. and
which leads necessarily8S to unfonunate states of existence. Obscuration that consists
in the karma-result is the unfortunate state of existence etc. and one who is born therein
does not have the good fortune of the arising of the noble Dharma. Moreover, whatever is left as a remainder from these [three], i.e. moral defilement, karma and rebirth,
are obscurations but they are definitely not the entire [obscurationsJ S6 (c) The nOIlmaturation of the wisdom which bringl Iiber.tion to fruition S7 ; this refers
to the fact that the wisdom which brings about liberation is ineffective. Some believe

79

80
81
82
83

Read: to hi randhrlnve$itvld bodhisattvasya bhDtln gupln na pasyanti in place of te hi


randhrlnvayitvalf/ bodhisattvasya bhDtln gupln na pasyati; Ms.(22b.S): te hi randhrlnv~itv...
Tib. de dll& gJags tshol bas byan chub sems dpa'i yon tan yan dsg pa mams ni mi mthori la
(0227a.3).
Ms.(22b.6) line ends: .dhylroplpnvldsbhrlnti- but Y's emendation to adhylroplpavldld
bhrlnti~ is preferred on !he basIS of !he Tib.; cf. Y's fn.4 p.79.
Ms.(22b.7): -PU$Pr. disregard V's fn.S p.79.
Read (wi!h de Jong p.II4): -pratibandhasy. in place of pratibaddhasya; Tib. gegs su gyur pa
(D2271.6).
Read: -pratipiJdan.- in place of -bodhll- (Y80.I); Ms.(22b.7): -dharml. ..prati... Tib. thori du
chud pill' bya bll (02271.6).

84
8S
86
87

Read: tleSldy'v.lI1)atllyld in place of tleSldy'vBTII{JInIlfl tlIylnltp; cf. BhlSya N30.20.


Ms.(23a.l): niysrnatalf/ but Y's emendation to niyanwllup is preferred; Tib. ries pa (0227b.l).
Read perhaps: na punalJ Jqtsnlny eyed in place of n. puna~ Iqtsnam; Tib. zad par ni rna yin no
(D227b.2). Ms.(23a.2): na punalJ... nyev,ti wi!h two syllables missing.
Rt;!id: vimu1ctiparipficinyll1 prajifly' in place of vimu1ctiparipJcanaparijifl,1; cr, Phl$ya N30.21.

103

that this is because of the failure to attain the condition conducive to Pf;netration. However, others say that there are two [types] of wisdom in this regard which bring
liberation to fruition: (a) absence of conceptual differentiation and (b) the application of
the latter8 8 . The non-maturation of both of these, which respectively consists in an
incapacity concerning the understanding of reality and an incapacity concerning the
state that causes the latter8 9 , is due to the fact that the accumulations are incomplete.
What are the obscurations here? (a) TIle maturation of the latent impressions of moral
defilement that are to be abandoned by [the path of] vision90 , (b) whatever remains
from the obscurations such as moral defilement, (c) nescience which is an impediment
to the maturation of wisdom and (d) the non-completion of the accumulations.
[9]

Absence of obscuration is [equivalent to) the relinquishment of

obscuration.

It is the relinquishment of obscuration since obscuration is relin-

quished on account of it. The absence of obscuration consists in the path of meditative
development because this is the counte ra gent to obscuration.
Y81

[oblcurationa) to the latter ue: Ca) innate dilquiet.

The

three

This refers to the

propensity for moral defilement that is to be abandoned by meditative dev;:lopment.


Alternatively, this refers to the maturation of the 'seeds' that are lodged91 in the storeconsciousness, of: (a) the innate [elements] such as the false view of self and (b) undefiled nescience92 which is an impediment til the penetration of the highest meaning of
the dharmadhltu etc 93 . (b) Lazine'l is [equivalent to] slothfulness; this refers to the

lethargy of mind that has delusion for a component94 . Cc) Carelellnesl consists in
both an excessive attachment to sense-objects and an inattentiveness in regard to the
wholesome. Some believe that carelessness here refers to the savouring95 of meditative
concentration. Due to disquiet and laziness in this respect, the path is not cultivated

88
89

90
91

92
93
94

95

Read: r.tprfyogikl as per Ms.(23a.3) in place of talpllyo,ikJ.


tadJlplllipd-; Tib. de'i rgyu- (D227b.4). Cf. MSA XI.9.
Read: darimaheylkleilvlsll1JlpMipu,titI in place of dsrSlIJaheylkleiasya pUlravlsan'; Tib.
mthod bas splli bar bya ba'i lIon mods PI'i bag chags btW pa (D227b.S). Cf. Y79.24 0227a.5.
Read: -sllfUJivilrabljaparipo,~ in place of -saquUvi,rllP paripulrabljlm. Although the
Ms.(23a.5) substantiates Y's reconstruction. the Tib. ( ...sa boD ...pas PI yods su gsos pi
0227b.7) which is identical to a near parallel J)wage on a previous pile (Y80ol-3 - 0227a.67), sugests the same Sanskrit construction as found in that passage.
IjifllWya (mi ia pa") is found in 0 COIIlI'II'y to Y's fnol p.81.
Read: dhamudh'tor utbqlrthJdi- in place of dhannldh,tuprllrhlrthldi-; Ms. (23 a.5):
dbarmadhlto. ...nhIdi; Tib. chos kyi dbyids mcb06 Ii doD 11 sags PI (D227b.7).
Read: busldyam llasyo mohllpiihi cetMO Dlbhyutslh~ in place of busldyaIp moblIpiiW
Mayle citWp n,bhyutsahate; Tib. Ie 10 Di sifom lIS te ,Ii mul Ii char grogs pas selfll mdoD
par mi sptO bl (0228a.l). Cf. T-BhI$Y. (L31.32): klusldyllP kuille cewo Dlbhyuts1Jho
vllyI~ I t:uiale HYIVlO~ DidrlplriVilIYllJlSukham "amYI yo mohlIJWhi cet1IIO nabhyutJlhalr, Tib. Ie 10 Di dp bill sellll mdoa par mi SJIlO bl stel bttsoD 'grus
tyi mi mtbUD pa1 pbyogs so II ifal ba dID styes pa dID 'pIua pal bde ba 11 bma DIS,1i mu,
Ii cJw gtOgS pas Ius cUt d daJ yid tyi las die ba II sema mdoa par sptO ba med pi ,ID yilt
pa (0161i3).
Read: IsvldaDb. per MJ.(23a.6} in pIIce of "VIdaIwD an; d. Kola Index p.89. AI noted
by Y in his fn.3 p.81, an is not tnllllared mthe Tib.

104

and due to carelessness the mind is not protected from the unwholesome. What are the
obscuration! hem? These very t.luee.
[10]

The three [obscurations) to transformation 96 on account of which

one's mind is transformed into other model; [and is not transformed into
supreme and perfect enlightenment]97. Transfonnation98 themin mfers to [the transformation] of the roots of the wholesome which have already arisen and is restricted to
[the transformation] by mind into Buddhahood alone. Them are t.luee obscurations to
the latter. Which are these t.luee? Those. on account of which. mind is transformed
into modes 99 other than Buddhahood, i.e. into salfJsJra or the enlightenment of the
srllvakas etc., . and not into supreme and perfect enlightenment.

And these

are: (a) attachment to existence. (b) attachment to enjoyments and (c)


faintheartedness.
priated.

"Existence" refers to the five aggregates that have been appro-

Since they are enjoyed (bhujyante), the sense-objects of form etc. are

"enjoyments"

(bhoga).

"Attachment" is the strong desire for the latter two.

"Faintheartedness" refers to a mind that lacks sublimity; i.e. one has a low opinion of
oneself and thinks: "how can someone like me lOO obtain BuddhahoodT' In mgard to
this. on account of the attachment to existence and the attachment to enjoyments. one's
mind is transformed into a propitious state of existence; however. on account of faintheartedness. the mind is transformed intO the Srllvab vehicle etc. What are the obscurations in this regard? They are: the craving for existence and enjoyments. laziness and
lack of compassion.
[II) The three [obacuntiolll) to lack of fear.

What is this lack of fear? It is a

fearless state that consists in a firm conviction 101 in regard to emptiness and the
profound and sublime Dharma of the Buddha and the bodhisattvas. (a) A low
Y82

opinion of people; i.e. erroneous understandings and statements about people who
proclaim the way of the universal vehicle. or disbelief in the virtues of morality. meditative concentration and wisdom etc.

(b) A lack of firm conviction in the

Dharma; i.e. disbelief concerning the words of the Buddha as expounding a profound
and sublime way and as having meaning that is not erroneously inverted.
Deliberation in accord with the letter

(c)

u regards its meaninl 102 ; i.e. one

understands only the verbatim meaning of 'non-arisen'. 'without cessation' and 'peaceful
from the beginning' etc. but the meaning that is intended in reality is not understood.
96
97

98
99
100
101
102

Read: ~ in place of plli{Jlter, cf. Bbl$ya N30.23.


D inserts the foUowin, elaboration (on uy.tnI) which is not found in the Ms. nor 1': bJ. n.
mIIM yd tU6 JMT rdzogs IM1 by. chub III mj bsdo (02281.2-3).
Read: pmq.tir in place of JMlVJItir, ct. fn.96 above.
Read: IDY.'" in p1xe of 1Dye; Tib.
thJ (0228L3). Ct. Bh~a N30.24.
Ms.(23b.l): mMlvidD; conlrlly to Y's fn.7 p.8t.
Ms.(23b.2): -nDefvalhimuttir, disreaanl Y's fn.9 p.8t.
Read: yllfllnlta- in place of ".dJJiabtWrr, ct. Bhlty. N31.2. Noce: (VI)cImCII cJnbe here, but
BhI$ya vicInqJIrdJe.

,un

lOS

Therefore, there is no firm conviction in regard to the meaning of 'non-arisen' etc.


What

ale

the obscurations here? <a) Doubt and (b) nescience which is adverse to both

wisdom and meditative concentration and is also adverse to a conclusive investigation 103 of the meaning that is intended.
[12] The three [obacurationaJ to lack of avarice...

It is on account of the lack

of avarice that one teaches the Dharma, either for the continued existence of the true
Dhanna, or in order to assist others.

are: (a) lack of enthulium for the true

Dharma; i.e. not holding it dear. It is on account of this that the true Dharma's longlasting existence is not ensured because it is not conveyed to another's mental
continuum.

(b) Enthusiasm for gain and honour and for veneration;

i.e.

holding them dear. One worries that another may be equal or even superior to oneself
concerning enthusiasm for the true Dhanna, and consequently, one does not teach the
Dharma because of fear that gain etc. will be hindered. [Alternatively], although one
does not cling to gain and honour, there is: (c) a lack of compalsion for
sentient beingl; i.e. one does not teach [the Dhanna]l04 due to an absence of compassion for sentient beings because one who lacks compassion is
sufferings of sentient beings. What

&n!

DOt

affected by the

the obscurations here? (a) Lack of enthusiasm,

(b) attachment to gain and honour and (c) lack of compassion.


[13] The three [oblcuutions] to mutery.
Since mastery consists in the
attainment of all kinds of masteries of the mind, mastery is [equivalent to] puddhaY83

hood10!i. But since the three obscurations to the latter &n! not known, he says: on
account of which one faill to obwn106 lupremacy. He states that the obscurations to mastery are

mose on account of which supremacy is not obtained, because

supremacy is dependent upon the mastery of mind. Furthermore, supremacy refers to


excellence in regard to direct intuition, relinquishment and power. Alternatively, by the
statement: ..... those on account of which supremacy is DOt obtained", [supremacy] is
demonstrated as a synonym for masteryl07. What is meant is: Buddhahood lOI is DOt
attained. (a) The lOll of what hu been learnt. [This is equivalent to] the total
separation from hearing the true Dharma in the same way that109 the loss of one's

103

104
lOS

106
107
108
109

Read: -lrtbmitfra(Jl- in place of -JtthlvicJrI{Jl-j Ms.(23b.4): -Inbmitlr... Tib. spyod PI

(D228b.3).

dbanu is omitIed from the Ms nocecl by Y (cf. his fn.4 p.82) but hIS been inscnecl on the

buis of die Tib. (D228b.6).

Read: vlliitv.YI ci~tv.prlptitvltl buddlwvllfl vaiitvlIP in pIKe of vaiitvItJIlJj


sllVefllp ciltlvaiitv""". ptlptir buddbllVlIfI vaiilVam; Tib. dbad ui sems Jr.yi dlMJi mam pi

mInIS cal tbob pal SlUIJY. rJid dbad (D228b.7).


Ms.(23b.7): labbatvl, but Y's emendItion tolabhltl U is prefemd.
Read: vaiilVlpI1Y'yetJI pradariitaql in pIKe of vaiitvapry.ye tJirdilPllr. Tib. dbI/t gi mam
"..,u su bIIU 1M sle (D229a.2).
Ms.(23b.7): YibhulVlIfI but Y's emendation to buddlwvllfl is prefemd on !be buis of the Tib.
sadlrv_1lid (1)2291.2).
Ms.(2.3b.7) is partially !JIeJible but SUbs. UIUWeS. the insenion of tMlyatb. immediately prior 10
~!lbIlir(Y83.6); Tilt. . . bYI'" Ita bu~(D229..3).

106

relatives is [equivalent to) the total sepuation from one's relatives. Furthermore, the
loss of what has been learnt is due to the lrisinl of

.tum. 110 conducive to the

losl of the true lli Dharma; i.e. because they either abide in the attachment to their
own views or they have recourse to people who are not good friends, the SiItras of UIC
universal vehicle are rejected by those who lack remorse saying: .. thes~ words are
spoken by MIra and are the cause of unfortunate states of existence; !hese words are
not spoken by the Buddha", and they deter other people from these [SiItras]. They
efface !he writings, b\W! and submerge them in water and so, in various ways, there is
the arising of karma I12 conducive to the loss of the true Dharma on account of the
maturation of the 'seed' of an individual nature I13 that is deprived of hearing the true
Dharma. [Alternatively), when there is no loss of what has been leamt, (b) learning
little is referred to as an obscuration since the accumulatirms of direct intuition are
incomplete and one who has little learning is unable to analyse the dharmas. And
[alternatively), even if one has much learning, (c) lack of the necessary preparation for meditative concenuation I14 is referred to as an obscuration. The lack
of the necessary preparation for meditative concentration is due to: (a) the absence of
any of [the qualities) beginning with will-power, or (b) the DOn-completion of meditative development llS because of the absence of any of the eight formative forces that
facilitate relinquishmem. Alternatively, the lack of necessary preparation refers to the
non-perfection of the Buddha's meditative concentrations such as the Vajra-like
[f:oncentration] 116. What are obscurations here? Tbey are: (a) karma conducive to the

bss of the Dharma, (b) learning little, (c) weakness in wisdom and (d) the secondary
defilements that are adverse to meditative concentration such al spiritual indifference

and reldeslness.

b. The Ten [Instrumental] Cause1117


Punhermore, thele oblcurationl in <''Olarcl to virtue etc. should be

N31. 9

known accordinl to

110
III
112
113
114
115
116
117

the

influ,nce of each

[relp,cQve)

catelory. in

Read: -bmuplablJa.... ill place fA kmnotpuDId bbar";; cr. BhI$)'a N31.6.


lJ.Jis omiaed from both die TIb. 'J1U IDd ~L
Read: -bmupnbluvUIIJJ in place of -brmotpMlyarr, Tib. las I'IIb tu dye (D229LSl. Cf.
BhI$)'a N31.6.
.tmabb'va but TIb.: 1M sbouId probably read lUi (D229L5) and Y's fn.S p.83 CID be disrealRled
siDee Ms.(2-4a.3) : padpufplltL
Reid: 1JIIDIdfw.."arm;,..".cainpiaceof samldlwclpatibtmir.tvUIJ;cf. BhI$yaN3I.6.
Read: ~NDlyi in pllce of Ms. readina of bh.vu'yItp (24L4): TIb. bl60m 1M YOlJ6 au ma

nfzop IM'i pbyir(D229L7).


Read: vajqwnlrfrnlm. pel'Ms.(2-4a.4) in place of ~
TbeIe same dllillklnilJDj ate lisIIcI in AS (Pl8.12) wherda..,.m is defiDer1 as the -own-beina
of die euIe" (blNulvabhlva).

107

relation to which there are ten [inltrumental] caulel. The ten caulel
are: (a) The caule for origination; for example. the eye. etc. [are the
cause] for eye-conlcioulnel.. (b) The caule for continued exiltence;
for example. the four typel of food [are the caule for the continued
existence] of lIentient beings. (c) "Th. cau.e for support refers to that

which ill the foundation of lIomethin,: for example, the inanimate world
[is the cause for the support] of the world of lentient beings. (d) The
cauae for menifestation; for example. light [il the caul. for the manifestation] of form.
(e) The caul. for modification; for example. fire
etc. [is the cause for the modification] co! ct~(Jked food etc.
(f) The
caule for disjunction; for example. th" scyth. [il the cau.e for the disjunction] of that which i. to b. In.red. (I) Tbe cau.e for tranlfor-

N32

mation; for exampl:. a lold-Imilh etc. [i. the caule for tbe tra~lfor
mation] of sold etc. when it il tranlformed into thing. Iucb as
bracelets. (b) The eaule for a belief; for eumple. Imoke etc. [il the
caule for the belief that there i.] fire etc. (i) The caule for making
[otherl] believe; for example. tbe 10lical realon [il the caule for
making (others) believ.] in a premi... (j) The caule for attainment; for
example. the path etc. [il tho cause for tho attainment] of lJirY'pa etc.
Thu. the oblcuration to orilination i. to bo reaarded [al an oblcuration] to virtu. becaule oJf the necellity for the oriaination of the
latter.
The oblcuration to continued exiltonco i. [an oblcuration] to
enlightenment becaule of the un.bakability of the latter. Tho ob.curation to IUPPOrt i. [an ob.curation] to complete acceptalJco becau.o the
latter il tho foundation of tho re.olve for enlishtenment. The ob.curation to manifeltation i. [an oblcuration] to th. po ion of intelligen;:e b.cau.e of th. nece.lity for the promulsation of th. latter. The
ob.curation to modificatiou i. [an ob.curation] to the ab.ence of error
because the latter cbanle. into the rev.rse of error. Th. oblcuration to
di.junction il [an ob.curation) to the ab nce of oblcuration becaule
th. latter i. [equivalent to] .eparation from obscuration. Tbe ob.curation to traDl!ormation i. [an ob.curation] to devolopmeDt bocau.e the
latter i. cbaracterized by the traDlformation of mind into enlightenm.nt.
The obscuration to belief i. [an oblcuration] to lack of fear because fear
i. due to di.belief. Tbe oblcuration to makins [others] believ. i. {an
ob.curation] to lack of avarice bocau.e other. are made to beliove on
account of lack of avarice in relard to the DbarmL The obacuration to
attainment i. [an ob.curation] to ma.tery bocau.e the latter i. characterized by the attainment of .upremacy.

108

ID regard to origiDatioD, cODtiDued


exhteDce,

support,

modificatioD,
matioD,

manifestation,

disjuDctioD,

belief,

traDsfor-

making

believe aDd attaiDment,

[others]

the

causes

are teDfold.
The example I of these begiD with the

eyes,

food,

the

grouDd,

light and

fire;
The remaiDder begiD with the scythe,
a craftsman, Imoke, the logical cause
and the path.
ll8Now, from the very begiDDiDI. OD account of the desire to attaiD
enlighteDmeDt. the root of the wholelome should be geDerated.

Then,

by eDleDderiDg the force of the root of the wholesome. enlightenmeDt


should be attaiDed.
suppon for

the

Moreover, the relolve towardl enlightenmeDt is the

oriliDation of the

root of the

wholelome.

The

IIodbi .. ttn is the [phYlical] balil of that relolve towardl enlighteDmeDt.


Moreover, ia order to reliDquilh l19 errODeOUI inversio~. the

ableDco of erroDeoul iDversioD il to be leDerated by the bodbiuttva


who ha ..cured the cDleDderiDI of the force of the root of the wholelome and who hal lenented the relolve towardl enlilhtenmeDt.

Then,

all oblcuration should be relinquilhed on the path of meditative development on account of the ablenco of erroneoul invenioD 120 on the path of
vilion and all the rootl of the wbolelome Ihould be traDlformed into
lupreme aDd perfect enlilhtenment owinl to the reliDquishment ()f
oblcuration.

Then. by enlenderinl the force I of transformation, there

should be IlO fear in relard to the profound and sublime Dharma teachiDgl.

Thul, thele Dhlrma Ibould be revealed to othen in full detail by

one wbole mind il devoid of fear and wbo leel the vinuel of thc
Dharma.
N33

Pollowiol that. the IIodllittn who hal secured the eDleD-

derin. of the forcel of the vanoUl vinuel iD thil wly loon arrivel at
lupreme aDd perfect eDlilhtenment. baviDI acquired maltery over aU

118
119
120

NaclO luaesll tbat the folJowin. parqnph of die Bhl$yl (N32.11 to 33.2) could well be a
Jater interpOlatioa peculiU' to the Bhl$ya because it receives no commeat by Stbiramali. Cf.
his fn.6 p.3l.
Read: pn/IJ{II~ in place of pnbly. 011 !be bail ohho Tib. split lid phyir(D8L7}. Cf. N'I
fn.9 p.3l.
Read: 'viJWYIMg in pIKe of 'viPI6Y- 011 die basis of die Tib. phyilJ d JIll q ~ (D8L7).
Cf. N's m.ll p.32.

109

db.rm...

This il the sequeatial order of [the develop meat of the

categories) beginniag with virtue.


[Sthiramati]
Y84

[lJ Furthermore. these obscuratioal begiaaing with lack of application in


regard to virtue etc., i.e. in regard to the tenfold categories concluding with
supremacy, [should be known accordiag to the influeace of each respective category), ia relatioa to which there are ten [instrumeatal] causes l2l ,
i.e. in relation to each category122, beginning with origination and concluding with
attainment, there are ten causes, beginning with application 123 and concluding with the
necessary preparation for meditative concentration, because they are contrary to those
obscurations. And although they are individually differentiated here. this explanation
does not differentiate [i.e. it designates them all as causes) because no distinction is
made concerning causality in regard to originaticn and the other [nine].

Acco~ding

to the iatlueace of each [relpective) catelory; what is meant is: according to

the predominance of the category. such as originatioa. For. whea there is an obstruction to the cause of the origination etc. of these [categories] such as vinue. it is
described as an obscuration to origination etc. For example, something, such as a wall
which obscures light is described

II

an obscuration to eye-consciousness which is the

effect of that [light]. In this way, thiny [instrumental] causes are explaioed 124 as the
reverse of the thiny oblClUlllioDl thu penain to these ten dhumas [i.e. vinue etc.].
[2] In thil respect, (a) the three cau... for die oriliaatioa of vinue are: applica
tion. application ia relard to worthy objects and proper application.

me

Here now he

For the eyes etc. are just causes


for the origination of consciousoeu. they do DOt cause continued existence etc.l 2S
'Therein, lack of application etc. il an immediate obstruction to application etc.l 26 and
provides an example: for eumple,

eJ" etc.

indirectly, il an impediment to the origination of vinue too, on accoUDt of their mutual


relationship,

thu. the ob.curatioa to oriliaatioa i. an oblcuratioa to

virtue, hence he says: because of the Dece.lity for the origiaation of the
latter. He

shoWI

that thil is just an obscuration to origination because there is

DO

pouibility of collliaued existence in reprd to virtue [if it has not originated).


(3) (b) The caue for CODbll1Uld eailteace il ia relatioa to ealightenment.

The tumiDg about of the basis is [equivalent to) eDlightenment which has thusness.

121

122

123
124
1~

126

110

devoid of stain. for its basis 127 . Here he gives the reason: because of ita unshakability.

It is unshakable because it remains for the duration of the world; it cannot

become otherwise nor can it cease. However, the enlightenment of the

srAvaka etc.

ceases after having accomplished its aim in his own mental c-;,ntinuum.
Y85

The

bodhisattvas who with their superior mental disposition which consists in the
provision of welfare and happiness for all sentient beings are engaged in accumulations, vow to remain [in the world] up until such time as there is the enlightenment
characterized by the turning about of the basis for [all] sentient beings128 ; but not for

the sake of mere non-rebirth, like the srJvuas etc. 129 Moreover, since there can be no
continued existence without origination130, origination is also [applicable] here. Therefore, just

L~e

cause for the continued existence of enlightenment is mentioned, not the

cause for origination. And since, there is no other cause for continued existence apart
from this, consequently, only the latter is mentioned. Alternatively, enlightenment is
[equivalent to] pure thusness and thus ness does not originate because it has purity for
its own-being. On the contrary, only continued existence is positively mentioned by
way of these causes because of the absence of adventitious stain; origination is not
[mentioned]. Furthermore. the causes for the continued existence of enlightenment131

are: (a) the production of the roots l32 of the wholesome. (b) mental attention and (c)
accumulations that are complete. ADd while such things as the non-origination of
viltUe are hindrances herein to the ariSing of the wholeso&le etc.; since they impair the
continued existence 133 of enlightenment, they are described as obscurations to its
continued existence.

(b) The cause for continued exiltenco 134 ; here he gives an

example: for example. the four ty~1 of food [are the caule for the CODtinued exilteDce] of leDtieDt beiDI"

for

DO

new sentient beiDgS are brought

into existence by means of the [four] foods such as morsel food l3". whereas those who
have already come into existence are certainly maiDtained136

[4] The caule for Ivppon refen to...

The support is the resolve towards

enlightelJl1leDt because it is the foundatiOD for all wholesome dlwmas. Here now is an

129

Read perhaps: 1in~V(ttir nimWmtbatJinyl ~ u per Ms.(24b.2). conttary to Y's


fn.4 p.84. in place of tinyaparlfJffir bodIJitJ IliRyo tJinJJmWhatl although this reading is in
agreement with die TIb.: b,.t chub iii lUI iYUT PlOII de biW ifid dri IIY mI PI ni gnM paa
(D229b.7 - 23Oa.1) - "ne IUnlin& about of the buis is (equivalent to] enli&hrmment; the
buis is dIusDeIs wbicb is devoid of staiD-.
Read: uavInI/JJ flvad avutiJJtwJJ pndadbati in place of sattv.. flvad avatiJlhltlty ucyate;
Tab. semi caa ji Slid PI de Slid du " . PI' SDIDlJ fa (P68b.1); D: semi for umr c:s (230a.2).
Ru:I: aDurpanimJtrlnbaJP irlvlkJdjv. ill place of mutpartiDdnttrlc cluivaUdivat; Ms.

130
131
132
133

(24b.4): -III1P irlvabdlv.. O. Y's fiLl p.IS.


Read: utpatty. vial u per MI,(24b.4) in place of utpdiJp viDI.
Ms.(1Ab.S): bodbe(r; diIreprd Y"s fn.1 p.IS.
Ms.(24b.5) omits mala which is inIeneIl on die basis of the Tib. (ns.t N); cf. D230a.S.
Read (with de Jonl p.114): stlJitivipJtalp which apes with Ms.(24b.6} in place of ,tlJiti-

127

128

134
13S
136

Tib. iDIens sthitiHra(wp wbich is not fOUDd in the Ms.


Read: hva(IJJ:JrIdibb. per Ms.(2Ab.6} in pllce of and ..:J; ..4ibbir; d. Mvy.l2284.
Read perbIps: ,tlJlpymr. in place of \I}'anIA"IIpyar.; Tab.. ,., J1IIr byed PI (Dl3Oa.6).

111

example: whatever is the foundation of somethin, is indeed its suppon 137 ,


considering that it is supported by this.

'Por example, the inanimate world is

[the cause for the support] of the world of sentient beingsl38. The causes
for this [suppon] are: (a> the spiritual lineage, (b) being endowed with good friends
and (c> the absence of mental exhaustion. The deprivation of a spiritual lineage etc. is
also mentioned herein as an obscuration to suppon because it is at odds with the cause
for suppon, hence he says: the obscuration to support is [an obscuration] to
complete acceptance because the latter is the foundation of the resolve
for enlightenment.
Y86

[5] The cause for manifestation is in relation to the possession of intelli-

gence; because of the necessity for its promulgation by the bodhisattva. Moreover,
this refers to: (a> success in spiritual practice, (b) living with suitable people and (c>
living with people who are not intent upon hann 139 Since they are impediments to the
cause for the manifestation of intelligence, the deprivation of spiritual pra.:tice
like herein are described as obscurations to manifestation. Hence he says: ti
ration to manifestation il [an obscuration] to the possellion .)f

ann. the
ll':~
inte'~i

gence becaule of the necellity for tbe promulgation of the latter.


now is an example: for example, ligbt il [the cause for the manifest... .1:
of form l40 ; for sight141 is the cause for the manifestation of form alone, it is not ti'!'!
cause for origination and the like.
[6] The caule for modification is in relation to the absence of error.

Because it bu the nature of the revene of the erron of imputation and


negation, the absence of error, which is [equivalent to] the path of vision, is described
as a modification of error142. For example, ash etc. [is a modification] of wood etc.
The three causes of this are: (a) the eradication of disquiet that consists in erroneous

inversion, (b) the absence of the three obscurations such as moral defilement and (c)
the maturation of the wisdom which brinp liberation to fruition. Por example, fire
etc. [il the cause for the modification] of cooked food etc.

For eatables

such as boiled rice are different from uncooked rice etc., but belong to their series. The
cause of the latter is fire etc.

137
138
139

140
141
142

Read: yad yuyldhlR"abhataqr lat laya dIqtitJ as per Ms.(24b.7) in place of yady
u~ tMrI tat ,.ya dJqtilr; d. also Bhlty. N31.12.
Ms.(24b.7): Jattvaloblye-; disre&1Id Y's tiL7 p.8S.
~~~'lf:=-S~ place of rudrllcitu-; TIb .dye bo 61JOd par mi Jams 1M (D23Ob.2).
Ilead: UId yadJl 110m rflpuya in place of UId yatbl rflpuylvablJlA; cf. Bhltya N31.14.
Read: Iloto in place of anMllo; d. ibid.
Read: abhrllJtir dari4lWllllJO bhrIDw VJloIra UC}'118 U per Ms.(2Sa.3) in place of abhrllJtir
thri4lWllllJ~ I abhrlDw vilcInIuc".,.. TIle ...... radiD& is baed on !he TIb. which seems
confused: 'lluul 1M med Di mritod ba'i lmI mo II 'tJuul 1M med IM'i Dur 1M ia bya b. ,ttl
(D23Ob.5).

112

The cause for disjunction is in relation to the absence of obscuration. The obscuration that remains 143 from obscuration that is to be relinquished by
[7]

means of the path of vision is relinquished on account of this, thus the absence of
obscuration refers to the path of meditative development. The three causes for the latter
are: (a) the eradication of innate disquiet, (b) vigourl44 and (c) the absence of carelessness. Moreover, these are causes for disjunction because they [act as] counteragents to
the cause for non-disjunction.

Hence he says: the obscuration to disjunction is

[an obscuration] to the absence of oblcuration; and this is an obscuration to


just the counteragent for the cause for disjunction.

Here now he gives the reason:

because the latter consists in the leparation from obscuration.

Since one

is separated [from obscuratitm] on account of this, it is described as disjunction.


[8] The cause for transformation is in relation to deveiopment 14S , because
Y87

the latter is characterized by application in regard to the roots of the wholesome, i.e. in
regard to universal elllightenment.

Moreover, this consists in a turning aside from

existence and enjoym-uts and the absence of faintheartedness.

Consequently, the

obscuration to transformation should be regarded as an impediment to the cause for


transformation.

For what reason? Because the latter, i.e. development, il char-

acterized by the tranlformation of mind 146 into universal enlightenment.


[9] The cause for belief i. in relation to lack of fear.

This consists in: (a)

the holding of people in esteem, (b) the firm conviction in the Dharma and (c) the

understanding of the meaning that is intended. Since belief is on account of these


qualities, the obscuntion to belief il (an oblcuntion] to lack of fear l47 ,
since [the latter] is an impediment to the cause for belief. Here now is the reason148 :
because fear il due to dilbelief llecause it is on account of disbelief that one has
fear of the Dharma.
[10J

The caule for makinl [othen] believe i. in relation to lack of

avarice. Moreover, this consists in: (a> enthusiasm for the true Dharma, (b) indifference towards gain and honour and veneration and (c) compassion for sentient beings.
And since it is at odds widt the cause for mal.ting [odtersJ believe, the oblcontion
to makinl [othen] believe is established as [an oblcuration]149 to lack of
avarice.

Here now he provides the reason: becaule othen are made to

believ. ISO on account of lack of avarice in relard to the Dharma.

144

Tib. (D23Ob.7) hal simply lhQ IDa _ for cbepm Iv8'IjWD


Ms.(2SLS) appean 10 read: -op.t6b"ri'JyMJ II noced in Y's fn.2 p.86.

145

Reid: uau in .,lace of par4JIme; cf. BhI$ya N32.2.

146

Ms.(25L7): citta-; disnaud Y's fiLl p.87.


Ms.(25b.l): _ _ disnaanl Y'I fn.2 p.87.
ReId: llniv. iInI(um. per Ms.(2.5b.I) ift pIII:e of llnin.tInr(JMJ Ib
Tib. inIerts ...,. wlUch is omilled from die Ms. (d. D23IL6).

143

147
148
149

ISO

Avarice

ReId:~~iftpllcem~~UIf1ID
ry.,YIIWVId: d. B~ya Nl2.S. Mi.(25b:2):~,.. pan-; disleaanl Y's fn,3 p.87.

113

is created towards the Dharma due to lack of enthusiasm etc. for the true Dharma.
Moreover, one does not teach the Dharma to others because of avarice for the Dharma.
Hence the obscuration to making [othersJ believe is described as [an obscurationJlSI to
lack of avarice.
[llJ The three causes for attainment are 152 : (a) the absence of karma conducive to
the loss of the Dharma. (b) much learning and (c) the necessary preparation for meditative concentration. Loss of what is learnt etc. is established as [an oblcuration] to
mastery because it is at odds with these [causesJ. Here now is the reason: because
the latter, i.e. mastery, il characterized by the attainment of lupremacy.
[12J However, otherll say that the causes for virtue etc. have the following sequential
order.
Y88

A mental continuum that is supported 153 by the wholesome dharmas is

conducive to the attainment of enlightenment; consequendy, virtue is mentioned at the


beginning. Immediately after that, enlightenment is mentioned. Since [the bodhisattvaJ
has the ability to accomplish both of these owing to his resolve for enlightenment and
since his resolve for enlightenment is the support for aU the wholesome dharmas until
[he attainsJ enlightenment, the resolve for enlightenment is then mentioned. When he

has generated the resolve for enlightenment he applies himself to the six perfections as
well as to the avoidance of stupid or pernicious people. In this way his status as a

bodhisattva becomes publicly manifesL

Hence his possession of intelligence is

mentioned immediately after complete acceptanCe. And while applying himself in this
way [the bodhisattvaJ relinquishes erroneous inversion and produces direct intuition
that is not erroneously inverted. Hence the absence of error is mentioned immediately
following the possession of intelligence. Moreover, this consists in the path of vision
because obscuration is relinquished through the practice thereon. Hence, immediatllly
after this, the absence of obscuration is mentioned which consists in the relinquishment
of obscuration. Since the mind of one who is devoid of obscuration is transformed
just into Buddhahood and not into any other [mode of being] because he is not attached
to existence and enjoyments, consequently, development is then mentioned. And thus,
elation arises towards the extremely profound Dhannu of the Buddha on the part of [a

bodhisanva) who has attained such a state of being and since he is devoid of fear, the
lack of fear is then mentioned. In this way, since one who has direct perception of the
Dharma 154 resorts only to those expedients through which he perceives correct
discipline for sentient beinas, how can there be any avarice on his part? Therefore,
immediately after lack of fear, lack of avarice is mentioned. Thus the bodhisattva
151
1.52
1.53
1S4

Tib. imerU .v-.pa whicll is omitted from die Ms. (ct. D231b.l).
Read: ~ IIfIIi klratllIJi in pllce of the Ms. readinl of vaiitvuya IIfIIi klrapllJi (25b.3).
The TIb.tbob 1M'; "red"yu I$um ai (D231b.l) sublWltiales dais reading which conforms
witb the gcnenl pIIIeIIl of SdUnmaIi's qucalion fiom the Bhltya; cf. N31.19.
upambdlJa; the TIb. (D231b.2)
1M. 1M should probably read tie bar bnatJ 1MRaIl: ~II"" in place of dlJ.lrmapral)'~ Tib. cIJOS mdoa sum du our
1M (D231b.7).

lie'"

114

whose obscurations are relinquished and whose virtuous qualities are completc 15S
obtains mastery of mind; hence, mastery is then mentioned. This is the sequential
order.
Y89

[13]

Since this chapter is the section concerning obscuration 1S6 , the causes for the

origination of virtue etc. are not expressed in aphorisms 1S7 [in Maitreya's kmkJs]. like
the obscurations are. However, a summary of the [causes for the origination of virtue
etc.] that have presented themselves in this connection is provided here in verse
form 1S8 .
The CAusel are tenfold in regard to
origination,

continued

existence,

support, manifeltation, modification,


disjunction,

tranlformation,

belief,

making [others] beliove and attainment 1S9


This second verse is for the purpose of summarising the examples:
Tho eumplel of thele begin with tho
OYOI,

food, the Iround 160 , lilht and

fire;
The

remainder

begin

with

the

Icythe 161 , a craftlman, Imok~, the


logical caule and the path.l 62

ISS

Read: plliplltpuukladharmJ as per Ms.(2N.l) in place of pllipaqWukladhmu: "fib. dkar

156

Read: 'vllQlt:lhibn iii in place of '~IUU' iii; Tib. SIfJ"b pa'i sbbs yilI pas (D232a.2).
Read: IVar"a4llVao ". stlifJlJi u per Ms.(26a. t) in place of 'VMa(l1V1l sDtritJlJi; Tib. s6lib 1M
biiD du md mdud pas (0232a.2) wtUch sbouId probIbly be amended to IDI mdud pas.
Read: _ iubbJdIlJJm utpMtiHnl(JJIJy '...a(WI sDtrifJlJi I pt'UI(!.l6ItJ1JJtp tv IlI'I SlOkeD'
svpgnbllJ my as per Ms.(26L2). A1lhoup this ruding IS not in agreement with the "fib.
whicb is the buis for Y's emendation, tile Ms. rudinl is more coberent in tile context. cr.
NIIID'S discussion on this section in !be Inaocluction ID his edition of !be Bb"ya (NIl).
Read: vitJraviil",m.lipratylylpllym.pa,u in place of vitJraviilep{l'lIII inlddbll.IIJ1btJptifu; ct. Bhl$ya N32.8.
Tib. omits bbDj ct. 0232&.3.
Ms.(26a.3): dJIn; disleganl Y's fn.4 p.89.

bo'; cboll mllDl (D232a.l).

157
158

159
160
161
162

D.

Read:

caiJUllbJnbhDdlpavalUJyldiJ ~ I

dltr&iil~6alIdbDmahCJtumJIJJdayo pare /I ct. Bhlua N32.9.


Note: Ms.(26a.3): mill in place of .pan but !be IatIer is prefened on tile buis of the Tib.

,un (D232a.4).

115

4. The Obscurations to the Factors that Contribute


to Enlightenment. the Perfections and the Spiritual
Levels.

Introductory
11.10 cd

N33.4

Furthermore, the other obscurations


arc in regard to: (a> the facton that
contribute [to enlightenment], (b) the
perfections

and

(c>

the

Ipiritual

levela.
[Sthiramati]
[1]

(Vene 11.10 cd il repeated)163

Y89.12

In the above, vinuc and its obscuratioDS were explained without any specific distinction but now he explains virtue according to its differentiation in relation to the factors
that contribute [to enlightenment] and also according to its differentiation as being
common or not common [to all spiriruallineages].

a. Tho ObllCuratioDl to the Factors that Contribute


to Enlightenment.
Now, [the oblcuratioDI]164 tt) Ibe facto,.. tb~~ !;cnnribQ~ to enlight..

N33.6

eDmeDt are:
11.11 abcd

(a) Lack of lkill ID Rgard to the


fouDdatioD, (b) laziDell, (c) the two
deficieDciel iD meditative CODceDtratiOD, (d) DOD-eDleDderiDI, (e) excellive weataell, aDd the defecll of: (f)
falle viOw IDel (,) eli,quiet.

163
164

.YII in the 8_ya (N33.4) is replaced by pUp in die Ms.


Tilt. ~ 'v~(cf. Dlb.3).

116

(a) Lack of skill in regud to the foundation is an obscuration to the


applications of mindfulness.
complete relinquishments.

(b) Laziness is [an obscuration) to the

(c) The two deficiencies in meditative con-

centration are [obscurations) to the batt'ls of psychic power. namely, (i)


[a deficiency]

in compieteness 16S due to defectiveness in either will

power, vigour, mind or examination and (ti) [a deficiency] in meditative


develop;.nent due to defectiveness in the formative forces that facilitate
relinquishment.

(d) The non-engendering of [the elements) conducive

to liberation is [an obscuration) to the faculties.

(e) The excessive

weakness of those faculties is [an obscuration) to the poweR because


of their contamination by adveRo ,siements.

(f) The fault of false view

is [obscuration) to the limbs of enlightenment because they characterize


the path of vision.

(g) The fault of disquiet is [an obscuration) to the

limbs of the path because they are nurtured by the path of meditative
development.
[Sthiramati)
Y89.16

Also the obscurations pertin.,nt to [virtue 166 which consists in] the factors that

[1]

contribl,lte to (enlightenment are explained] according to the differentiation of the latter


as:
11.11 a

(a> Lack of akill in fOaard to the


foundation, (b) lazinelll etc.

Y90

The factors that contribute to enlightenment are common in this respect because both

the srlvaJcu and bodhisattva are entided to them167 without a specific distinction [as
to activity] 161. However, the perfections and the spiritual levels, which consist in the

activity pertinent to the bodhisattvas, are not common [to all] because only the

bodhisattvas have sovereign power over them. Moreover, the obscuration to the result
was previously described by way of the obscuration to the cause of virtue etc.; however, what is other than what was discussed previously is mentioned [now] since it is
the immediate obscuration to the result [that is discussed) here. Alternatively, since
such [qualities] aa the lack

0'

skill in regard to the foundation is indeed different from

the lack of application etc., this difference is discussed. Alternatively, when virtue and
enlightenment [were discussed in the previous section] the lack of application etc. to
conduct and its result, which go together with the expedients of the bodhisattvas alone,
were described as obsc:urations. Here in this section however, by means of an analysis

165

The da(Icta betwem dvayabliJ.1I and",npllryl (N33.10) sbould be omitted, IIld. althouah both
P and D: m. rdzoIs pi (",.nplfryl), Ihe ma sbould be dropped. Cf. Jonl pp.114-S.
Tib. (D232a.S) insertI bI (iublll) whicll is not found in the MI.
Jonl p.1l4): tatrIdlJiklllt which is subltIDtiared by MI.(26a.4) in placa of

de

166
167

:vfU!:.de

168

Tib. (D232L3) insens

b~'" (my' /

kmIIu) which is not fOUDd in the SIDIkrit.

117
of the factors that conttibute to enlightenment etc., the lack: of skill in regard to the
foundation etc. should be understood as an obscuration to vinue, whether common or
not common [to all spiritual lineages], that is different from the lack: of application etc.
Therein, enlightenment is threefold according to its differentiation among the srllvakas
etc. and since they conform with these [three], [those qualities] beginning with the

applications of mindfulness and concluding with the path 169 arc described 170 as the
factors that conttibute to enlightenment. The ten perfections and the ten spiritual levels
[are described] in accordance with the

sntras.

[2] Lack of skill in regud to the foundation is an obscuration to the

applications of mindfulneu.

Moreover, this refers to the four applications of the

mindfulness of: (a) body, (b) sensation, (c) mind and (d) the dharmas. The body,
sensation, mind and the dharmas form the foundation of these [four applications of
mindfulness] because they have these for their object. Therein, the body forms the
foundatiun for notional attachment to a '[physical] basis'. Sensation forms the foundation for notional attachment to the enjoyments that belong to the self. Mind forms the
foundation for notional attachment to the belief in the self. The dharmas l71 form the
foundation for notional attachment to the defilement and purification of the self.
Absence of understanding in regard to the individual and general characteristics of the
body etc. is [equivelent to] lack: of skill in this regard. Therein. the individual characteristic of the body refers to its nature as a composite of many impure substances l72
The [individual characteristic] of sensation refers to its es&ential nature consisting in
pleasure etc.

The [individual characteristic] of consciousness refers to its various

representations as sense-objects. The [individual characteristic] of the dharmas is in


accordance with the context [i.e. pure or impure].

Furthermore, the general charac-

teristic refers to the aspects such as impermanent, painful, empty and not-self. Alternatively, lack: of skill in reaard to the foundation refers either to: (a) lack: of knowledge
in regard to the body etc. in its upec.. u impure, painful, impermanent and without
self, or (b) conceptual differentiation [in reguf to the body etc.] in terms of the aspects
of purity, pleasure, permanence and a self, because nescience or wrong view are
Y91

[respective] obscurations to the applications of mindfulness. [Objection]: If the applications of mindfulness have wisdom and mindfulness for their own-being, why is only
the lack: of skill in regard to the foundation described as an oblCUllltion but not also the

absence of memory in regud to the foundntion? [Response]: Because the activity [of
mindfulness] is dependent upon wisdom;

169

MI.(26a) line 7

(~)"is

170
171
172

:=.-D'

f~)t

thus, since wisdom consists in vision,

u noted by Y in bi$ fnol p.90, but !UI

emen~tion

to

Read: ucyame II per MI.(26L7) in place of ucya..


Read: dlJarmIlI per Ms.(26b.l) ill pIIce of dIIarma; Tib. cboIl'UDII (D232b.S).
Read perb.aps: uek. iu...Cidrav.YIa.'. a. lJI.ba.tI.,muaIVIlIJI in place of.'D.eIc.;uciiUavyeDa
~.tqJ; Tib, mi",.a bldu lIU'inlza au. /M";"" flid~2b.6).

118

mindfulness etc. acts upon an objective support that is anained subsequently to wisdom
but does not exist independently, like wisdom. Th/;refore, the abscnce of memory is
not described as an obscuration in this regard.
[3] Lazincll il [an oblcuration] to the complete relinquishments.

The

topic under discussion is the obscurations. Vigour receives the title of 'complete relinquishment' in this context when it is occupied with: (a) the relinquishment of adveBC
elements that have [already] ariscn and the non-origination of those which have not yet
arisen, and (b) the augmentation of the counteragent that has [already] arisen and the
production of those which have not yet arisen. Although the latter cannot be differentiated, they are respectively determined as fourfold due to the differentiation in
result. 173 Consequently, since the complete relinquishments consist in vigour, slothfulness is described as an obscuration.
[4] The two deficienciea in meditative concentration are [obacurationl]

to the buea of paychic power.

It is described as psychic power (rddhi) since

[the bodhisattva] becomes successful (rdhyate) by means of this. Moreover, it consists

in the meditative concentrations of Will-power, vigour, mind and examination. This is


the base of psychic power because it is the support ror the psychic powers such as
travelling 174 through space and [the performance of] magical creations. Alternatively,
psychic power (rddhJ) is [equivalent to] moving (ardlUla)17S; what is meant is: a power
such as traveling through space. The bases of thesc are the bases of psyct-Jc power
because they form its foundation. The latter refers to meditative concentration and is of
four kinds beginning with the meditative concentration of will-power. Will-power is
the essential feature in this meditative concentration of will-power because one attains
meditative concentration by means of it. However, it is DOt that vigour and the others
are absent therein for they do accompany will-power, but since they are DOt essential
features in the latter [i.e. in the chlUJdasamJdhi], they are not proclaimed. The same
should be said for the meditative conccnmtiona of vigour, mind and examination. The
two defici"ncies in meditative concentration were described as obscurations and since
these are not known, he says: namely, (a) [a deficiency] in completeneaa 176
due to defectiveneaa in either will-power. vigour. mind or examination
and (b) [a deficiency] in meditative development due to defectiven... in
Y92

the formative forcea that facilitate relinquiahment.

The deficiency in com-

pleteness in this regard is due to the abscJlCCj of anyone of: will-power, vigour, mind
and examination,

173
174
17.5

176

becauae me4itative concentration

~ QOJ

occur due

~ the

power of

The Ms.(26b..5) enoneousIy inserts smrtitl_ !be end of this seneeuce siQce it ... no ~
in !be context and is not to be found in !be Tib. (cf. D233L4).
Ms.(26b.6): gMJWJa; dilre&ud Y's m.2 p.91.
Ms. (ibid.) not clear; this reldinl of 1IdaD. is S!Jllcsled teIlwively as an etymoloaical
uplmMioa. Tib. "" Nt (D233a..5).
Read (willi die Jonl pp.ll4-1.5): pmp{lly.in plQ of .".np~~-; cf. 8~. N33.10.

119

that [absence]l77. As to the deficiency in meditative development, this is due to the


absence of anyone of the eight formative forces that facilitate relinquishment. Moreover, the latter have the natuIe of faith, will-power, vigour, tranquillity, mindfulness,
full awareness, volition and equanimityl78. Since mastery in medit&uve concentration
is obtained by means of the meditative development of these formative forces that
~acilitate

relinquishment and not by any other means, hence, because there is a

deficiency in meditative development due to their absence, mastery over meditative


development is not obtained.

What are the obscurations here? (a) That which is

adverse to will-power etc. and (b) secondary defilement that is adverse to the formative
forces which facilitate relinquishment, namely, laziness, forgetfulness in regard to an
objective support, indolence, excitability, the absence of formative force and the
[presence of] formative force.
[5] The non-engendering of [the elements] conducive to liberation is [an

obscuration) to the faculties. The root of the wholesome which one who is
afraid of slUJlsJra l79 produces for the sake of liberation is described as 'conducive to
liberation' since the assurance of obtaining liberation is on account of that. And since
faith etc. receive the title of 'faculties' when it is engendered and DOt otherwise, hence l80
the non-engendering of [the roots of the wholesome] that are conducive to liberation is .
described as the obscuration to the faculties. What are the ohscurations here? They are
that: (a) attachment to a new existence and (b) fear in regard to nirv'Pa. [which occur
when the root of the wholesome] which is conducive to
account of any secondary defilement l81 .

li~~tjOn

i3 DOt generate"- on

[6] The excellive weaknell of thole faculties il [an oblCuntion) to the

powers. The topic under discussion is obscuration. 182 How then can there be an
excessive weakness of the faculties? Consequently, he says: because of their
contamination l83 by advene clementi; what is meant is: they are overcome l84
by adverse elements which bave the natuIe of lack of faith, laziness, loss of mindfulness, distraction and a weakness in wisdom l8S . TIle f~lri~ m n~ by the state
177
178
179
180

181

182
1&3
184

185

Read: tMIIdhipatylt in place of the Ms. reading of tMlI4hiJl'wy. (271.1); Tib. de'i dblJt gis
(D233bol).
Ms.(27a.2): <etarJOpekJl-; disregard Y's fnol p.92.
Ms.(27a.3): ~ disre&ard Y's fn.3 p.92.
A Sanskrit manumt of a portion of the TIkl (Y92.15 to 93.9) was discovered among
Vinltadeva's TriqlSikI-tiU and published by P.S. Jaini in an article titled wThe Sanskrit
Pnlamenll of Vinltadeva's TriqJiiiJ-rJU' in ~ Vol. XLVlD/3, 1985, pp.470-92; cf. fn.96
p.4i}2. This frl&ment baa been used as basis for several ~ die following emendaliOlll.
Read: YJOpaId". ~bIllYMfJ IJOIpldya,./ pulI.mbavaUtit' IJirvI(Je
c:eti in
place ~ ~a ~ ulOfJyaIe/ slpunlriluvuUtirIJirvIUbbltii caon the
buil ~ Jainfaad the Tib. (ct. D23lb.7). It should be noced that the Jaini reading of IJlklipati
baa - . repIaI:ed by IJOqJId". TIb.: mi (b)K:yed 1M
Tib. omill Ibis paille; ct. D233b.7.
Ms.(27a.5): -"Y.v.d:inqJid; diReprd Y's fn.4 p.92.
Read: -Ibbibbavld in place of -Ibbibbfltld; ct. Jaini.
Read: daItI~ in pi.:. of du6pnjilltJJubtJ.; cf. JaiDi.

s.

s.

til .

120

of 'heat' and the state of the 'summit'186; and although these two [states] are conducive
to penetration, they become excessively weak because they are overcome by adverse
elements such as lack of faith. Hence there is the possibility of loss rhrough that187 .

However faith and the like receive the tide of 'powers' in the sw~s188 of the 'receptivity ,
Y93

to knowledge' and the 'highest [worldly]189 realization' because the adverse elements

have been vanquished.

Hence whatever excessive weakness there is in those

[faculties] such as faith, when they are overcome by adverse elements in the states of
'heat' and the 'summit'190, that is an obstruction to the powers because when it exists
there is no possibility of a condition of power191 . What are the obscurations here?
Just those adverse [elements] such as lack of faith.
[7] The fault of false view is [an obscuration] to the limbs of enlight-

enment. The fact that obscuration [is the subject under discussion] remains in force
here 192. Enlightenment here is intended as [equivalent to] the path of vision and since
these seven limbs of enlightenment which have the nature of

~ndfulneSl,

the investi-

gation of the Dharma. vigour. joy. tranquillity. meditative colICCnttation and equanimity
arise at the time of the relinquishment of monl defilement that is to be relinquished by
means of [the path of) vision, they are described .. the limbs of the latter 193 [i.e. of
enlightenment].

However, if they were [described as] limbs because they' are

favourable to enlightenment then the applications of mindfulness and the like would
also be limbs of enlightenment. How can the fault of false view be an obscuration to
the limbs of enlightenment?

Hence he says: because they are nurtured by the

path of vision; what is meant is: because they are respectively determined by the
path of vision. What then is this fault of false view? (a> The five imaginary views, (b)
doubt. (c) ignorance, (d) the moral defilements and secondary defilements together
with their associates such as passion, which have the latter [i.e. a. b &: c] for their
objective suppan. [Objection]: Is it DOt so that doubt and the like are also obscurations
in this respect? [Response]: Admittedly these ~ obscurations. however. here 194 he

186
187
188
189
190
191
192

193

Reid: afIDqlWJJtlnIhlPnbhJvitllJlndriyllJi in place of itJdriyllJi hy ulmlBaumllrdhltJlbhylql prlbhJvilllli; cf. Jaini


Jaini: t&mIiD in place of Ms.(27L6): t&fmltbut die latter is preferred; TIb.(D234L2): 'di la.
Reid: -Ivastliayor in place of -Ivutb'ylqr; Ms.(27L6): -lvuWyo... Jaini omim Ivatbl, i.e.
readinasimply: ~ytX

Tib. (D234L3) insens Ilutib ('ii6 nea pal which is not found in die Ms.
Read: .,.. tellqI eva irMIdIJIdllJIm a,mqaumardblvuWyor yMJ in place of t&fmld ylt
te,1m eva inddhldIlJlm U,mqlWIIllnlhllllvutblylm OIl the bw of Jaini which however
replaces -lvudJayorwUb -IV&IliJIDIt; TIb.: dIO b.our pa "flUe lDD'i dus ". (D234L3).
TIb. is sliahdy diffemlt _there is no poaibility ol. special power"; (slObl kyi bye btq mi
Slid do D234L4).
Reid: 1vata{J1nI ity In vanate in place of Iv....,.. iti prUrtam; cf. JaiDi; Tib. omiIS this
sruemenl (cf. D234L4).
Y's rec:onsaucliOil of: tDyl tJIii s~yavl/yllprffi- is pmf.-recl to Jaini: talyaitllli
sDJJtidhl1JfUvic.Ylprfti- 011 the bMis of TIb. (cf. D234a,$) IIICl die a..u cobennce of die

pauap.

194

Ms.(27b.3) line beaiDI: -ha; dilrealld Y's fn.2 p.93.

121

annunciates the fault of false view19S by laying the stress on its essential features, thus
the absence of an exposition of these [elements, i.e. doubt etc.] is not conttadictory.
Moreover, of these [elements] beginning with false view, it is just the 'seed' lodged in
the store-consciousness that is described as an obscuration to those [limbs of enlightenment] because it is to be relinquished l96 by means of the path of vision.
[8] The fault of disquiet is mentioned as the obscuration to the limbs of the
path, which are enumerated as: correct view, correct intention, correct speech, correct
action, correct livelihood, correct effort,

(;on~ct

mindf:uness and correct meditative

concentration 197 . Here now he provides the reason: because thole limbs of the path
are characterized by the path of meditative development.

bec~use

they are

respectively determined by the path of meditative development. What is the fault of


disquiet? In detail it refers to: (a) the innate false views of individuality and grasping
of extremes together with their associated elements and (b) the moral defilements and
secondary defilements of pasion etc. together with their associated elements, which
have the fonner [i.e. (a)] as well as the senae-objects for their objective supports. 'The
'seed' of these, which is lodged in the stoM-coDlCioUiness. is disquiet. However, in
Y94

brief, it refers to the impurities other than those which are to be relinquished by means
of [the path of] vision. 'The force of those [impurities]. which is lodged in the storeconsciousness, is disquiet. Moreover, this is determined as an obscuration to the limbs
of the path sioce it is to be relinquished by means of the path of meditative development. 'The obscuration to the factors that contribute to enlightenment baa now been
described.

b. The Obscurado... to the Perfectio....


The oblcuratioDl to the perfectioD are:

N33.18
N34

11.12 abed

Oblcurationl to:

Ca) dominioa.

(b)

propitioul Itatel of exiltence. (c) the


oon-abandooment of lentient beioll.
(d) the diminution of faulu and aUImeotation of virtuel. <e) pidance;

195

196
197

RaIl: dnridoiJpDia a per Mt.{27b.3) in pIKe olOII1iIlt-W


Ms.(27b.3): -pnbeylItVId COIItnry to Y's fn.3 p.93, however his mMIIrina ol pn/Ieyatvlt tal is
prefened on die bais of the lib.
Ms.(27b.4) line beains: -bamJdby ; which SUJPItI dW eacb of the liallt limbs of the padl
should be Drefixedby samyat. akhouall nb. subillDtilta Y's rencIerinS wbich omits HIllY*'
cf. D234b.'2-3.

122

11.13 abcd

(f) liberatioa, (I) imperilhability, (h)

the coatiauiLy of vinue, (i) the uluranee of [the ariliag of the latter] and
(j)

eajoymeat of the

Dharma aad

caulial maturatioa.

Here the oblcurationl that penon to the ten perfectioDl Ire sbown
by way of the panicular oblcuratioa to the releveat relult of each
perfection.

Of these, (a) the oblcuratioa to dominioD and lovereignty

is aa obicuratioa [to the relult]l98 of the perfectioa of generality.

(b)

The oblcuration to propitioul Itatel of esilteace il [an oblcuratioa to


the relult] of the perfection of morality.

Cc) The oblcuration to the

non-abandenment of lentieat beinll il [an oblcuratioa to the relult] of


the perfection of patience.

(d) The oblcuratioa to the diminution of

faultl and the aUlmentation of vinuel il [an oblcuratioa to the relult]


of the perfectioa of vilour.

Ce) The oblcuratioa to the luidance of

thole to be traiaed il [aa oblcuntioa to the relult] of the perfectioa of


the meditative ablorptioal.

(f) The oblcuratioa to Iiberatica il

oblcuratioa to the relult] of the perfectioa of wildom.

[aa

(I) The oblcu-

ratioa to the imperilhability of leaerolity etc. il [an oblcuntioD to the


reeult] of the perfection of lkill in relard to expedientl becaule itl
imperilhability il oa account of the tnalformation into enUptenment.
(h) The oblcuratioa to the uninterrupted emerleaee of the wholelOme in
all rebinhl il [aa oblcuntion to the relult] of the perfection of VOWI
because the pollellion of a Nbinb that il favouff.ble to thil il on
account of the luenlth of YOWl.

(i) The oblcuratioa to the a..urance

[of the arilinl] of tho.. wholelOme [elemeatl) il [an oblcvratioa to the


re.ult] of the perfection of the powen because [the "od/d.. ttn] il not
overcome by advene elementl on account of hil powen of critical
conlideratioa aad meditative

d~velopment.

(j) The ob.cuntion to both

the enjoyment of the Dharma for him..lf and caulinl the maturation of
othen il an oblcuntion [to the relult] of the perfection of direct intuition because tile cndentaadinl [by the "odlliuttn] of the meanial of
what he hal leamt il not in accord with the letter.
[Sthlramatl]
Y94.6

[1] Immediately (dlowiDa the latter (i.e. the obscunlioDl to the facton lbacomribute
to enliahteDlDent), [the obIc:dnIiona) to tho perfectiolD should be melllioned. Hepee he

198

Tib. (0910.2) . . . .

'llnI"" wbidl is not toad ill die MI.

123

says: the oblcuratioDl to tho perfectioDl are:

II.12 ab

Obscurations

to:

<a> dominion,

(b)

propitioul states of existence, <c) the


non-abandonment

of

sentient

beings199 etc.

Here the obscuration. that penon to the ten perfections are shown by
way of the particular obscuration to the relevent result of each perfection. What is the reason that here avarice and the like, which exist substantially as
impediments 2CO to generosity etc., are not described as C'bscurations to the perfections
although they are [described as] obscurations to the result of the relevent [perfection)?
All [people] engage in generosity and the like for the sake of its result201 ; therefore, in
order to generate interest in the relinquishment of avarice etc., the obscuration to the
result is mentioned but the obscuration to the perfection is not. Alternatively, obscuration such as avarice which is adverse to dominion and which produces a result
consisting in poverty etc., impedes a result such as dominion202, thus it is described as
an obscuration to the latter.

What are the results of those [perfections]? - In this

respect the chief results of the perfection of generosity are dominion and
sovereignty. The [chief result] of the perfection of morality is a propitious state
of existence.

The [chief result] of the perfection of patience' is the non-aban-

donment of sentient beings. The [chief result] of the perfection of vigour is the
diminution of faults and the augmentation of virtues.

The [chief resuli.] of the

perfection of meditative ablOrption is guidance for sentient beings in scriptural


instruction. The [chief result) of the perfection of wisdom is liberation for those
who have been guided203 . 1be [chief result] of the perfection of skill in rcglU"d
to expedients is the imperishability of the wholesome on account of its transfor-

mation into enlightenment. The [chief result] of the perfection of

VOWI

is uninter-

rupted virtue. The (chief result] of the perfection of the powers is the 3l>:mrance

Y95

(of the arising) of wholesome dharmas. 1be (chief result] of the perfection of
direct intuition is the enjoyment of the Dharma and the maturation of sentient
beings.

1~

200
201
202

203

su,.

Read:
aiSvaryasyldM
utrvIfyl&_ya clvTti1r.
in place eX
aiiv.yaya sJIIa,tyJi ca satn'Ity.-asya c~
cr. BbityaNl4.1. Ms.(27b.6): II.Iv.-yasyl-.
Read: vibmtlJeaa .. per WiS.(Z7b.7) in place of vib6J1dbe.
Read: dIaJdiIu tatpIulJrtIwJ2 UI'IIe pnvanu. in place of tatphaJltthena dJnJdjbhy~ SlU'Iat[I
pra~ TIb. de'i 'MIs bu'i doll du sbyiD ~ J. qs pa 1a tbams cMl )u, ste (0235a.1).
Read: -pIWMtJ VI'badIIDItItiin place of -~balIdhJl; Ms.(2aa.l): -phalarp Tib. 'bras bu
zqJ byed pu (D23Sa.2).
Read: lefJIIJ aVa!fItIlDIIp vilDOCalWfl in place of tID avalfillln vimocayali; Tib.btsud pa de
11WDf num par pJl bIr byed pa (D23SL4). Ct. also BhI$ya N~.10 &; 09a.3.

124
[2] Tho obscuration to dominion and IOvereignty204; therein, dominion refers
to an abundance of wealth and property. Sovereignty refers to the power that comes

from the enjoyment of the latter.

The obscuration to these two is an obscuration

pertinent to the perfection of generosity because they result from that. What then is this
[obscuration)"! It is avarice.
[3] The obscuration to the propitious states of existence; a' proplUOUS state

of existence refel'5 to an excellent state of existence either among mankind or the


gods20S. The obscuration to this is an obscuration pertinent to the perfection of morality because [propitious states of existence] result from that.

Moreover, this

[obscuration] consists in: <a) immorality and (b) contemptible actions of body and
speech.
[4]

[Tho obscuration] to the non-abandonment of sentient beings; i.e.

treating [even] offensive sentient beings just like those who are helpful. And this is the
re~.ult of [the perfection of]206 patience; the obscuration to this is anger.

[5] [The obscuration] to the diminution of faults and the augmentation

of virtues; the diminution of faults refers to the relinquishment of [elements] that


have already arisen which cause haim to oneself and others and the non-origination of
[r.lements] that hav" not yet arisen.

The augmentation [of vinues]207 refers to the

growth of [elements] that have already arisen which manifest for the benefit of oneself
and others and the origination of [elements] that have not yet arisen. What then is the
obscuration hem? It is laziness.
[6] The obscuration to the suidanco of those to be trained ; i.e. guidance

in scriptural insbUCtion for those to be trained because it is acknowledged as the cause


for the attairunent of the heavens and final beatitude.

When respect is produced

through appeasement, sentient beings effortlessly understand the scripturaI instruction


on account of: <a) reading the thoughts of others, <b) their psychic power2 08 ; and
distraction is the obscuration here.
[7] The obscuration to liberation; liberation consists in the relinquishment of
moral defilement and this comes about through scriptural instruction209 . Since

scriptural instruction comes about on account of wisdom and not by any other means,

204

20S
206
207

208

Read: .uvaryldbipltylv..,am in place of aiiVltykJhjpiitY' JVR(lam; cf. Bhl$Ya N34.7.


Read: wlJha:JI gmtr SUJIUr / devlllUfJIlIYotJ in place of iobhllJl8lin1DlIP sugatir / manulYo
devai a; MI.(28L4): sobbllJi... lib. mdzes pu 'gro '" iii bde 'gro S~ mi dazj Jha (D235a. 7).
Cf. Koia (P23S.18): praiutl gatir lIJyeti sugJtir devmunlllYopapant:.ft.
Tib. inserts plnmitl wlUcb is not found in !be Ma.
Tib. inserts gu(l1DIIJJ (yoa UIJ IDIIUS) which is not found in the Ma.
Read (with de JODa p.IIS): JdeiarJlyltddhyl clylllJelJ. in pIIce of SIJIIjllpmJdhyapnYltlNml.
The first syllable of !be Ma.(28L7) is not clear but this passage seems to read: rdclhy'
cIyItDeI2I.

209

Ma.(28a.7): -lIJuiluDyl; dialeaanl Y's fn.4 p.9S.

11,5

consequendy, liberation is the result of the perfection of wisdom. The obscuration1; to


this are: (a) defiled wisdom, (b) delusion and (c) a weakness in wisdom.
[8] The obscuration to the imperishability of generosity etc. 2IO ; an obscu-

ration to the imperishability of generosity and morality etc. is an obscuration peninent


to the perfection of expedients. Moreover, as to how generosity etc. can be imperishable, he says: because its imperishability i. on account of the trans for-

Y96

mation into enlightenment. The root of the wholesome such as generosity which
is transformed into universal enlightenment, like Euddhahood, does not perish,. Some
believe that this obscuration consists in a lack of knowledge of the expedients which
characterize the transformation into universal enlightenment. Others believe that this
obscuration consists in the grasping of the three components [of giving]211 which is
[equivalent to] lack of skill in regard to expedients.
[9] The obscuration to the uninterrupted212 emerlence of the wholesome

in all rebirthJ; the uninterrupted [emergence] I)f the wholesome is [equivalent to its
emergence] day by day or moment by moment. And this is the result of the perfection
of vows. As to why this is so, he says: becaule the pOllellion213 of rebirth
that il favourable to thil il on account of the strength of

VOWI;

for [the

bodhisattva) takes a rebirth that is congenial to the uninterrupted emergence of

generosity etc. through the strength of his vows. Obscuration to this consists in the
absence of vows in relation to a rebirth favourable to generosity ew.
[10) The obscuration to the ulurance 214 [of the arilina] of thole whole-

some [elementl]; assurance consists in the combining [of the

~:

vIrya, samJdhi

and prajnl]21S day by day and moment by moment. Here now he gives the reason:

becaule [the bodbi .. ttv.] il not overcome by adverse [elements] on


account of hil poweR of critical consideration and meditative developmeDl.

The power of critit:al consideration here consists in wisdom accompanied by

steadfastness. Furthermore, 3teadfastness is a

designativ~

dlwma since it is a designa-

tion applicable to the innate trio of vigourl l6 , meditative concentration and wisdom.
The power of meditative development [is mentioned here) because [the bodhisattva]

engages in generosity etc., effortlessly, through his possession of habitual practice


210
211

Read: dlnldy&tpyaM~ radIer tbIa cIaIIdyaQ.tyInrapallr. cf. BhI$ya N14.11.


a-imapcW. here refers to tile purity of die three aspec:!S of giving. i.e. 'giver', 'receiver' and 'gift'.
Cf. MSA XVI.51 Comm. where tbese are discussed wbile ell.plainin, nirviblpajrJln. in the
conlell.t of the dlDaplrlmitl: jrllDaIfIlJirvibJpalp yeti. trimaWa/apaniuddlwp dJDlJl1I dadJti
~(lJBI01).9).

212
213
214
215
216

-lJainJJtaaIJ~, but Y's emencWion 10 nainnrary. is COIllICL


Y's readiDl of parignb.d apees with the Bhl$ya (ci. N34.14), however Ms.(28b.3):
~
Read: lJiyidlan(llv.nplJlin plal:eof niicaylvanlPJiT,cf. B~aN14.lS.
etrt..CJaIfI ~ tu byed pal is problematical in dIis COIItell.t; the ell.planation above is offered

Ms.(28b.2):

teDtaaively.
Ms.(28b.4): vIIyua-; dislealnl Y'S fn.2 p.96.

126
because he is not overcome by avarice which is the counteragent to this [power of
meditative development]. What are the obscurations here? (a) The absence of critical
consideration217 and (b) weakness in meditative development.
[11]

The obscuration to the enjoyment of the Dharma for himself and

causinlJ the maturation of othen; the results are: (a) the enjoyment of the
profound and sublime Dharma of the universal vehicle by one who is situated in the
circles of the assembly which pertain to enjoyment218 and (b) causing the maturation219
of sentient beings through teaching the Dharma by acts of transformation in their
various aspects220 Moreover, the obscurations to this are: (a) deliberation upon the
meaning of what has been learnt, according to the letter2 21 and (b) sluggish wisdom.
And so ends the obscurations [to the perfections].
[12] Although, substantially there
Y97

are six perfections herein, nominally there are ten222

since four perfections are constituted by the perfection of wisdom. The perfection of
wisdom therein consists in sUpraDlundane direct intuition devoid of conceptual differentiation; the gradual relinquishment of all obscuration is on account of that direct
intuition.

Funhermore, the perfections of expedients, vows, the powers and direct

intuition are incorporated in direct intuition that is attained subsequently to the supramundane path.

How is it that the perfection of direct intuition, although it is pre-

eminent, is not devoid of conceptual differentiation? Because the perfection of direct


intuition consists in that direct intuition attained subsequently to the direct intuition that
is devoid of conceptual differentiation and after precisely defining his understanding by
means of that direct intuition223 , [the bodhi"nva] experiences in return the enjoyment
of the Dharma for himself and brings others to maturation. And since this duality [i.e.
self/others - subject/object] is non-existent in [direct intuition] devoid of conceptual
differentiation, consequently, the perfection of direct intuition is not without conceptual
differentiation. The obscurations to the perfections have now been described.

217
218
219
220

221
222

223

Ms.(28b.5): -pntUllfIkbyltla-, but Y's emendadon to -apntiuIJlkhyw- on the bais of the Tib.
is prefemd; cf. his fn.3 p.96.
Ms.(28b.5): sl1J!b~-; di:ireaud Y's fn.4 p.96.
Ms.(28b.6): JWWi wilh pi inserted in mqin.
R'.:ad:sI1pb~~dJi,.ya~~vic;jtll
Hnii ca D~bhirin place of slqrbhoJibparpDnuWale vyu.tblDo 6ambhIm-

dllaDub'yllJadbmDasYIl WlJbqAi ca vicitrlkJrair DirmIQ.umubhir; Tib. lou sPyod pa';


'kbor gyi d1cyi1 'tboT du nwn pIT 611- te I " pa chetJ po'; chol ub cid rD' cbe b. I. lods
spyod pa tWt I sptullM mam pa ID. tshogs kyi I. kyU (0236a.5). This pusaae alludes to the
triUya doctrine; cf. MSA IX.60 Conun.: tdvidhltJ kilO buddhlDllp I svlbb.viko dbarmtrkly.
linYlLpulvrttilaQapalil slqrbbQ6iko yeti. parJaDJfUpdele,u dbarmuMPbhQ6MP taroti I
Dairml(JikO,.. ~ sattvlltb."a taroti (1JB47.12).
Read (with de lOOIP.115-6): yatblrutairutJrtlJ.viCll'ap'in place of y.tb'bhll~tlrtb...

vi~1. The Ms.(28b.6) SUppodI this emendIIion.


.
Ms.(28b.6): ptplmDitll nImoIIo d&ia; disreaud Y's fn.5 p.96.
Reid: taJ.jlJJlJeu .vabodlwp in place of r..iitflD'vabuddhltvaIJr, Ttb. ye Sa . . khod dJl child
1M (D236b.2).

127

c. The Obscurations to the Spiritual Levels.


N34.20

Moreover, [the obscurations] to the spiritual levels are, respectively:

II.14 abcd

In regard to: (a) the meaning


pervading, (b) the meaning

N35

eminent,

(c)

eminent

that

the

meaning

flows

out,

II
II

allpre-

a. pre(d)

the

meaninl a. devoid of possession, (e)


[the meaninl] a. non-differentiation
in mental continuum.
lI.iS abcd

(f) The me anini IS devoid of defile-

ment Ind purification, (I) the meaninl IS devoid of multiplicity, (h) the
meaninl a. neither dimini.hed nor
iucrea.ed and (i) the balli. of the
four kind. of ma.tery.
11.16 abcd

Thia

ilnorlnce

concerninl

the

dlJarm.dlJlta, being a tenfold ob.cu-

ration which i. undefiled, [act.] in


oppo.ition to the ten .piritual level .
However. the spiritual level..... the
counteralent .
Concorninl the dlJarmildlJlta, then i. undefiled ne.cienco in relard
to die tenfold meaninl, .uch u

all.porvadinl, which i. an ob.curation

to the ten re.poctive iJpiritual level. of the bodlJi .. ttn becau.e it is


adveRe to each of them, namely, "in relard to the meaninl a. allpervadinl"224 [and so on I. above].

Por, (a) by mean. of the first

spiritual level [tb.e bodlJi ..ttn] ponetrate. the IOnse of all-pervading on


the pan of the cflJarllJ.dlJltui on account of thi. he obtain. in return [the
realization] that .e1f ad othen are equal.

(b) By means of the second

On account of this be
[he penetrate~J it. muninl a. pre-eminent.
believe.: "therefore then. in relard to equality in Ichievement.
endeavour should be directed by u. toward. Onl7 the achievement of
complete purification in every way"225. (c) By mean. of the third rhe
penetrate.]

the

[dlJulIJ.dlJlta].
224
225

meaninl

a.

pre-eminent

that

flow.

out

of

that

On account of thi., after undentandinl the pre-eminent

SIIIV"".1nIJe is omiuecl fiom the TIb.; cf. D9b.2.


This is .q~ fiomDS (R26.12)

w_,...

~is replaced by ~

128

nature of what is learnt and which flowl out of the dharmadhltu, he


may cast himself into a fire-pit the size of the great trichiliocosm for the
sake of them. (d) By meana of the fourth [he penetrate8] its meaning as
devoid of poaaenion, for thus, even his craving for the Dharma is
checked. (e) By means of the fifth [he penetrates] ita meaning as nondifferentiation in mental continuum by reason of the ten equalities in

regard to the purity of mind and mental disposition.

(f) By

means of

the sixth [he penetrates] its meaning as devoid of defilement and purity
as the consequence of his penetration [of the reality] that, regarding the
[meaning]226 of dependent origination, there is no dharma whatsoever
that is defiled or purified. (g) By means of the seventh [he penetrates)
its meaning al devoid of multiplicity becauae of the absence of the
manifestation of multiplicity by way of lign in the dhum.. of the

N36

SUttas etc. on account of their signlelaness. (h) By meana of the eighth


[he penetratea) ita meaning aa neither diminished nor increaled as the
conaequence of hil acquiaition of patient acceptance in regard to nonoriginating dharma. sincc, in reaard to defilement and purification, he
faila to perceive either the diminutiQn or augmentation of any dharma
whatsoever 227 (i) Mutery i. fourfold: (a) mutery over the ab.ence of
conceptual differentiation, (b) maatery over the complete purification of
the field, (c) maatery over direct intuition and (d) maatery over karma.
In this relpect, by me ana of jutt the eipth spiritual level he penetrates
[the reality] that the dhumadhltu forma the baai. of the first and
second maateriea. On the ninth [he penetrate I the reality) thAt it forma
the basil for ma.tery over diIect intuition due to his acquiaition of
analytical knowledge. On the tenth [he penetrates the reality] that it
forma the baail for ma.tery over kuma aa the consequence of his
working for the welfare of aentient beinga at will through hi. creative
tranlformationl.
[Sthiramati)

Y97.11

[I)

Immediately following the latter [i.e. the obscurations to the perfections), [the

obscurations) to the spiriruallevels should be melUioned. Hence he says: moreover,


[the oblcurationl] to the spiritual level.22S are, respectively:

226
zn
228

The Tib. iDsens attbl which is not found in the MI.; i.e.. it~; ~ f:ilJ ~ flIT byud bal
doll II (D9b.S) - pratttylWrUllpIdJnbe.
bJylCid dlJarmaYI is omitl!d from the rib.; ct. D9b.7.
Reid: bbllmilu pu1Ju in piKe Qf bhflmilv Ipi; cf. Bhl$ya N34.20.

129

11.14 a

In regard to: (a> the meaning aa allpervading, (b> the meaning aa preeminent 229 etc.

In this respect there are ten spiritual levels: (1) The Joyous, (2) The Stainless, (3) The
Radiance Giving, (4) The Brilliant, (5) The Very Difficult to Conquer, (6) The Face to
Face, (7) The Par Reaching, (8) The Immovable, (9) The Good Discernment and (10)

The Cloud of the Dharma. The particular stages of understanding in regard

to

the

dharmadhltu in the sense of all-pervading etc. are described as the spiritual levels in
their nature as: (a) a locus for ever increasing understanding230 and (b) the foundation

for virtues that have arisen from the latter.

Others believe that in whichever state

(vihJra) the bodhisattva dwells (viharatJ) for an extended period in regard to [his

understanding) of the dharmadhlltu in the sense of all-pervading etc., by virtue of the


fact that he abides in that particular state it is called a spiritual level. Furthermore, the
arrangement of the spiritual levels231 [is as follows): On the Joyous, the bodhisattva
achieves the direct realization of the Dharma due to the arising of the path of vision.
On the Stainless, [the bodhisattva) who has achieved the direct realization of the
Y98

Dharma232 accomplishes a special training consisting in a superior morality that flows


spontaneously because of his abstention from the immorality that stems from all subtle
transgressions.

On the Radiance Giving, he accomplishes a special training that

consists in a superior mentality in regard to both the Dharma and Icarma that does not
cease even in other rebinhs. On the Brilliant, the Very Difficult to Conquer and the
Face to Face [levels) he accomplishes a special training consisting in a superior
wisdom which has for its objective support: (a> the factors that contribute to enlightenment, (b) the [noble) tnltha and (c) dependent origination. These latter trainings
should be understood to have four kinds of result on the [four) remaining spiritual
levels: Of these, on the Far Reaching he accomplishes with effon233 the state of the
direct intuition of the signless. On the Immovable. he accomplishes without effon the
state of the direct intuition of the signless toaether with the purification of the 'field'.
On the Good Discernment, he accomplishes the special quality of analytical knowledge

and it is on ~count of this that he preaches the Dharma234 On the Cloud of the

229
230

231
232
233

234

Read: Sln'llnglnhe lfIPIrthe in place of urv."..1rtbo 'Itftth- u; d. B,,-ya N34.21.


Read: 'dbi,amlvasth.viie,' uftMOtUlldbi6amathlnartlpetJl in pllce of 'dbi,1JDId avUJi~
vi",' uttllOlW'lpTltiJnttUthlnl1flpePI; TIb. thod du chud In'i gDII sbbs Icy; thYld PM
l1WIU Di flOG DII flOG du Icbod du chud pa1 ",.. In'i rsbuJ ...vi(s) (D236b.5).. Ms.(29a.2) is .
notCN.
Read: bhDmfD'qJ in piKe of bhDmibhi(l; Ms.(291.3): bbDml-j Tib. s. mams kyi
(D236b.6), a1tbouah P (76a.5): Icyis.
Ms.(29a.4): ..dbmnJ but Y's emeadaIion to -dlunrwJ is pnfened.
Read: Slp!J!.1DI in pllce of JDyatlJlAbitam; Ms.(29a.S): -dlbgIJDlYIllJ 51- TIb. 'bid In dad
bcM pi (D2l7a.2).
Relll: d1JJnuIrMbiIcD. Jlll'Ms.(29a.6) ill place of dlJlrmabtlJitD.

130

Dharma [level] he achieves the special qualities of meditative concentration and [the
knowledge of] mystical formulae.
[2] Concerning th.l dbarmadb'tu, .. .in reglrd to the tenfold meaning
such as all-pervading,235... The sense of all-pervading etc. in regard to the
dharmadhlltu is understood by way of the ten spiritual levels of the bodhisattva.
Undefl!~d

nescience in regard to that [meaning] il I tenfold obscuration to the

ten respective Ipiritual levels of the bodbi..ttva becaule it il advene to


each of them, i.e. because it is adverse to each of the spiritual levels; for the spiritual
levels consist in special states236 of supramundane meditative concentration and
wisdom etc. Undefiled nescience is adverse [to these states] because it impedes their
arising.

Moreover, it is not just undefiled nescience that is an obscuration in this

context, on the contrary, other moral defilements and secondary defilements are
[obscurations] as well. For thus, everything on the Joyous [level] to be relinquished
by the path of vision is an obscuration because aU propensities for wrong insight in
regard to the [noble] truths are relinquished by the path of vision which brings about
an understanding237 of the sense of all-pervading. Furthermore, those [propensities] to
be relinquished through meditative development [are done so] by way of the remaining
spiritual levels. However, those [propensities] that have not been relinquished are just
like the ones that have been relinquished since they do DOt cause defilement on the part
of the bodhisattvas. With reference to this very matter, a verse has been composed:
Moral defilement becomes a limb of
enlightenment for one who employs the
mighty expedients and even SaJfJBlra has the

nature of appeasement. Consequently, the


tatblgata is inconceivable.
Y99

Moreover, because of the statement: "on the ten spiritual levels the ten perfections are
successively more excellent", it is evident that there is also the successive relinquishmont of those clements, beginning with avarice, which are adverse to each [level].
[Objection]: If other2 38 moral defilement may also be an obscuration, why is only
undefiled DCscience described as the obscuration to the spiritual levels? [Response]:
Because it is not common to everyone since it acta as an impediment239 to the attainmont of tdrvl{Ja only for bodhisllnvas, but not for SrJvakas etc. Thus, the irJvakas and
pmtyekabuddh.., become liberated in spite of ita [i.e. undefiled nescience's] presence,

235
236
237
238
239

RaIl: dlJImJItdbItaliUUvidbe ......ldyanlJlinplKeof ~~


dbltufllj ct. Bhlfya N35.6.
Read: -DulhlviielltJlJlbll in plata of -avaUia~ Tib.1JW sb", kyi ihyad,. Di
lJciI,r IIid de (02371.5).
Read: -lItIJlfJIIlipIduetJ. in place of -1Ifb'vabodbear, Tib. -doD 1ho1l du cbud pM byed pi
...Di<s) (02371.1). cr. Y16.17 .01971.2.
Ms.(29b.3): yady -10 )F, disrepn1 Y's fnol p.99.
Read: -vilMDdbe. per Ms.<29b.4) in place of vibalJdluir: Tib.
su CDur IYJ} (D237b.3).

6.

1-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

131

but not the bodhisattva; hence, it is not common to all. However, since moral defilement applies equally to bodhisattvas and srlvakas etc., the fact that [undefiled
nescience] is an obscuration is not annulled even though there is no mention of it [in
other works] since it is not posited nor rejected as an obscuration to the spiritual levels
of the bodhisattva, considering that it is described as an obscuration to the spiritual
levels and that it is not the only obscuration to the spiritual levels. Others say that since
undefiled nescience penains equally to the bodhisattvas and srlvakas etc., it is
mentioned especially as an obscuration to the spiritual levels; however, moral defilement follows as a consequence therefore it is not mentioned. [Reply]: Although moral
defilement is indeed equally applicable to the bodhisattvas and srlvakas etc. it therefore
need not necessarily follow. Others again believe240 that although the obscuration
consisting in the nescience of the spiritual levels is an undefiled nescience pertinent to
the srlvakas, it does not act as an impediment to liberation because the sdvatss
become liberated even though the nescience in regard to the spiritual levels is present
However, [such a nescience] is defiled for the bodhisattva since it is the cause of an
impediment to the attainment of nirvlfJa.
[3] Others believe this is not so:

II.16b

Beinl a tenfold obscuration that is


undefiled.

YIOO

Because, by means of the fint spiritual level [the bodhi .. ttva] penetrates the sense of aU-pervadinl on the part of the dhsrmadhltu.
Therein, the first spiritual level refers to the fil'St supramundane wisdom, together with
its associated elements and is inc:orporated in the path of vision. The dharmadhltu is
[equivalent to] emptiness since, by virtue of its being a universal characteristic, it is in
one place just as it is everywhere. It is all-pervading because it extends everyWhere.
TIle statement: "since DO dharma is to be found outside the dharmadhltu" 241 , shows

that the dharDJadhltu is all-pervading.

By "penetrates" is meant: 'realizes'.

On

account of that242 penetration he obtaina in retum [the realization} that self


and othen are equal243 As the consequence of his insight into the fact that the
emptiness in regard to self and others cannot be differentiated, he reflects upon the fact
that !:elf and others are DOt different [thinking]: "what is self is other", or "what is other
is self'. It is only because of this that the perfection of generosity is more excellent on
thi. spiritual level.

240
241
242
243

co~uently.

on this (leveU the bodhislltrva is just as occupied with

Ms.(29b.6): aye tv Ihutr, disreprd Y's m.3 p.99.


This is a quotation from Ch. V .19cd; read: clJw'madhllJlvininnuito u per Ms.(3Oa.1) in place of
dbmudbllur vininnukto. Cf. also Shltya N67.8.
Read: y.a in place of tetJa; cf. Sb..y. N3S.11.
Read: ItmaparuamatJm in place of svaparuamatJm; cf. Shlty. N3S.1l. Ms.: -tm.".....
(lOL2). Dislqard Y'! m.3 p.lOO.

132

benefit for others as with benefit for himself. Herein are shown: (a) penetration244 , (b)
the counteragent and (c) the result of the counteragent; this triad should be discerned in

relation to the other spiritual level a as well.


[4] By means of the second [he penetrates] ita meiUling

aI

foremost; the

fact that he penetrates [this meaning] of the dharmadhltu is understood. This is due to
his vision of its intrinsic luminosity.

On account of that he believes:

"therefore then, in regard to equality in achievement24S ,

endeavour

should be directed by us toward. only the achievement of complete


purification in every way"; he demonstrates scriptural tradition by this statement
for it is said in the [DaSabhiimika] Siltra:
Because, when these246 ten wholesome paths of action are cultivated in the
aspect of wisdom, ... they lead up to the Srllvska vehicle. TI!en, when they are
purified to a greater degree, ... they lead up to the pratyekabuddha vehicle. Then.
when they are purified even more247 , ... they lead to: (a) the complete purity of
YlOl

the spiritual levels of the bodhisattva. (b) the complete purity248 of the perfections and (c) extensiveness in courses. Then, when they are purified to a
greater degree, they lead up to the force of the ten powers249 since they are
completely purified in every way2S0 ... Therefore then, in regard to equality in
achievement (endeavour should be directed by us ... ].2SI
The words "therefore then etc." signify that since [the bodhisattva] has this thought on
the second spiritual level, therefore it is known that he penetrates the meaning [of the

dharmadhlltu] as foremost by way of the second [level]. "Achievement" is [equivalent


to] effort or deed. "Complete purification in every way" is [equivalent to] the removal

of both defiled and undefiled delusion in regard to the dharmadhlltu.

ConsequeL.dy,

the perfection of morality is more excellent on this spiritual level because the self
becomes, still more so, a fit vessel2S2 [for purity]2S3 QQ ~YQt of fPc r;fe~ire for the
pre-o~nt m~aning

244
245
246
247
248

[of tho

t;lhllf'm~nr].

Ms.(3Oa.3): -tivedhatJ in piKe of -trividhatJ as stated in Y's fn.4 p.lOO; allhough pratipak$' is
omitted. as DOled by Y, it bas been insened in the Ms. mugin.
Read: yetJlsyaivaIJJ bbavati ...samllJe 'bbiDirhlte in place of tetJlsyaitlld bbavati .wnJbbilJirIJJte; cf. BhlUI N35.12
Read: tile as per Ms.(3Oa.4) in place of iti.
Ms.(3Oa.S): u,.."" however Y's emeudaIion 10 uttarataram is in apeement widt OS (R26.5).
Ms.(3Oa.S): -pariiuddbi, however Y's emendalion 10 -pariiuddhya;, which aarees with DS, is

p-efeIrsI.

249
2SO

Ms.(3Oa.S): daiahl. ; disreaard Y's tn.3 p.10l.


Ms.(30L5): pariiuddblW"ltvld which apees widl Tib.: 60d du yodI su dig". (D238b.I),
however Y's emendIIion 10 ~ s.-v~tMVId aarea widt OS.

2.51
2.52

DS (IW.2lff.).
Reid (with de 1001 p.ll6): Itmaplll1kanlllt in place of 11JrWJJItr41T1{J1t; Tib. IxUg iiD tu
(mam par dig pail SIJOd dJJ byed pa'i phyir (D238b.3). This readinl is subsrantiated by die

2.53

Tib. inserts viiuddhi which is not found in die Ms; cf. ibid.

MI.(3Oa.7).

r-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

133
[5] By means of the third [he penetrates] the meaning as pre-eminent
that flows out of that [dbarmadb.tu]. That he penetrates it is understood.
because the statements of the Buddha are characterized by their penetration of the
dharmadhiItu; for thus254. the Dharma teachings such as the sntras which flow out of

the dharmadhiItu are characterized by the power of the dharmadhiItu known as the

Dharma Body which is completely pure in every way. This is because of both the preeminent nature of the Dharma teachings that flow out of that25S [dharmadhiItu] and also
the fact that they [i.e. the Dharma teachings] are the cause of the complete purification
of the dharmadhiItu on account of the pre-eminent nature of the dharmadhiItu. On
account of that2S6 after understAnding the pre-eminent nature of what is
learnt and which flow. out of the dbarmadb'tD ... ; by "on account of that"2S7.
[is meant]: on account of the penetration of the dharmadhiItu; by "what is learnt" [is
meant]: the Dharma such as the Siltras that are learnt; by "after understanding the preeminent nature of that". is meant: after having gained knowledge of them introspectively as such through direct intuition devoid of conceptual differentiation; ... for the
sake of them, i.e. for the sake of hearing the statements of the Buddha, he may
cast himself into the fire-pit the lize of the great trichiliocolm, for it is
said in a Siltra:258
If someone were to say the following 2S9 : "Thus I would proclaim to you this
portion of the Dharma presented by the Perfectly Enlightened One which
Yl02

facilitates complete purification in the conduct of the bodhisattva if you were to


throw 260 yourself into the great fire-pit which blazes up261 into a single flame
and you should take upon your own body the great262 suffering of the sensation
of pain". This person would think: "I would even attempt to cast myself from
the Brahma-world into the great trichiliocosm world sphere263 filled with fire2 64
for the sake of just a single portion of the Dharma presented by the perfectly
enlightened one which facilitates complete purification of the conduct of the
bodhisattva. bow much more [would I be inclined to cast myself] into an ordi2S4

25S
256
257
258
259

260
261
262

263
264

Conlral'y to Y's fn.S p.IOl.1he Ms.(30L7) reading is vac:lIlJlSysl rathJ. ... hence yasmlt(YlOI.
11-12) should be replaced by tam. hi
Ms.(30b.l): -dhmnJgrllJdhll'lMdhlt:u- but Y's emendation to -dhlllMlgntay' dhll7Dadhltu- on
!he basis of the nb. is preferred; cf. his fn.6 p.10l.
Read: yea. in place of tellll; cf. DhB$Ya N3S.14.
Read: ytJIJ. in place of tells; cf. ibid.
From DS (R33.1S ff.).
Ms.(3Ob.2): sa ced iha kaicid eVI/III blflY't in conttast to the DS readina adopted by Y: sa ced
idl/lll bicid eVIIlI brflY't; Tib. gal to I. la ii, de I. 'dj sbd ces ztJr to (D238b.7). Disregard
Y's fns.9 &. 10 p.IOl.
Ms.(3Ob.3): pnpItayec mabI-; d.islea1Rl Y's fnol p.l02.
Ms.(3Ob.3): slllfJPRjvaJitlylnr, diareprd Y's fn.l p.l02.
Ms.(3Ob.3): tUbllJ"; but Y's emendIIion to malJIDCIIp is preferred.
Ms.(3Ob.4): trislharamalJldharlylm api Joadbltlv which Y his amended to trisIhasnmaJIIslbMJalobdhltlv to .... with OS.
Ms.(30b.4): 6&Dipuipllrplylql which hIS been amended by Y to QtJip6lipllrpe to ape with

DS.

134
nary fire-pit

Moreover265 , associating with all the sufferings of the hells and

places of woe2 66 we should seek all267 the Buddha Dharmas, even at the price
of associating with [just] human suffering".
It is because of this that the perfection of patience is more -:xcellent on this spiritual
level since [the bodhisattva] endures all moral defilement268 for the sake of what is
learnt
[6] By means of the founh [he penetrates] its meaning as devoid of
poaseasion269 It is understood that he penetrates [this meaning] of the dharmadhltu.

On the founh spiritual level, because of its evenness, he penetrates [the

meaning] of the dharmadhltu as an absence of what pertains to the self, since there is
no sense of'mine' whatsoever on the part of the dharmadhltu 270 . Alternatively, [the
dharmadhltul is not in the possession of anyone because it is not an objcct of all

erroneous inversion; since it i'l free from erroneous inversion in itself, there is no
possession whatsoever on its behalf.

Por thus 2i I, even his cravieg for the

Dharm! is checked; this is a statement from scriptural tradition. In this way, due to
his understanding of the dharmadhltu 272 through direct intuition free from conceptual
elaboration, he acquires the dharma consisting in the factors that contribute to enlightn03

enment on the Brilliant [level] and even that craving for the Dharma of the

sntras etc.

which existed previously on the part of the bodhiiO.utva, is checked. Others belie/e that
the craving for the Dharma refers to meditative absorption, meditative concentration
and the attainments. Therefore, on this spiritual level the perfection of vigour is more

excellent because [the bodhisattva] dwells perpetually in company with the factors that
contribute to enlightenment273 when both speech and discursive thought have been
transcended. 274

[7] By means of the fifth [he peneuates) its meaninl u

non-differen-

tiation in mental continuum275 i it is the fact that he penetrates [this meaning) of

265

266
267
268

Ms.(JOb.4) appears 10 read: khadlyJm IlrlJ&. ... but Y's emendation 10 klJadlylm / api ru is
pe{ened.
Bplys is omiued from the Tib.; cf.D239L3.
Read: nrvab~ u per Ms.(3Ob.5) and TIb.<D239L3); sarva is omitted from DS.
Read (with de Jong p.116): sarvatlei.,abanld iti in place of sarvatleiasabanldKhir spy
sbbedylt; Tib. IfoD mads pa thamJI cad la mi 'byid pa'i phyir (D239L4). Ms.(JOb.5): -sahmiJd

ia. ..

269

270
271
272
273
274

275

Read: .;;aturrhy. ~am in place of calI/ItIJy' 'parignhlnbam; ct. Bhlfya N35.17.


Read: Ylllmln ns dJJarmadblto(J bicid rnamatlltrti in place of ... Itm' nlstrti as proposed by Y;
Tib. '(Ii liar clJ08 kyi dbyiJU Is bdI6 gill yai med pa'; pl!yir TO (D239a.S). Ms.(30b.6): yasmJn
ns dlwmadbllDtl fatya cit mamatIIlIti.
Read: tarIJ. hi in place of Ylllmlt; ct. Bhlfya N35.17.
Tib. has only dbJtu (dbyidl) in place of dhasmadbltu; ct. D239L6.
Contrary to Y's tn.l p.I03. Ms.(31LI): bodbiIaQairwbicb is comcted 10 bodbipak$airin the

IIUIIJin.

lUI daD dag daD


spyod pi las 'da par... (D239b.I), i.e.
" ...when he has IrIIIIICeIIded the ways of body
Ed mind"; however P omits 1116 daD.
Read: wp4lJIbbedlnJwn in pIKe of sancIIJIbbizuJInIJ ct. B.ya N35.18.

Tib. is sli&hdy different:

1------

135
the dharmadhlltu that is referred to. He sees the mutual276 sameness of non-differentiation277 between himself and the mental continuum of all the Buddhas, the Venerable
Ones 218 , of the past. present and future as well as that of the bodhisattvas. By reason
of the ten equalities in regard to the purity of mind and mental dis po aition279 ; he demonstrates scriptural tradition by this statemenL [The full passage reads
as follows]:280
By reason of equality in regard to the purity of mental disposition concerning

the Dharma of tho Buddhas of the past, by reason of equality in regaTd to the
purity of mental disposition concerning the Dharma of the Buddhas of the
future 281 , by reason of equality in regard to the purity of mental disposition
concerning the Dharma of the Buddhas of the present, by reason of equality in
regard to the purity of mental disposition concerning morality, by reason of
equality in regard to tho purity of mental disposition concerning mind282 , by
reason of equality in regard to the purity of mental disposition concerning the
removal of false view, doubt, perplexity and annoyance, by reason of equality
in regard to the purity of mental disposition concerning the knowledge of what
is the path and what is not the path. by reason of equality in regard to the purity
of mental disposition concerning the knowledge of spiritual practice and
renunciation 283 , by reason of equality in regard to the purity of mental disposition concerning the ever increasing development of all dharmas that contribute
to enlightenment284 and by reason of equality in regard to the purity of mental
disposition concerning the maturation of all ~ntient beings 285 .
[The bodhisattva] peoetrates286 the non-differentiation in mental continuum by reason
of these equalities because the Dharma Body, which is characteriz.ed287 by a turning

Yl04

about of the store-consciousneas, is undifferentiated. Therefore, on this spiritual level


the perfection of meditative absorption ia more excellent due to the abundance of
meditative development in relard to tho aspecta of the [noble] truths, in an absolute
sense.
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284

28S
286
237

para1JJpmutJ is omitled from the TIb.; cf. D239b.2.


Read: 'bheda- in place of 'bIJilJu-; ct. B_a ibid.
Tib. inserts bIu,lvltIm which is not found in the Ms.
Read: tUiabbir cittlhylviiuddbiwnltlbhirin place of tbiabhir viiuddhacittlilyagmMjbhir; cf.
Bhl$ya N3S.l8.
From OS (R42.2 If.).
The wards CI 41J1gmb~ _ missiDa from the Ms.(3l&2) aad have been inserted on
the buis of the OS (R423).
Tib. (D239b.3): SetJIJ caD (. SIltVI) but OS: cia.
Both Ms.(31&3) and OS (R42.S): pratipalpClhlfJljIllDl- but Tib. (D239b.4): Jam Sa ~
".. .knowledae of the padI".
Ms.(3l&3): bodIJipa"binplaceofDS: bodbipMJy&
Line 4 of Ms.(3la) reads: -ay~y. CI / (wvllMtVlpariplCltJlviiuddhyliayullfUtlyl cal
COIlIIVy to Y's rudin, of line 16 p.103. Also. the TIb. does aaree with the Ms. conttary to his
Dace at the bottom of p.103.
Ms.(3l&4): pratividbYIti; disreaant Y's fR.7 p.103.
Ms.(3l&4): -parJvrtti/& ; disreaant Y's m.8 p.l03.

~-----------------------

---------------------------------------------------

136
[8]

By mean. of the sixth [he penetratel] itl meaning .1 de\'oid of

defilement Rd purity; it is the fact that he peoctrates [this meaning] of the dharmadhlltu that is referred to. The characteristic of dependent origination is defilement. The
[dharmadhltu] is not intrinsically defiled because [defilement] is adventitious to it, nor

is it purified because it is intrinsically pure. Thus he peoctrates the dhtlrmadhJtu in the


form of being understood in himself through direct intuition that is free from
conceptual differentiation.

Here now he demonstrates 5(;riptural tradition:

II

the

cons~quence of his penetration288 [of the reality] tha~, regarding depend-

ent origination, there is no dlJuma

whatloever

that

is

defiled

or

purified. On the sixth spiritual level the bodhisattva analyses dependent origination
and penettates [the reality] in regard to the latter that

DO

dharma whatsoever is defiled

or purified,

b~use:

pertinent to

ute limbs of dependent origination and (c) with the exception of the latter289

(a) the dharmadh.tu is luminous by nature, (0) defilement is only

there exists no other self or what pertains to a self in regard to which defilement or
purity can be construed. It is only because of this that290 the perfection of wisdom is
more excellent on this spiritual level because [the bodhisattva] understands the
profoundness of dependent origination in the sense of the absence of defileu:;ent and
purity.
[9]

By meana of the leventh [he. penetratel] itl mewn, .1 devoid of

multiplicity; it is the fact that he peocttates [this meaning] of the dharmadhJtu that is
referred to. On this spiritual level the bodhisattva is victorious due to the absence of
the manifestation of all signs. And since multiplicity manifests by way of the manifestation of signs, hence it is said that by

melDl

of the seventh [level) he peoctratel the

. meaning of the dharmadh.tu as devoid of multiplicity due to the absence of the manifestation of signs. In order to demonsttate this very meaning, he says: becaule of
the ablence of the manifeatation of multiplicity by .ay of liln in the
dharm.. of tho

sntru

otc 291 , Up to the sixth spiritual level [the bodhisattva]

enters the dharmadlJitu by means of the signs of the dharmu [explained in] the Siitras
etc., [signs] which manifest themselves forcefuUy in their diversity as the [two] knowledges, i.e. that which consists in the entry into [the dharmadh.tu] and that which is
YlOs

obtained subsequently to the latter. However, on the seventh spiritual level, since he
penettates [the reality] of the absence of sign on the pan of the dharmadh'r-oJ through
direct intuition in the aspect of the uniformity of all signs, those signs do

DOt

become

manifest. Consequently, on this spiritual level the perfection of expedients is more


288

289
290
291

Read: ptIlivedhJtin place of pratiWldbmll; ct. B~y. N35.21.


The words tadvyMirikto 'nya:n not to he found in P. noced by Y in his tn. 1 p.l04. however
they are found in D: gad U ... de I. glO/lS IW bda6 gam bdQ Ii med (D24OL3).
Folios 31b &: 321 are missing from the oriainal Ms., hence it has not been possible to check
this portion (YI04.15 to 106.27) of !he Yamaaucbi Ms. .,ainst the oriainal.
Read: Dimimittar.y' sa,'r:Jdjdlw7JwJjmitwJlIJlrvilamudlcarld in place of nimiltlbh,vena
sa~~~..,ya u....ttv..",udJclrldt etBblfya N3'.21.

137

excellent since he penetrates [the reality] that all signs are signless and does not contradict conventional linguistic usage which is created by signs. Also, as the consequence
of his penetr:ltion of the latter, in this [level] he obtains supreI"1acy292.
[10]

By means of the eighth [he penetrates] its meaning as neither

diminished nor increased 293 ; it is the fact that he penetrates [this meaning] of the

dharmadhlfru that is referred to, since the

dharmadhiItu is

completely pure by nature

because there is no difference between its stained or stainless condition. It is because


of this that it is described as thusness

(tathat~considering

that it is eternally just thus

Even though it is devoid of sign It doer. not diminish294 ; even though it


possesses sign it does not increase 29S ; for thus some believe that the sign itself is sign-

(tatM).

less.

Here now he gives the reason: as the consequence of his acquisition of

patient acceptance in regard to non-originating dharmas.

Thus, on the

eighth spiritual level the bodhisattva penetrates the fact that there is neither diminution
nor increase on the part of the dharmadhillU because he acquires patient acceptance in
regard to non-originating dharmas.

In regard to defilement and purification,

there is neither a diminution nor augmentation of any dharmas whatsoever 296 , because there can be no origination of new dharmas.
[11]

Mastery is fourfold: (a) mastery over the &bsence of conceptual

differentiation, (b) mastery over the complete purification of the 'field',


(c) mastery over direct intuition and (d) mastery over karma.

Because of

the spontaneous absence of the manifestation of all signs therein, the dharmadhiltu ig to
be known as the basis for mastery over direct intuition297 devoid of conceptual differentiation.

Even on the seventh [level] the

way of fomlative

influen~e;

non-manife~tation

of signs is (Xlssible by

however, here [on the eighth level] [it is (Xlssible] by way

of the absence of formative influence [i.e. spontaneously]298 - that is the difference.


Also, by means of the eighth [he penetrat!!s the reality] that it is the
basi, for mastery over the complete purification of the 'field'; the topic under
discussion is the fact that he penc:trates (this reality) of the dharmadhiltu 299 . The
292
293
294
295
296

297
298
299

Cf. OS R63.1lff.: yasy3111 pratisrhito bodhi~'altl'O bhayasH'ena vaSavartf bhavati...


Read: sHamy3 'hIn3nadhikiJrmam in place of aHamy1l 'llapaka~3nutkars3rtham; cf. Bh~ya
N35.22.
Read: h3n;s in place of apak~aS; cf. Bh~ya N36.1 (= D9b,I).
Read: v[ddhis in place of utk~3i; cf. Bh~ya ibid.
The Tib.: lun nas rion morls pOI n; bri ba med pa am I mam par byad ba(s) na 'pheJ ba'; chos
gan yan med de (024Obt3) would suggest the following reading: kasyacid dharmasya h3nir nasli
sarplJeSe vrddhir v3 n3sti vynadlJlS iii in place of las cid apacayadharmo n1Jsl; saqJkleSe I
abhyuccayo vo! n3sIi vyavad3na. However. Ihis passage is clearly a paraphrasing of the
following passage from the Bhl!~ya: sa1/lklcse vyavad3ne vll kasyacid dharmasya
h1Jnivrddbyadarsan3t (N35.23); Tib. kun mu flon moos pOi 'am I mam par byan ba n,1 yan bri ba
'am 'pheJ ba mi mlhof) ba 'j phyir {D9b.6-7). The Tib. omits lasyacid dharmasy&; cf. my fn.227
above.
jil3na (ye ses) is omitted (rom the Ms. and is inserted OIl the; basis of the Tib.; cf, 0240b.5.
Tib. replaces anabhisa1JlSk3Te{lJl with an3bhogena (lhun gyis gmb pa yin pas); cr. 0240b.5.
Read: 1~/r.leariSuddhivaSit3rayalva11l c:Jsramy3 dharmadh:llop pratividhyallti pralqt;;im in place
of !setrapanSuddhivaSit:K,Srayatva11l c~~amya pra)tividhyarIt; prakrtam. This passage, which is

138
dharmadhiJtIl is to be understood as the basis for mastery over the corupleoo purifi~
Y1 06

cation of the 'field' because [the bodhisattva] obtains the power to exhibit it at will to
the Buddha fields and the circles of assembly300, Therefore, the perfection of vows is
more excellent on this spiritual level due to continual endeavour in regard to the wholesome on account of the aC<{uisition of mastery over both the absence I)f conceptual
differentiation and the 'field',

[12] By means of the ninth301 -{he penetrates the reality] that it fonus the
basis for mastery over direct intuition; the topic under discussion is the fact
that he penetrates [this reality] of the dharmadhiJtu.

How is this dil:cemcd that [the

bodhisattva] penetrates [the dharmadhiItu] as the basis for mastery over direc-t intuition

by the ninth [level]?

Due to his acquisition of analytical lmowiedge 302

Since, on this level, he acquires ana\yticalltnowledge consisting in: (a) the Dhanna, (b)
meaning, (c) grammatical analysis and (d) a ready intellect, which are not obtained by
others, Hence here, it is discerned that the penetration of the dharmadMtu is the basis
of mastery over direct intuition,

Therefore, the perfection of the powers is more

excellent on this spiritual level because [the bodhisattva} possesses the speci.al power
of wisdom.

[13} By means of the tcnth303 (be penetrates the reality] that it forms the
basis of mastery over karma; it is the fact that he penetrates [this reality of the
dharmadhiJtu] that is referred to. 304 How is this understood? Hence he says: as the
consequence of his working for the welfare of sentient beings at will
through his creative transformations.
Through this resolve 30S on the tenth
spiritual level [the bodhisattva) penetrates [the reality] that the dharmadhiJtu is the basis
of mastery over karma.

On account of this he obtains supremacy in regard to the

actions of a tathlgaea. For thus, like the sugaea, through his Transformation Bodies he
acts at will doing what is to be done at the appropriate time 306 for the sentient beings
abiding in the infinite world-spheres of the ten directions. Therefore, the perfection of
direct intuition is more excellent on this spiritual level because [the bodhisattva}

300
301
302
303

304
30S

306

omitted from the Tib., is most likely a partial quotation of the following passage from the
Bhl$ya: prathamadvitfyava.iimirayatvaJrl dharmadhltJv astanJyaiva bhamyl pratividh,atfti
(N36.3). It should be noted that the portion of !his passage in parentheses above is nussing
from the Ms.(32a.l} and has been reconstructed by Y; cf. his fn.S p.lOS.
Read: buddhaQetraparIalJlJUlQ4a1~aktipratilambhle veditavyam in place of buddh.qetnl(pariiodhllD8)parJllJ1lW)(la1aslllJlllatilUJ4iaktipratilambhlt (Y106. l); Tib. salis rgy/lS kyi iid
dad 'k}iOr gyi dkyil 'kbor Jrun du bst1JlJ JM1 mthu bnJet: pas .. .rig par byao (D240b.6).
navamyl but BhI$ya (N36.4): navamylm.
Read: pratislUJlvilllbhlt in place of pratislupvitplfpteQ; cf. Bhl$ya N36.S.
daSamyl but Bhl$ya: d&iamyllm (N36.S>.
Tib. omits !his sentence; cf. 02411.2.
niicayeallJena but TIb. has simply /UJe/Ja (~); cf. 0241a.3.
Ms.(32a.S): casmin leva as nored by Y, but his emendation to casmin We is preferred; cf. his
fn.l p.l06.

139

possesses the distinctive ability to both enjoy the Dharma and bring sentient beings to
maturation.
[14] In this way the ten spiritual levels of the bodhisattva are respectively determined
as the counteragents to undefiled nescience which is an obscuration to each single

spiritual level and is also an impediment

10

the complete purification, in every respect,

[which facilitates] the tenfold penetration of the dharmadhlltu and which is relevant to
these spiritual levels of the: bodhisattva as has [just] been described. The peculiar
nature of the ninth and tenth spiritual levels is revealed through their results but not
through a peculiar penetration of a different objective support307 because [the

bodhisattva] in these states reaches a condition which cannot be defined. The purpose
Yl07

of the penetration of the meaning of all-pervading etc. is [for the attainment of] a state
of excellence of the ten perfections, respectively. on the ten spiritual levels. Therefore,
these obscurations to the spiritual levels that have been described are also said to be
obscurations to the state of excellence of the perfections. Alternatively, it is said in a
Sntra that the purpose of penetrating308 the meaning [of the dharmadMtu] as allpervading etc. is [to attain] the result such as the attainment of meditative concentration
which is distinguished by [the attainment of] ever-increasing spiritual levels and which
culminates in direct intuition in regard to all aspects.

s. The Totality of Obscuration.


N36.8

However, in total:
11.17 abcd

Obscuration that

consists

in

moral

defilement and obscuration that consists in the knowable have now been
elucidated - these are all the obscurations in this regard.
conlJidered

al

being

Liberation is
due

to

their

extinction.
Por the liberation from all obscuration is coasidered .as being due to the
extinction of this twofold obscuration.

307
308

Ms.(32a.7): Dlv~lbheda- contrary 10 Y's fn.2 p.l06; however his emendation to III tv
alambaMbhecJa. is preferred on the basis of the Tib. (cf. 0241a.6-7).
Ms.(32b.l): pntive..yojm... ; Y's emendation to pntivedhaprayojansm is accepced on the basis
of the Tib. tab tu no,s IM'i dgods pa (D241b.2).

140

[Sthiramati]
n07.7

[1] All the obscurations, which are of various kinds, have been described in the above.

In order to demonstrate that they are [all] included within two obscurations, he says:
however, in total ...
11.17 ab

Obscuration that consists

in

moral

defilement and obscuration that consists in the knowable has now been
elucidated.
As to how this is understood that in total there are only two and that a third does not
exist, he says:
11.17 c

n08

These are all the obscurations in this


regard.

The ellipsis is that [all] are included309 . It is understood that all obscuration is included
within the two obscurations; another, Le. a third, does not exist.

Consequently, all

obscuration is included herein, hence liberation from 1111 obscuration is CODsidered as being due

to

the extinction of this twofold obicuration,

consisting in both :noral defilement and the knowable which comprise all obscuration.
What is meant is: one should relinquish all obscuration310 ,
Although obscuration to the Buddha level has not been elucidated, is it also

[2]

included in these [two]? [It is included, however] its inclusion is not due to its direct
mention but rather is due to its intrinsic nature.

Moreover, it has certainly been

mentioned because of the statements about the pervading obscuration; otherwise it


would be just a limited obscuration. Alternatively, in order to include311 the obscuration to the Buddha level, he says:
11.17 cd

These are all the obscuratioDs in this


regard.

Liberation i. considered as

beiD, due to their extiDctioD312.


Because there can be no liberation in the absence of the extinction of the obscuration to
the Buddha level. Hence it has been illustrated that the latter [Le. obscuration to the
Buddha level] is also an obscuration, just like the remaining obscurations. However,
undefiled nescience which is a condition of extraordinary subtlety Iud the latent
impressions of moral defilement are described as obscurations to the Buddha level.
Therefore, it has been elucidated in this way because it cannot be examim. d differently
due to its extraordinary subtlety.

309
310
311
312

Read: antBrg.tJDlti in place of atrlntlUg.tJDni; an is not found in the Tib. nor in the Ms.,
conttary to Y's reading,
Read perhsps: sarv'vBl'S{JlDi prsjlhIhi in place of sarv'vBl'BQIDIqJ pnbl(lBm; Tib.: sgrib ps
thl1lJ6 cad spon (D241b.4).
Ms.(32b.4): -wpgrah.... conttar)' 10 Y's fn.6 p.l07.
Read: y.,q.yln in place of IMt q,yld; cf. Shlfya N36.10.

141

The Summary Meaning of Obscuration.

N36. 14

The summary meaning of the obscurations: Extensive obscuration


refers to the pervading.
Minute obscuration refers to the limHed.
Obscuration to application refers to the excessive.
Obscuration to
attainment refers (0 the equal.
Obscuration to the special attainment
refers to acceptance and rejection.
Obscuration to correct application
refers to the nindold obscuration consisting in moral ddilement.
Obscuration to the [instrumental] causes refers to [the obscuration] to
virtue etc. and is due to the influence of the tenfold causal categories 313
Obscuration to the entry into reality refers to [the obscuration] to the
factors that contribute to enlightenment. Obscuration to supreme vinue
refers to [the obscuration] to the perfection.. Obscuration to the !tate
of excellence of the latter refers to [the obscuration] to' the spiritual
levels. The complete collection of obscurations refer to the two types
in total.
[Sthiramati]

Yl 08. 8

Exteuaive obscuration refers to the pervading; i.e. obscuration that consists in


both moral defilement and the knowable which penains to the spiritual lineages of the
bodhisattva. Minute obscuration refers to the limited: i.e. only obscuration

that consists in moral defilement and which is pertinent to the spiritual lineages of the
srJvaka etc. Obscuration to application refers to the excessive; this penains
only to those who course in passion etc. and it is on account of this that application is
not attained. Obscuration to attainment refers to the equ.r114 : this penains to
those who course in equal shares for it acts as an impediment to attainment. Obscuration to the special attainment refers to acceptance and rejection31 S
penains to those who belong to the spiritual lineage of the bodhisattva because it is the
obscuration to a special understanding. The special understanding consists in [the
attainment of] the nirvlpa [in which the bodhisattva is] not permanently fixed and this
should be understood as a special result. Obscuration to correct application
refers to the ninefold characteristics of moral defilement316 : since it is
313

314
315

316

The Tib. is slightly different: "ObscunUon to the causes is an obscuration to the tenfold
[qualities] such as vinue and is due to the influence of the causal ClteJories" . rgyu 111 sgrib pa ni
dge balll sags pa mam 1M bcu h sgrib paglllf yin S~/ rgyu'i don gyI dllbs kyi phyir(DlOa.4);
cf. Nagao's fn.7 p.36.
Read: samamin place of Slm.ln/lm; cf. BhliyaN36.16.
Read: IdInllvivllljlllJe in place of lIdIn~ cf. Bhliya N36.16.
nlt'lldhlkJeAl~ but Bhlfy. (N36.17): naVlldbltleilVllll{Wp.

142

stated that the nine fetters are obscurations. The way in which these become obscurations to correct application has [already] been described.

Obscuration to the

[instrumental1 causes rofers to [the obscuration] to vinue etc. and is


due to the influence of the tenfold causal categories3l7 ; because it acts as an
obscurati~!I

by causing obstruction3l8 to the cause of viltue etc., it is described as an

obscuration to the [instrumental] causes.

Obscuration to the entry to reality

refers to [the obscuration1 to the factors that contribute to enlightenment 3l9 ; for [the bodhisattva] enters reality by means of these. Obscuration to
supreme vinue refers to [the obscuration1 to the perfections320 ; because
Y109

there is no vil1ue superior to this.

ObscuratiuAl to the special state of

excellence of the latter refers to [the obscuration1 to the spiritual levels;


because only the perfections which form the basis of supramundane excellence are
described as the spiritual levels.

The complete collection of obscurations

refer to the two types in total; i.e. obscuration that consists in moral defilement
and obscuration that consists in the knowable because all obscurations are included in

these two.
The statements of summary meaning are for the pwpose of ease in comprehension
and retention since [a treatise] which has been summarized is comprehended and
retained with ease.

317
318
319
320

Read: -hetvarth.dhiklr.d in place of hetvldhiklr'd; Tib. rgyu'i don ,y; sklbs kyi phyir
(D2A2a.!5). Cf. BhI$ya N36.18.
Read: -vibandhaklrlkMlvltepl'vata{J1IJI vitti" iti in ~l!Ce of -vibandhadvlte(ll 'v/Il'I{J1IJI
bhlvatfti; TIb.,elS byed pI'i s,o DIS sgrib par I,yur bas (D242B.S).
bodIu'paiJe,v but Bh_ya (N36.19): bodhipdJye,v.
Ms.(33a.2): -'VIl3(lIl1l yat; disregard Y's fn.6 p.lOS.

Chapter Three

Reality

144

Introductory

N37

With reference to reality. he says:

III.I abcd

There is: (a) basic reality. (b) the


reality

of

characteristic,

(c)

that

characterized by the absence of erroneous inversion, (d) the reality that


consists in cause and result and (e)
that of the groll and the subtle;
III.2 abcd

(f)

Well-established reality, (g) the

reality of the sphere of purity, (h)


the reality of the aggregation, (i) that
which is characterized by differentiation and (j) the tenfold reality of
the skills which [act] in opposition
to the false view of self.

There are ten kinds of reality, namely. (a) the basic reality, (b) the
reality of characteristic, (c) the reality free from erroneous inversion.
(d) the reality of cause and relult, (e) the reality of the gross and the
subtle, (f) well-established reality, (g) the reality of the sphere of
purity, (h) the reality of the allregation, (i) the reality of differentiation
and (j) the reality of the skilli.

Moreover, the latter [which act] as the

counterl!gentl to the tcn kinds of lolf-graspinl should be understood as


being tenfold, namely, skill in the aggregates, skill in the elements, skill
in the senr.e-fiolds, skill in dependent origination, skill in the possible
and the impvIsible, skill in the sense faculties, skill in the times, skill
in the [four] troths, skill in the vehicles and skill in the conditioned and
the unconditioned.
[Sthiramati]
YlIO

[1] Immediately foUowinl the explanation of the obscurations is the appropriate place

for the explanation of reality sin<:e it was listed immediately after [the obscurationsl.
Hence [Vasubllndhu]

~ays:

with reference to reality, [Maitreya] says...

There

are various kinds of reality. consequently. without an understanding of their differen-

145

tiation the essential nature of the realities is difficult to understand. Hence, in order to
clearly illustrate the differentiation of the realities at the beginning, he says:
111.1 a

There is: (a) basic reality, (b) the


reality of chluacteristic etc.

In detail, there are ten kinds of reality.


[2]

[Some say]l the statement about the basic reality is for the salce of showing

tHat the other realities are included there within the basic reality. The statement about
the reality of characteristic is for the salce of overcoming the faults that have
entered into clear comprehension, relinquishment and realization in regard to basic
reality2.

The statement about the reality free from erroneous invenion is for

the sake of demollStrating the expedients for withdrawal from saIJlsJra. The statement
about the reality of cause and result is for the salce of showing the 'going forth'
by means of the sravaka vehicle for one who has become weary [of saIJlsJra] because
the sravaka goes forth by virtue of his penetration of the four noble truths and [his
progress in] meditative development. The statement about the reality of the gross
is for the sake of showing the expedients for the accomplishment of knowledge of all
aspects.

The statement about the reality of the subtle is for the salce of showing

the expedients for the relinquishment of all obscuration. The statement about wellestablished reality is: (a) for the sake of showing the expedients which facilitate the
explanation of the extremely well-defined) Dharma and (b) for the sake of showing the
expedients for the refutation of all counter-arguments. The statement about the reality of the sphere of purity is for the sake of showing the differences in purity
according to its differentiation with regard to spiritual lineage, sense faculty and mental
disposition, although equal [Le. non-differentiated] with regard to the dharmadhatu.
The statement about the reality of aggregation is for the sake of showing the
expedients for entry into defilement and purity in all aspects. The statement about the
reality of differentiation is for the purpose of showing the capacity for reversal of
all uncertainty, beginning with [uncertainty in regard to] thUSDess. The statement about
Y 111

the reality of the skiUs is for the sake of showing the expedients for the establishment of non-substantiality after having checked self-grasping, in all its modes.
[3] However, others say that the basic reality, which is peninent to bodhisattvss, is not

common [to the sravakss and pratyeJcabuddhss]. The second reality is the counteragent

1
2

Tib. (D242b.3) insens khl cig nl lltwhich is not found in the Ms.
Read: -slqJtbraQ6pI'IVi$~ in place of -.sJqItIc~yubasya dosaptahllR{Jlrthaqr, Tib. nutoa sum du byed 1M JI iugs 1M'i des 1M gZom pa'i phyir (0242b.4). Cf.

MSA.XI 8-12 comm.

Ms.(33..7): aVYlvuthita but Y's emendation to SUVYlvUthita is preferred on the bais of the
Tib.; cf. his tn.3 p.1I0.
Read: -"1IV1$"'llJopIyas~ in place of -VYlvlS"'IIIlS1manhyaslllJdMilUJl-; TIb. tab tu
A 1Mi
PI (0243a.2), however P: mrhu for thabs which is in accord with Y.

rhw

"'till

146

to incorrect applicationS only in respect to the former [Le. the bodhisattvas]. The third
reality is conformable to correct application. The fourth reality is common to both

srlvakas and pratyekabuddhas. The fifth reality is an expedient for accomplishmen{


The sixth reality is common to people in general. The seventh reali)' is not common to
the latter. The eighth reali)' consists in the totality of the knowable. The ninth reali)'
refers to intrinsic nature.

The tenth reality refers to the eradication of the root of

defilement
[4] In brief, these ten realities are the basis of all the statements of the tathllgatas with

hidden meaning.

In detail, reali)' is immeasurable. Some believe that because it is

conformable with reali)' the conventional too is described as a reali)' in this context.
Others believe that these are all realities because they are not disconsonant with the
modes as described, considering that, that which is not disconsonant with a particular
mode, is a reality as such.

1. The Basic Reality


In the above, the basic reality refen to:

N37.17

III.3 a

The three natures;

[Namely], the imaginary, the other-dependent and the perfected,


because the other realitiea are relpectively determined in relation to
these.

Wby is reality cODsidered iD relatioD to the three Daturea?

III.l bed

N38

Ca)

That which

is

eterDally

D.:In-

exilteDt. Cb) that which exilts but Dot


as a reality and Cc) that which both
existl and does Dot exist al a reality;
theae are thus cODsidered [al the
realities]
naturea.

hl

rollti9g.

t9

lbe tbrlO

Ca) SiDce that which ia characterized aa the imasiDary ia etemally


DOD-exilteDt. it ia a reality iD relatioD to the imagiDary Dature becaule it
is Dot erroDeoully iDverted. Cb) SiDce that which i, characterized as the
other-dependeDt exiau, but Dot as a reality' bec.',,!, it cQQ,iI!ta iD error,
S

6
7

Ms.{33b.2): -pratiiJU$8tvld dvitlyam but Y's emendation to -pratipak$atattvll.1f1 dvitIyam is


prefened on the buis of the TIb.; ct. his tn.1 p.lll.
Both D (243L3) and P (1I3a): sgrib 1M which should probably read spub pL
the first
explanation of audJribtattvam (YIIO.IS-16 - D242b.S-6).
-na ca rauvllO but TIb. (DIOb.5): yad d66 1M ma yin lie .. abbllt&.

cr.

147

it is a reality in relation to the other-dependent nature.

Cc) Since that

which is characterized as tho perfected both exists and does not exist as
a reality, it is a reality in lelatioll to the perfected nature.
[Sthiramati]

Ylll.19 [1] In the Bbove, the basic reality refen to:


III. 3 a

The three natures

etc.

Since these have not been established. he says: the imaginary. the otherdependent and the perfected.
natures are described as

In order to demonstrate the reason why the three

comprising the basic reality. he says: because the other

realities are respectively determined in relation to these.

What is meant is:

the other realities. such as that of characteristic. are included within that [basic reality].
Y112

[2]

Why should these three natures be studied? Some believe that it is in order to

demonstrate: (a) conventional usage. (b) the absolute and (c) the basis of the latter.
Others believe it is in order to demonstrate: Ca) erroneous inversion. (b) the cause of
that and (c) the objective suppon that acts as the counteragent to these. Others believe
it is in order

to

demonstrate the foundation of: (a) relinquishment, (b) clear comprehen-

sion and (c) realization so as

to

facilitate separation from obscurations on the pan of the

bodhisattva. Others believe that it is for the sake of the error-free understanding of the
nature of the perfection of wisdom. which is profound by nature. by way of the three
natures. For it is stated as follows in two verses from the Abhidharrr.asilua 10:
Teachings about magical creations and the
like are in relation

to the

wOrldll ; teachings

about non-existence are in relation to the


imaginary; however. teachings about the
perfected penain

to the

four kinds of purity

- these are: intrinsic purity. immaculate


purity. the purity of the objective suppon
and the purity of the path. for. the pure

dharmas are incorporated in these four.


[The teachings from the Siltras about magical creations etc. are in relation to the
wOrld l2 i.e. the other-dependent nature. because. like a magical creation etc . it is a
false appearance. The teachings about non-existence are in relation to what does not
exist. i.e. the imaginary nature. The teachings about the perfected are in relation

9
10
11
12

to

the

Read: svabh.vu trividba in place of trividb~ svabh.vr, G. Naaao has shown that this swement foom part of the third verse. Cf. BhI$ya N37. fn.IO.
Ms.(33b.S): pill/M'iauym but Y's pnd6riaYI/IJ is cmect.
These two vena arc also quoeed in MSG; see Tome I. L38 ~ To11'II ~ LI22.
bhate; Tib. (D243b.2): byud rtI.
byud pa probably a COIllJ'aCtion of 'byud pa'i ltI!Ir, cf. ibid.

148

fourfold purities.

In regard to the fourfold purities: (a) intrinsic purity refers to

'thusness' etc. [intrinsic to] the stained state, (b) immaculate purity refers to the latter in
the stainless state (c) the purity of the path, which consists in the attainment [of the
understanding] of emptiness etc., refers to the factors that contribute to enlightenment
etc., (d) the purity of the objective support for the generation of the path refers to the
Dharma teachings, such as the Slitras, which flow out of the clhannadhSlu because the
origination of the path is dependent upon these. Thus the abridged meaning of these
two verses is that all pure clharmas are included in these four purities.]13
believe that the natures are admitted as threefold

14

Others

in order to demonstrate that they are

the respective objects of mundane, supramundane and the direct intuition attained
subsequently to the latter 15.
[3] Why is reality considered in relation to the three naturel?
Y113

For 'reality'

has the sense of being 'not erroneously inverted', thus what is intended by this
qu~stion:

"why is reality considered in relation to the three natures?", is: why is that

which is not erroneously invened considered in relation to the three natures?

iII.3 ab

The three naturel [refer toJ: Ca) that


which il eternally non-exiltent l6 etc.

That which i. characterized as the imaginary i. eternally non-existent.


That [object] in regard to which naive people have notional attachment to the apprehended object and apprehending subject and also to the signified and signifier, like in a
dream, has l7 an imaginary nature because its essential nature does not exist. Hence 18,
since it has both the nature of a noll-ens and is without error, that which is characterized by the imaginary does not exist. Consequently. only non-existence is described as
the reality in relation to the imaginary nature becaule it i. not erroneously
inve~d.

13

14
IS
16

17
18

Here be snows

me meaning of reality as 'oot erroneously inverted',

This section in parenthesis which comments on the two verses from the Abhidhanna-sDtra is
not found in the Sanskrit version of the TIkl but appears only in the Tib. The full passage
reads as follows: bywi ba gian gyi dbad gi no bo llid la Ilos Das mdo las sgyu ma la sags pa
bstlD Ie I de Di sgyu mala sags pa biin du log par snan ba'i phyir ro II med pa Jam brtags pa'i
do be ilid la 1101 Das med pa bsran to II mam par ~ pa mam pa bii la Ilos Das ,oris su grub
par bsran to II mam par dag pa mam pa bii la tad bim gyis mam par eJag pa Di dri ma dari bcas
pa'i dus kyi de biin ilid la sags pa'o II dri rna med pas mam par dag pa Di de dag /lid dri rna med
pa'i dus Dao II stan pa ilid la sogJ pa 'thob pa'i lam mam par dag pa Di byan chub kyi phyogs
ia sags pa'o II lam skyed pa'i phyir dmigs PM mam par dag pa Di chos Icyi dbyiris Icyi rgyu
mthun IN' bstlD pa'i chos mdo'i sde I. sogs PM stet I de la baeD DIS lam slcye ba'i phyir IV II 'eli
Jtar mam par dag IN' 'eli biis mam par byan ba'i chos thlUllS cad bsdus te tshigs su bead pa gllis
Icyi doD mdoc bsdus pao (D243b.3 - 6).
Read: svabh!vlUfJ tnyopldJDam ity anye in place of tnyopldlnaIp svabhlvatvam ity anye; Ms.
(341.1): sVllbh'va ayopldllJ.... Jdm.
Cf. T-Bbltya Verse 22 comm. (lAO).
Read: svabhJvlS trividho Sac c. Dityam in place of trisv.bh,vo J:y asau Dityam; cf. N's fn.lO
p.37.
Ms.(34a.2): pnVllUte I usc c.I sa but Y's emmdation 10 pnvanate sa is preferred on the basis
<If the Tib.; cf. his fn.2 p.1l3.
Read: ato 'sad- in place of tumid 1ASad-; Ms.(34a.2}: svabhlvalt I a... ;Tib. de'i phyir (D244a.2).

149

[4] That which is characterized as the other-dependent exists but not as

a reality19. That which is characterized by the imaginary, i.e. the apprelumded object
and apprehending subject etc., does exist since it is the basis of conventional
[linguistic] usage.

However, because it does not exist in its nature as apprehended

object and apprehending subject etc. it does flot exist as a reality as such. In order to
clearly illustrate this, he says: because it consists in 'bare' error. TIlls is what is

being said: th2t which appears20 , like the material cause of a magical creation, does
exist; the way in which it appears, like a magically created man etc., i.e. in the aspect of
apprehended object and apprehending subject, does not exist as such - hence it is
[described as] error.

It is a reality in relation to the other-dependent

nature 21 . That which exists in a different way is manifested in the aspect of something non-existent in relation to itself. That it is because it is not erroneously inverted
is understood here also because this is the subject under discussion.
[5] That which is characterized as the perfected both exists and does not

exist as a reality22. That which is characterized by the perfected is a reality that


both exists and does not exisL h exists because it has the nature of the existence of the
non-existence of the duality; and it does not exist 'xcause it has the nature of the nonexistence of the duality. It is a reality because it is the objective support for purity. It
is a reality in relation to the perfected nature; it is the fact that this is

bec~use

it is not erroneously inverted that is referred to.

2. The Reality of Characteristic


N38.9

What il the reality of characteriltic?

1II.4 abed &: S ab

Viewl that conlilt in imputation and


nelation

in

relard

to:

(a)

the

dbumu and the personal entity, (b)


the

apprehenl'ed

object

and

appre-

hendini lubject and (c) exiltent and


non-edltent [entitiel] do
due

to the

not arile

knowledle of this

the

reality-characteristic.
19

20
21

22

D.

tmv.,.

Read: pantantraJIk$l{JaIJI sa: ca ca


as per Ms.(34a.3) in place of JWM6IJ~1IfJ
sat / ~ ca ,.avm; cf. Bhl$ya N38.4.
Read: y at thy.ti as per Ms.(34a.4); cf. Y's fn.4 p.113.
Read: elM plntantrasvabblve wtvll1J in place of tad dJJi plnl1llJtrasvabhlve wtv.am; cf. Bh~ya
N38.5.
Read: -~ttattvatU ceti in place of -~avll1J iti; cf. BhI$ya N38.~,

...

150

Views that consist in imputation and negation in regard to the


personal entity and the dharmsil do not arise due the knowledge of this
the reality-characteristic in relation to the imaginary nature.

Views that

,'::onsist in imputation and negation in regard to the apprehended object


and

appr~hending

subject do not arise due to the knowledge of thiB the

reality-characteristic in relation to the other-dependent nature.

Views

thut consist in imputation and negation in regard to existent and nonexi.Hent [entities] do not arisc due to the knowledge of this the realitycharlcteristic in relation to the perfected nature.
invert~d

This non-erroneously

<reality-)charac(oriatic 23 in relation to the basic reality is

desc;ibed as the reality of characteristic.


[Sthiramati]
Y114

[I]

Since the reality of the three natures has been described but its characteristic has

not, or else, since the reality of characteristic was [initially] mentioned immediately
following basic reality and il has nOI been established, he asks: what is the reality
of characteristic?

Hence he says:

111.4 ab

Views that consist in imputation and


negation

in

regard

to:

<a>

the

dharm.. and the personal entity etc.

Views that consist in impuuaion and nelation in regard to the personal


entity and the dharma. do not' arlae due to tbe knowledge of this 24 the
reality-characteristic in relation to the imaginary nature.

Views that con-

sist in imputation refer to the notional attachment to the self and to the dharmas of form
etc. as existing2S in an absolute sense and which, being separate26 from consciousness
in the appearance af these, form its objective

suppon.~.

The view that consists in nega-

tion refers to the notion that they [i.e. self and dharmas etc.} do not

elli~t

even by way

of conventional (linguistic] usage. Other!; say that L'le view that consists in negation is
that which rejects consciousness as an appearance of the personal entity and th.:
dharmas; this should be thought of as the rejection of the apprehending subject27 .

Views that consist in imputation and negation in regard to the personal entity and the
dharmas do not arise due to the discrimination of a panicular characteristic - [this is]

the reality-characteristic ir. relation to the imaginary nature which should be understood
as being devoid of imputation and negation is that characteristic. And this is a Teality
as conventional usage but not by way of own-being because the views that consists in

23

24
25
26
27

Tib. mtshan llid ky; de kho na (DII1.2) u

/akp{l~ta,rv.m.

Read: yasyajtJ3n3n in place of Yl!UtJ3tI3n; cr. Bhl$ya N38.13.


Ms.(34b.I): sanllty; disregard V's fn.2 p.1I4.
Read -vyatiriktJs as per Ms.t.l4b.l) in ~Iace of -VjfatiriJrwy.1.. ,

Read perhaps: -pruUksepo pavaaaaal"sal"U1m -z.t-z. / gm1Jakapl"at7..ksepa

iti oillt!J<un etat in place of -panhlno '" etat: Tw.: BP.on pa 'Ii
skw' pa debs pap lta ba'o zee zel' te/'cizin pa spml pa 'di ni beam

d.J08 pa (D244b.3).

151
imputation and negation in regard to the dharmas and the peISOnal entity do not arise,
Le. they are not produced. due to the awareness that they are imaginary.
(2)

Views that consist in imputation and negation in regard to the

apprehended object and apprehending subject... ; the erroneous appearance of


apprehended object and apprehending subject is [respectively) grasped as dharma and
personal entity if one is notionally attached to their existence as a reality - the impuYl15

tation in regard to the apprehended object and apprehending subject occurs in this way.
Now if one is notionally attached to the non-existence of both the apprehending subject
and apprehended object alike, then the negation in regard to the apprehended object and
apprehending subject (occurs]28. Views that consist in imputation and negation in regard to the apprehended object and apprehending subject do
not arise due to the knowledge of this characteristic, the reality-characteristic in relation to the ower-dependent nature which should be known as
devoid of imputation and negation. Funhermore, the latter does not exist insofar as its
nature as apprehended object and apprehending subject is imaginatively constructed29 ,
but it does exist insofar as it forms the basis for the conventional usage in regard to it
Due to clear comp::-ehension thus, the views that consist in imputation and negation do
not arise in regard to the other-dependent.
[3)

Views that consist in imputation and negation in regard to non-

existent [entities]30. ; certain people say that if one perceives emptiness as something existent, then this is [equivalent to] the view that imputes existence. Conversely,
if [one perceives emptiness] as something non-existent, then this is (equivalent to] the
view that it is not an existent. Moreover, both of these views in regard existent and
non-existent [entities] do not arise due to the knowledge of this characteristic 31 the reality-characteristic in relation to the perfected nature. Some
believe that32 this [i.e. the reality-characteristic] is, in its own-being, free from both
existence and non-existence because views about existence and non-existence in regard
to the perfected nature do not arise as the consequence of its knowledge. Others again
say that the notion that the emptiness of essential nature is [equivalent to] the nonexistence of the dUality33 is [to succumb to] the extreme of the imputation of exis-

28
29
30

31

32

33

Ms.(34b.4): grlhyagrlhlkaylpy abh.vam, but Y's emendation to grlhyasyevlI grlhakasy'py


abb'vlIIfJ is preferred on the basis of the lib; cf. his fo.3 p.114.
Ms.(34b.S>: ut pun'" grlhYII-, but Y's emendation to tat pun. klllpimy. grlhya- is prefemd on
the basis of the Tib.
Read: bhlvlbh.vllllllJllroplpavl(U- in place of bhJv'bh'vIlY~ SIIlDllOplpavlda-; cf. Dhl$ya
N38.16.
Read: eUId ubhllyam lIpi bh'vlbh~ y.yalaQat.JIISYlljJJIDIrI nil praVlltlfa in place of
etad ubhllylllD Bpi bh'v'bblv.wAlwn / yaYII l~aYII jllIDID nil fa bh'v.bh.vadadaDe
pravartefr, disreaucl Y's fn.3 p.llS since this passaae is included in the Tib. Dh_ya quotation
which foUows.
Ms.(34b.7): pnvl/ltale ity eO aye CODIl'Iry to Y's fn.4 p.llS, howeva- his emendation 10
praVIITata is prefemd..
.
Ms.(34b.7): dva,.bhlVIISVM1lpaivlI but Y'! e11Wldadon to dvay.bb'vall SVlll11pe{111 is preferred on the basIS of the Tib.; cf. his fnoS p.llS.

152

tence 34 because there is the imputation of an existent essential nature to that which in
its nature is free from both existence and non-existence. Conversely, the notion that
this [i.e. the non-existence of the duality] does not exist by way of an essential nature
consisting in the non-existence of the duality which is free from both existence and
non-existence and is the sphere of direct intuition devoid of conceptual differentiation35
is [to succumb to] the extreme of the negation of non-existence. Others36 believe that
both of these explanations should be reflected upon because of the intimate connection,
individually, of existence and non-existence with the views that consist in imputation
and negation. In this context, existence refers to the existence of the non-existence of
the duality. If one grasps the latter as a definite ens, then existence is imputed. If one
Y116

grasps it as a definite non-ens, then it is negated. Moreover, non-existence refers to the


non-existence of the duality. If one grasps this in terms of annihilation, then non-existence is imputed as an absolute non-existence. Now if one grasps it just by way of the
duality, then there is negation because it is manifested as a non-existent duality. Alternatively, if one grasps it as having an existent essential nature, then there is imputation.
Conversely, if one grasps it purely as a non-cns, then defilement and purification are
negated. This avoidance of the two extremes37 is [equivalent to] the reality characteristic in relation to the perfected nature. [Objection]: Is it not so that the characteristic of
the three natures has already been mentioned in the above? [I.e. Ch.I.S cd]: "[The three
natures] ... are taught on account of the object, the imagination of what is unreal and the
non-existence of the duality (respectively]".

(Response]:

In the latter, the

'characteristic' refers to the own-being (svBbhSVB) but here it refers to the mark (CihnB)
hence its mention here is not tautologous [as is evident in such statements as]: "... this
the reality-characteristic due to the knowledge of which the two [views] do not arise",
that is to say, the views that consist in imputation and negation in relation to the

personal entity etc. do not arise due to the knowledge of this38 the characteristic of the
basic reality.

34
3S

36
37
38

Ms.(34b.7): sllDYlItery abhlv. but Y's emendation to ianYlIteti bUy. is preferred on the
basis of the Tib: cf. his fn.6 p.IIS.
Read: bb'vlbb'vlIvimuiten.pi ell dVlIylbh.vavlII11pet111 nirviblpajlllDagCJCRI)lsau nlstIfi in
place of bb'v'bb'vavimuktena dVlIylbh'vll8vll1lpe.rJa nirVibJPajlllD.,OCMe.:I)1pi nlstlti; Tib.
@ dzloIJ10 dad ddos po IDI!ld pa 1u mvn,. grol ba"us su med pal taD biin ml1ll JIlT mi rtog
pal ye sa Jcyi spyod yul du ylllf IDI!ld do ze na (D24Sa..5).
Ms.(3Sa.1): apare / bhlvo; dimganl Y's fn.9 p.llS.
Read: IIDtMlvayavivarjlllJllJI in place of IIImdvayavigbltanll1JT, Ms.(3Sa.3): antMlvay.viv. c0ntrary to Y's m.2 p.1l6. Tib.(D24Sb.2) splIlfs pafor vivarjMWJl,
Read: -darialai yajjlllDl:J na plaVlllWJte in place of -darianllJl yajjlllDln na plavmate; Ms.
(351.5): -DIn IJlI pnvartallfa

153

3. The Reality Free from Erroneous Inversion.


N38.21

The reality free from erroneous inversion consists in [the knowledge


of]

the impermanent. the painful, the empty IDd tho insubstantial

because these [act as] the counteragents to the erroneous inversion of


permanence etc.
basic reality7 40

How do they relate relpectively39 to [the threefold]

They should be understood by way of the impermanence [of what is impermanent] etc.
III.S cd

An impermanent object is: (a) a nonexistent object. (b) characterized by


coming into being and passing away;

III.6 ab

and (c) stained and stainless, respectively, in relation to basic reality.

N39

For the three natures consist in basic reality.

In relation to these

[three] respectively, there are three kinds of impermanent object: (a) the
object as non-existent, (b) the object as coming into being and passing
away and (c) the object as stained and stainleas41 .

III.6 cd

Suffering is stated as being due to:


(a) appropriating, (b) the characteristic

and

lastly

is

considered

as

being: (c) on account of as.ociation.


In relation to [the threefold] basic reality, respectively42.

Suffering

is: (a) due to appropriating, i.e. due to the appropriating of notional


attachment to the personal entity and the dlJarmu, (b) due to the characteristic, i.e. due to the characteristic of the threefold nature of
suffering and (c) due to association, i.e. due to the .ssociation with
Thus should [suffering] be understood43 in relation to that
suffering.
[threefold] basic reality. respectively.

III.7 ab

Emptines. is considered as: (a) nonexistence. (b) existence as something


other and (c) intrinsic nature;

39
40
41

42
43

Tib. omits yathlbmwn; cf. 0245b.2.


Read: tafl'il maJar.ttvo (yathltranwp) btbam in plac~ of maJatmve yathlkramlIP katham ca

talla on the basis of the Tib; cf. N's m.6 p.38.


The Tib. and Sanskrit venions of this passage differ Slightly. The ttaDSlation here is on the
basis of Nagao's emendation which accords essentially with the Tib.: tnlyo hi svabhlva
mlliatattvlUJ1 telu yathlb'amalrJ llividho 'nitylrtho 'sItd.artho utpldavyaylrthllJ wuJlmallrthai
ca. Cf. N's m.l p.39.
This statement is omitted from the Tib. cr. 011-.5.
ved.itavyam is omitted from die Tib. Cf.01lL6.

154

Since the imaginary characteristic does not exist in any mode whatsoever the very non-existence is its emptiness. Since the other-dependent characteristic does not exist in the manner in which it is imagined
but is not non-existent in e ,ery respect, its existence aa something other
is emptiness.

Since the perfected characteristic has emptiness for its

own-being its very intrinsic nature ia emptiness.


II1.7 cd

Insubstantiality is explained as: (a)


the absence of characteristic, (b) the
difference of characteristic from that
[which is imagined] and ec) the individual characteristic.

Since the very characteristic of the imaginary nature does not exist
the very absence of characteristic is its insubltantiality. Since the characteristic of the other-dependent does exit, but not in the manner in
which. it is imagined, the characteristic - which is a characteristic different from that [which is imagined) - is its insubltantiality. However,
since the perfected nature consists in insubstantiality, the individual
characteristic44 itself is its insubstantiality.
The three kindl of impermanence have now been revealed in relation
to the threefold basic reality al the impermanence of: (a) a non-existing
object, (b) the impermanence of what comes into being and passes away
and (c) the impermanence of what is stained and stainless.
The nature of sufferinl il threefold: (a) suffering due to appropriating, (b) suffering due to the characteristic and (c) suffering due to
N40

association.

Bmptinell is threefold: (a) the emptinell of what is non-

existent, (b) the emptiness of what exilts u something other and (c) the
emptinesl of own-being.
Insubltantiality is threefold: Ca)
insubstantiality as the absence of characteristic, (b) insubstantiality IS a different
characteristic and (c) insubstantiality

II

the individual characteristic.

[Sthiramati]
Y1l6.15 [1] Immediately following the reality of characteristic4S , the reality free from erroneous inversion should be stated because the latter was listed immediately after the
former; hence he says: the reality free from erroneous inversion. For the
permanent, the painful, the empty and the inaubstantial46 are described as
44
45
46

Read: svm.q~ in place of prUJriron the buil of the nb. BhI$ya (Dllb.2): rU gi mtsbm
Ilid; this is also repeated in the nb. 11kI (D2471.5). Cf. m.8 a.
Ms.(35a.S}: Jaqatmn-, but Y's emendation 10 J."".,.ttv. is preferred.
Read: -lIlJltmltI in place of -In~ cf. B....y. N38.22.

155

the reality free from erroneous inversion becaule they [act u] counteragents47
to the erroneous inversion of permanence, pleasure, purity and the substantiality.

Previously, the inclusion of the other realities within the basic reality was

asserted, hence he asks: how do the latter relate to balic reality? As the
impermanence [of what il impermanent) etc48 . The impermanent etc. refers
to the modes of the impermanent, the painful, the empty and the insubstantial - the state
(-~

of anitya-tf) of that is impermanence etc. In order to demonstrate that the reality

free from erroneous inversion is included within the basic reality, he says:
[2]

I1I.S c
Y117

An impermanent object is: (a) a non-

existent object etc.


For there are three kinds of impermanent object: (a) the object al nODexistent, (b) the object al cominl into being and palling away and (c)
the object as stained and ltainlels; that which exists eternally as such is permanent; the inverse of this is impermanent; . .in relation to thele [three], relpectively. With regard to these: (a) the imaginuy nature is impermanent in the sense of
the impermanence of something eternally DOn-existent; others believe that this is to be
understood according to the rules of grammatical analysis, i.e. the impermanent (anicya)
is always non-existent (ssBlUJicya). (b) The other-dependent nature is impermanent in
the sense of impermanence characterized by coming into being and passing away every
moment, because it arises from causal conditions, and because there is no causality
when it passes away. (c) The perfected nature is impermanent in the sense of adventitious impermanence49 which is characterized by both the possession of stain and
stainlessness, although it consists in a dhumaSOthat does not change.
[3]

III.6 c

Sufferinl il Itated a. being due to:


(a)

appropriating,

(b)

the

charac-

teri.tic etc.
SufferingS! is threefold: (a) the suffering due to appropriating, (b) the suffering due to
the characteristic and (c) the suffering due to association.

Of these, the imaginary

nature consists in lufferinl that is (a) due to appropriatinl.

There is suffering

since suffering is appropriated (upUfyatc) either in the present life or in other lives on
account of the absence of clear comprehension.

And in order to demonstrate the

manner in which suffering is appropriated on account of this absence of clear compre47


48
49
50
51

-jnlipaQatvldhere but B~ya (N38.21) -prad~

uiryldi,. both here and in TIb. 1ItJ, but BhI$ya (N38.22): wtyadditl.
Tib. omilS wry.; cf. D246a.3.
Ms.(35b.2): -dhmnlpi, but Y's -dJwmo 'pi is preferred on the bais of the TIb.: cbo6 yin du %in
.tyad (D246a.3).
Ms.(35b.2): duf!kham iii but Y's emendation to t/ulIkham 'Pi is prefemcl on the buis of the
Tib.; cf. his In.3 p.1l7.

IS6

hension,

he says: due to the appropriating of notional attachment to the

personal entity and the dbum... There is the notional attachment to the
personal entity and the dharmas since one becomes notionally attached to the personal
entity and the dharmas through 'grasping' an entity on account of this [absence of clear
comprehension]. This [appropriating] belongs to the imaginuy nature because it has
'fallen' into duality. It is described in this way because the continuation of suffering is
due to the notional attachment to the imaginuy natureS 2 . The imaginuy itself is not
suffering because it does not existS3 Alternatively, since the imaginary nature is
appropriated in the nature of an entity on account of the notional attachment to the
personal entity and the dharmas, tb\lS the imaginary nature consists in the suffering that
is due to grasping.
[4] The other-depcnd.ent nature is referred to as the suffering that is (b) due to the

characteristic.

For the threefold nature of suffering refers to the suffering of

suffering, the suffering of change and the suffering of the formative forces. Moreover,
Y118

since these three sufferings are the sufferings that pertain to the other-dependentS4 ,
they are [described as] the suffering that is due to the characteristic.
[5] The perfected nature consists in suffering that is: (c) due to auociation.

The

word "and" has a conjunctive sense. How is it due to association? He says: due to
the nlociation with lufferinl.
ing; the real

nature

The other-dependent nature consists in suffer-

of the latter is described as suffering because even though perfected

it is also associated with suffering.

[Thul Ihould luffering be understood) in

relation to that [threefold) balic reality, relpectively.

In this regard, the

suffering that is on account of grasping consists in the imaginary. [The suffering] that
is on account of the characteristic consists in the

other-depeJKI~!lL

[The suffering] that

is on account of association consists in the perfected.


[6]

111.7 ab

Bmptinell il conlidered al: (a) nonexistence, (b) existence u

something

other and (c) intrinsic nature;


Emptiness is threefold: (a) emptiness as non-existence, (b) emptiness as an existence as
something other and (c) emptiness as intrinsic nature. Therein, emptiness as oon-existence pertains to the imaginary nature. In order to clearly illustrate just thisss, he says:
sinCft the imaginary characteriatic. like the essential nature of homs on a hare

S2

Tib. is sliahtly different: .... because notional attachment to the iJnaainary natule is the ground
for the continuity of sufferina". kun b,.. pa1 Do bo ifid 111 mIfoD par Zen pa IJi sdug bsdal gyi

rvun vi rgyu yin pas (D246a.6).


S3
54

S5

Ms.(35b.4): nip;' but Y's emendaliOll to tMlIIbh.vlt is preferred 011 the basis of the Tib.

fn.4 p.1l7.

Ms.(35b.6): pMltmtnldullkhd; disnIgInI Y's fn.l p.IIS.


Read: etad ev. as per Ms.(36a.I) in place of erat.

cr. his

157

etc., doe I not exist as the existing apprehended object in any mode whatsoever

through direct perception or inference; the very non-exiltence il its emptiness 56 . The emptiness of what exists as something other pertains to the other-dependent [nature]. In order to clearly illustrate just this. he says: since the other-dependent characteristic does not exist in the manner in which it is imagined
by naive people, i.e. in the nature of the duality. but il not non-existent in every
respect. Moreover. the mode in which it does exist is understood through mundane
direct intuition that is pure; therefore its existence al something other il emptinels 57 . The emptiness as intrinsic nature pertains to the perfected [nature I. hence he
says: since the perfected characteristic hu l;mptin"sl for its own-being;
because it has the non-existence of the duality for its own-being; therefore. its very
intrinsic nature is emptiness, i.e. its very own-being.
[7]

1II.7 c

Insubstantiality il explained as: Ca)


the absence of characteristic58 etc.

Insubstantiality is threefold: (a) insubstantiality as the absence of characteristic. (b)


insubstantiality as a difference of characteristic59 and (c) insubstantiality as the individual characteristic. Of these. the absence of characteristic itself is an insubstantiality
Y119

because there is the absence of the characteristic of a nature that is imaginary. This is
why he says: since the very characteristic of the imaainary nature does not
exist, the very absence of characteristic is its insubstantiality60, i.e. he
shows that it does not exist in any other mode. Insubstantiality as a difference in characteristic penains to the other-dependent, because, the characteristic of the otherdependent does exist, in the nature of an entity. but not in the way in which
it is imaained by naive people, i.e. as the duality; the other-dependent characteristic - which is a characteristic different from that, i.e. dissimilar to the
imagined characteristic - is its insubstantiality. Thus, its insubstantiality is shown
to be an imaginary substantiality6l. Insubstantiality as the individual characteristic62 is
pertinent to the perfected since the perfected nature consists in insubstantiality because it has the non-existence of the apprehended object and apprehending
56

S7
S8
59
60

61
62

Read: pcatyu,lDumll1~a Da keDaeid sattYaIJI grlbyam astlty abh.va evltya iUDyateti


in place of pntya4lnumIDlklretla yetllpi sattYaIJI grlbYaIJI Dlta / abh'varvlt racchllDyateti;
Tib. mDoD sum claD rjes su dpag pa m.l1ll pa gad gis iyad yod par pun du mJ de / dDos po
med pallid p&J de'; sbt pulid (D246b.S>. Cf. Bhl$ya N39.10 (- DUa.6).
Read: t&ry.tadbh'valr illDyati in place of atMIbh'vlt taechllDyateti; cf. Bhl$ya N39.12.
Read: ~ ca DairltmYaIJI in place of ~ hi DairltmyaIJJ; cf. Bhi$Ya N39.14.
Ms.(36a.3): vil~-; disregard Y's fn.S p.llS.
Reid: ~ eva Dltrtry aJakpqam evlsya DaUltmyam in place of lak$a{JlsattYld aJu,8{Jam
eva taDlJairltmyam; cf. BbI$ya N39.16.
Ms.(36a;6): p~piteD" but Y's emendation to padkalpirJtmatvelJ. is prefenecl on the basis
of the Tlb.: cf. his fnol p.119
Read: SValakJ~lDairltmyaJfJ as per Ms.(36a.6) in place of svablkppllJp Dairltmyazrr; Tib. Bri gi
mlShBIJ ilkJ.tyis btUg medpa(D247a.4).

IS8

subject as its nature; hence by saying: the individual characteristic itself is its
insubstantiality, he shows that the perfected dharma has insubstantiality for its
own-being 63 .
[8] Just what difference is there between these two terms, i.e. emptiness and insubstantiality? Some believe that wherein something does not exist, the former is empty of
the latter; however, if something is not the substance Oltman), i.e. the own-being of
something else, on account of this, the latter is insubstantial (anJtman) - this is the
difference between the two. Others again believe that although there is no difference in
reality, there is a difference according to the way in which they are respectively determined, since that wherein something does not ..xist is insubstantial because of the
absence of own-being on its part, however, in the former case, its emptiness is on
account of the absence of the perfected nature within it.
[9] In order to demonstrate that they [act as] the counteragents to the extremes of
imputation and negation and also that they consist in adventitious stain the three
kinds of impermanence have now been respectively revealed 64 in relation
to the threefold basic reality al: Ca) the impermanence of a non-existing
object. (b) the impermanence of what comes into being and passel away
and (c) the impermanence of what il stained and staimesl.

The reality free

from erroneous inversion65 is described in this way, concluding with the statement:
insubstantiality is threefold.

4. The Reality of Cause and Result.


N40.5

The reality consisting in caule and relult il [equivalent to] the


[noble] truth of lufferinl. itl orilination, ita ceslation and the path [to
the latter) in relation to that lame balic reality. How doel the threefold
basic reaUty conlist in the [four) truthl beginning with luffering?
Because the latter are characterized by impermanence etc.

III.8 b

Hence it il considered al the truth of


sufferinl;

The truth of origination [is considered] through the threefold categories of origination.

63

64
6S

The threefold categoriel of origination are:

Read: JWUUlpII1IIIuy. dhmnuy. in place of psrinilJWUlMJI dhllllfWllj Tib. yods su grub pal
chos Ja (D247a5).
Read: p61'idlpitl in place of Sl/fJdMiitl; cf. Bhltya N39.20.
Read: avi~lIII. per Ms.(36b.2) in place of avipatylUltvan1

159

III.S cd

Ca) latent impression,

Cb) manifes-

tation and <c) non-separation.


Origination as latent impression refers to the latent impressions of
the notional attachment to the imaginary nature.
festation refers to karma and moral defilement.

Origination as maniOrigination as non-sep-

aration refers to the non-separation of thusness from obscuration.


The truth of cessation [is considered) through the three kinds of
cessation.

The three kinds of cessation are:

1II.9 ab

Considered

as:

<a>

non-origination

by way of own-being, (b) non-origination by way of the duality and Cc)


the two extinctions of stain;
NOD-origination by way of own-being, non-origination by way of
the apprehended object and apprehending subject and the two extinctions of stain are stated al cellation through critical consideration and
also as thusness.

These are the three kinds of cessation, namely,

cessation by way of own-being, ceuation by way of the duality and


cessation by way of intrinsic nature.
How is the truth of thiJ path respectively determined in relation to
the threefold basic re:liity?
III.9 cd &: 10 a

In relation to their: Ca) clear comprehension, (b) renunciation and (c)


realization

..

attainment;

this

is

Itated al the truth of the path.

N41

I.e. in relation to: (a) the clear comprehension of the imaginary [nature),
(b) the clear comprehension and renunciation of the other-dependent
[nature) and (c) the clear comprehension of the perfected [nature) and
its realiza~ion as attainment.
Thus it should be understood that the
establishment of the truth of the path in thi. regard is in relation to
clear comprehension, renunciation and realization.
[Sthiramati]
[l)
Yl20

Since the reality of cause and result should be discussed immediately after the

latter [i.e. the reality free from erroneous inversion], he says: the reality consisting
in cause and result ... in relation to that same basic reality66. Therein,
concorning the side of defilement, the truth of suffering is [equivalent to] the reality of
66

Read: phsJalHJtumaYIIIJ t.lttvlJJl t.ltTaiva mrllat.lttve if! place of mrllatattve phsJahetutattvam;


cf. Bhl$ya N40.5.

160
the result; the truth of origination is [equivalent to) the reality of the cause. Moreover.
concerning the side of purification. the truth of cessation is [equivalent to) the reality of
the result and the truth of the path is [equivalent to] the reality of the cause. In this way
the four truths, beginning with suffering, are [equivalent to] the reality of cause and
result. It has been said that. [this reality] is [equivalent to] the truth67 of
suffering, its origination, its cessation and the path [to tile latter] in relation to that same basic reality6!1.
[2] And since it is not discerned how basic reality pertains to the own-being of the

truth of suffering etc. he asks: how does the threefold basic reality consist in
the [four] truths beginning with suffering?
Hence he says: because the
latter are characterized69 by impermanence etc.

111.8 b

Hence 70 it il considere4 as the truth


of suffering;

In detail. it is said that the impermanent, the painful. the empty and the insubstantial are
the characteristics of the truth of suffering and. as a totality. these exist individually in
the imaginary etc. Hence, the imaginary etc. are intended, individually. as the truth of
suffering.
[3] The truth of origination [is conlidered] as the threefold basic reality.

respectively.71 through the threefold categories of origination.

Since their

origination is not understood, he says: the threefold categories of origination


are:

III.8 cd

Ca)

latent imprelsion,

(b)

mallifel-

tation and (c) non-Ieparation.

The three kinds of origination are: (a> origination as latent impression, (b) origination
as manifestation and (c) origination as non-separation. Of these, the origination' as
latent impression should be understood as the imaginary nature; hence he says:
... refers to the latent impressions of the notional attachment to the
imaginary nature. Since, although the imaginary nature docs not exist, the dharmas
that consist in the mundane respectively determine the latent impressions of both conceptual differentiation and moral defilement72 on account of notional attachment to its
existence; however, the [dharmas that consist in the] supramundane and which are
without notional attachment, do not. Consequently, the imaginary nature is described
Yl21

as origination as latent impression.


67
68
69
70
71

72

Origination u

manifestation should be

Read: -sBlyMVam in place of satyllJi; cf. Bhl$Ya N40.6.


Read perhaps: utraiva maJaultVC in place of mOlatattve; Tib. nsa bal lis tho Da ilid Ill. Cf.
ibid.
Read: -~in place of -~ ct. BbI$yaN40.7
Read: lItO in place of tato; cf. Bhl$Ya N40.8.
Read: maJatattvll1fJ yatblinmlllP samudayssatyam in place of maJatattvlllP samudayssatyll1fJ
yatblb7unam; Ms.(36b.5): maJatllttvll1fJ ya-.
i$ omitted from the Tib.; cf. D248&.2.

Xl_

161

understood as the other-dependent [nature]73; manifestation refers to the acquisition of


a substantial nature. That which comes into being from something else is [described
as] "origination as manifestation", because it originates from this. Furthermore, as to
its essential nature, he says: ... refers to karma and moral defilement and these
two consist in the other-dependent nature because they have the nature of substantial
entities.

Origination as non-separation refers to [the non-separation] of

thuaness 74 ; how so?

Hence he says: [its] non-separation from obscuration.

This is what is being said: [thusnessl receives the title "origination" since: (a) suffering
originates as long as thusness is not separate from obscuration, or (b) thusness - which
is not separate from obscuration is the real nature of origination.
[4] The truth of cessation which consists in basic reality [il

considered]

through the three kinds of cellation and since these are not discerned, he says:
the three kinds of cessation are:
111.9 ab

Considered

II:

(a)

non-originAtion

by way of own-being, (b) non-origination by way of the duality and (c)


the two extinctions of stain;
Therein, non-origination by way of own-being refers to the imaginary [nature]
since it is an absolute non-origination because it is devoid of own-being, like the son of
a barren woman.

Non-origination by way of the apprehended object and

apprehending subject refers to the other-dependent; moreover, since this is absolutely devoid of the essential nature n of an apprehended object and apprehending
subject. it is IIOn-origination by way of a nature that consists in an erroneous duality.
And the two extinctioDl of stain refer to the perfected; the word "and" has the
conjunctive sense.

But since these [extinctions] are not discerned, he says: .. are

stated as ceslation through critical consideration and also al thulness 76 .


Stain is twofold: (a) obscuration such as passion and (b) the imaginary. Therein, when
the 'seed' has been extracted from its basis through direct intuition that is without impurity, an extinction [is achieved] which consists in the absolute non-origination of the
stain of passion etc. - this is cessation through critical consideration. By means of
direct intuition into the absence of the duality which belongs to the sphere of thusness,
an extinction [is achieved] which consists in the non-origination of the stain of the
imaginary; this is thusness. Both of these consist in the perfected na.ture,

73
74
75
76

n~~

duee

svabh.va is omitted from the Ms.


Read: tlthatly' iii in place of tIlhllMi; ct. Rhl$ya N40.13.
Ms.(37a.4): -rap.bhyllm, but Y's emen. ~ion to -svlrfIp.bhylm is prefemd on the basis of
the Tib.; ct. his fn. 3 p.121.
Read: pratisllJlkhylDirodhalithatlthylUJl in place of pratiwpkhylJJirodbas latham cocym; cf.
Bblfya N40.18.

162

kinds of cessation are to be discerned in relation to basic reality, beginning with the
imaginary, according to their respective enumeration. However others believe that the
extinction77 of these dual stains consisting in mo:-al defilement and the imaginary are
described as thusness on account of the penetration of thusness because of the stateYl22

ment: cessation by way of the duality and cessation by way of intrinsic


nature. Intrinsic nature refers to thuslless because this refers to the intrinsic luminosity of mind. Hence, since it has thusness for its objective suppon, this cessation is
described as cessation by way of intrinsic nature, [whereas] cessation alone 78 is
[described as] cessation through critical consideration. Others believe that cessation is
[equivalent to] thus ness inasmuch as [suffering] has ceased in the latter79 . Funhermore, since cessation consists in non-originatioD, after collecting together all [elements]
that have non-origination etc. for their own-being, they are described as the truth of
cessation. The inclusion of the truth of cessation within basic reality has now been
described.
[5] However, since the truth of the path should be included immediately after the latter,

he asks: how i. the truth of. the path respectively determined in relation to
the threefold basic reality?80 Hence the statement beginning with:

111.9 c

In relation to their: (a) clear comprehension [(b) renunciation]81 etc.

i.e. in relation to: (a) the clear comprehension of the imaginary (nature];
since the imaginaty nature is absolutely non-existent there is only its clear comprehension and not its renunciation, for the renunciation of what docs not exist is not tenable.
(b) In rela!ion to the clear comprehension and renunciation of the other-

dependent [nat.ure], for the othel'-dependent is to be understood as not existing in


the manner in which it appears but not as non-existent in its whole nature, like the
imaginaty; also, because karma and moral defilement have the nature of entities82 , it
[i.e. the other-dependent] is to be renounced.
comprehension of the perfected

[n~ture]

And (c) in relation to the clear


and ill realization al attain-

ment. For the perfected should be clearly comprehended as being characterized by


both the exemption from

77
78
79
80

eJQ!I~nce

an(l non-existenCl' and as the tuming about of the

Ms.(37a.6): -illntir iii mslsilnli- but Y's emendation 10 -ilnds ~tb.tety uo/.te is preferred OQ
the basis of the Tib.; cf. his fn.4 p.12l.
Read: IJiruddJJinJNraJp as per Ms.(37a.7) in place of nituddhamltnup.
Ms.(37a.7): pmisaqJkhylniradho nirodhya :Sylm, but Y's emendalion tll nirodh6Q / nirodhyam
is prefemd on the basis of the Tib.; cf. his fn.l p.l22.
Read: trividbe ma/auave as per Ms.(37b.1) and supported by Dh_ya N40.20 in place of
trividhama/.~ttve.

81
82

Read: parijJJ.yllp (pr/IbI{Je caJ in place of parijillrwp {prabIQaJp cal; cf. Dhl$ya N40.2l.
Read: vastvlltmatvllt in place of bhllv'tmatv't; Tib. ddor 1101 bd86 md yin pas (D2491.1);
Y121.3 (- D~a.3ff).

ct.

163

basis 83 , Since the turning about of the buis is to be realized as the liberated I)harma
Body, emptiness should be clearly comprehended.

Cessation should be realized

through the realizatioa as attainment. Others believe that there are two aspects to both
[clear romprehension and realizlltion) because clear comprehension is twofold: (a) clear
comprehension as knowledge and (b) clear compreh::nsion as renunciation84 . Therein,
the first and the third [natuIes] are to be clearly comprehended through clear comprehension as knowledge but the second [nature] should be clearly comprehended as both.
Realization also is twofold: (a) realization as knowledge and (b) realization as attainYl23

ment. Therein, although all three [natures) are to be realized through realization as
knowledge only the third is [to be realized] through realization as attainment. Thus it
should be understood that the establishment of the tIuth of the path in
this, Le. within basic reality, ia in relation to clear comprehension, renunciation and realization85 ; but not becau.s~ it is included therein [Le. within basic reality], In this [sectiou] the following are revealed through lIle four truths: (a) defilement,
(b) that from which it originates, (c) the purification of these two and (d) that from

which this originaLes.

However, their sequential order is in accordance with one's

infUitive understanding.

s. Gross and Subtle Reality.


The reality of the groll Il4d the fubtle refen to the conventional and

N41. 7

absolute truth.

How shoQld thil be undc;rstood in relation to ba.ic

reaUty?

ID.IO be

The gro.. [should be QndentoodJ by


way of: Ca) designation, (b) knowledge and (c) uttennce;

For the conventional il threefold: (a) conventional al designation,


conventional as knowledge and (c) conventional as uUerance.
1 hrough these [three], the conventional truth should be known in rela(b)

tion to [the threefold] basic reality, respectively.

lII.lO d

However,

the

absolute

[should

be

understood] by way of the one.


83
84
8S

-Jaq/qlatafJ parijifey.lSnlyspariVJttiw CB in place of -J~.UlJ parijffey.lSnlyBpMIvrttiayai cr, Ms.(3ib.3): -Iskppsmatalr psrijifey~ IlSray.psri-. Tib. (D209a.2): mtshlllJ ifid
dlli gIlU gyurJIll ifid du yod.s su ies par bys.
Ms.(37b.4): jif1lDaparijifl prah."lJBJ'I1iJ4I1 ca; disreganl Y's fn.4 p.l22.
Read:

Read: psrijillf'nl!.l{!ulkllldaiyllyllJp m1IJflU8l}'avysVlUth1lDsm iti in place of psrij41laaJnbI{!'"


slk$!tbraQBII'mlrgssstyBIJI vy.vasthJpiwp; cf. Bh_ya N41.3.

164

The absolute truth is to be understood


due only to the perfected nature.

III. I I ab

being due to the one. i.e.

81

But how can that be ahiolute?

Because the absolute is considered as


threefold. i.e. by wly of: (a> object.
(b) attainment and (c) spiritual practice;

(a) The absolute as object is thusncas. considering that it is the


object of the highest direct intuition.

(b) The absolute as attainment is

nirvlpa. cO!lsideriilg that it is the highest object.

(c> The absolute as

spiritual practice is the path. considering that the highest il its object.
How can both the unconditioned and the conditioned be delcribed as
the perfected nature?
III.ll cd

The two [are considered] by way of


perfection

that

is

unchanging

and

free from erroneous inversion.


The

N42

unconditioned

is perfected insofar as

it is

[equivalent to]

unchanging perfection.

The conditioned. which il incorporated in the

truth 86 ()f the path.

[is

perfected] inlofar as it ia [equivalent to]

perfection free from erroneoul inversionl becaule of the ablence of


erroneoul inversion in regard to

the

entity

that is

the object of

knowledge.
[Sthiramati]
1123.9

[1] The reality of the groil and the lubtle87 ; gross reality refers to conven-

tional truth; subtle reality refers to ablolute truth.

Since, at the beginning, [the

bodhisattva] brings beings to maturity by means of the gross but liberates those who

have reached maturity by means of the subtle, the gross is [explained] prior to the
subtle which follows. This statement is contradictory to the congruity of a verse [i.e.
lII.ldJ. Therein conventional truth refers to gross reality because it is the domain of
non-concentrated knowledge; absolute truth refers to subtle reality because it is the
domain of concentrated kn.... wledge.

Alternatively, [the former] refers to the gross

because it is the domain of consciousness &nd (the latter] refers to the subtle because it
is the domain of direct intuition. Since it has been asserted that all the realities are
intended as being included within basic
UIlderatQQd in relation to buic reality?

86
87

r~a!ity.

he ask!!: how should this be

Hence he says:

satya is omiued from die Tib. (CfDI2b.2).


Read: lIudltikullt,matllttvalfJ punlll' iti in place of ,udlrikaIp tMtVII'P
(37b.6): audlribsa-. Cf.

B~ya

N41.7.

.1ltJ1IJaIP ceti; Ms.

165

[2]

m.IO be

The

gr011

[Ihould be understood] by

way of: (a) delignation, (b) knowledge and (c) utterance88 ;


In relation to the basic reality, the gross reality is to be understood by way of designa-

tion, knowledge and utterance89 In order to clearly illustrate just this, he says: for the
Yl24

conventional is threefold.

Respectively determining the form of a nonexisting

object, i.e. calling it a water-pitcher or a cIoth90 is (al the conventional al designation. Others believe that the conventional as designation refers to the articulation
by way of the name as distinct from the essential nature of form, sensation and conceptualization etc. Others believe that the conventional as designation is .that which is
conventionally expressed as form or sensation, depending upon verbal articulation. It
is the imaginary nature because, like mind and the mental concomitants91 , it is nODexistent.
[3] (b) The conventional

u knowledge. The conventional as knowledge refers

to that92 conceptual differentiation on account of which one becomes notionally


attached to forms etc. and water pitchers etc.93 in accordance with their respective
determination as having the nature of entities as if they were external realities, although
they are not external to the appearances in consciousness.
[4] And (c) tbe conventional u utterance.

sense.

The word "and" has a conjunctive

The conventional. as utteran:e refers to the demonstration of the perfected

[nature] through its synonyms such as emptiness, thusr.ess, the possession of stain and
stainlessness etc. 94, although it transcends conceptual differentiation and verbal
description.
[5] The conventional truth should be known in relation to the [threefold]

buic

reali~,

respectively, through theu three aspects of the conventional.

The "conventional" refers to the conventional [linguistic] usage. "Designation" refers


to verbal expression.
88

Read:

~I

in place. of

89
90

91
92

93
94

The conventional as designation refers to the conventional


pnj6~tJU I

pnj6lptill P'MipditJ I
Cf. Bh"yaN41.9.
Read: praflJti~ pnOlMttir. udbh.vaIUy' c1udJtiblatrvaqr in place of pnjif~ pntipatdr
udblJ.VIlJI ~ Ms.(38a.2): ~~r. udbhlvanaylCAldlribMm.
Ms.(38L2):
iti. but Y's emendation to ~
ceO is prefened on tile basis of the
Tib.; cf. his fn.1 p.124.
Ms.(38L3): cllirtaclMatv.t. but Y's emendaIion to ciDaittavm asattvlt is preferred on the basis
of tile Tib.; cf. his fn.2 p.I24.
Read perhaps: viblpyltJ as per Ms.(38L4), however Y's reading of vib/patI is supported by the
Tib.:
rtog pL
Read: rflpIdIJJ gutJt/1JlJi ca in place of rflpllUyo p,lIdqu ca.
Read: ianyatJr.tbatbanWlDimWety evam Idibhi1J pary,y~ in place of illnyat,r.thatl,UJallDinfWldibb4J pary'y~; Ms.(38L5): ianyat'r.tbatlAmaJlnirmalety eVIDI IdibhilJ
udJrmJudblllvauivaml.

g_

1IWJJ,.,

para

166

[linguistic] usage through verbal expression alone in the absence of an object; therefore, the conventional truth is imaginary since it consists in the conventional as designation because the object does not exist. "Knowledge" refers to the notional attachment to an object although it does not exist. The conventional usage that results from
that [knowledge] is the conventional as knowledge; funhermore, this refers to the
conceptual differentiation that penains to notiona:. attachment. Therefore, the conventional truth consists in the other-dependent as it consists in the conventional by way of
knowledge. "Utterance" is that which [provides] a clear indication of the dharmadhgtu
- which is inexpressible - through words such as 'thusness'. The conventional usage in
regard to the dharmadhgtu by means of that [utterance] is the conventional as utterance.
Yl25

Hence, conventional truth consists in the perfected [nature] since it consists in the
conventional as utterance. Of these, the conventional as designation and utterance
should be understood as respective determinations [that occur] as comprised by the
circumstances but not in terms of own-being.

Conventional truth has now been

described.
[6] Now the _absolute truth should be mentioned, hence he says:

111.10 d

However,

the

absolute

[should

be

understood) by way of the one.


For it is impossible that the absolute can belong to the imaginary and other-dependent
[natures]; however, absolute truth is to be understood as beinl due to the
one, i.e. due to just the perfected nature 9S But, for what reason is that perfected [nature] described96 as absolute? Hence he says:
[7)

III.II ab

Becaule the ablolute il considered as


threefold, i.e. by way of: <a) object,
(b) attainment and (c) Ipiritual practice97 ;

For the absolute is threefold: (a) the absolute as object, (b) the absolute as attainment
and (c) the absolute as spiritual practice98 Of these, <a) the absolute al object is
thUinesl, for the supramundane direct intuition is highest; thusness is described as
the highest object (paramllrtha) considering that99 it is the object (artha) or [sense]
object

(vi~aya)

of that [direct intuition), just like an object of the sense faculties. In

order to demonstrate this, he says: coDiiderinl that it il the object of the


highelt direct intuition. What is meant is: because it is determined as being an
95

Read: ehsmlt ~Id 1M sVlbhIvld veditavyaIJI in place of ebtaf; padni$.DmlJavabhJvo

96
97
98

Ms.(38b.2): ucyam; disJegani Y's fnol p.llS.


Read: -pnpMty' as per Ms.(38bol) and Shln'a (N41.17) in place of -pnyatyl.
Read: pmtipattiparamIItJIM in place of pnptipanmJnbai; cf. ibid.
Ms.(38bol): iii iJtv~ disreaanl Y's fnA p.llS.

ved.imVYI17J: cf. ShI$Yi N41.U.

99

167

objective support.

(However], since it is not something that is separate from direct

intuition, at the time [of being intuited] it does not become an objective" suPPOrt. like the
appearances as representation-only; for example, apart from their mere representation
as form etc., the appearances as form etc. do not exist for those [objects] for which representation-only is allowed lOO

[81 (b) The absolute as attainment is nirvlpa; thusness which is absolutely


devoid of stain is the characteristic of the turning about of the basis. How can this be
the absolute?

Hence he says: cODsidering that it is the highest object 101 , i.e.

considering that it is both an object (arrha) and is the highest (parama), it is the highest
object (param1frtha). It is the highest in this regard because it is foremost among the
unconditioned and conditioned c1harmas; it is an object in the sense that it is the aim of
the path. For thus, the attainment of nirvJpa is the aim of the path but nirvJpa is the
object [i.e. the aim] because it is free from all harmful faults since that which is accompanied by fault is described as a non-object
Yl26

[9] (c) The absolute u

spiritual practice il the path; why is this? Consid-

ering that the highelt is its object; object (arrha) here means [sense]-object
(vi,aya) or aim (prayojana)102; the object is thusness, the aim is nirvJpa. [Objection]:

If it is described as the highest 103 on account of the object, would there not be a recip-

rocal dependence [i.e. the path is highest on account of the object and the object is
highest on account of the path]? [Response]: If there is reciprocal dependence 104 what
fault is there? [Objection]: there can be no positive determination. [Response]: This
will not be so because there is reciprocal dependence as in the case of a lion and a
forest lOS
[10]

How can both the unconditioned, namely nirvllpa, and the condi-

tioned, namely the path, be delcribed u

the perfected nature7 106 For absol-

ute truth has been explained as the perfected nature, however. it is not tenable that the
path be perfected considering that it has no non-existent previous and subsequent
portions. Therefore, the path is not [equivalent to] absolute truth and if it is not perfected it cannot be included within absolute truth. Hence he says:

100
101

102
103

Ms.(38b.4): k$anUte: disregard Y's fn.S p.llS.


Read: JWIlDD 'sylnba iti kltv. in place of anhuya pInJfY iri kltv.; cf. Bhl$ya N41.21.
Ms.(38b.6): vipJ'll) pnyoj6IWfJ vlrtb. disregard Y's fn.l p.126.
Read perhaps: pvama ucyamlDe in place of puama ucyamlDa(J; Tib. dam 1M zes bya nil
(D25Ob.4).

104

lOS

106

Read perhaps: myooyuamanbue sari in place of anYOlIyuanw'thllJaIJI sat; Ti!J. geig I. geig
bma par gyur ". (D25Ob.5).
This maxim applies to things which mutually aid or protect each other; it is explained (as
v~lSi~any'ya(I) in Colonel G.AJ~: A H~l of
Maxims. Delhi: Nirljanl; first
pnnted m three putS: 1900-1904, repnnt: 1983.
. p.7 .
Tib. is sUahdy differeuc the words nirvlfJWyalfl md mlrgWYaIJI are omitted and this
quowion from Ihe Bh~. is fOUDd at Ihe very end of the parqraph; d. lib. TIkI: D250b.S.

i:"'lar

168

III.ll cd

The two [are considered] by way of


perfection that is

both unchanging

and free from erroneous invenion 107 .


An alternate [objection]: how can the unconditioned, namely nirvlpa, and the conditioned, namely the path, be described as the perfected nature? For the perfected refers

to thusness and since it is devoid of the characteristic of the duality that penains to the
other-dependent, the condition of perfection on the part of both

nirvl~a

and the path is

not tenable. [Response]: this objection is not tenable 108 since the non-existence of the
duality therein refers to the perfected, however, it is only the non-existence of the duality that is [referred to as] the perfected, thus what is other than this is not refuted. And
hence the two perfected [natures] other than this which comprise the absence of change
and the absence of erroneous inversion are also referred to as perfected. The uncondiYl27

tioned refers to nirvlpa and thusness. The unconditioned is perfected insofar


as it is [equivalent to] unchanging perfection because it cannot be otherwise.
The conditioned, which is incorporated in the truth of the path and not
elsewhere,

is perfected insofar as it is [equivalent to] perfection free from

erroneous invenion.

As to why this is so, he says: because of the absence

of erroneous inversion in regard to the entity that is the object of


knowledge; Le. since erroneous inversion never occurs in regard to the object of
knowledge. Therefore, the path is also perfected and consequently, due to the differences in intended meaning, [the assertion] that the perfected [nature] pertains to both
the conditioned and the unconditioned is not contradictory

<

6. The Well Established Reality.


N42.3

How is the well eatablished reality respectively determined in relation to basic reality?

Well established reality is twofold: (a> that which

is generally established and (b> that which is established through


reasoning.
III.12 a

In this respect:
That which is generally estabUshed
results from the one;

It results from the imalinary nature.

There is a similarity in the per-

spective of all worldlinls insofar as their intellects enter into familiarity

107
10!!

Reid: nirvikJrlvipllyls~to in place of aDMyath'vipllyls.".nnilpattiro; cf. Bhlfya


N41.22.
Read: tal jdMD w:odyayogyvp in place of tad jdmJ MupllMlbhayogy."r; Ms.(39L2): tad idam
IID-.

169

with conventional

symbols

in regard to

entities;

thus

[they

share

beliefs] such as: "this is definitely earth and not fire, and thil is definitely form and not sound" .1 09

Ill.12 b

That

which

is

established

through

reasoning results from the three;


Based upon the three means of valid knowledge, an c:;ntity is established through reasoning which consists in the proof of logical possibility by those who are wise, i.e. learned in argumentation, and the
dialecticians, [i.e. the examiners]llO.
[Sthiramati]
Yl27.9

[1] In this respectlll:

III.12 a

That which il generally established


relnlta from the one 112 ;

It resulta just from the imaginary [nature]1l3 because of the impossibility [of ~ts
establishment] in accordance with verbal description since it does not result from
something other.

However, its essential nature is not known, hence he says: in

regard to entitiel etc.; the conventional Iymbol refers to knowledge which


connects the name and the possessor of the name. Familiarity ... ; this refers to the.
endeavour and perspective that is repeatedly oriented towards that [conventional
symbol]114. Inlofar al their irteUecta enter into the latter two llS ; just what
does this entry into familiarity with conventional symbols by the intellect ref:.;r to? It
refers to memory.

This is what is being said: there il a similarity in the per-

spective of all worldlings, i.e. those who know the treatises and those who do

not, in regard to things that are conventionally expressed, insofar as their intellect is in
Yl28

conformity with their memory which has familiarity with the conventional symbol.
Thul [they Ihare beliefs] soch u: "thil il definitely earth. 116 " This

109
110
111

112
113
114

liS
116

An almost identical pISSIIe is fOUDd in BB (Dutt 25.Sff.).


Tib.(D12b.4) insens mimlquaHlJlm (spyod yu1 caJJ dag) which is not found in the Sanskrit
BhIn'a; cf. N's fn.2 p.42.
As noted by Y (cf. his fn.1 p.l27), the fust ponion of the Bhl$ya (i.e. pruiddhatlttv'm
mal.tattve btbllJl vy.vutblpylte I dvividham hi pruiddb.tattvllJl I lobprasiddh'm
yuktipruiddhllJl cal hIS not been glossed by SIhiramati whicb could indicate dtal a portion of
the 'J1kI is missing.
Read: ebImId IS per Ms.(39a.S) in place of et&syld.
Tib. inserts do bo md (D2SILS) u does BhI$ya; cf. N42.6.
Read: tan ptUJ~ pcmalJ ~yopIariaJJam in place tadvlmpVlrllJl pnyogadariazwrr, Tib. de
I. yilt dad yu dB sbyor iiJj Ita b. (D2S1L6).
Read: tmflJuJllDil,.yl in place tatrImIpraveiayl; cf. Bhl$ya N42.6.
Read: vyavalJrtavastlUJi bsmiJps cid dMiaDatulrad bhanli prrhivy eveyam ityldlty in pIKe of
vy.valqtabh.ve b. cid iyam bblImir ityldidariaDllJI samltWD id; Tib. th. stfad du brtagJ pal
ddos po gad 1.1. 'di iii sa yiD no z. b,.. ba I. sogs pIIT Ita b. mtbun pi yiJJ no z.(D2S1a.7).
Cf. Bhl$ya N42.6.
.. . ,

170

is the generally established117 reality considering that it is just thus as it is generally


established.
[21

m.12 b

That

which

is

established

through

reasoning results from the three;


Since reasoning 1l8 is carried out in regard to the threefold natures, the reality that is
well established through reasoning is respectively determined through the three
natures. In order to demonstrate this since it is not known, he says: that ... by those
who arc wise. i.e. learned in argumentation...

Therein, those who are wise

refers to those who are learned in argumentation l19 The dialecticians refers to the
examiners; after thinking about the explanation of the former [Le. those who are
learned in argumentation1, the latter term [Le. dialecticians] is stated 120 . Alternatively,
those who are wise are the seekers for what is wholesome. Those who are learned in
argumentation are those whose skill is complete in regard to the non-contradictory
meaning of the four types of reasoning which consist in: (a) consideration, (b) cause
and effect, (c) [proof of) logical possibility and (d) real nature 121 . lbe dialecticians are
those who have the capacity for conjecture and exclusion and are the authors of the
treatises that are free from erroneous inversion for they are based upon the scriptural
statements of the tatbJgatas.

The examiners are learned in their own and other's

treatises and are scrutineers of virtues and faults. However, some people do not read
"examinersn , consequently, they query just who these "wise ones" are when it is said:
'on the palt of those who are wise'. Hence 122 , [Vasubandhu) says: "those who are
learned in argumentationn Moreover, the latter are of two types because they can be
situated on the level of dialectic or on the level of meditative development; therefore,
the dialecticians are specified. Since certain of these people are investigators of what is
generally established 123 , he says: bued upon the three meana of valid knowledle. What is meant is: since there is

DO

contradiction with the three means of valid

knowledge 124 The three means of valid knowledge are: (a) direct perception, (b)
inference and (c) scriptural tradition. Direct perception in this context refers to: (a) the
117
118
119
120

121
122
123
124

Ms.(39a.7): ~ disrealld Y's m.3 p.l27.


Ms.(39L7): yubiIJ; disregard Y's mol p.I28.
Ms.(39b.l) erroneously inserts the foUowing statement here: tatra santo yo yuktJrthlpa{J(litJtJJm ityldi.
Y's reconsttuction of pllrvuya vylthylDl(iayuya paicJd vaclDam uttam. ..) cannot be
conect. however a suirable Sanskrit reconstruction is difficult to fonnullle. In any case the
Tibela... gives a clear enoup indication of wba is intended: S9 rna bUd " . MIDIS (P: bsam)
DU tslt}, pItyi mil brjod do (D2S Ibol-3).
Cf. MSA (BIL161.7) where these four types of 1UIODin& are also discussed.
Ita (Y 128. 14) is not found in the Ms. and has been inserted on the buis of the TIb. do'; phyir
(D251b.5).
Read: IIIIfIIp ca bcid lobpruiddIJItJusIIi{Ja hi in pIKe of IefIIp ca bicid /obJnIiddhIDUUIIII.JII
iii; TIb. de dag J. iyU J:U dg iii J;g tam gyi.,... pal rjes su 'brad bu na (D2S1b.6).
Ms.(39b.4):
but Y's emendadon to -.vi1odbetJety 1I'th~ is preferred on the basis of
the Tib.; cf. his m.3 p.l28.

-.irodlJeft..

171

experiencing of pleasure and pain and the like which arises from the five sense faculties and (b) mental [perception] 125. Inference refers to the knowledge of the meaning
that is to be inferred through the three types of [inferential] mark. 126 Scriptural tradition refers to the words of trustworthy people; moreover, trustworthy people are those
who are free from the causes of falsehood.

Alternatively, he says: "based upon the

three means of valid knowledge" because the probandum that has been established can

be proved for others by means of the reason and example established through direct
perception, inference and scriptural tradition. An entity is established 127 through
reasoning which consists in the proof of logical possibility; logical possibility refers to the three types of [inferential] mark because they are the means of
substantiating the probandum.

The term: "proof of logical possibility"

(upapattisiJdhana) is a tatp~a compound. The three types of [inferential] mark are

mentioned because the substantiation of that [proof) is on account of these. Reasoning


Yl29

is the means, through the specific formulation of which, all that pertains to the three
types of [inferential] mark is stated. Alternatively, the logical possibility is that which
is not possible otherwise. The reasoning that consists in its proof refers to the [train of
thought] that connects the component parts of a syllogism - thus is the resolution of the
term:

"reasoning

that

(upapattisJdhanayuJw),

consists

in

the

proof

of

logical

possibility"

Alternatively, it may be resolved as: 'the reasoning that

consists in the proof is logically possible' [i.e. as a JcarmadhJrya compound].

The

term: "logical possibility" is employed in order to distinguish this from the other
reasonings of proof128 In this way, based upon the three means of valid knowledge,
an entity consisting in either of the three natures which is established through the
reasoning of the proof of logical possibility is described as well established thro\llh
reasoning 129 The well establis~ reality has now been described.

125
126

127
128

129

Ms.(39b.4): mJ.Dllla6 ca; disregard Y's fn.4 p.I28.


The "mark" (liDga) is the 'middle term' whicb detenniDes !be cbaracler of a syllogism and also
makes the inference valid or invalid. The three types are: (a) positive and negative
(annya~), (b) pumy positive (JcenlIDVlYJ) and (c) purely negative (bvalavyatireb); cf.
T~sMa of Annambhaua. Poona: Bhandaltar Oriental Reseucb Institute, 2nd Edition,
1 4, pp. 4: 281-89.
Read: pruiddbMfl Vlltu in place or prasiddlubhlva; cr Bbl$ya N42.11.
Read: mylbb,,4 sldbmayuktibbyo in place or 8lJyllldbaDayuktibbyo; Ms. (39b.7): mylbbya-.
Tib. S6'Vb psi tig6 1M,un d6g I. (D2328.4).
Read: yat prariddlwrJ Vlltu tnyI(JI/JJ sVlbblvlDlm aayatamat yubyI ptaiddbam Ucy8 in place
of yalJ ptUiddbabblvu tnlyl(Jllp snbhlvlrJlm 8lJyafImO yuktipnsiddha ucy_ TIb.
grBIs
pa'i dnos po rio bo tfid gsum ,)Ii nad n..
yad IUD ba stlJ ri,s pas grags pa zes bya'o
(02528.4). Cf. BbJ$ya N42.10 fl,

,ad

,ii

172

7. The Reality of the Sphere of Purity.


There is the reality of the twofold sphere

N42.13

of

purity: (a) the sphere of

direct intuition for the purification of obscuration that consists in moral


defilement and (b) the sphere of direct intuition for the purification of

obscuration that consists in the knowable.


III.12 cd"

This [reality] is:

A twofold sphere of purity; it is proclaimed as being due just to the one.

It is due just to the perfected nature for the other natures do not
belong to the sphere of the two pure direct intuitions.
[Sthiramati]
Yl29.10 [1] Since the domain of purity should be mentioned immediately foliowing the latter

[i.e. the well established reality], he says: there is the twofold reality of the
sphere of purity.

Now, in order to demonstrate this twofold mode, he says: (a)

the sphere of direct intuition for the purification of obscuration that


consists in monl defilement and (b) the .phere of direct intuition for
the purification of obscuration that consisll in the knowable.

The purifi-

cation of obscuration that consists in moral defilement is [equivalent tajthe relinquishment of obscuration that consists in moral

defilement I 3 o.

The term:

JdesllvarapavisuddhijiiJna may be interpreted either as [a dative or locative tatpuru~a

compound, i.e.:) the direct intuition: (a) leading to the purification of obscuration consisting in moral defilement, or (b) in regard to the purification of obscuration consisting
in moral defilemenL What is meant is [the direct intuition]: (a) that has the purification
of obscuration consisting in moral defilement for its aim, or (b) that causes that
[purification). The words: "the sphere of that direct intuition for the purification of
obscuration consisting in moral defilement" refer to [direct intuition which has the
purification of that) for its object. 131 The sphere of direct intuition for the purification
of obscuration that consists in the knowable should also be described in this way.
[2] Of these, obscuration that consists in moral defilement refers to all moral defilements and secondary defilements that are to be relinquished by the paths l32 of vision
and meditative development. Hence the domain of the direct intuition in regard to
vision, meditative development and what relates to these two which is the reality of the
srlvakas and pratyekabuddhas 133 is described as the truth of suffering, its origination.

130
131
132
133

Ms.(40a) line 2 begins: -vlU'a1Japnbl(JaIJJ al~gb Y's ~g (p.129.13) would indicate thlt
these two words are fully reconslrUCted.
viI.yam in place of vipya.
Ms.(40a.3): mIIp; disregard Y's fn.4 p.I29.
Ms.(4Oa.3): JDlYebbuddhlnlm; disreprd Y's fnoS p.l29.
Read:

113

Y130

its cessation and the path [to the latter). This is the sphere of the direct intuition for the
purification of obscuration that consists in moral defilement. The knowable refers to
that which is to be known and this, collectively, comprises the five branches of learning. These are stated as the learning in regard to: (a) subjectivity, (b) grammatical analysis, (c) logic, (d) medicine and (e) all

arts

and crafts. The obscuration that consists in

the knowable refers to undefiled nescience which is an impediment to direct intuition in


regard to these. The purification of that is [the knowledge) comprised in the spiritual
level that is [equivalent to] the course of firm conviction which conforms with supramundane direct intuition and [the knowledge] comprised in the eleven spiritual levels
beginning with the 'Joyous'. Moreover, [this purification] refers to the knowledge that
is attained subsequently to that [knowledge in the eleven levels]. This is present within
the mental continuum of the bodhisattvas and tarhilgatas, and, since its objective
suppon is thusness because this has the sense of being all-pervading etc., the reality of
the sphere of direct intuition for the purification of obscuration that consists in the

knowable is [equivalent to] thusness. [Objection}: Since the twofold sphere of purity
has already been explained by way of the description of both the reality of the cause
and result and the reality of the subtle, is it not so that their enumeration again here is
unnecessary? [Response): It is not unnecessary because the reality of the cause and
result and of the subtle were formerly mentioned in order to define them as entities.
However, in this context, it concerns the mode in which obscuration is purified, hence,
this [reality] is explained.
[3] This twofold sphere of purity is proclaimed as being due to just the one, i.e. it is

due just to the perfected nature.

Here now he provides the reason: for the

other nature. do not belong to the sphere of the [two]134 pure direct
intuitions 13s. What is the reason? Because unreal imagination [which is equivalent
to the other-dependent nature] is stained on account of its possession of the two stains

that comprise disquiet, and the imaginary [natuJe) does not exist. However, since real
nature is the domain of the twofold direct intuition, the reality of the domain of
purity136 is determined as being just due to the perfecte<l [nature]. Tho reality of the
sphere of purity l1as

DQW ~Il

de$Cribed.

134

dvaya is omitted from the Ms.(cf. 4Oa.1) but is founcl in tile Tib. TIki (D2S2b.1) and in the
Bhln'a (N42.l1).

135

Bh_ya is s1ighdy different: ". hy llJyuvlbhlvo viiuddlJijdJlJadvQ16OC111O bhavati (N42.16


ff.).
Ms.(4Ob.l): -dd/Jjvi,ayaJattvaqJ; disrepJd Y's fn.4 p.l~.

136

174

8. The Inclusion Reality.


N42.19

How should the inclusion reality be understood in relation to the


threefold basic reality?

III.Il ab

Inere is the inclusion of: (a) the


causal-sign, (b) conceptual differentiation and (c) the name, within the
twoi

N43

From the point of view of the five categories, according to which is


appropriate, there il the inclusion of the causal-sign and conceptual
differentiation by way of the other-dependent [nature] and [the inclusion] of name by way of the imaginary [nature].
1II.13 cd

There

il

the

inclusion

of correct

direct intuition .and true reality by


way of the one.
There is the inclusion of thusness and correct direct intuition by war
of the perfected nature.
[Sthiramati]
Yl31

[1] However, since the inclusion reality is to be mentioned immediately following the

latter [i.e. the reality of the sphere of purity], he asks: how Ihould the inclulion
reality be understood in relation to the threefold 137 buic reality? In order
to demonstrate that the inclusion reality is included within the threefold basic reality, he
says:

lII.ll ab

There il the inclulion of: (a) the


caulal-lign, (b) conceptual differentiation and (c) the nllDe, within the

twoi
These are included within the two: (a) the other.,.dependent and (b) the imaginary
[natures]. Therein. the inclusion reality complises five categories, hence he says: from
the point of view of the five categoriel, according to which il appropriate ... 138 Five categories should be understood as being included within basic reality,
according to which is appropriate, but not according to sequential order. Now, the five
categories are: (a) the causal-sign. (b) the name, (e) conceptual differentiation. (d) thus137

138

Ms.(4Ob.l): trividbe; disrqard Y's fn.l p.m.


In the Ms.(4Ob.2) Ibis PUSlle reads as followJ: wn s~ltattvam pdcavlStfIlllty au lb.
yatb'YDlIIJI ~y Il'al!.h~ bowever the TIb. has simply: de I. bsdu NO; de lebo D. ci
rip su sbyac 10 ies by. N oj (D2!53L3).

175

ness and (e) correct direct intuition.. These five categories are described as the inclusion reality because all that is knowable is included within these five categories. In this
respect. some believe that the causal-sign refers to the store-consciousness, defiled
mind and the actual consciousnesses. It is [described as] the "causal-sign" because it
exists as a reciprocal cause. The "name" is an expression or indication of just that
causal-sign although it is inexpressible, like [a gesture such as] the winking of the eye.
"Conceptual differentiation" refers to mind and the "lentai concomitants associated
with all the three realms [of existence] which consist in conceptual differentiation, as
both own-being and panicular, of the causal-sign as has just been described.
"Thusness" refers to emptiness.

"Correct direct intuition" consists in the supra-

mundane and has thusness for its objective suppon. Now, as to their sequential order:
the causal-sign comes first therein because it is the foundation for the designation as
the defilement; then comes the name because it is designaled as the defilement; then
comes conceptual differentiation because as soon as it has a name, then conceptual
differentiation [occurs] in regard to that entity designated as a defilement; then comes
YPZ

thusness and correct direct intuition because that defilement is checked on account of
thusness and correct direct intuition. Others believe that the meaning of these five
categories [is evident1 in this verse:
Error is the cause of error, the cause of that
is disquiet.

Therefore, the cal!se of the

latter is error139. But knowledge in this


regard 140 is intrinsically ttanquil.
Therein, the cause of error141 , which is incoJ:POratcd in the internal consciousnesses of
sight etc., is external and internal error which are incorporated in form and the like and
sight and the like. Funh~rmore, the cause of this external and internal error142 is
disquiet and this is a latent impression of the store-consciousness. The cause of this
latent impression 143 is none other thm the external and internal error. As a consequence, verbal expression in regard to it manifests and it is due to verbal expression
that the latent impression is lodged in the store-consciousness. The term "intrinsically
tranquil" refers to thusness because the dharmadhlru is intrinsically undefiled l44 . The

139
140
141
142
143

144

Read: blullUi in place of blllDzi.


Ms.(4Ob.6}: WIll; disregn Y's fn.l p.132.
Ms.{4Ob.7): b1JrJlJ_nimibqJ; disreaud Y's fn.2p.132.
Read: ray. PUlW tu blbyldbyltmik.yI in place of wy. blby.dby.tmik.y.; Ms.(4Ob.7)
SubslllltWes Ihis reading althougb it is paniaIIy illegible. Disregud Y's fnA p.132.
Ms.(41a.l): WY' a-, but Y's emendadon to
v.saa'y.-... ) is preferred 011 die basis of die
Tib.; cf. his fn.S p.132.
Read: ~tatvldoo die bais of tbe Tib. in place of ~lkliJtM:vIdwbicb is also
not supponed by die Ms.{41Ll); !be Tib. is sliahdy different: The term "intrinsically
tranquil" refers to dlusness, i.e. to die dbarmadbllu. because it is inttinsicaI1y undefiled", I'IIi
biiD gyU ii bM i. bya ". ni de biUJ tJid do I nat biiD ",u kuD au iIoIJ modi pa meet pa'i phyir
cbos kyi c!byills (D2S3b.4).

,.y,

176

w\lrds ..... but knowledge in this regard". refe. to that direct intuition included in the
path which has thusness for its objective suppott.
Of these, there is the inclusion of the causal-sign and conceptual

[2J

differentiation by way of the other-dependent [nature] 145, because they are


produced through

caus~s

and conditions. and [the inclusion] of the name by

way of the imaginary [nature]. The name is included by way of th~ imaginary
[nature] because no object exists in keeping with its name; thus, by connection. there is

inclusion of name by way of the imaginary [nature) but its inclusion is flot by way of
own-being. And if it is said that the imaginary nature ill not included in the five categories beginning with the causal-sign because it is established as being devoid of ownbeing. such a statement is not contradicted because in that context there is the desire to
state inclusion in terms of own-being. 146
[3]

III.13 cd

Yl33

[There il the inclulion] of correct


direct intuition and true reality etc.

Reality that is eternal or pure is true realityl47. i.e. thusness. Correct direct intuition
refers to: (a) the direct intuition that has emptiness for its objective suppon and is free
from the duality and (b) the purified mundane [knowledge] that is attained subsequently to the latter.

I.e. there il the inclulion of thulnell and correct

direct intuition by way of just the one, i.e. the perfected nature because it is
perfected on account of its perfection that is respectively without change an4 is
from erroneous inversion. The

incl~ion

~~

reality has DOW been describeci.

9. The Reality of Differentiation.


How should the reality of differentiation be undentood in relation to

N43.5

basic reality?

The reality of differentiation il sevenfold: (a) the reality

of continuance. (b) the reality of characteristic, (c) the reality of representation, (d) the reality of arranaement. (e) the reality of wrona spiri145
146

147

Read: nimiavib1pa~ pm~ ~ in place of nimitt3vii:alpadvayasya pBlltantre(lB


s~ cf. Bh_yaN42.21.
This passage evidently aims to reconcile the differing views held by the various Yoglcllra
schools
the rela1ionsbip of tile five valli wiIb tile three svabblva. Par example, the
Yogllclrabhllmi-vmiScayasupgDhl{lf (D22b.2) assens !hat none 01 tile five VlStu are included
in the pMib!piu sVlbblv.. i.e. tile fint four ani inc:Iuded in the pIlIIIDtnI and only Wh.rI is
pariJJj$JIIl1U. Cf. ID.WiIlis: A S!dv of die ChImer on Reality. (pp.7S-8J) for a discussion
on this matter. The La4klvaeJra on (Nanjio p.227.11) on the other hand apportions both
nInJa and Dimia to tile pmbJpita, vibJpa to die ~tnI and UlfJyagjiJlD' and athltJ to the
pariDi$pIIJIJ& Cf. also Siddhi (p.537 If.) where die five VlStu and three svebivi are discussed
m the conlUt of tile Dimiabhlgll darilllJlbhlll' dichotomy.

concemin,

Tib. omits uattvlllJT, cf. D2S3b.7.

177

tual practice, (f) the rr.a1ity of purification and (g) the reality of correct
spiritual practice.

148

ADd these seven have been explained in the

Sandhininnocana SUtra ai [the sevenfold] thusness 149 Of these:

m.14 a

The

reality

of

continuance

is

twofold;

Basic reality should be understood as 'Jeing characterized by the


imaginary and other-dependent [naturel].

Inumuch al it is the reality

of continuance, similarly it is:


III.14 b

Arrangement and wrong course;

The realities of arrangement and wrong spiritual practice should be


understood lSO similarly as comprising two [of the three] kinds of basic
reality.

m.14 cd

The one COUilll in: (a) the characteristic,

Cb)

puri~cation

the

representation,

(c)

and (d) correct spiritual

practice.
The four reaUtiel beginning with that of the characteristic consist in

tllt

QJIO buic "ality which

ia characterized by the perfected.

[Sthiramati]
Y133.8 [1] NowlS 1, the variety [of the realities] that are found in relation to the reality of

differentiation and the way they are ioccrporated within basic reality is not known,
hence he asks: how should the reality of differentiation be undentood in
relation to basic reality?
sevenfold.

Hence he replies: the reality of differentiation is

As to which these are, be says: Ca) the reality of continuance, (b)

the reality of characteristic etc.

The seven types of thusnoss descriMd in the

Sandhinirmocana SUtta, beginning with the thUSDeSS of continuance and concluding


with the thusness of correct spiritual practice are [equivalent to] these described here as

the sevenfold reality of differentiation, beginning with the reality of continuance and
concluding with the reality of correct spiritual pmctice. Therein, the reality of continuance refen to the beginningleu and endless nature of

148

149

ISO
lSI

UIJI.Jr~;

and this is also

The SlllSbit leln of die Bbl$ya iIIcludes a s-uae of IIW here wlW:b is pardy incoberenl and
does not appev relevlllt to the tOOiUL II is not fOUDd in the Tmot. or Chinese versions, nor
is it ackDowled&ed in the 1'IU. benc:e it ha been omilled fnm the traIISlaDon. It reads as
follows: ,.,. plDfftiWIVItIiaividbam I ~ eli ' . . . . tatbMJcittatllpileiJt"ttvitl
sllfJiJiiyuta iti..vaqJ ~cayatlJls~
N's fn.4 pA3.
ct. SN L99 II: 219: 120~
a1so MSA XIX.44 (comm.) wlUcb foUows the SN description
quite closely IDd also dac:ribes them sevea typeI ~ taduIJ.
Tib. insens wditavyul (d6 JIM bYl) wbicb is DOt found ill the SIIISbit; (cf. D13L4).
Ms.(4IL4): idle-; disrealld Y's flL3 p.133.

cr.

cr.

178

[equivalent to1 the thusness of continuance because by no means does [saIpsaTa] have
a beginning. The reality of characteristic is [equivalent to] the insubstantiality of the

personal entity and the dharmas; &Jld since it is not something other this is also
[equivalent to] the thus ness of characteristic 1S2 (e) The reality of representation
is [equivalent to} the state of mere-representation of the dharmu. Others believe that
the reality of representation refers to the direct intuition devoid of conceprual differentiation because this is the basis of representation lS3 . And since the reality of repreY134

sentation is not som.:thing other. it is also described as the thusness of representation.


(d) The reality of arrangement is [equivalent to] the truth of suffering because
the formative forces are r.[, "'Iged [i.e. established) in suffering; and this is [equivalent
tol thus ness considering that it is eternally just thus.

(e) The reality of wrong

spiritual practice is [equivalent to) the truth of origination and this refers to the
continuance that is vn account of the perception of virtue in regard to those formative
forces. (f) The reaJity of purification is [equivalent to] the purification of obscuration that consists in moral defilement lS4 and this refers to thusness and the truth of
cessation. Others believe that the narure of the turning about of the basis. i.e. the nature
of cessation lSS is [equivalent to] the truth of cessation. (I) The reality of correct
spiritulU practice is [equivalent to] the truth cf the path.

')thers believe that the

reality of .'Cpresentation1S6 is a fundamental application and t.a~ the reality of correct


spirituall'racti~

and the reality of representation are [equivalent to] just the truth of the

path. Moreover. since these three realities are eternally just thus, they are described as
thus ness.

[2] Of thele;

m.14 a

The

reality

of

continuaDce

is

twofold;
Balic

reality 1S1 Ihould be uDderatoad II beinl charactelized by the

imalinary ud the other-dependent [naturel].


the continuity of creatures who have

110

Continuance therein refers to

bepDDiKlI. and since this [continuity] does not

exist. it cousins in the imapnary nature.

However. these [crearures] consist in the

other-dependem nature heQuse their continuity is coustitured by causes. In this way,


both the continuam:e and thole for whom there is continuance are explained as the

152

153
154

ISS
156
157

Read: .,..ya6:Jtv1t a ad eva~"'" ill place ol . .y.rhltvJ!; CL b~dIW,qa{IautharJ


which is not subsllDlilted by me Ms.(41a.71 nor by !be TIb. which reads: Ziln du mi 'gyur pa'i
pbyir de did mtsIJaa lid kyi de biiD did (D2S4L4).
The TIb. is slilhdY differem: ... dIe realily of flllRMllWioa refen to direct intuition devoid of
concepcuI dilterialiadon 01' die bais 01 represenlldon"; mam JMT mi ttvg pa'i ye st:S .wn I
IIWJI PIIlW pa'i . . . 'eli iii IIIIDI PIIn. pa'i de tho u (D2S4L5).
Ms.(41b.l): tJeUjtJeylvl(,.) IMatjJJeya is not found ill the TIb. (ct. D2S4L7).
IJirocflItmad is not fouad in D (d, D2.S4a.7).
vijUptiattvmJJ is not foad in die Ms.(41b.2) ..d has been inserted on !be buis of !be Tib.
(cf. D2.S4b.l).
Read: mII1atauvun in pIIce of m~1Ir, d. Bbltya N43.13.

179

reality of continWlJJCe. Alternatively, the beginningless production of moral defilement.


karma and rebiJth is described as the continuance of

SSIpSJra

and this is characterized

by notional auaclunent to the imaginary nature. hence, the reality of the twofold continuance is described as basic reality.

[3J Similarly it is:


III.14 b>

Arrangement and wrong couno 158 i

Wrong course is [equivalent to] wr,ong spiritual practice; these [should be under" Yl35

stood] similarly as comprising two [of the three] kinds of basic reality.
Since suffering and its origination are constituted by causes and conditions and
because they have the imaginary [nature] for their object. the realities of arrangement
and wrong spiritual practice. arc incorporated in these two [of the threefold basic
realities].
[4)

ill.14 cd

The one consiats in: (a) the characteristic, (b) the representation, (c)
purification and (d) correct spiritual
practice 159

[The one consists in] the reality of characteristic, the reality of representation, the reality

of purification a.l1d the reality of correct spiritual practice. These four realities consist in
just the one basic "reality. namely. the perfected nature. Therein, the reality of characteristic and tIie reality of purification arc perfected insofar as they consist in the perfec'tion 160 that cannot be otherwise. The reality of representation and the reality of correct
spiritual practice arc perfected insofar as

mey consist in the perfection that is free

from

erroneous inversion.
[4)

Herein. the sameness of sentient beings is shown through the three realities of

continuance. arrangement and wrong spiritual practice. 1be sameness of the dharmas
[is shown] through the two realities of characteristic and representation. The sameness
of enlightenment [is shown] through the reality of purification.
wisdom is demonstrated through the reality of

COrreCt

The sameness of

spiritual practice. Hence it is

said:
The sameness of sentient beings is proclaimed through the three, but the sameness
of the dbannas through the two. Thus the
sameness of enlightenment and wisdom is
demonstrated singly.
158
159

Read: sami"tliUupatJIWI in place of sami~ lru~ ct. Bbl$Ya N43.1S.


Read: ebrp ~mj6spdiuddbiurpy~tJ in place of ebqr ~lvij/lapUll su~

160

R" perhaps: -pmmlpdyl in place of -p.ru,;lJIMJUtv.t;Tib. yods su 6JUb pM (D2S4b.7).


Cf. the following sentence.

~ct.BbI$yaN43.18.

180

10. The Reality of the Skills.


N44.Z

The reality of the skills il said to act al the counteragent to false


views.
What are the tenfold false views concerning the self (which
manifest1 in regard to the aggregatea etc.?

III.1S abcd &: 16 ab

The false views concerning the self


[which manifest1 in regard to these
[aggregates etc.] are in relation to:
(a) onenell,

(b)

causality,

(c)

an

experiencer, (d) an agent, <e> independence, (f) sovereignty, (g) permanence, (h) a basis for defilement
and purification, (i) a yogi and (j)
release and non-release.
There are ten kinds of skiUthat act u the countengents to these ten
kinds of adherence to the belief in a non-existent self which manifests
in regard to the aggregates etc. These [adherences] are: (a) The adherence to the belief in its oneness.
causality.

(b)

The adherence to the belief in its

(c) The adherence to the belief in its nature as an experi-

encer. (d) The adherence to the belief in its nature as an agent. <e> The
adherence to the belief in its independence. (f) The adherence to the
belief in its sovereianty.
nence.

(g)

The adherence to the belief in itl p"rma-

(h) The adherence to the belief in its defilement or purification.

(i) The adherence to the belief in its nature a a yogi. (j) The adherence to the belief in its releae or non-releae.
How can this tenfold reality of skilll be included within basic reality?

Becaule the aggregates etc. are included in the three natures.

How

are they included?


Ill.16 cd

The former are [included] within the


latter by way of: (a) the imaginary,
(b) conceptual differentiation and (c)
real nature.

Porm is threefold: (a> Imaginary form, i.e. the imaginary nature that
belonls to form.
(b) Conceptually differentiated form, i.e. the otherdependent nature that belong. to form .ince it is in relation to that
[nature] that [an entity] il conceptually differentiated u form. (e) Porm
The
as real nature, i.e. the perfected nature that belongl to form.
aglrelatel, I.uch a. senlation, and allo the elements Ind aenae-fielda

181

etc. should be construed in the same way al form [haa been construed
abovel.

ThUI,

since the aggregatel etc. are included within the three

natures the tenfold reality of skill. should also be understood in relation to basic reality.

Although it hal been stated that the skill in the

aggregates etc. acts as the counteragent to the ten kindl of false view in
regard to the self, the meaning of the aggregates etc. has not been
stated.

This will now be discussed.

[Sthiramati]
Y135.19 [1] The reality of the skills was listed immediately after the reality of differentiation 161 ,
so in order to clearly ilIusttate this he says: the reality of the skills il said to act

Yl36

as the counteragent to false viewl 162 . Moreover, since it is not known as to


how the tenfold false views concerning the self [manifest) in regard to the aggregates
etc., he asks: which are the tenfold false viewl concerning the Ie If [that
manifest] in regard. to thele 163 [agaregatel etc.]?

III.IS abcd It 16 ab

Hence he says:

The fabe viewl concerning the lelf


[which manifelt] in regard to these
[aggregatel etc.) are in relation to:
<a) onenell,

(b)

cauI.lity,

(c)

an

experiencer, (d) an agent, (e) independence, (f) sovereignty, (g) permanence, (h) a buil for defilement and
purification, (i) a yogi and (j) releue
and non-release. l64
It is the fact that [these false views arise] in regard to the aggregates etc. that is referred
to.

However, thele ten kindl of adherence to the belief in a non-existent

self16S i this says that there is the adherence to the beiief in what is non-existent

161
162

i63
164

Ms.(42a.l): prablJetlmttv.; disrqud Y's fit.4 p.13S.


Read: buialyatanvalJl dmuapratipu,epety dtam in place of lcauialyatattvam
ItmMfntipntipaXptJ; ct. Bhl$ya N44.2. Y has erroneously taken this pauage as a verse which
he names ULISab (cf. his fit.S p.13S). The Tib. also has it in verse form as a duplication of
m.2cd, however. in the Sanskrit it is evident that it is inrended as a paraphrased version of that
verse. Cf. N's fit.l p.44.
Read: btbam t/lu as per Ms.(42a.2) in place of btIwn eta/; cf. Bhl$ya N44.1.
Read:
ebIJetutv~VIrUD81
~aaity$e k.leiaiuddh)'litaYe 'pi ClIII

in place of:
Ms.(42a.2):

yogi~Jtmat:IaIiaDIm t/lu
ebiJealtvablJotqrve ~V1rUD8 II

hil

===~:mll
ebiJeaItv~avaiavatratJel

J-

165

Cf. Bhl$ya N44.4-6.


Read:ep tu dMavidha ~in place fX ep IU dMavidb~ cf. B~l$ya N44.7.

182
because the self does not exist. l66 [Objection]: If the self does not exist how do these
adherences which are dependent upon the other, i.e. the apprehended object, manifest,
when they are devoid of an object? [Response]: But they are not devoid of an object;
they manifest in regard to the aggregates etc.

Therefore, it is said that there

are ten kintia of skill in regard to the aggregates etc. which act as the counteragents to these 167 . How does this adherence [manifest] in regard to just the aggregates etc. although the self cannot be positively determined to exist? Because, when it
is closely examined through reasoning, the self that is separate from the aggregates etc.
cannot be discerned; indeed all the deeds and essential nature that belong to the self,
which those who believe in the self maintain, manifest only in regard to the aggregates
etc. Hence it is evident that it is just the aggregates etc. which form the substratum for
the adherence to the belief in the self. Since this adherence to the self, on the part of
those who are notionally attached to the self168 , manifests in these ten forms and not in
others, the skills in regard to the aggregates etc. should be understood as the counteragent to all adherence to the belief in the self. Theu [adherences 1 are 169 : (a) The
adherence to the belief in ita oneneaa; this is due to the adherence to the belief
in the self as a whole entity among the five aggregates that have been appropriated.
The skill in the aggregates acts as the counteragent to this.
Yl37

(b) The adherence to

the belief in ita cauaality; the adherence to the belief in causality in regard to the
self is because sight and the like promote [such an adherence]. The skill in regard to
the elements (dhJtu)170 acts as the counteragent to this. The adverse [adherence] and
its counteragent should be stated similarly in regard to the other [sense faculties].
Alternatively, the adherence to the belief in its causalityl71 [is also explained as] the
notion that everything proceeds from the self; i.e. the adherence to the belief in its
causality refers to the volition that consists in the notion that the self is the cause of
virtuous and non-virtuous action for which there is an agreeable or disagreeable result
in this birthl72. (c) The adherence to the belief in ita nature

u an uperi-

encer; [the notion that] the self is the agent of experience because it consists in volition, but the 'manifest' and 'unmanifest' [of the SlJpkhya]173 is an object of experience
because it does not consist in volition. Alternatively, the adherence to the belief in its
nature as an experiencer refers to the notion that an internal agent of virtuous and non166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173

Read: JtlrWJo 'bhlvld aaWdh. ity lb. u per Ms.(42a.3) in place of 'tnwJO 's.nvld ISIUfJ
grIba ity Ib&
Read: yay. pnti~. in place of trIfIm pntipaJcptveaa; ct. Bbl$ya N44.7.
Read: .tmlbhbJiveiilJJm u per Ms.(42a.5) in place of .tmlbhilJiveil!Jlm; disregard Y's fn.8
p.136.
Read: yad uU in place of tat/JI hi; cf. Bbl$ya N44.B.
Ms.(42a.6): dhltubu-; dislealnl Y's fit.I p.I37.
Ms.(42a.7): -IJItv.,tha; disrean Y's fn.2 p.I37.
Read: yay. ~ram in place of yaye,ram: Ms.(42a.7): yay. ~ram aDilral1l ceh. jmmllJi
phaJarp wy. iubhliubhay. brmap.
hetu.. tvagrlh,lI. Oisreaard Y's fits.3, 4 &: S,
p.I37.
Cf. Y's fit.6 p.I37.

'tlU

183

vinuous actions is the experiencer of the result of those [actions1. (d) The adherence to the belief in ita nature as an agent; the belief that the self is the
agent 174 of properly performed and wrongly performed actions.

Alternatively, the

adherence to the belief in its agency refers to the notion that the self possesses instrumentality etc.l 7S (e) The adherence to the belief in ita indepencience 176 ; [the

notion that] the self exerts intluence of its own accord: Le. the notion that it is the self
that holds sway. Alternatively, the adherence to the belief in its independence refers to
the notion that it exerts an influence in the production of the result which is in conformity 177 with the cause. (f) The adherence to the belief in ita sovereignty; the
notion that the self is the ruler, the master, or the isvara. Alternatively, the adherence to
the belief in its sovereignty refers to the notion that the self rules over activity that con-

forms with the result 178 . (g) The adherence to the belief in its permanence 179 ; the notion that, although it is impure in terms of the five entities beginning
with cause, the self is definitely permanent, otherwise there would be the imputation of
Yl38

action not performed and the loss of action that has been performed 180 [i.e. if there is
no lltmail, an action performed by A would be imputed to B and the result of an action
performed by A would not be obtained by A] and similarly there would be an absence
of memory and recognition.

(h) The adherence to the belief in ita defilement

and purification; because [one would believe that] it is the basis of defilement and
purification.

(i) The adherence to the belief in ita nature as a yogi; yoga is

the fixation of the mind upon the self or the suppression of the breath and the mind.
Yoga is the spe<:ial union of self with mind - a yogi means one who has it [i.e. yoga].

And (j) the adherence to the belief in ita relea.e and non-relea.e; i.e. the
conceptual differentiation that the self is liberated from a previous [state of]
bondage 181 .

174

17S
176

177
178
179
180

181

Read: brteti in place of bnreti; Ms.(42b.l) is not clear but does not support kanJtva as per
Bhln''' ct. N44.9. Tib. byed par (D2SSb.5).
Idi is omitted from the Tib. (cf. D2SSb.S).
Read: SVataDn,rI/u in place of svatlDtratVagllba; cf. Bhlfy. N44.9.
Tib. omits lIDurflpr, cf. D2SSb.6.
Ms.(42b.2): phaJayaivl v. 1-, but Y's emendation to phallbJlUflPllyaiva vi is prefened on the
basis of the Tib.; cf. his m.10 p.137.
Read: IJi~a in place cf ilivatatvljplba; cf. Bhllya N44.10.
Read: lIlJyatIJI by akrtIbbr'6amalt qavipnnliai ca in place of anyath. tv a.t:;tam abhylgsm&(J
krWya nil.. cr, Tib. pm du na ~ bras pi dad phnd pi cWi I byu pi chud zos 1M daD
(D2SSb.7). Ms.(42b.3): anyath. by ."."bylgamalt i(-. On akrtIbbylgama and JqtavipnnlU,
see Jacques May: CandratIrti Praunnapadl Mady!U!!lbvnti p.286, fn.1044 and also Waipoia
Rahula: Compendjum. p.S2.
Ms.(42b.4): Ilmano bandba-, but Y's emendation to Itmanall pIlrvabandbld is prefened on the
basis of the Tib.; cf. his m.3 p.138.
o.

184
How is this tenfold [reality of] 182 the skills included within basic

[2]

reality?183 Because skill refers to proficiency 184 in regard to the aggregates etc.
How can this be included within the three natures? This question is posed oy one who
thinks this to be impossible 18S Because the aggregates etc. are included in
the three natures. The fact that [the aggregates] relate to the domain of the skills is
shown by the word "skiUn , but they do not relate to skill alone; hence the reality of the
skills should be understood as being included therein by way of connection, but not by
way of own-being. Just as the truth of the path, which consists in the reality of the
cause and result, is said to be included within the three [natures]. Allbaugh this may
be so, it is not known just how they are included, hence it is asked: how are they
included?186 Hence he says:

III.16 cd

The former are [included] within the


latter by way of: <a) the imaginary,
(b) conceptual differentiation and (c)
real Dature.l 87

It is the fact that the aggregates etc. are included within these three natures that is
referred to. In this context, the inclusion of the aggregates is to be- elucidated firstly
because they were listed prior to the elements etc. and since they penain to form, he
says: form is threefold.
Yl39

How so? As: (a) imaginary form, (b) conceptually differ-

entiated form and (c) form as real nature. What is (a) imaginary form 188 therein? It
is the imaginary Dature belonlinl to form; i.e. that which, with the exception
of its perception by way of name, is imagiDed in this regard as the own-being of the
sense-object. Because this is absolutely non-cxistent it is described as imaginary. (b)
Concoptually

differentiatod

form,

1.0.

tho

othor-depondent

nature

belonginl to form; what iii meant is: it is dependent upon causes and conditions.
But why is this described as conceptually differentiated form? Hence he says: lince

it il in relation to that [nature] that [an entity] ia conceptually differentiated al form. Due to a failure in clear comprebenaion 189 on ~unt of their lack
of insight into reality, people are notionally attached to form because of the fact that
they perceive consciousness - in the appearance of form l90 - just as form (i.e. as matter,
182
183

184
18S
186
187

188
189

TIkI omits IlIttva which is found in Bhl$ya; cf. N44.l2.


Read: DdJam idIm daUvidlwp ~tlIIM)1JI in place of etIId daUvidIwrr kMalyaIlJ bdwrr;
cf. BhIn'aN44.12.
Ms.(42b.S): v.u:a,mYaITI contl'lly 10 Y's fn.4 p.138, however, D: mkba pa yin na (2S6a.3)
which would support a radina mvaic&Qmya.
Ms.(42b.S): -Ivayatatrcontrary 10 Y's fn.S p.138.
Read: bdJam mtarflhlltJ in place of btIwrJ .tarbhavati; cf. Bhl$ya N44.14.
Read: paribJJM~ in place of vibJpabJpitllfhetll dh~
IlItTI W. d. BhI$ya N44.IS.

Read: pnribJpillllfJ r1lpam in place of parikalpiW11pmT, cf. N44.16.


Ms.(~3a.2): apatijif"., but Y's emendation 10 IIpIIijiflya is prefemd on the buis of the lib.;

cf. his fn.2 p.139.


190

Read: r1lJMlftlibhlJlvijiflDe in place of r1lpUhyllavijiflDe; Tib.pulS au snad ba'i mam pIr


ies 1M Ja (D2S6b.2).
..

185

pure and simple], as for instance, one grasps at a self among the aggregates. Therefore, it is said that form is conceptually differentiated in relation to the other-dependent
[nature].

(c) Porm as real nature. i.e. the perfected nature that belongs to

form. This refers to emptiness whose nature is devoid of both imaginary form and
conceptually differentiated form.

The aggregates, such as sensation, and also

the elements and sense-fields etc. l91 should be construed in the same
way as form [has been construed abovel, i.e. in the same way that form is
included in the three natures after having differentiated it as

threefol~.

[By "etc." is

meant]: the aggregates that consist in sensation, perception, the formative forces and
consciousness, as well as the elements, the sense-fields, the limbs of dependent origination, the worthy and unworthy objects, the sense faculties, the three times l92 , the
four truths, the three vehicles and both the conditioned and the unconditioned. Moreover, [all] that pertains to sensation etc. and the elements etc., individually, are to be
inciuded in the three natures after distinguishing them as threefold according to the
differences in their essential natures as imaginaryl93, conceptually differentiated and
. real nature.
[3] Therein, in the same way that [an entity] in the appearances of form is imagined as

the apprehended object, [so too] that absolutely non-existent existence of apprehending
subject and apprehended object, which is imagined in relation to the appearances of
sensation etc., is [described as] imaginary sensation, up to and concluding with imagiYl40

nary consciousness. Conceptually differentiated sensation, up to and concluding with


conceptually differentiated consciousness, refers to that [sensation] in regard to which
the conceptual differentiation as apprehending subject and apprehended object is
performed.

Sensation as real nature refers to the perfected nature pertinent to

sensation; it is to be understood in the same way [for the other aspectS] up to and concluding with consciousness as real nature. In detail, it should be stated in the same
way, according to the circumstances, in regard to the elements and sense-fields etc.

[41 An entity that is to be nominally designated as form or sensation, and so on up to


and concluding with the conditioned and unconditioned, should also be understood as
consisting in the imaginary, the other-dependent and the perfected 194 natures. How so?
The imaginary r;onsists therein because [an entity] is designated as of the essential
nature of form etc. 1be other-dependent [consists therein] since it is this which is the
suppon for the designation because it depends upon other causal conditions.

That

which is absolutely devoid of an entity of form etc. is the perfected.


191

Read: sbndhJ dhJtvIy""'yai a II per Ms.(43a.3) in place of sbDdhIdhltvlyMMltUyai a;


cf. 8h1$y. N44.19. Tib. pbwt po mUll daD / thmlS daD skye mched I. SOIII 1M I. yd

192

MII.(43a.4): W.nyIID, but Y's emendation eo kIlMrayMI is prefClMd (II the _is oIdJe Tib.;
cf. his fn.3 p.139.
MII.(43a.4): -llvahlv.bbe-; disreamt Y'! fn.4 p.139.
Ms.(43a.7): -p8ataItI'alIi$paJ.., but Y's emendIIion 10 -JMnUD".~ is )ftferred.

(D256b.4).
193
194

186

(5] (Objection]: Since only the other-dependent (nature) is nominally described as an


entity of form etc. 19S and the imaginary is not, the conceptual differentiation of the
imaginary is meaningless.

[Response): It is not meaningless because the essential

nature of form etc. is superimposed on that [i.e. the imaginary nature) since the object
does not exist in exactly that way in which 196 the name is used in regard to it; however,
naive people are notionally attached to its essential nature. (Objection]: Why is it that
one is attached to it but not 197 as an object [existing] in reality? [Response]: Because
there is the exclusion from the relation of 'signified' and 'signifier' on the pan of the
name and the object be they similar or dissimilar; i.e. if the words for trees etc. and
their objects were not different by nature then the name's capacity to signify would be
excluded, like the object, because it would not be distinct from the essential nature of
the object. And the object's capacity to be signified would disappear because it would
not be distinct from the essential nature of the name, due to dIe absence of a specific
cause (i.e. which causes the existence of that which is to be signified]. Alternatively,
since there would be

ODe

'signifier'1911 belonging to the name and a different 'signified'

belonging to the object, there would be an endless series of statements. Moreover, if

Yl41

there were numerous names for the one object and numerous objects for the one
name 199 , there would be multiple essential natures; however, it is untenable that the one
(entity] can have multiple natures2OO . Moreover, a 'signifier' of non-existence would
not exist, like the object, because the object would be [of the nature of)201 a non-existent; alternatively, if the name were to exist its object would also exist. In regard to
dissimilarity, there would be no ascenainment of [the existence of) an object conformable with a word, since in this regard a 'tree' is only a word, it is not an object.
However, the object is not a 'tree' nor is it a 'non-tree'. Therefore, the object of the
word 'tree' is not the sphere of the knowledge of the 'tree' because the object of that
[word] does not have the nature of a tree. In this way202 there is the exclusion of the
word and the object from the relation of 'signified' and 'signifier'. In regard to disparity, there would be no determination of 'signified' and 'signifier' because of the absence
of a determining cause.
[6] 'There is a thea!}' that the name may generate the object or cause it to become mani-

fest.

In this regard, [the name] does not generate [the object] because the name is

applied to the object only after it has arisen. This would lead to the conclusion that,
19S
196
197
198
199
200
201
202

Ms.(43b.l): -pldi-; disregard Y's fn.3 p.I40.


Read: yMhi yatb. hi as per Ms.(43b.l) in place of ydJi hi
Read: Ita til in place of n. IV apr, TIb. de ~ log par nuIoa par ZeD JM yiIJ vi yo tUg JM'i don
du 1M yiD par ci mIioa ie u (D2S7a.S).
Ms.(43b.3): vlnym vlcabm; disregard Y's fils. 6 &: 7 p.I40.
Ms.(43b.3): nlmlJli; disrqard Y's fn.9 p.I40.
Read ~aps: mlIrfIp.tJ
in plICa of blhuvll'flJMlV1UD .yogy.m; Tib. du ",.1 no
bar nu nut Do (D2S7b.l). Cf. previous sentence.

.you.

Tib. omits rDpr. cf. D2S7b.1.


ReId: evIIlI CI in plICa of tMJyjdblil CI; Ms,(4~b,~; -vltf CI#. T~b, do Itar(D2S7b~),

187

although [the object] bas [already] arisen, it would be generated again and again
because the name is applied again and again. Nor does [the name] cause [the object] to
become manifest because the name is applied after the object is apprebended and it is
not tenable that it would cause the manifestation of what bas not been appreilended203 ,

i.e. another person who does not know an object will not apprehend it with the same
name; also, it is not tenable that that same [name] can cause both the manifestation and
the non-manifestation of the same object. Lamps etc. which cause things to become
manifest do not cause the manifestation of a manifest204 object in dependence upon
knowledge 20S. Also, since no determining cause of manifestation is seen in regard to
manifest206 pots and clothing etc., all objects would be caused to manifest by all names.
Moreover, there would be no determination by way of smell etc.207 because axes and
water etc. are considered to be agents that generate smell etc., but not things that cause
manifestation. Therefore, it is evident that the notional attachment to the 'signified' and
'signifier', like the notional attachment to the apprehended object and apprehending
subject208 is meaningless.
[7] Thus, since the aggregates etc.

ue included within the three natures,

the tenfold reality of the lkills should allO be undentood in relation to


basic reality. Although it hal been stated that the skill in the aggregates
etc. 209 acts as the counteragent to the tenfold false viewl in regard to the

Yl42

self, the meaDing of the aggregate I etc., in regard to which the skill in the
aggregates etc. is the counteragent to the adverse views regarding sel(210, has not
been stated, hence this will now be dilcussed.

a. The Meaning of the Aggregates.


N4S.2

I1I.17 ab

At the beginning

[they

are consid-

ered] in the sense of: (a) multiple,


(b) collected and (c) disparate;
203

204
20S

206
2f11
208
209
210

Read perhaps: clgrhItasya as per Ms.(43b.6) in place of Y's emendation 10: ca gprltasya. The
Tib. is worded differently: ... because, if dle name is applied after the object is appn:hended, it
is not tenable that it should cause the manifesWion of whit has [already] been apprehended":
'eli liar doa ltOgJ nas mid !JoBs Da trogs zin pa Ja ni gul bar by. ba mi rig, so (D257b.4).
vyiDgaDJ but the Tib. (D257b.6):gsal b". by. ba would sugest a reading of vylligylnJ.
Read: vyupattyapeIcJJ as per Ms.(43b.7) in place of vyutpattyapeiJayl.
vyadgaJIJ. and again the Tib. would sUUCSt a rading of vyad.,am; cf.fn.294 above.
Ms.(43b.7): gatJdhlditi I'IM-, but Y's emendatioolO gmdbldito niyw.lbh1valJ) is pRfened on
the basis of the Tib.; cf. his tn..5 p.141.
Disregard Y's fn.6 p.141 since this passaae is found in D; cf. mb.7.
slamdltld,"kJ/lI vlyam; however bodl P and D: pbud po I. sags pa'i dcrJ - skaDdhldyanham.
This passaae is problematical; the fint syllable of the IiDe of the Ms.(44a.2) appean to read:
db .. but Y's emendation 10 (vipa)Qa is prefened on the bais of the Tib.; cf. his tn.! p.142.

188

Now at the beginning thele, i.e. the aggregates, Ihould be understood in a threefold sense: (a> In the sense of 'multiple'; in detail it is
said: "any fonn belonging to the past, present or future ... "
sense of 'collected'; i.e.

after collecting all that [form) together.....

(b) In the

[the same scriptural reference continues]:


And (e) in the sense of

'disparate'; because the characteristic of form etc. iii relpectively determined as separate.

Por 'aggregate' (lkalJdba) has the sense of 'heap'

(rlsl) and thus is it generally understood in the sense of a 'heap'.

[Sthiramati]
[I]

Yl42.4

III.17 ab

At the beginning [they are considered] in the senle of: (a) multiple,
(b) collected and (c) disparate;

The term: "at the beginning"211 refers to the fact that [theaggregares] are stated initially.
Now at the beginning these, i.e. the .ggreg.tel are described and they
should be

understood in

threefold

lenle:

<a>

In

the

sense of

'multiple'212; [in detail it is said]: "any fonn 213 belonging to the past,
present or future, internal or external, gross or subtle, inferior or exalted, distant or
near.. ."214; thus [they should be understood] in the sense of 'multiple' because numerous substantial entities of the past etc. 21S are described by the word 'aggregate'. The
aggregates [should be understood): (b> in the lenae of 'collected' because of the
scriptural statement: " ...fter collecting ... together......
By "after collecting
... together" is meant: after making into one2 16 . (c) In the seqe of 'disparate'; it
is the aggregates that are referred to. The word "and" has a collective sense, i.e. this
belongs with the previous two statements: i.e. in the sense of 'multiple' and in the sense
of 'collected'. Here

DOW

he gives the reason: because the characteriltic of form

etc. 217, belonging to the aggregates, is respectively determined al leparate,


from the characteristic of sensation etc.

The words "separate" and "disparate" are

sY.lonyms. What is the reason that in this context the meaning of the aggregates is
respec;;tively

4f:termi~~d

in terms of these three aspects? Por '.ggreg.te' (6kudba)

211

ldita is not found in the Ms.(44a.2) but has been inserted on the basis of me Tib.i cf. Y's fn.l
p.142.

212
213
214

Read: anekJnbetJ. in place of aDetlnbo; cf. BhI$ya N4S.3.


Read: yat 1ciJpcid taJWll in place of ylt tim CI tapam; cf. Bhl$ya N4S.4.
This pasage which is also ciled in tile Koia (p13.S ff.) is from Saqtyutta-niklya; cf. LVP KoSa
I p.3S, fn.2
Read: ItIlJDldInlm as per Ms.(44L3) in place of aUtlnlgllidInlm; Tib. ~ pi II SOl' pa
(D2S8L3).
Read: ~ as per Ms.(44L4) in place of eHqtyam
Read: rfIpIdilU:p{JasYl in place of tapllUJBQeDl; cf. Bhl$ya N4S.6.

21S

216
217

189

haa the senae of 'heap' (rlii)21S, hence, and thus is it genorally understood, i.e. established. Thus, what is generally understood as 'multiple', 'collected'
and 'disparate' is described as a 'heap'. The aggregates of sensation etc. are to be
Yl43

understood in the same way as the aggregates of form. Therein, an act of skill in
regard to the meaning of the aggregates is described as the counteragent to the adherence to the belief in a unique self, namely, such as that all this that has been and will be
in the future is none other than the

puru~a

[of the SlIpkya]. How so? Because form

etc., differentiated as belonging to the past etc. and collected together as a unity, is
designated as the

aggrega~

of form etc. Moreover, the aggregates are respectively

determined as threefold as counteragents to three kinds of confusion; the three kinds of


confusion are: (a) confusion in regard to singularity, (b) confusion in regard to the
conventional and (c) confusion concerning the mixture of characteristics.

N45.9

III.17 cd

Tho nellt is considered in the senso


of tho 'aeed' of: (a) the apprehending
subject. (b) the apprehended object
and '(c) the perception of the latter.

What is nellt?

The elementl.

In tho above, (a) the senao of the 'seed'

of the apprehending subject refers to the elementl of light etc.; (b) the
senlo of the 'Ieed' of tho apprehended object nsferl to tho elementl of
form etc.; and (c) the senae of tho 'seed' of the perception of the latter
refers to the elements of sight-coDlciousness etc.
[Sthiramatij
Yl43.8

[1] The elements were listed immediately after the aggregates, therefore, he gives the
meaning of the elements immediately following the meaning of the aggn;gates.
111.17 cd

The nellt is considered in tho lonse


of the 'Ieod' of: (a) the apprehending
lubject, (b) the apprehendod object

and (c) the perception of the latter.


The word HnextH in this context219 refers to the elements since they were listed immediately after the aggregates; this is why the author of the commentaJy also says: what is
nellt? The elemenu. 'Element' (dhlru) has the sense of 'seed' (brja); accordingly.
218
219

Ms.(44a..S>: rliyanho; disregard Y's fnoS p.142.


Ms.(44b.l): 'tt, disregard Y's fn.3 p.4:,l.

190

when there is gold220 it is said to be the clement gold - the 'seed' of gold is thus understood. Moreover, this is distinguished as threefold because of the difference in result:
(a) the element that consists in the apprehending subject. (b) the element that consists in
the apprehended object and (c) the element that consists in the perception of the latter.
In the above, (a) the senle of the 'seed' of the apprehending subject
refera to the element of sight etc.2 21 ; the element of sight is the first of the
elements which begin with sight and conclude with mind. They are [described as]
apprehending subjects because they form the basis for the perception of sense-objects
Y144

of form etc. They are described as clements because they are the cause of [the elements
of] sight etc. of the same genus.

(b) The sense of the 'seed' of the appre-

hended object refers to the elements of form etc., concluding with the nonsensuous element. Because they are the objects of sight-consciousness etc. 222 they are
[described as1 apprehended obje::ts. These too are described as clements because they
are thus causes [in the production] of the form etc. of a similar nature. (c) The seDSe

of the 'seed' of the

p~tception

of the latter refers to the elements of

sight-consciousness etc.; the perceptions in regard to fonn etc. are those which
begin with sight-consciousness and conclude with mind-consciousness because they
have the knowledge of form etc. for ttleir own-being. 1bese too are described as elements because they are causes [in the productior.] of the sight-consciousDCsi etc. of a
similar nature, i.e. beginning with the clement of siJht-consciousness and concluding
with the clement of mind-consciousness.
[2]

However, others say223 that the store-consciousness, imbued with [the latent

impressions of]224 the karma of notional attachment to sight etc., is the 'seed' of those
respective [elements] of sight etc. Similarly, the store-consciousness, imbued with22.5
[the latent impressions of]226 the btma inherent to the notional attachment to form etc.,
is the 'seed' of those respective [elements1 of form etc.

Likewise, just the store-

consciousness, imbued with [the latent impressions of] the karma inherent to the
notional attachment to sight-consciousness etc., is the 'seed' of those respective
[elements] of sight-consciousness etc. [Objection]: If this is so, the following should
be reflected upon: it would be just the store-conscioulDCSs that is signified by the word

"clement" and not [the faculty of] sight etc.

[Response]: The elemen...: have been

respectively determined in this threefold sense as 'seed' in order to remove confusion


concerning: (a) the agent, (b) the deed and (c) the karma. In this respect, the former
220
221
222
223
224

22S

226

D: dpeT lJa IS yod 1M'; rdo Tie I..... but nfo tje I. should be omiaed as per P; cf. PIOla.
Ms.(44b.2): .bliJnbi c.dJur-; disrqard Y's tn.6 p.143.
Ms.(44b.3): cUJurldiilflU-. but Y'! emendabon 10 cUJurldiviilflD. is preferred; cf. his tn.8

p.143.
Ms.(44b.5}: oIDye tv Ibulr, disrepJd Y'! tn.l p.I44.
Tib. (02.591.2) inserts: vIUDI (I:. chI,p) whicII is not fOUDd in the Ms.
Read: vlsibm as per Ms.(44b.5} in pIIce of vlliam.
Apn. vlsaDlis found only in the ,lb. (ct. 1)2.591.2).

191

[element of] sight etc. is the cause of just the latter [element of] sight etc. and there is
nothing else, a self or anilther cause, in regard to this. Consequently, the removal of
the adherence to the belief in causality in regard to the self is due to skill in the

elements.

c. The Meaning of the Sense-Fields.


N45.14

III.IS ab

The

next

[il

conlidered]

as

the

medium of origination for the experience of: <a) lenntion and (b) the
dilcrimination of an objecti
What il next?

The lenle-fieldl.

Of thele, the six internal sense-

fields [are considered] in the sense of the medium of origination for the
experience of senution.

The six external [sftnse-fields are conlidered]

in the sense of the medium of origination for the experience of the discriotig.UQD of

an

object.

[Sthiramati]
Yl44.19 [1] The meaning of the sense-fields should be mentioned

i~mediately

following tho

meaning of the eleDlents, Ilence he says:

111.18 ab

The

next

[il

considered]

as

the

medium of orilin.tion for the experience of: (a) sensation and (b) the
discrimination of the objecti227
Since there are numerous [topics1 apart from the elements such as the sense-fields and
dependent origination and also because of the general nature of the word .. next", he
poses the question: what is next? This word "next", as a matter of course, stands
just for the sense-fields because they were listed immediately following the elements,
thus in order to show this, he says: it refers to the lense-fields.
Yl45

Of thele, the

six internal lense-fields [are considered] in the senle of the medium of


origination for the experience of lenaation228 . The six external len lefieldl [are considered] in the sense of the medium of orilination for the
experience of the diacriminttion of the object.
(Iyadvlra) is equivalent in meaning

to

The medium of origination

sense-field (Iyatana). Origination (Iya) is

192

[eqQivalcnt to} an arrival; they are sense-fields (!yalanlm) insofar as they propagate
(canvanu) that [which originates] among the experience of sensation 'and the discrimi-

nation of an object This differentiation as internal and external is according to the


difference in the medium of origination for an experience either as sensation or
conceptualization. Sensations are either pleaswable, painful or neither pleasurable nor
painful.

Because the latter are panakcn of (upabhujyate). they are [described as)

enjoyment (upabboga); what is meant is: they are experienced (anubhilyare). Only the
internal sense-fields 229 are described as the medium of origination230 for that experience of sensation be.:ause. although the senseobjects are the medium of the origination
of that [sensation}. the suppon231 i.e. sight ctc., is the basis on account of the fact that:
(a) it is helpful or obsuuctive. (b) it consists in clear comprehension in regard to that

[sensation) and (c) it i3 specific. since the experience of sensation [occurs) by means of
it when there is sight etc. and [the experience of sensation} does not [occur} when there
is no [sight etc.J232.

The discrimination of an object refers to conceptualization

(sil1pjn!) because it has the nature of the apprehension of the sign of the object. This

consists in the experience of sense-objects233 because it has the Dature of the knowledge of objects. 'The external sense-fields are described as the medium of origination
for those [coocepcualizations); but not the hamal [sense fields), for, even if they were
the medium of origination for those [concepcualizations]. in the absence of a sense
object, there is no experiencing of the discrimination of the object234 even if the internal
sense-fields of sight etc. do exisL 'The sense-fields should be known because they are
the medium of origination for both sensations and the discrimination of objects
together with their associated elemealS.

[2J The two apprehendiagJ are very importaDL


imponant

beCl\USC

Funh~rmore,

apprehending is very

it consists in the experieace of the result of karma and also because

it consists in the discrimilWion of objec:lI. Siace there is the conceptual differentiation


of an agent of experience on ac:couat of the experieace of sensation and the discrimination of objects. the sense-fielda are respectively determined 23S in a twofold sense.
Thus. skill ill the sense-fields [leak

10

the UDdemanding mat) the agent of experience

consists in the internal sellte-fields and !he object of experience consists in the external
sense-fields.

And since no other23' agent of experience exists. the adherence to the

belief in the self as the alent of experience is checked.


229
230
231
232
233

234
235
236

Ms.(45LJ): nly-.Jay, diueprd Y's fa.l p.14.5.


Read: ww .... w yIy~. per Ms.(45a.J) in place of ~asylyad dvllram.
Read: arWW'...."" in pUce f:llitaylllllJl; d. YI45.25-26.
ct. Koia Pl4 IDd LVP Kola I 111'.95-96.
Read: vipyllllm ""..,... in place of vipy. . uplblludbe; TIb. yuJ manu JII 6e bIT spyod
do (D2.59b.4).
Ms.(45LS); ~. blat Y's emIIIIIaIiml to ~ is preferred.
Read:
in place of .,..,.. Y)II~ Ms.(45L6); 'Yllrau-; TIb. skye
mdallUDl,..A 1M (0259&.7).
TIb. 0IIIia .)Vi cf. D26Oa.I

"""""YW""""

193

[3} [Objection): The assertion that was made above is not tenable, i.e. that because the
sense-fields of sight etc. are helpful or obstructive it is just the support of thai
Yl46

[sensation) which is conventionally expressed as the agent of experience - because, on


account of the denial of [the existence of] form, the sense-fields of sight etc. would
also not exiSt, like the self. [Response): This censure is not appropriate because it is
only imaginary form that is denied here, not conceptually differentiated form. In the
above, the internal sense-field is the store-consciousDess which undergoes a special
transformation on account of its projection by the karma that is imbued with the
conceptual elaborations of sight etc. The external sense-field is the appearance as form
etc. and belongs to the actual consciousness which has the latter [Le. the storeconsciousness) as its cause. The appearance as a common object and thol37 appearance
as sentient beings belong to the store-consciousness and are described as the external
sense-field because they are the predominant-causal conditions in the arising of the
actual consciousness which appears as the apprehended object and apprehending
subject. However, it is not because these [external sense-fields) consist in the sense
object.
[4)

[Objection]: Is it not so that this [interpretation] conflicts with the words of the

Siltras which state that sight-consciousness and the like are produced in dependence
upon the two [i.e. sense faculty and external object]? The appearance as form etc. 238 is
different from COnsciOUSDeSS and it is not tenable that it alone can be the causal condition for the arising of just itself because of the existence of the arisen and the nonexistence of the non-arisen states239 , and because action in regard to itself is contradictory. Therefore, form. and the like should necessarily be acknowledged as being
different from their appearances in consciousness.

(Response]: This censure is not

appropriate because consciousness in the appear.mce of form etc. deposits the (causal)
latent impression240 in the causal consciousness for the arising of a consciousness of a
similar nature; and due to a transformation in the latent impression. consciousness in
the appearance of form etc. is born again.

In this way, consciousness, when it has

deposited a latent impression in the nature of an appearance of form etc. 241 , is


described as the causal condition for consciousness, hence there is no contradiction
with the Slitras. Thus, the meaning of 'support', too, is appropriate for the appearance

as form etc. because it is the causal condition for consciousness in (the aspect ot)242 its
own appearance. Alternatively, that which is iODate to consciousness is establi~d. as
237
,238

239
240
241
242

Ms.(4Sb.2): -b~/yaca
Ms.(4Sb.3) subsunliala (lflpldipntibb.,w, disregard Y's fn.2 p.I46.
Ms.(4Sb.3): -IvutlJlyofJ UI1UItVId abbJvlt, bill Y's emendIIion iO -.vGthayor bb'vld abb'vlc
ais pnlened on die basis oflbe TIb.; ct. bis fa.3 p.l46.
Read: pnty.,..vlUlJlm at pel' Ms.(4Sb.4) IItbou&b pnty.y. is omitted from !be Tib.; cf.
0260&.7.
Ms.(4Sb.4}: vijIJlDmirfJbl-, but Y's emendation to vij4lDup lflpldiJJirbb."mmbtveD.} is
prefened on the basis of the TIb.; ct. his fn.4 p.l46. ....
" ,
. '
Il:Jra is omitted from the TIb.; ct. D260b.l.

194

the objective support-causal condition by those who hold to the [existence of the]
external object by way of conneaion with the fact that the existence or non-cxistence of
consciousness is due to the existence or non-existence of that [causal condition for the
objective support] although there is no relation of producer and produced. Similarly,
Y147

here too, although the appearance of form etc. and consciousness do not have243 the

relation of that which is produced and producer. they are respectively determined as the
causal condition and the possessor of the causal condition because there is no fallacious reasoning regarding the existence or non-cxistence of consciousness as being
due to the existence or non-existence of that [causal condition for the objective
support].
[5]

[Objection): There would be no actual correspondence with an example for both

the appearance of form etc. and consciousness because they cannot be differentiated.
[Response]: This is not so because they are figurative differences244 ; for example, the
consciousness of dreams, magical creations and cities of Gandharvas and the like,
although ultimately undifferentiated, is respectively determined in the relation of that
which is supported and the supporter just as it is (conventionally)24S differentiated in
the aspects of apprehended object and apprehending subject because it is the basis for
the conceptual differentiation of apprehended object and apprehending subject Likewise, there is no contradiction in the other cases too. Moreover, the relation of that
which is supported and the supporter is, in all cases, only expressed figuratively; it
does not actually exist Because, whether consciousness has or has oot arisen, it does
not take a sense-object as objective support due to the fact that this [object] passes
away immediately upon origination since [in the former ease) it does oot continue to
exist at the time of the act of supporting and because [in the latter case) it does not
exist. Also, the sense-object is not tenable as the objective support whether it has or
has not arisen or has both [arisen and oot arisen). because: (a) it does not continue to
exist when it has arisen and (b) that which has not arisen does oot exist, since the act of
supporting devoid of a foundation is not tenable.

An objective support for the

presently existing consciousness is meaningless since it is through the mere fact of its
existence that the relation of cause and result is determincd246 as the relation of that
which is supported and the supporter because it is established as having the nature of
that [which is supported]. Also, [the objective support] for that [consciousness] which
is in the process of arising is meaningless because it does not [yet) exist. [Objection):
[an objective support for that consciousness] in the process of arising is not meaning-

243

244
245
246

Read: rDpldbUrbbJ.Juya vi.ftJJnuya cIWy per Ms.(4Sb.6) in piKe of rfJp.diDirbhlluya


vijilllJ&sya aut)', although tbc TIb. does !lOt SUJIPCIIlIhis renderina: pU66 Ja SOlI 1M SlWi bd
tJWD par Sa 1M .. med (D26Ob.2). Cf. Y's en.s p.l46.
Real: (sIdJ)iYllJl1 u lJiJedopacIlIt. per Ms.(4Sb.7};cIisleprd Y's fn.l p.147.
vyavablnl is inserted 011 the basis of tbc Tib. (ct. D260b.") lid is not found in the Ms.
V]'avatblpyate is mser.d on the basis of the TIb. (ct.D26Ob.7) lid is not found in the Ms.
Cf. Y's fn.5 p.147.

195

less because when the sense-object really exists, consciousness acquires the nature of
an appearance as the latter. [Response]: If the appearance as the object were caused by
an object that is external to consciousness, then the consciousness of things belonging
to the past, the future or to dreams would be devoid of aspect (mrakill's), or else would
not exist because of the non-existence of the object of those [things belonging to the
past etc.]. An effect cannot be produced by causal conditions that are deficient247 since
this would transcend the bounds of logic248 and the assertion that something non-exis1148

tent can possess a causal condition is also not tenable. Moreover, the external object is
not the causal condition of the objective support for consciousness since the latter
exists even without the former.

Therefore, all consciousness of people who have

ophthalmia is to be acknowledged as having no dependence on an objective support


that consists in the external object.

d. The Meaning of Dependent Origination.


The meaning of dependent origination:

N45.19

HI.18 cd

[It ia conaidered in the leDie of] the


abaence

of

both

imputation

and

negation in regard to caUle, reault


and activity.
Dependent origination [il conaidereci] in the lenle of the ablence of
both the imputation and nelation of caUle, relult and efficacy.

In thia

respect, (a) there ia the imputation of causality due to imalining that the
formative forcel etc. have dissimilar causel.

(b) There ia the negation

of cauaality due to imagining that [the latter] are devoid of causality.


(c) There il the imputation of reault due to

im~gining

that the formative

force a etc., talether with the lulf. manifelt from causal conditionl luch
as ignorance.

(d) There is the negation of relult due to imagining that

the formative forces etc., which have ilnorance etc. for their causal
conditions, do not exilt.

(e) There il the imputation of efficacy due to

imagining that ignorance etc. is iDitrumental in the production of the


formative forces etc.

(f) There is the negation of efficacy due to imag-

ining that [the latter] are devoid of power.

The absence of both impu-

tation and negation should be undenlood al being due to the non-exiltence of thele [conditional.
247
248

Ms.(46a.4): -bJ~ disrqard Y's fn.6 p.147.


Ms.(46a.4): 'tipRUlfgll; disregard Y's tn.7 p.147.

196

[Sthiramati]
Yl48.6

[1] Since !he meaning of dependent origination should be mentioned immediately after

the meaning of the sense-fields, he says: the meaning of dependent origination:


III.IS cd

[It is considered in the sense of] the


absence

of

both

imputation

and

negation in regard to cause, result


and activity.249
It means: arisen from causal conditions t.ltat are inactive, impermanent and have power;
as has been stated in

Siitra: "when this exists, there is that. Due to the arising of this,

that is produced - in detail: the formative forces have ignorance for their causal condition." In order to illustrate that in this context dependent origination is considered by
way of the refutation of the imputation and negation of cause, result and efficacy, he
says: dependent origination [is considered] in the sense of the absence of
both the imputation2SO and negation of cause, result and efficacy.
"Efficacy" is stated by the word: "activity".
[2]

In thi. respect, there is the imputation of causality ... ; this is due to

imagining that the p~a, the isvara, the atom2.51 or the pradhSna etc. possess causality,
having rejected ignorance etc. [as the cause]. In order to demonstrate this, he says:
... due to imagining that the formative forces etc., concluding with old-age
and death, have dissimilar causel.
thing permanent such as the

puru~a

"Dissimilar" refers to the notion that some-

can be the cause of the formative forces etc. which

are impermanent; what is meant is: 'different' [i.e. that a cause can produce something

that is of a completely different nature to itself]. Alternatively, a cause is considered to


require a modification of its essential nature, like the seed in relation to the sprout etc.,
but there can be no modification of essential nature on the part of that which is permanent. 'The imputation of causality is due to imagining causality iu regard to a [result
that is] dissimilar [to its] cause.
Yl49

[3] There is the negation of caulality due to imagining that [the latter]

are devoid of caulaUty2S2 ... ; if one agrees that the formative forces etc. are
produced without a cause, ignorance etc. is excluded as the cause of the formative
forces etc.2.53

249

2S0
2S1
2S2
2S3

Ms.(46a.5): -InMOpID.vllU~ but Y's cmendatioo to -IlIMOpID.pavld~ is c~t; cf. his


tn.l p.148 .t BbI$ya N4S.20.
. .
Read: asamJmpI- in place of ulropi-; ct. Bba,ya N4S.2I.
TIb.ltnwJ(bdQ) in place of I(IU; cf. 02611.7.
Read: nidJetubtvaOJpllJld in p11Ce of 'baitulablpllJ~ cf. Bb"ya N46.1.
Ms.(46t!.2): ~tvam.potJJwrr; disrqanl Y's m.l p.149,

197

[4] There is the imputation of result2S4 due to imagining that the forma-

tive forces etc., together with the self, manifest from .causal conditions
such as ignorance.

Some believe that the formative forces etc. manifest from

causal conditions such as ignorance if the self exists, but do not [manifest] if it does
not exist. Thus, there is the imputation of result if the self is imputed upon the result

such as the formative forces25S. Others believe that the imputation of result is due to
imagining that the formative forces etc., together with the self, manifest from causal
conditions such as ignorance, either by being intimately connected with a substantial256
self or by being an agent that is beneficial or obstructive257 to the latter.
[5] There is the negation of result due to imagining that the formative

forces etc., which have ignorance for their causal condition, do not
exist2S8 ; for example 2S9 , there are heretics who negate good conduct, bad conduct and
other worlds [i.e. subsequent rebirths] believing that there is no good conduct, there is
no bad conduct and there are no other worlds. 260
[6]

There is the imputation of efficacy due to imagining that ignorance

etc. is instrumental in the production of the formative forces etc.

If it is

imagined that in the production of the formative forces etc. ignorance etc. can cause the
nature of an entity to become something other26 1, then there is imputation of efficacy.

[7] There is the negation of efficacy due to imagining that [the latter]

are devoid of power.

There is the negation of efficacy due to imagining that the

formative forces are devoid of power although they have the capacity for origination
through the mere [imputation of the) existence of ignorance etc.
[8) The absence of both imputation and negatioD should be understood

as being due to the non-existence of these [conditions].

The absence of

imputation and negation should be understood as being due to the absence of that
imputation and negation in regard to cause, result and efficacy262. Thus, whether [this
belief relates) to a self separately263 from ignorance etc. or to something else, this skill
1150

in dependent origination should be understood ., the counteragent to the adherence to


the belief in an agent. For, there is no self nor anything else in this regard, apart from
254
25S
256
257
25B
259
260
261
262
263

Ms.(46b.2): ph~ disregard Y's fn.2 p.149.


Read: ~plWefv Ilm&WJJIrope ph-.m1rofM ityin place of sSlfUkJrldiphalefv Ian. .
samJlqM ir:y; Tib. bm bu ~ byed la sogs pu bd6g IJ610 'dogs lIa 'bras bu ~ sgro 'do,s pa ies
byao (D261b.3-4).
Ms.(46b.3): Itmadra~; disregard Y's fn.4 p.149.
Ms.(46b.3): ~; disregard Y's fn.S p.149.
Read: phaJlpavldo Da UDty avidyldiprlryayllJ wpskltldaya iti blpBIJlt in place of phallpsvldl(J wpsiJrJdlDIm avidyJdipntyaylpllVJftibJpmld; cf. BhI$ya N46.23.
Ms.(46b.4): -tbJ; dUrepJd Y's fn.6 p.149.
Read: lllItikJlJIqJ 1JJIti. per MI.(46b.4) in place of Dlsti; Tib. med pa mams (D261b.6).
The puenthaes mentioned by Y in his fn.7 p.149 are not found in the Ms. However, the text,
from Dllti duicadwp to sarrutJrIpIm (YI49.1217), is wriaen in a diffeJent hand.
Ms.(46b.S): hetuphaJam; disrealnl Y's fn.B p.149.
Ms.(46b.6): '\I)'~, but Y's emendaIion ro .,.arilebcJa is correct.

198

ignorance, which is the agent of pure or impure actions. There is no other agent of
consciousness apart from the formative forces. And this shoUld be stated in all cases
[Le. each of the twelve nidJDsJ, according to the respective circumstances, because the

fonnative forces etc. arise from ignorance etc. which is inactive, impermanent and has
power.

e. The Meaning of the Possible and the


ID:lpossible.
N46.8

111.19 abcd

The next [is considered] in the sense


of an other-dependence in relation to:
Ca) what il not desired, (b) what is
desired, (c) purity, (d) concurrent
birthl, (e) sovereignty, (f) complete
attainment and (g) behaviour.

The possible and the impollible should be understood in the sense


of a sevenfold dependence upon lomething other. Of these, Ca) there is
dependence upon something other in relation to what is not desired due
to falling into wretched state I of existence, although not desiring it, on
account of bad conduct.

(b) There is dependence upon something other

in relation to what il desired due to the attainment of propitious states


of existence on account of ,ood conduct. (c) There is dependence upon
something other in relation to purity becaule of not bringing suffering
to an end by not relinquishing the five hindrancel and so on up until
not having cultivated the leven limbl of enlightenment.
(d) There is
dependence upon something other in relation to concurrent birthl of the
two exilting simultaneoully, i.e. of two tath.,.,.. or two c.knvutilJ.,
since they caDlJot be born into the one world sphere.
(e) There is
dependence upon lomething other in relation to sovereignty lince
women caDlJot become cakravut;lJ. etc. (f) There il dependence upon
something other in relation to complete attainment lince a woman cannot become perfectly enlightened, whether it be individual enlisht(g) There il dependence upon
enment or lupreme enlightenment.
lomething other in relation to behaviour becaule one endowed with
[sound] viewl doe I not enlage in [violent]264 behaviour, luch al

264

Tib. omits Up.R/U; cf. D14b.2.

199

murder. in contralt to the behaviour of ordinary people.

This can be

followed up in detail through a perull. of the Bahudhltuka SUtra26S


[Sthiramati1
Yl50.7

[1] The meaning of the possible and the impossible should be mentioned immediately

following the meaning of dependent origination. hence he says:


111.19 abcd

[The

next

sense

of

(is
an

considered)

in

other-dependence

the
in

regard to]: (a) what is not desired.


(b) what is desired. (c) purity etc. 266
The possible and the impossible should be undentood in the sense of a
sevenfold dependence upon somethinl other.

In the above "possible" is

[equivalent t01 'cause'. "Iimpossible" is [equivalent to] 'absence of cause'. As has been
stated in this verse [frQm Dhammapada, 223]:

One ouaht speak the truth and not be angry;


one oUght Jive to a beggar even from a
Iinle267 . Throuah these three proprieties
here in this world one OUfht proceed to the
presence of the gods.
It is understood that [proprieties (slblna)) are [equivalent to] causes.

Alternatively,

propriety (slblna) is [equivalent to] possibility (slUfJbhava) and impropriety (Bslblna)


is [equivalent to] impossibility (asallJbhava). The skill in these is [equivalent to] slrill
in the possible aneJ the impossible. "Dependence upon something other" (plratantTya)
is the state (bhJva) of being dependent upon something other (paratantrasya); what is
meant is: resting upon something other

(parlyatta~.

Although this is sevenfold it is

included within the three other-depeodencies of karma, defilement and rebinh.


[2] Of these. there il dependence upon lomethin, other in relation to

what il not delired ; what is not desired refen to the wretched states of existence. In order to demonstrate that the attainment of these [states of existence] rests
Yl51

upon bad conduct268 and is a dependence upon something other. he says: .due to
fallinl into wretched Itatel of esiltence. althoulh not delirinl it269 on
account of bad coaduct, including actions of body speech and mind. such as the
taking of a life, together with their preparation and consequences. The wretched states

265
266

267
268
269

Maiihima Niklya, liS; ct. N's fn. 13 p.46.


The TIb. iDcludes all four pIdM of this verse.

'The Ms.(18LI) suggests a readins of dMIyId . . . c.ylcita(l in pIKe of cladyld aJpo 'pi ylcir.lr,
Tib. aJod 1. cbwt yad sbyilJ bar bya (02621.6). for funber discussion on this verse, see
P.BemIwd: UdlnaYUlL xx.16p.274 andJ.Brougb: The Qlndhlrf Dhammapada. 281 p.262
Tib. omits duJcadtJyatUlVaqJ; d. D262b.I.
Ms.(18L3): -llJiccbldiro, but Y's emendIdon 10 -1JJia:Jnto is comet; cf. Billlya N46.II.

200

of existence refers to the hells, the Pretas and animals270 . Because of the extreme
suffering 271 in these [states]. there is no desire on the pan of anyone to atWn rebirth
there. Since actions are powerful and are the causc of wretched states of existence, on
account of the power of actions alone, one wbQsc conduct is bad attains rebirth in such
places although not desiring it

[3] There is dependence upon something other in relation to what is


desired due to the attainment of propitious states of existence on
account of good conduct; what is desired refers to the attainment of the propitious
states of existence.

The propitious states of existence are thosc of the gods and

mankind. Good conduct consists in: (a) abstention from the taking of life etc. together
with the preparation and consequences of the latter, (b) acts of generosity, respect and
honour etc. towards teachers, preceptors and those who possess virtue etc. and (c) the
special virtues of love and compassion and the like. There is dependence on something
other since rebirth in the propitious states of existence is dependent upon good conduct
alone, for even those who seek it do not attain a propitious state of existence in any
other way apart from [the practice of] good conduct.
(4) There is dependence upon something other in relation to purity ... ;

purity refers to the relinquishment of moral defilement272 [by not relinquishing] the five hindrances. Le.: (a) the desire for sensual pleasure, (b) .. malice, (c)
torpor and drowsiness, (d) excitability and remorse and (e) doubt; they are five after
combining torpor and drowsiness as one, and similarly, excitability and remorse. Nonspecifically, lhey are hindrances (nivara{Jlru) since they hinder (niv1'lJVlUJo) the wholesome side. Specifically, they are hindrances since they respectively conceal: (a) the joy
of setting fonf12 73 [from the household life), (b) correct spiritual practice for one who is
inspired in the right way by fellow brabmacarins towards the actions of body and
speech that conform to that [correct spiritual practice), (c) the absence of faintheartedness at the time of meditative calm, (d) the absence of distraction at the time of exenion
and (e) the state of spontaneity at the time of meditative calm and penetrating insight.

... By not relinquishinli i.e. by not abandoning 274 , those [hindrances] and so on
up until not having cultivated the seven limbs of enlightenment.

He says:

"concluding with" because this is an exposition of the final member, that is to say, the
foundations of mindfulness27S , the complete relinquishments 276, the bases of psychic
270
271
272
273
274
27S
276

Ms.(1SL3}: ptet88 tirya6c8 ca; disregard Y's fn.2 p.lSl.


Ms.(lSL3}: eUnu dutJkhatvlrJ which Y ha amended 10 eUntezJa; however, the Tib.: iin tu
sdug bsIW IM'i pbyirwouJd sugesr a mading of sud~"'.
Ms.(lSL~7): viiu~ ~ disregSld Y's fn.4 p.lS1.
Tib. amies pravrajy.. ct. D262b.6.
Ms.(lSL7): 1pRhI{J'yltyUtvI. but Y's emendIIion to apnb'y.tyUtv. is comet; cf. BhI$ya

N46.13.

Ms.(lSb.l}: slIJlfYUparhllJa.; dismalRl Y's fn.1 p.1Sl.


Read: -pI'IbItJa- in place 01 -pn/JIIJ

201

Y152

power, the faculties and the powers are also included.


suffering to an end.

. . Because of not bringing

The end of suffering refers to that [state] where suffering is

non-existent and this is nirvJpa277 . That this is not brought about is [equivalent to] its
non-attainment; what is meant is: one does not attain nirvJpa. Alternatively, the end of
suffering refers to the fact that one does not create the suffering pertinent to rebirth, for
one does not create such278 suffering as that from which other suffering is entailed.
The dependence upon something other in regard to purity refers to the fact that it is
subject to the relinquishment of the five hindrances. 279
[5] There is dependence upon something other in relation to concurrent

hirths of two tathJgatas or caJcravartins280 , existing simultaneously.

What is

meant is: both together; ... i.e. of two t.thlg.t.. or two c,u,vlU'tiJJ., since
they cannot be born into the one world sphere.

Some schools believe that

with regani to the two tathJgatas, the world-sphere of 3,000 million worlds is meant;
however, [the world-sphere that consists in] the four continents [is meant] in regard to
the two caJcravartins. Others believe that the world consisting in the four continents [is
meant] in regard to the two tachlgatas as well. 281 For the Buddhas, the Venerable

Ones, display their perfect enlightenment and parinirvllpa in the world-sphere of 3,000
million worlds through the influence of the Dharma Body, in each world consisting in
four continents, by means of the Transformation Body282. For thus, the aim of the
bodhisattvas, i.e. the possession of death and rebirth283 in one of the worlds that consist in the four great284 continents in the T~ita realms or among mankind28S , is the
same in regani to the other worlds that consist in the fOllr continents. Therefore, they
believe that the Venerable One, who was perfectly enlightened already in the Akani'itita
realm, displays by means of the Transformation Body: (a> his birth and passing away
in all of the worlds consisting in the four continents which are included in the [worldsphere of]286 3,000 million worlds and in the TU'iita realms and (b) everything such as
Y153

the possession of rebirth among mankind.

In this respect the dependency on some-

thing other in regard to concurrent existences refers to the fact that the birth of a
Buddha and a caJcravartin depends on unequal productive karma2 87 .
277
278
279
280
281
282
283

284
285

286
287

Ms.(18b.l): aitvl(Ja I t&Jya howev a small .:tiOll of the folio is missing directly above this
passage hence Ihe aDusvlrll should be in.'!G1IId; disrqanl Y's fn.l p.152.
Read: tIdJWp IS pel' Ms.(18b.2) in place of rJdiiyazp.
Tib. is sligbdy diffenmc: "The dependence upon something odIer in reganl to purity is due to ilS
being subject to...; .. lang Ius JM'iphyirmMJpMlDg JMgilllJ gyi dbalJ ffid(D263a.4).
ratbtJ,f.tacabavaniDoris inserted after Ihe TIb. and is not found in Ihe Ms.; cf. Y's fn.3 p.152
Ms.(ISb.3): evetylty apue, but Y's emendadOll to evety IPIf'O is COInICt.
Ms.(lSb.4): IJirmJQllUyetJl; disreganl Y's fn.5 p.lS2.
Ms.(1Sb.4): cyutijanllUplrignM. but Y's emendation to -pITigrIbo is preferred on the basis of
the Tib.; cf. his fn.6 p.1S2. NOIe: TIb. omies cyuti.
Tib. omits DUb'; cf. :.>263b.l.
Ms.(18b.4}: m.tII.reI""'" but Y's emendaIiOll to IJJIlJUI.reIU is correct..
lobdbltJv is iDsened on Ihe basis of Ihe TIb.
Read: clJlDLVIIJIVllUDly' which accords with Ihe Ma.(18b.6) and D: mifam JMT Jyur b.1JII
yhJ pa (D263b.2) in place of ca~.

202
[6J There is dependence upon something other in relation to sovereignty
since women288 cannot become cakravartja. etc. Because it is only in the
body of a man that the karma conducive to [rebirth as] a cakravartin has the power to
provide the [appropriate] karma result, for a woman289 does not have the capacity to
enjoy the [sevenJ 'jewels' such as a wife. 290 The word "etc." refers to sakra [i.e. Indra]
etc.
[7]

There is dependence upon something other in relation to complete


since a woman 291 cannot become perfectly enlightened,

attainment
whether

it

be

individual

e1!lightenment

or

supreme

enlightenment.

"Attainment" refers to the realization of: (a) Buddhahood or (b) pratyekabuddha-hood.


The dependence on something other in this context refers to its attainment by a man
and its non-attainment by a woman292 , because, like a rhinoceros [i.e. a pratyekabuddha], [a woman] is not suited to: (a) become a teacher in the three realms and (b)

have no contact [with people], respectively. Furthermore, [women] am vulnerable to


all kinds of rogues and am unfit for perfect enlightenment without a teacher due to their
scant wisdom.
[8] There is dependence upon something other in relation to behaviour

because one endowed with [sound] view. does not commit [violent]
behaviour such al murder293 , in contrast to the behaviour of ordinary
people. One endowed with [sound] views is [equivalent to] ooc who has insight into
the truth. "Murder"294 refers to the taking of a life. By the word "etc.", the taking of
what is not given and the like am referred to. Those [acts] such as murder which have
the acts of body and speech for their own-being do DOt manifest on the pan of one
who has insight into the truth29S because such a person has relinquished the moral
defilement which causes the arising of bad conduct such as murder2 96 by means of the
path of vision. '!bese [acts] do manifest on the part of ordinary people since they do

288
289
290

Read: stliyli in place of stliyl; ct. BhI$ya N46.16.


Read: sarIS per Ms.(18b.7} in place of slllf/.
The seven ratDa of tile Cakravartin m:: wbeel. eIepbant, horse, ricbes. wife. 'treasurer' C61iJIpItJ)
and minister. for a full list of references see LVP KoSa
p.203, fn.2. Cf. also BHSD

291
292

Read: stliyllJ wlUch acconIs with BhI$ya N46.17 in place of sll)'l; Ms.(l8b.7}: striy'
Read: aprIptiQ striylfl in place of Da ru striyatr, TIb. bud med kyis 'thob pir mi 'gyur te
(D263b.4-S).
Read: Vldhldy- as per Ms.(47a.l) in pla:e of bldbldy-; disregard Y's fn.4 p.lS3.
Read: vadbalJ as per Ms.(47a.l} in place of bIt1IJalJ.
Read: Ie vlldbldayalJ klyavlttriylsvabb.v'4WaRtyasya in place of te bldlJldayalJ kly.vlkmylsvabblvllJ I cJnrisaJrrpamJuya; COIIltIIy to Y's fn.5 p.lS3, Hs.(47a.2): -/I klyavlkkrlylsvublvll cJn,,"""YIJ. The TIb. is sligbdy diffenmt -those [acts] such as murder which have
the acts of body and speech for their own-being do not manifest on the part of one who is
endowed willl [sound viewsr gsod pa Ja sogs pa de d66 Di Jus dad IiI8 gi by! ba'i nd fWD DO 1/
...J~ ba p/IulI sum tshogs pa dad /daIJ pa iii tu.iJ til mi spyod do (D263b.7ff.).
Read: vadbIdi- in place 01. bIdbJdL

p.4SOb.

293
294

29S

296

203

not relinquish these [moral defilements]. Furthermore. they do not relinquish the latter
due to the fact that the path which [acts] as the counteragent to them has not arisen.
[9] Thus. the skill in the possible and the impossible is asSQCiated with a dependence

upon something other in relation to what is not desired etc. and is the counteragent to
the adherence to the belief in the independence of the plJI1J1a and the ivara etc. For, if
there were no dependency whatsover, [people] should not fall into wretched states of
existence on accoUDt of bad conduct. It shovl4 be

s~te4

similarly in regard to the other

cases as well.

f. The Meaning of the Faculties.


N46.22

There are twenty-two kind I of faculties:

In.20 ab

[These are cODlidered] al being for


the purpose of: (a) perception, (b) duration, (c) continuity, (d) expori.HJc:e
and (e) the two purities.

N47

[They are conlidered] u

beinl for the purpole of [the five begin-

ning with] perception and concludinl with the two puritiel, lince they
exercile a dominant influence in relard to these [five].

For, (a) there il

the dominant influence of the lix belinDinl with lilht in relation to the
porception of len Ie-objects of form etc.

(b) [There il the dominant

influence] of the vital faculty in relation to duration lince death doel


not occur on accoWlt of its dominant influence.

(c) [There il the domi-

nant influence] of the female and male facultiel in relation to the


continuation of the family because thele [facultiel] exercile a dominant
influence in the procreation of offsprinl.

(d) [There il the dominant

influence] of the faculties of lensation in relation to experience since


one experiencel the relult of wholelome and unwholelome action. And
(e) [there is the dominant influence] of faith etc. in relation to mundane
purity; [there il the dominant influence] of the faculty of undentlDdin,
what hal not been understood etc. in relation to luprlDlWldane purity.
[Sthiramati]
Y154.3

[1] Since the meaning of the faculties should be mentioned immediately following the
explanation of the meaning of the possible and the impossible, he says: there are
twenty-two kinds of facultiel, i.e. beginning with the faculty of sight and

204
concluding with the faculty of the posscsaion of perfect kDowledge. Moreover. in this
context Nfaculty" Undriya) has the sense of 'dominant influence' (Jdbipatya). As to
which has dominant influence where, he says:
[The.e are cODJid~redl a. being for

III.20 ab

the purpo of: <a> perception, (b) du-

ratioD, (e) cODtiDUity, Cd) experience


and (e> tho two puritie 297
In this [verse) the word "dominant influence" is to be understood as having been
omitted for metrical reasons; properly298 [it should read): "as being for the purpose of
exercising a dominant influence upon: ... (e) the two [purities)". Therefore. the author
of the commentary says: .ince they exercise a dominant influence in regard

to those [five). The expression: "for the purpose of' (artha) in the starement: "for
the purpose of perception", signifies 'aim' (prayojana).

He shows that the faculty

therein is for the purpose of perception2 99 'The same should be stated. respectively. in
other cases as well.

"in regard to these" [means) in regard to the perception of the

object etc. It is a dominant influence since it is a superior power; what is meant is: Ibe
dominant influence is [equivalent to) causality.

[2] The leDJe-objecta of fOnD etc. are tbose beginning with form and concluding
with the non-sensible. The perception of the latter consists in sight-consciousness
etc.

In relation to these, there i. tho dominant influence of the .hI: beginning

with .ighL It is described as a faculty since it is a superior power over colour etc.3 00
because sight is the basis for the cllDKioUiness which differentiares form/colour (rilpII)
without exception.

However. the colour blue CaDIlOt be the objective support for the

consciousness of the colour yellow etc.301 In detail, the same should be stared. respectively. with regard to hearing etc.

[31 [There i. the dominant influence) of the vital faculty in relation to


duration. The vital faculty. which is pierced by the larenl impressions of previous
karma302 when d1Cre is no interrupting condition in the karma result continuum,
consists in the capacity for rebirth in each subsequent moment which corresponds to
each preceding momeDL

m
298
299
300

Here now he gives the reuon for the fact that there is the

Read: -bbogaruddlJidvaylltlqtatl u per M.!.(47L4) in pIace of -bboile suddhidvlyJnhIuQ; cf.


BbI$ya N46.23.
Read: yubitalJ in place of yutrau; TIb. rigs pl/a (D264a.4).
Read: gnbapapnyojllJllJimitwp u per Ms.(47L5) in place of grabappnyojllWll nimitu/JI
Tib. is sliahtly diffenm IIId OlDies tarRIJdIiyam iti tUriayali: 'dzin pal dp pi s. cbed (pa) yin
II (D264a.5) - - !be purpose of pen:epcioa beina !be cause-.
Cf. Koi. (P38.3): btl pwur iDdriyllflJalJ I idi paruuiivilrye I wya iDdantlti ilJdriyl{ti I Ita
.ldlJpryam.t~

301
302

The first few syllables of line 7 (47.) are ilJe&ible; the line beaina: -syl vijIJiusyl-. PerIl..,. a
beaer Jadinlllwl Ys would be: plIMirtJpuya vijrJawy....
Ms.(47L7): brmatarmIv....., but Ys eandatioa to ptIIvabrmavlIalJl- is preferrcdon!he
baia of the Tib.; cf. his tn.., p.1.S4.

20S

Yl55

dominant influence of the vital faculty with regard to duration303 : .illCO death doe.
not occur on account of its dominant influence.

The absence of death is

[equivalent tol the continuance of the homogeneous groups projected by previous


karma. Food and the like are not faculties even though they are instrumental in the

maintenance of life because. in spite of lbeir presence. mere is no continued existence


when life is extinguished and also. because in the realm of form and the formless
realm, the presence of continued existence is due only to the vital faculty. even though
there is no bodily nutriment. Moreover. in this case the dominant influence of contact
etc. in relation to continued existence is not tenable because the maintenance of sentient
beings in the conditions of the attainment of cessation and non-consciousness and also
in [ind1/.ced] non-consciousness is possible. even though contact etc. is absent.
[4] [There i. the dominant influence) of the female and male facultiel in

relation to tho continuation of the family304. Since there is no break in the


continuation of the family when a son is born the continuation of the family refers to
the birth of a son.

Now. in order to demonstrate this. he says: becaule of their

dominant influence in procreation.

A certain pan of the faculty of touch

receives the title: "female" or "male faculty" because it exens a particular dominant
influence. Where there is the establishment of the family, there is the presence of the
female faculty and the male faculty and by virtue of these there is no break in the continuity of the family. Moreover. the family is established among the gods dwelling in .
[the realm of] form if the female faculty and the male faculty are present, but not if they
are not present.

FOf. there is no dominant influence in this respect on the pan of

gandbarvIU etc. because there is DO capacity for the procreation of sons on the part of

eunuchs etc. who have no female or male facultiea 30S , even if the gandblUVlU etc. are
present306. Furthermore. food and the like are not faculties because they are not enumerated among animate things although they are dominant influences [of sons].
[5] [There il the dominant influence] of the facultiel of Hnlation in
relation to eaperieDce; the fact that this is a dominant influence is understood.
How so?

Hence he says: becauH one experiencel the relult of wholelomes

and uDwholelome action. The faculties of sensation are five: pleasure. paio.
gladness. sadness and equaDimity. It is [through the domiDallt influence] of these that
one experiences the result of wholesome and unwholesome 1auma because they have
the nature of experience. but name I form (nlmariJpa) have no dominant influence over
them because they are [only] the ground for sensation. And the stare of havinS them

303
304

30S
306

Ms.(47b.l): -ne jl. ..ndriyayldJJipMyul; disrealnl Y's fn.6 p.1S4.


Ms.(47b.2): kuh-; disrealnl Y's fn.1 p.l".
Read: ~-inplace~~.
for full discussioa 011 die sipificaace.

G!:J,.,.mdlwva in child-conceplion, cf. O. H. De A.


Wijesebn: VedicGllldbarvaaDdPali
in UCR Apil194S.

206
(i.e. almsrQpa) as the ground refers to sensation because of the predominance of the
karma-result.
1156

[61 Mundau purity refers to the relinquishment of the mundane moral defilement.

In regard to this [there is the domilWlt iDfluellce} of faith etc . i.e. of the five
faculties of faith. vigour, mind.fulDeu. meditative concentration and wisdom; that these

dominant influences remains in fOfC6 bcc:ause they are characterized by the mun-

dane path since they are the counteragcnts to lack of faim etc. Others believe that it is

because they are characterized by [the elements) that are conducive to liberation.
[7]

[There is the dominant influence] of the faculty of understanding

wbat hu not been understood etc. in relation to supramundane purity.

The fact that this is a dotnitwtt influence remains in force. Supramundane purity refers
to the relinquishment of moral defilement by means (If the supramundane path.

In

relation to this. there is the dominant influence of three: <a> the faculty of understanding
what has DOt been understood. (b) the faculty of understanding and (c) the faculty of
the possession of perfect knowledge. for these three are respectively incorporated in

lhe padls of: (a> vision, (b) meditative development and (c) the adept. Therein. with
reference to which is appropriale aCQmlinl to their differences in being based on the
prelimilW)' stage [of the first dhylDa)107 etc., these nine faculties, i.e. the five beginning wim faim as well as mind, happiaeu. gladness and equanimity. are called: <a> the
faculty of undel'SWlding what has DOt been understood, on the path of vision, (b> the
faculty of understaDdina. on the pam of meditative development and (c) the faculty of
the possession of perfect knowledgelOl, on the path of the adept.
[8J

However. this arrangement is different for the yog1Zclra - the faculty of under-

standing what bas

DOl

been understood and the faculty of understanding comprise ten

faculties. i.e., there are ten after addilll 'sadness' to the nine mentioned above. However, me faculty of the possession of perfect knowledge309 comprises only nine. In
ws regard. on Ihe path of preparation which consists in me aids to insightl 10 , and on
the fifteen moments of the path of vision. there is the faculty of mind and the five
beginning wim faith and anyone of the faculties of happiness. gladness, sadness and
equanimityll1. as is appropriate according to their differences in being based on the
preliminary stap (of the first dhyJlJa) etc. Furthermore, the faculty of sadnessl12
should be understood u beinl included because of the longing for supreme deliverance that follows after the aids to insight, at the time of preparation. These tenfold
faculties, accordinl to which is appropriate, are desc:ribe4 .. the faculty of under307

308
309
310
311
312

....,.UI~ ct. SidcIIi fLl p.489 . . LVP Kola VI p.228.


ReId: ~ . . . . MI.(<4Ia.2) in place oI'jlJlbblvlndriyllD.
Ms.(48a.3): ~ym; diInpnI Y"s fILl p.l56.
Ms.(48a.3): 1IinwIu-; diSIepn1 Y"s fa.2 p.l56.
Ms.(48a.4): -paqwdlijllllilJ; disnpd Y"s fL3 p.156.
Ms.(48a.4): dw_jiiidli.".. diIIeprd Y"s tn.4 p.1S6.

207

standing what has not been understood since they manifest in order to understand a
reality that was not previously313 understood. The same ten kinds of faculties ale
described as comprising the faculty of understanding on this the path of one who is
Yl57

still in training, i.e. extending from the sixteen moments of the path of vision up until
the vajra-like meditative concentration, because there is nothing

to be known

that was

not previously known. On the path of the adept, the remaining [faculties] with the
exception of the faculty of sadness receive the title [collectively]: 'the faculty of the
possession of perfect knowledge'. Since it is the faculty pertinent to one who
possesses perfect knowledge it is [desCribed as1 the faculty of the possession of perfect
knowledge 314 . In this way the adherence to the belief in a dominant influence in regard
to the puru,a. the nilrJyapa

or the [ivars is checked for one who is skilled in the facul-

ties.

g. The Meaning of the Times.


N47.8

IlI.20 cd

The next [il considered] in the sense


of the ellperience of the result and
the caule and likewise their nonexperience.

What il next?

The tbrea relpective timel: the pa.t time [should be

known] in the aeDie of the experience of the result and cause.

The

future time [Ihould be known] in the senae of the non-experience of the


telult and caule.

The present time lhould be known in the lense of the

experience of the cause and the non-ellperience of the result.


[Sthiramati]
Yl57.9 [1] The meaning of the three times31S should be mentioned immedialely after the

meaning of the faculties, hence he says:


111.20 cd

The next [il cODiidered] in the seDie


of the ellperience of the relult and
the caule and likewile their nonexperience.3 16

313
314
315
316

Tib. (D26Sb.4) inserts .IIIoD (P1lrVl) which is not found in tbe Ms.
Read: lj4JtJviu iDdriyvn JjIUIJrfDdriyam iti in place of l_bJvI1Jdrjyvn iti IjIJltlvlIJdriYIlfJ
ucyate; Ms.(48L6): -iDdtiyam IjfltlvlDdriyDJ
TIb. bur iet 1M dID IdlllJ IM'i dbJlt po yin
JIG bur . . 1M tbzj 1dm".1 dbaJ po Us byaD <D26'b.6). Disregard Y's fn.3 p.I57.
Ms.(48a.6): dVlfnyartJo; disreall'li Y's fn.4 p.IS7.
ReId:
p/WabeIl1IMytJfllt/JaDDparo.ll wfJIpnm
in pla::e of
pbaUbeta/Myo.atvld aDlbh061t whlpanm; cr. BhI$ya N47.8.

m.

208

The cause therein refers to the cause of rebinh; the result is that which is incorporated
in the rebinh. The experience of the cause is the imparting of the result; the experience
of the result is the expiration of what has been experienced. And since such a cause
and its result penain to the past, he says: the put time [should be known] in
the senae of the experience of the result and cause317

The future time

[should be known] in the senae of the non-experience of the result and


cause 3 l1! in that same mode.

Furthermore, the present319 time, i.e. the present

rebinh. should be known in the sense of the experience of the cause,


because the cause has produced a result; and in the senae of the non-experience
of the result, because this result follows the present rebirth.
Yl58

The determination of

the times should be understood as referring to momentariness, for the existing entities.
at every instant, possess the nature of cause and result320. Therein. the experience of
the cause is due to the production of its own result 1be experience of the result is due
to the destruction of the effcct321 immediately following its birth. Thus the subject
under discussion is the fact that the past time [should be understood] in the sense of the
experience of the result and the cause; the future time [should be understood] in the
sense of the non-cxperience of the result and the cause. The

non-experienc~

of the

result and its cause should be known as being due to: (a) the non-production322 0" Io t ,
effect and (b) the absence of the destruction of what has not come into being
statement: [the present time should be undentood] in the sense of the experience of the
cause and the non-experience of the result [means]: (a> the experience of the cause is
due to the production of the effect 2Ild (b) the non-cxperience of the result is due to the
non-destruction of the effect. In this way, the adherence to

th~

belief in the self as

something permanent is checked for one who is skillful in the times because he does
not perceive anything oaber apart from the times323 .

h. The Meaning of the Four Truths.


N47.13

111.21 abcd

The next il conlidered in the lenl.


of:

(a)

lenlation

to,ether with

itl

caUle, (b) the poctice cauled by the

317
318

319
320

321
322
323

Read: pb.JMtJtDpayrJJlnhenIIlro in place of pb.Juya r.ddhetoi copayogJlfhea.1fto; cf. Bhl$ya


N47.9. Ms.(48a.7): pb.JUetl1pa-.
Read: p/IaWIetvImupayorlttbElDI6W ~vI in plate of p/W&!JY. hetoi clDupayor~
'dbvlj ct. Bbl$yaN47.10.
Read: pntyutpamulJ in pIKe of v.vtuJIDalr, ct. BbJtya N47.11.
Ms.(48b.I): betupbaWlhJ-; disregard Y;s fn.9 p.IS7.
Read: kJryaya as per Ms.(48b.2) in place of pb.J.ya.
Read: _UIpIdrDIt cs per Ms.(48b.2) in pIIce of _UqJIdJt.
Ms.{48b.3): dn-; dimllnl Y's m.2 p.158.

209

)atter, (C) the appeasement of these


and (d) the counteragent.
What is next?

The four truths.

Of these, the truth of suffering [is

considered] in the sense of sensation together with its cause, considering that [it is slid]: "whatever sensation is, in this context it [bas the
characteristic] of suffering" .
Furthermore, the caule of sensation
should be known as the dharma. that penain to sensation.

The truth of

origination [is considered in the sense] of the practice caused by that,


i.e. the practice caused by the truth324 of suffering.

The truth of cessa-

tion [is considered] in the sense of the appealement of the [first] two.
The truth of the path [is considered] in the sense of the counteragent.
[Sthiramati]
YlSS.lO

[1] The meaning of the four truths should be mentioned immediately following the

meaning of the three times, hence he says:

III.21 ab.

[The next il considared] in the senle


of:

(a) senlation together with itl

caUle, (b) the practice 32S cauled by


the latter etc. 326

It is generally known that sensation has the sense of suffering; also, according to this
statement from a treatise 327 : "whatever sensation is, in this context it [has the characteristicJ of suffering". With regard to the respective determination of the [fourJ truths.
all sensation together with its cause, be it pleasurable and accompanied by impurity.
painful, or neither pleasurable nor painful, means the truth of suffering; in onier to
demonstratr; this the author of the commentary says: of thele, the truth of
luffering [is conlidered] in the lenu of lenlation together with itl

cauu.

Why il it that all sensation is [equivalent toJ suffering? He says: conlider-

ing that3lS [it il laid]: "whatever lenaation ii, in thil context it [hal the
characteristic] of luffering".

These sensations are [equivalent toJ suffering since

they have the nature of: (a) the suffering of suffering, (b) the suffering of change and
(c) the suffering of the formative forces, respectively.

Alternatively. [sensation is

equivalent to1 suffering on account of just the fact that it has the nature of the suffering
of the formative forcel.

Furthermore, the caule of lenlation Ihould be

known u the db_u that penain to unaation.

324
325
326
327
328

The

dhlU'llJlI8

that penain to

Tib. omilS satya; cf. DULl.


Read: -pnpmi~ u per Ms.(48b.4) in pllCe of pnriPlltir.v. cf. Bhl$ya N47.13.
Read: vistn(J in place of vitara(L
Cf. LVP Kola VI p.131 where this passage is discussed.
Read: trtv. in pla!:e of vacMld; cf. BhlI$ya N47.16.

210

sensation are those consisting in the sensations of pleasure, pain, and neither pleasure
nor pain. In this way the five aggregates are explained as the truth of s"uffering.
[2] The truth of origination [is considered in the sense] of the practice

caused by the latter3 29 The truth of suffering is referred to by "the latter". That
Yl59

practice on account of which suffering is brought into being consists in the truth of
origination. Moreover, the latter, which has the activities of body, speech and mind for
its essential nature, is preceded by the cause of the craving for sensation and the
dharmas wt pertain to sensation. In brief, it has been said that the truth330 of origina-

tion consists in the karma331 that is the source of becoming.


[3] The truth of cessation [is consideredJ in the sense of the appease-

ment of the [firstJ two. TIle [first] two are the truths of suffering and of origination. The words: "in the sense of the appeasement. .."332 are [equivalent to] 'in the
sense of the non-production .. .'. Thus, since it is characterized by the non-origination of
suffering together with its causes, cessation is described as being twofold: (a) as
possessing a remaining substratum in the sense of the appeasement of origination and
(b) as not possessing a remaining substratum in the sense of the appeasement of
suffering.
[4J The truth of the p.th. .. i.e. the way leading to the cessation of both suffering
and its origination [il consideredJ in the sense of the counteralent to these

same two which have been referred ro, i.e. suffering and its origination. In this way,
since one who is skillful in the truths has an understanding of defilement and purification alone, his adherence to the belief in defilement and purification other than this is
checked because [he understands that] it does not exist.

i. The Meaning of the Three Vehicles.


N47.22

III.22 .bc

The next Ire to be known bec.ule


one loel forth through the knowled,e

of

virtuel

.nd

f.uhl

.nd

[throulh direct intuitionJ devoid of


conceptu.l

differenti.tion

[le.rntJ

from othen or by oneself;

329
330

331
332

Read: tuDimitupntipllti~ in place of tu nimittalp pntiplttita(r, cf. Bblfya N47 .17-18.


Tib. omill ..tyam; ct. D266b.'.
Ms.(49LI): arm.; disrqlnl Y'. tn.l p.159.
Ms.(49LI): iMDa-; diae&1nl Y'. fn.2 p.159 in this conlDt. M has been already nor.ed, the Ms.
does DOt oftm diIdDpisb between ;., ,.1Ild ...

211

[The next are] the three vehicles, respectively.

Of these, the irilvaka

vehicle [should be known] because one goes forth [as a mendicant].


having learnt from others through the knowledge of the virtues and
faults of nirvilpa and SBIflslra. The pratyekabuddha vehicle [should be
known] because one goes forth on one's own, without having learnt
from others, through that same [knowledge].

The universal vehicle

should be known because one goes forth on one's own through direct
intuition devoid of conceptual differentiation.
[Sthiramati]
Y15 9. 15 [1] The meaning of the three vehicles is illustrated immediately following the meaning
of the truths. hence he says:

111.22 ab-

... Through

[the

knowledge]

of

virtues and faults and [direct intuition] devoid of conceptual differentiation333 etc.
The word Hknowledge" is understood with both. i.e. (a) as the

~owledge

of virtues

and faults and (b) as the direct intuition devoid of conceptual differentiation. Alternatively. the words '[knowledge that consists in] conceptual differentiation' can be
regarded as having been omitted from (a). It should be mentioned that in (a) above [the
word "knowledge" has the sense of] the knowledge of virtues and faults after distinguishing it as [being learnt] from others or on one's own. Since that which is devoid
of conceptual differentiation is only learnt by oneself. in the commentary he says:
respectively. Of these, ... throulh the knowledle of the virtue. and
fault. of lIirv. pa and uqJ.'n. The word "nirvlpa" in this context includes
both the path and cessation, as does the word "tranquillity". Therein, the knowledge of
virtue in relation to nirvlpa refers to knowledge that is: (a) in the aspects of tranquillity
Yl60

etc.334 in regard to cessation and (b) in the aspects of definitive liberation etc. in regard
to the path33S . Although salJlsilra has the nature of both suffering and its origination,
therein. the knowledge of faults in relation to sllJlsilra refers to knowledge that is: (a)
in the aspects of impermanence and suffering etc. and (b) in the aspects of origination
and causal conditions etc. Bavinl learnt from others ; i.e. having learot of the
virtues and faults of nirvlpa and sllJlsilra, as have been described 336 from the Buddhas

and bodhisattvas etc.. Because one lOCI forth [a. mendicant] ; i.e. because
one departs from salJls'r., the ir.vaka vehicle [should be mown]; i.e. because
333
334
33S
336

Ms.(49L3): gU(JMIoiJvWJpeu; disreaarcl Y's fn.3 p.1S9.


Ms.(49LS): iJDtyldy-; disreaud Y's rnoS p.1S9.
Ms.(49LS): mIIp; ~1Id Y's fn.6 p.1S9.
Read: nirv"as.".....yoc yathoitllJ doilll gu(J11JJi ca irvtv. as per Ms.(49L6) in place of
nirvlpsa1JJdtlyoc gunlD yatbolctlD doiI1JIi ca srutvl; in die Ms. gunlll has beea added in die

!JIIrIin.

212

one goes forth relying on the uaerances of others. By the term "srSvaka vehicle", he
shows that it is distinct from the prstyekabuddha vehicle.
[2] Through that same knowledge of the virtues and faults of nirvSpa and saJllsira
because one goel fonh on ono'. own, not having leamt337 from
othere 338 , i.e. from the Buddhas and bodhisattvas, tho prlltyekabuddba vehicle

[should be known].

By the words: "on one's own. not having learnt from

others"339, [he shows that1 it is distinct from the rSvaka vehicle.


[3] Through direct intuition devoid of conceptual differentiation ... ; direct

intuition is devoid of conceptual differentiation because it penetrates the ineffable real


nature of saIfJdra and nirvSpa; the universal vehicle should be known
because one goes forth just on one'. own without having learnt from others.

In

this context, the term "cUrt:ct mt\1juop" distinguishes this frqm the pratyekabuddha
vehicle.
[4] However, others believe: (a) the srlvaka vehicle is [described as] a going fonh

through the direct intuition which has the insubstantiality of the personal entity for its
. object and consists in an absence of conceptual differentiation in regard to virtues and
faults, after having learnt from others, (b) the pratyelcabuddha vehicle [is described as]
a going forth on oue's own without dependence upon340 learning [from others] and (c)
the universal vehicle is described as a going forth on one's own through direct intuition
which is devoid of conceptual differentiation, having the insubstantiality of the
cihannas for its object and leading to the nirvlpa [in which the bodhisattva is] not perlQanently fixed. However this explanation341 is contradicted by the commentary.

In this way the adherence to the belief that the self is a yogi is checked for one who
posse.s s!dll in the thJH vehicles due to

observation that there is just yoga.

j. The MeaniDl of the Conditioned and the

Unconditioned.
N48.6

1II.22 dol

The final [topic] i. declared u

boinl

duo to: (a) the cau.al-li,n in accompaniment with both it. de.ilnation

337
338
339
340
341

Ms.(49L7): -ddhI bat Y'. emendIdon co (iru)M is preferred; cf. his m.3 p.l60.
Read: J*aID u per Ms.(49L6) in pIKe of pnbbyo; cf. B.ya N48.3.
paratO is inserted on die bais oldie Tib. IIId is not found in !be Ms.
Ms.(49b.l): IIinpel:pIYII which Y . . . . . eo IlinIpeipyI; cf. his m.5 p.l60.
Read:
per Ms.(49b.2) in pIKe of lthyIDar, Tib.
bAd p&

Y)'Ith,.,...

IJWD,.,

213

and caule and (b>


together with ita object.

tranquillity

[The final topic] refers to the conditioned and the unconditioned.


The words: "in accompaniment with ita designation" in this [verse]
refer to the name-group etc. The "cause" refers to that in which the

'seeds' are incorporated, i.e. the lUore-coDiciouanell.

The "causal-sign"

refers to that in which the support, the body and experience are incorporated.
Thole [elementl) that are incorporated in the actual
consciousnesses are: <a> mind, (b) apprehending and (c) conceptual
differentiation.

This the causal-sign, in accompaniment with both its

designation and cause together with its asaociated elements, is to be


known as the conditioned.

Therein, "mind" refers to the aspect of

mental Activity that il eternal; "apprehending" refers to the five groups


of consciousness; "conceptual differentiation" refers to the mind-conscioulnell because it is this that conceptually differentiates.
The unconditioned refen to: (a> ceslation which is [equivalent to]
tranquillity and (b) the object of tranquillity, i.e. thulnesl.

[Therein,

tranquillity refers to both celsation and the path, considering that the
former [i.e. celsatioa] consists in tranquillity and tranquillity is on
account of the lItter [i.e. the path].

Thusnell is the object of tran-

quillity (pr".m'rtlJ.), conlidering that it is the object of tranquillity


(pr......y. utIJ.)]342 becaule thusnell is the objective support of the
path.

Tranquillity belongs to the path becaule tranquilization [occurs]

on account of it.
Thua, it is in the Ie meaningl that the knowledge in regard to the
aggregatel etc. Ihould be known u

the skill in the aggregatel etc.

[Sthiramati]
Yl60.23

[1] Now, in order to clearly illustrate the meaning of the conditioned and the uncondi-

tioned, be says:
'1161

111.22 def

The final [topic] il declared al beinl


due to: Ca) the causal-sign in accompaniment with both its designation
and

caule

and

(b)

tranquillity

to.ether with ita object. 343


342
343

=_

The pusaae JIIIIbd by pIRIllbesia (N48.15-17) is DOt found in the Tib. S ....y. (ct. D15L7)
allboup ponions of it _ &loued by the 'J'Ikl; ct. Nil"'. tn.7 p.48.
Read:
.
tj/l6fItiabMrlcltl
IJimiltJtpraUma sInIJIt
MlIJudIIJIfMI II
in place of:
~jiJlpiuhenrhm I
aimittMp pniam&lJ ~ pJcId ev. pnHiium II Ct. Shl$y. N48.6.

214

What is this that is listed as the final [topic]? He says: it refers to the conditioned
and the unconditioned because this was listed

at

the very end. Therein, the condi-

tioned is determined as being due to the causal-sign in accompaniment with its designation and cause; whereas, the unconditioned is determined as being due to tranquillity
together with its object. Moreover, in order to clearly illustrate the designation, cause
and causal-sign since they are not known, he says: Tho worda; "in accompaniment with its designation"344 refer to the name-group etc.

The name-group

and sentence-group consist in the designation since the own-being and particular of
things are designated through the name-groups and sentence groups34S; but the syllable-group consists in the designation because it causes the manifestation of the latter
two. The "cause" refers to that in which the 'seeds' are incorporated, i.e.
the

store-consciousness.

The latter, which is endowed with the latent

impressions of all impure dharmas and is not the imparted result, is incorporated in the
truth of origination.

Consequently, in order to distinguish this from the imparted

result, he says: "that in which the 'seeds' are incorporated".

The "causal-sign"

refers to that in which the IUpport, the body 346 and experience are
inc:orporatcd,347 It is the store-consciousness that is referred to. The [elements]
incorporated in the actual conaciousnelles are: (a) mind, (b) apprehending and (c) conceptual differentiation 348 .

The "suppon" in the above

refen to the inanimate world, i.e. the store-consciousness in the appearance of the
latter. It is incorporated349 as the suppon since it is incorporated in its nature as the
support. The "body"3S0 refen to the physical body together with the faculties, i.e. the
store-consciousness in the appearance of the latter. It is that in which the body is
incorporated; what is meant is: it possessea the body for its nature. It is that in which
experience is incorporated - this has already been described in the above. It consists in
experience3S1 since the other consciousnesses experience these two [Le. the body and
experience] as being the dominaat enrities3S2 . Alternatively, it is experience (bhoga)
since food and drink and the like are experienced (bhujyate). That within which experience is incorporated is the [store]-consciousness in the appearance as the latter. This
the cauIBI-liln. in accompaniment with both its delignation and caule
together with ita a.lociated
344
345
346
347
348
349

eleJDe~~,

il to be gQwn

.1

the cogditioned

Read: upnjiIlptir in place of prajdaptir; cf. BhlUa N48.8.


cr. LVP Kola n p.D8.
Ms.(49b.5): -daha-; diSlegani Y's fnol p.161.
Cf. MSA XI.40 comm.
Read: pnll(ttivijlfllJlSlIIWrhItIJ a l1WUutWrablvibJpslI in place of prall(ttivijiI~
IlUIWldjnJJlvibJpam; ciBhI&'a N4B.IO.
Pnt4rbJsamgrfJItam is omitted from tbe text of tbe Ms.(49b.6} but has been added to ihe Ms.
maqin.

350
351
352

Ms.(49b.6): pntjir/Jldehlblq.; ~1Id Y's m.3 p.161.


Ms.(49b.7): -vllJ but Y's rendainl of (bhog>1lJ is pnfermd on tbe basis Qf ~ Tib.; cf.
D268L4-5.
cr. MSA XI.40 conun.

215

since it is included in the other-dependent nature.


Y162

"Together with its associated

elements"3S3 refers to the mental concomiumts; he shows that the conditioned is not
solely these.

But to what does the causal-sign belong?

To the name-group etc.

because these clearly indicate the own-being and particular of that [causal-sign] and
since it is in conformity with these [i.e. the name-group etc.], the causal-sign belongs to
the [elements] called mind, apprehending and concepwal differentiation, i.e. the mind

and mental concomitants354 of those who are notionally attached

to

the own-being and

the particular.
[2] Some believe that mind, apprehending and concepwal differentiation355 consist in

the causal-sign which belongs to the store-consciousness because the nourishment of


the latent impressions occurs there. Others again believe that since it designates the
own-being and particular, the sign belongs to the designation and consists in concepwalization (slHPjiiiI) because of the statement356 that it has the nawre of the apprehension of the sign. The store-consciousness which incorporate! the support, the body
and experience is the causal-sign of the foundation because there is the nourishment of
the latent impressions [therein]. Mind, apprehending and conceptual differentiation are
also the causal-sign of the objective support because they create the objective supportsign3S7 ; and since it creates the sign in both cases, the causal-sip be~ongs to both the
objective support and the supponerlS8.
[3] Therein, "mind" refers to the a.pect of mental activity3S9 that i. eter-

nal; that which eternally thinks (manyate) in tenns of 'me' and 'mine' is described as
mind (man as). It is associated with: (a) delusion regarding the self, false view of the
self, affection for the self and self-conceit and (b) the five all-pervading [dharmas], i.e.
sensation, conceptualization, volition, contact and mental attention. " Apprehending"
refers to the five grouPI of conacioUlul1 because they have the characteristic
of 'seizing' the essential naUlre of the sense-object. Since the latter are to be understood
intuitively and cannot be stated, they are described u 'apprehending'. "Conceptual
differentiation" referl to mind-conlcioulnela becauae it ia thia which
conceptually differeutiates 360 the characteristic of the dharmas as individual or
universal, Al1361 of these, the causal-sign iq accompaniment with its designation and

360

Read: s&Wf1l'RytJgai in place of .wpJnytJg&i; TIb. mlShwts pM ldaIJ 1M dan bcas 1M (D268a.6)
Ms.(SOa.l): cittM:ailtlDlDr, disregard Y's fn.l p.l62.
Read: l1JIIJaudgrlhavibIpU in place of lJIMIautlIrWviblpvp; cf. Bhl$yl N48.10.
Tib. omits iti vtlC.1llll; cf. D268b.2.
Ms.(50a.3): (IlmJbalum)mittlt.'lbra{Jltfbeu but Y's reading ~f 1l1llllbalw2imittlbra{tlrtlHlaa
agrees willi the TIb.: dmip 1M mtsbllJ rrw bytld 1M'; phyir (D268b.2).
Ms.(5Oa.3): 1WDJwJIIJIlIlDb.u-; but Y'I emendItion to I/mJbaBllamNb- is prefemd on die
bais of the Tib.: cf. his mol p.l62.
lJIMI.aJrIm here but Bb~ <N48.12) lDIIJymItauL
Read: wya viblpabtvld ill place of ,...". viblpitvld (Yl~19): cf. BhI$y. N4U3-14.

361

Tib. omits sarnm; cf. D268b.6.

353
354
355
356
357
358
359

216

cause, consist in the conditioned because they are brought about through karma and
moral defilement.
[4] The unconditioned refera to: (a> cessation which is [equivalent to]
tranquillity and (b) Lbat which is the object of tranquillity, i.e. thuane8S.
It is appropriate that cessation has tranquillity for its essential nature because it is characterized by the appeasement of suffering together with its causes. Why is thusness
Yl63

described as the object of tranquillity?


Considering that it i. the object of
tranquillity. If thusness362 has no connection whatsoever with cessation, how can it
be the object of tranqUillity? Because thusnesa is the objective auppon of the
path.

How is it that tranquillity belongs to the path?

quilization 363 [OCCUIll) on account of it.

Because tran-

Nirvipa is [equivalent to] tranquillity

because it consists in tranquillity, and since tranquilization364 [occurs] on account of


this [Le. the path], tranquillity refers to ... the path. Thus, from analysing365 the
resolution of the compound (i.e. prasamJrtha) [it is evident that] both nirvJpa and the
path are referred to through the single expression "tranquillity". But does the truth of
the path consist in the conditioned or the unconditioned? It consists in the conditioned
because it is to be produced366 . If one were to say that it consists in the unconditioned
because: (a) it is not brought about through karma and moral defilement and (b) it is
characterized by the unconditioned, there would be no fault in this.
these meaningl that the knowledle in regard to
should be known u

m,

Thul it il in

allrelatel etc.

the skill in the aggregatel etc.


At the beginning [they are considered] in
the sense of: (a> multiple, (b) collected and
(c) disparate. (ill.17 ab)

In dcUJiI, this should be stated in every case.

362
363
364
365
366

Read: wlWJyllS per Ms.(6Oa.6) in place of wlJagyl.


Ro:ad: pmiamlDJtin place fI ~ d. BbI$ya N48.17-18.
Read: pnlimutJJtin place fI ~ cf. ibid.
Ms.(SOa.7): -bbedltlei:JbhitlJJlzJeM; cIWeprd Y's tn.l p.163.
Ms.(SOa.7): ~s~ ulpldy.Wllbut Y's emendation to s~ utpldy.wllis
preferred; d.1Us fool p.163.

217

Tho Summary Moaning of Reality.


The summary meaning of reality.

In brief. reality is twofold: (a)

mirror reality and (b) visible reality.

Mirror reality in this regard is

N48.22
N49

[equivalent to] basic reality becauae the othen are visible therein.
Visible reality is ninefold: (a) the visible reality free from illusory
notions; (b) the visible reality free from erroneous inversion367 ; (e) the
visible reality of going forth by means of the irlnka vehicle; (d) the
visible reality of going forth by meana of the univenal vehicle because
it brings about maturity by way of the groll and liberates by way of the
subtle; (e) the visible reality of the refutation of opponents because they
are refuted through reasoning based upon example; (f) the visible reality of the lucid explanation of the univenal vehicle; (g) the visible reality of entry into the knowable in all aspects; (h) the visible reality of
the lucid explanation of true thusnell and

(n

the visible reality of

entry 368 into all intended meanings in relard to the foundation for the
adherence to the belief in the self.
[Sthiramati]
Yl63.15

The summary meaning of reality369.

In brief. reality ia twofold 370 ; in

detail, it has been described as tenfold. Hence in brief, it is twofold371 : Ca) mirror
reality

and

(b)

visible

reality.

Mirror reality

in

this

relard is

[equivalent to1 buic reality: moreover, this consists in the three natures.

As to

why it is described as "mirror reality" because tha others. i.e. the reality of characteristic etc., are viaible therein372 . Vilible reality which was explained previously as the reality of characteristic etc. ia ninefold. Why is it described as visible
Yl64

reality?

Because it is visible within basic reality.

(a) The vilible reality free

from iIIulory notioal; i.e. the reality of characteristic, for the freedom from
illusory notions [comes about] on account of this because there is neither imputation

nor negation in regard to: (a) the personal entity aad the dharmas, (b) the apprehended
object and apprehending subject and (c) existence and non-existence. Cb) The vilible reality free from erro!1eoua iaveflioa373; i.~. mat wtrl(:Jl is characteri~d by

367

368
369
370
371
372
373

IvipIIry'" bllt Tib.: pbyiIJ ci 106 gi IiII po - vip6rylUpntipaq. (DlSb.2).


Tib. repIKeI JDWA willi IfDIS pi (-dWamWpnIj...uu ecc.)
Read: wtvuya piWInb&(J in place of mttvlfJ4J(lJnbalJ; d. Bblly. N48.22.
Read: wnillto dvividbvp wtYaIIJ in place of Samlsl~ tlttvllll dv;vicihlDr, cf. Bh"y.
N48.22.
TIb. insens: "WbaI are Ibese two"r (nwn 1M gIIis po ji /,. bu na 0269..5).
Read: tin tbti.a in place of tIdtIIIUaII; d. Bbawa N48.23.
Althouab both tile Tib. B_y. (DlSb.2) and 1IU (D269a.7) reinforce Y's renderinlof
vip,wyly1pnltip&tJ.t-, I have maiDed die radial_ fouDd in die Saaslait BhI$ya (N49.1-2).

218

the absence of erroneous inversion, for this is the counteragent to erroneous inversion374 such as the notion of permanence. (e) The visible reality of going forth
by means of the irlvara vehicle; i.e. the reality of cause and result. The going
forth of the sdvaka is via meditative development and the penetration of the four noble
truths.

(d)

The visible reality of going forth by means of the universal

vehicle; i.e. the reality of the gross and the subtle. One goes forth via rhe universal
vehicle because it brings beings to maturity by way of the groSl, i.e. by way
of conventional truth, and because it liberate' them by way of the subtle, i.e.
by way of ultimate truth37S . (e)

The visible reality of the refutation of oppo-

nents, i.e. well established reality. How so? He says: because they are refuted
through reasoning bued upon example376 ; examples are generally accepted
when refuting an opponent. It is reasoning since it is based on words 377 that are well
established through reasoning.

(f) The visible 1"I:a1ity of the lucid explanation

of the universal vehicle; i.e. the reality o' the Sph ..IC of pure direct intuition, for
this refers to rhe sphere of the pure direct intuition378 of both obscuration that consists
in moral defilement and the knowable379 and comprises the lucid explanatiolU' of other
scriptural traditions - this is the universal vehicle.

(g)

The visible reality of

entty into the knowable in all ita upects; i.e. the reality of inclusion.
over, this refers to rhe five categories
that is knowable.

(h)

becl!~!se

More-

with reference to them, one enters into all

The visibl(l rulity of the lucid explanation of true

thusnes. 380 ; i.e. rhe reality of differentiation, for the lucid explanation of both the true
rhusness and the unaltered rhusness of things is on account of this. (i) The visible
reality of entry by way of all intended meaningl 381 in re.ard to the
foundation for the adherence to the belief in the self: i.e. the reality of rhe
skills, for, on account of this [the bodhisattva) enters by way of all interpretations in
regard to the foundation for the adherence to the belief in the self. The adherence to rhe
belief in a self among the aggregates etc. ariKj iD

acco~

with

ten interpre-

tations as were previously described382 .


The statementS concerning the summary meaning of the realities are for the purpose
of: (a) facilitating [mental] retention since one can supply the text by means of its

meanin, and (b) the removal of confusion and frustration because frustration is not

314
315
316
311
318
319
380
381
382

Read: -vip6lyIs. as per Ms.(SOb.4) in place of -vipry.y.


Ms.(SOb.5): -utyeDl; disIqard Y's fo.2 p.164.
Read: dnllDt1UIPDiinIyep in place eX dnIIDtalP aiirirya; cf. BhI$ya N49.4.
ialxU is omiaed from die Tib. which reads: " .. .siJx:e it is establisbed duough reasoning"; cf.
D269b.3.
Read: -~in place of -ftJ~yll; TIb. yo Sa kyi apyod yul gyi (D269b.4).
Ms.(SOb.6): ileajiJeylvml(la-; disreprd Y's fo.4 p.l64.
Read: a~inplaceofavi~~.
Read: -1fIbisaIpdlJi-in place of -IbIliprIya-;cf. BhII)'aN"9.1.
Cf. Y136.16.

219

Yl65

generated 383

00

beginning to end.

the part of one who has thoroughly understood the subject from
Also, confusion does not arise due to the understanding of the

explanations as they are listed.


Reality has now been described.

383

Read: lU .. upajly_ as per Ms.(Sla.2) in pIIce of lU .. upaftlJy-.

,--------------------

Chapter Four

1. The Meditative Development of


the Counteragent
2. The State Therein.
3. The Attainment of the Result-.

221

Prologue.

[Sthiramati}
Yl66.2

[1] The Meditative Development of the Counteragent. as well as the State Therein and
the Anainment of the Result should be mentioned immediately following Ihe exposition
of Reality, hence the Fourth Chapter is undertaken in order to clearly illustrate these
[subjects].

n~

State Therein and the Attainment of the Result are stated because: (a)

they were [initially} listed immediately afier 1 Reality and (b) they are subject to the
Meditative Development of the Counteragent.

1. The Meditative Development of the


Counteragent.

Introductory.
N50.3

The meditative development of the counteragent which is [equivalent


to] the meditative development of the factors that contribute to enlightenment should now be mentioned.
[Sthiramati]

Yl66.7

[1] In order to demonstrate that in a SUtra, the factors which contribute to

enlight~n

ment are asserted as being counteragents, he says: the meditative development of


the counteragent which is [equivalent to) the meditative development of
the factora that contribute to enlilhtenment2... For they are described as
counteragents since they gain strength while being cultivated for the relinquishment of
adverse obscuration as described [in Chapter II]. Furthermore, they number thirtyseven, [beginning with] the four applications of mindfulness up until the noble eightlimbed path.

The meditative development of these is synonymous with: (a> their

promotion, (b) their generation, (c) theu- practice and (d) their repetition3. [The Ie]
should

2
3

DOW

be mentioned because they were listed immediately after Reality.

Ms.(Sla.4): taltV1IlJamWJtaram, contrary to Y's fn.2, but his emendation to uttvllletaRm is


comet.
Read: bodbipalr$YII- as per Ms.(S 1a.S) in place of bodhipat$.-; cf. BhI$ya NSO.3.
Read: bahulIbiyeti as per Ms.(Sla.6) in place of babul. Jaiyeti; Tib. Ie mm du by. bll
(D270a.4).
.
.

222

a. The Four Applications of Mindfulness.


Now, in regard to these, at the beginning:

N50.5

IV.I abcd

The meditative development of the


applications of mindfulness leads to

the comprehension of the four truths


and is due to: (a) disquiet. (b) the
cause of craving, (e) the foundation
[of the latter] and (d) the absence of
confusion.
<a} Disquiet is made manifost through the body; one comprehends
the truth of suffering through the investigation of the latter because [the
body] is characterized by the formative forces together with disquiet;
for, disquiet cooliltP, in the painful nature of the formative forces - on
account of this the Noble Ones regard an impure entities in terms of
suffering.

(b) The cause of craving is sensation; through the investiga-

tion of this, one comprehends the truth of origination.

(c) Mind is the

foundation for the notional attachment to the self; through the investigation of this, one comprehends the truth .of co....tion due to the
rem{Jv:d of the fear of self-annihilatioD.

(d) Through the investigation

of the dhum.. one comprehendl tho truth of the path due to the absence
of confusion concerning the dharm.. pertinent to defilement and purificatioll.

Hence the meditative development of the appHcationl of mind-

fulnell is eltablilhed at the beginning for the compretiension of the


four traths.
[Sthiramati1
Yl66.15

[1] Why is the meditative development of the applications of mindfulness described

firstly and not the other, i.e. the meditative development of the factors that contribute to
enlightenment?
IV.I a
Yl67

He says: Now, in regard to these. in the beginning:


... Due to: (a) dilquiet. (b) the cause

"In regard

to

of claving4 etc.
these" [means]: in regard to the meditative development of the factors that

contribute

to

enlightenment. The word "now" has the sense of sequential order. Now,

at the beginning. the meditative development of the applications of mindfulness is


mentioned and [the meditative development of] the others [are mentioned] subse-

Read: dlUlthulylt ~lVld in place of dauJlbulyatn{llbetulV~ cf. Bhl$ya NSO.6.

, - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

223
quently.

Because they are not aware of the virtues and faults of nirv3paS andsarps4ra

[respectively] on account of their notional attachment to something pleasurable, pure,


permanent and substantial among the formative forces, naive people delightli in enjoyment and existence and are fearful of the meaning of nirv3pa7. Moreover, this lack of
awareness in regard to virtues and faults and the notional attachment to the pleasurable
etc. are checked because of the insight into the truths. Hence. in order to encourage
them to shrink from sarpsMa and to bring them face to face with nirv3pa, just the
meditative development of the applications of mindfulness is mentioned at
the beginning for the comprehension of the four truths.
[2] Disquiet is made manifest through the body.

Disquiet

(dau~thulya)

is

[equivalent to] uneasiness (dul;!sthitat3) because, while it is formatively influenced


every day, the body is certainly changed; hence disquiet is made manifest through the
body.

Consequently, one comprehends the truth of sufferinl through the

investigation of the body. As to why this is so, he says: because [the body] is
characterized by the formative forcel together with diaquiet8 Since the
formative forces, accompanied by disquiet, are the characteristic, i.e. the own-being, of
the truth of suffering and disquiet is made manifest through the body, therefore, one
comprehends the truth of suffering through the investigation of the body. However,
since disquiet is not understood, he says: for, disquiet conlilu in the painful
nature of the formative forcel.

Formative force refers to the arising of states [of

existence]; and since it is the foundation of all ruin, it is disquiet. And this consists in
suffering because it is repugnant to the Noble Ooes. As has been said:
This rebirth is unfortunate, for when there is birth, there are the eoemies of

old-age, death, disease, misfortune, murder, bondage and so on.


fortunes would not

OCQU'

'These mis-

if the body9 did not originate, Uust as] there would be

no destruction through fire, wind and forest fires if trees did not arise.
On account of thil, i.e. it is on account of the painful nature of the formative
forces, and not on account of the painful nature of change nor the painful nature of
suffering, because: (a> the latter two do not pervade and (b) they are the causes of the
Yl68

painful nature of the formative forces.

The Noble Onel reaard all impure enti-

ties in tonna of lufferiDI 10 but not [entities] that are free from impurity because

5
6
7
8
9

Ms.{Sla.7): nirvl(Ja-; disreaanl Y's fn.l p.l67.


Read: Ibllinmtlalwp in place of ibhimmtt.JwrJ; Tib. nuJoo par dg.' iilt (D27Oa.7).
Ms.{Slb.l): nirvl(JlniJeconttary to Y's fn.2 p.167.
Read: tasylt SMUu$lhul~in place of WJl~.hi SMUu$lhulyawpsk~
tvld; ct. Db_ya NSO.9.
Read perhaps: babubhlYo in place of aviDlJo; Tib. (D270b.S): Jig(s) mad - Uterally: "that
which is susceptible to many danlers"; this would appear to be an epithet for the physical

body.
10

Read: 1Iy' du.(lkhltatl paiYBDti in place of IIyIir dutJk/JllVeallolciwrr, cf. Dbl$ya NSO.IQ.U.
This passaae is omitted from the Ms. and bu been inserted on the buis of the Tib.; ct. Y's

fn.l p.l68.

224
the truth of the path is the counteragent to the arisingll of rebinh. However, ordinary
people 12 do not [regard impure entities in terms of suffering] because their mental
disposition is impaired by erroneous inversion 13 . The following is stated in a Siltra
too: "In brief, suffering consists in the five aggregates that have been appropriated."
Others believe that the painful nature of the formative forces is [equivalent to] the lack
of pliability (akarmapyatf). Others again believe that disquiet does not consist in the

lack of pliability14. What is the reason? The state of being accompanied by impurity
should necessarily be acknowledged as having arisen from a causal 'seed' because the
lack of pliabilitylS is accompanied by impurity, however sometimes, even without a
'seed' [lack of pliability] exists in the mental continuum of an arhat due to a defect in
diet, or environment 16 etc. and this does not have the capacity to become disquiet
because it is free from impurity. Hence, it is the 'seed' of an impure dharma which
lodges in the store-consciousness and is considered as disquiet in this context. This
body, accompanied by [sensations that are] pleasurable, painful and neither pleasurable
nor painful, is the result of that ['seed']. Therefore, disquiet is made manifest through
the body which comes into being every moment accompanied by the state l7 of pleasure
etc.

The term ["made manifest"] is equivalent in meaning to 'made evident'.

For

example, a seed that has slipped into a crack in the floor of a granary [manifests]l8
through its sprout.

Therefore, one comprehends th~ truth of suffering through the

investigation of the body. Here now he gives the reason: "because [the body] is characterized by the formative forces together with disquiet"19. What is meant is: because
[suffer'.ng] consists in the formative forces together with their 'seeds'. For, the painful
as disquiet20 because: (a) it is associated

nature of the formative forces is described

with the disquiet of both the paiDful nature of change and the painful nature of suffering and (b) it is the cause of these twol 1. Hence, on ac:coWlt of the painful nature of the
formative forces the Noble Ones regard all impure entities in terms of suffering22. In
this way one comprehends the bUth of suffering through the application of the mindfulness of the body.
11
12

13
14
IS
16

17
18
19

20
21
22

skye ba (utplltfJ) is only found in P.


Read: J1Ifb-.iatJI in place of J1Ifb-.iIlWr assuming this sentence follows.the same construction
as Bhl$yaNSO.lo...11.
Ms.(Slb) line 6 begins: -ylltVlt I sin py... ; cf. Y's fnol p.l68.
Cf. Siddbi PI'- 608 &; 642 where darlllhulya mI ~,..IJ are discussed in depth.
Read: abtmatr~vatvld in place of atarmapyatl s&uavaMd; rib. 111$ su mi l1lJi ba'i zag
1M d.m bc&I 1M; plJyir(l>271a.2).
Tib. insens dad pa (l>271a.2) whicb is not found in the Ms.
Read perbaps: -1V.rIll- in place of -avaUia-; Tib .,.as sbbJ (l>271a.4).
Tib. inIens mdoa 1M (l>271LS) which is not found in the Ms.
Read: taya satUullhuly~awldia place of ta/UkJaqasya hi sadMlHbuly&VlflSkJrawid; d. Bhlfra NSO.9.
daullhulyam but Tib. 'w byed kyi sdlwlwJaJ ~Id (l>271a.6).
Ms.(S2a.2) reads simply: kJrapawlc, bat Y's emeadatioa to tartlrl(ratvIC is preferred on the
basis of the Tib.; cf. his fn.4 p.I68.
Read: IlyI d/llIkhmyll paiyanti in place of ~air dulltbaMd/oIdtanr. Tib..
pa ml/ ,/8
kyis
hJW Ifid du pi., (l>271a.7) which IS panalIellO Bhlfya NSO.I0 &: t>Ub.7.

sdu,

' p h '. "

225

[3] Tho causo of craving is sensation.

The intended meaning here :s that it

arises from contact which consists in ignorance. because [sensation] that is free from
1169

impurity does not cause sueh[ craving]. In this respect. a pleasurable sensation is the
cause of the craving for connection with that [sensation] and non-separation from it. A
painful [sensation] is the cause of li!e craving for separation from that [sensation] and
non-connection with it

[A sensation that is] neither pleasurable nor painful is the

cause of: (8) craving for the delight in that state and (b) craving for connection with that
[sensation] and non-separation from it23 in regard to any attainment. Even a painful
sensation is a cause of craving for pleasure since it is said that: "one who has made
contact24 with a painful sensation rejoices in the pleasure of sensual delight" One
comprehends the truth of origination through the investigation of this.
While investigating sensation by way of essential nature, cause. effect, impermanence25
and suffering. one indeed comprehends the truth of origination. What is meant is: one

understands that craving is the effect of these [sensations]. In a Siltra. craving is


described as the truth of origination; in detail it is said: "What is the origination of
suffering? It is the craving which leads to further existence and which is accompanied
by the passion for joy."26

In this way one comprehends the truth of origination

through the application of the mindfulness of sensation.


[4] Mind is the foundation for tho notional attachment to tho lolf.

Since

!here is no other self that is distinguished by the quality of permanence etc. the objective support for the notional attachment to the self is mind alone. Therefore. through
the inveltigation of thil. ono comprehendl the truth of ce ation. i.e. as
tranquillity. Here now be provides the reuon: duo to the removal of the fear of
self-umihilation.

For the notional attachment to the self is checked by investigat-

ing impermanence etc. in regard to mind. and its pen:eption as suffering arises. Hence.
due to the removal of the fear of self-llDJIihilatioD, one comprehends the truth of cessation as tnmquillity21 because it il [equivalent to] the annihilation of suffering alone. In
this way one comprehends the truth of cessation through the application of the mindfulness of mind28 .
[5]
Through the inveltigation of the dbarm ... one comprehend. the
truth of the path due to the absence of confu.ion concerning the

23
24

2S
26

Ms.(52a.4): ",ulJlyoJaviyoga-, but Y's reading of talHqlyoglvi}'Ol. iJ prefared on the basis


of !be TIb.: t dad phnd em mi 'bn1 bar (D271b.2).
Ms.(S2a.4) iJ not clear but substanliala a reading of SM~ ct. Y's fn.l p.l69.
Ms.(5~S): ~ato 'ni~ but Y's emendation to HlapatalllcJtyato 'nityalO iJ prefemcl on
the bIllS of the Tlb.; cf. his fn.2 p.l69.
Read: tmJl paUlM16IMviH DaJJdlrti6uabqale1i in pIKe of ""' paulJrihaviHDaDdl III....
galeti; Ms.(S2L6): -H UJJd1IfI....v,..ti. Tib. yad 'bywt IM'i Sled 1'1 dga' ba'i 'dod cb." dat
IdMl 1'1 (D271b.4). Disreaard Y's rn.3 p.l69. ct. Mahlvutu m p.332.S-6 mel JJJones: lk
~ Vol.
p.324.
Ms.(S2b.l): -Dlvatarami; disreaard Y's fn.4 p.l69.
Ms.(S2b.l): citwlJllfY-; disrealld Y's rn.s p.l69.

m.

27
28

226
dharma pertinent to defilement and purification.

Therein, the dharmas that

pertain to defilement are the moral defilements and the secondary defilements; but those

that pertain to purification, i.e. love and friendliness etc., are the counteragents to the
Yl70

moral defilements and secondary defilements29 . Having become aware of the nature of
the [respective] adverse elements and counteragents to those [dharmas] that pertain to
defilement and purification, one comes face to face with the expedient for the absolute
relinquishment of all distress, i.e. the truth of the path. In this way one comprehends
the truth of the path through the application of the mindfulness of the dharmas.
[6) "Comprehension" in the above refers to the understanding of the characteristic of

truth in regard to each of the [four] truths. Therein, the meditative development of the
applications of mindfulness of the body refers to [its understanding) as: (a) impermanent, painful, empty and insubstantial, (b) having many impure substances for its ownbeing, (c) the 'seed' of the impure, (d) the outflow of the impure, (e) the cause of
continued existence of impurity, (f) a modification into impurity, (g) the absence of
essence, like a mass of foam, (h) a state of existence and (i) a place of birth. Furthermore, the meditative development of the applications of mindfulness of sensation, mind
and the dbarmas refers

to

[their understanding] as: (a) impermanent, painful, empty and

insubstantial, (b) an individual characteristic, (c) a universal characteristic30 , (d) a


cause, (e) a result, (f) a realm of existence, spiritual level and state of existence, (g)
wholesome, unwholesome and undefined and (h) adverse elements and counteragents.
For the bodhisatrvas however, the meditative development of the applicarions of mindfulness for the purpose of the relinquishment of conceptual differentiation is both in
this way [as described] and is also in the aspect of non-perception.

Although the

applications of mindfulness have wisdom for their own-being, the term "applications
of mindfulness" is so-called because [the wisdom elements] are applied by the force of
mindfulness, or, mindfulness is applied by means of these [wisdom elements)3l.

29

30
31

P (117.) mel D (272a.2-3): rum par by. 1M mams Di lie IM'i g4eIJ poe gyur bl mIllIS Ie I mi
lldu, PI dIIi byllJU PI 1111011 pi. This should be amended to: lDIDI". by. 1M 1JJI1fIS ni JfolJ
moD PI dm Jle ba'i IotJ mod, PI'i pea poe our blllWlU te I sdu, PI dID. Cf.Y's fn.l
p.170.
slmlnylllQaQltD (spyi'i mtsbu 4MJ dIIi) is found in die Tib. (D272a.5), but is omitt.ed from
the Ms.
Cf. LVP Kola VI.161.

227
b. The Four Comet ExertioDs32
N50.18

Then,

the

described]

meditative

development of the

correct exertions

[is

because:

IV.2 abed

When there is the clear comprehension of adverse clements and their


counteragents.
fourfold

in every

vigour

arises

respect.
for

their

[respective] removal and encouragement 33 .


When there is clear comprehension of the adverse elements and their
counteragents. in all modes. through the meditative development of the
applications of mindfulness a fourfold

vigour arises for : <a>

the

removal of the advene elements and <b) the production of their counteragentl.

In detail, these are for the relinquishment of the evil unwhole-

some db.rmu that have already arisen.


[Sthiramati]
Y170. 18

[1] Immediately following the meditative development of the applications of mindfulness, the meditative development of the correct exertioDl is described.

As

to why, he says: because ..

IV.l a

When there is the clear comprehension of advene elements etc

... Throuah the meditative development of the applications of mindfulne~.

Yl71

Although no distinction is made, it is to be understood that it is just through the

meditative development of the application of the mindfulness of the dharmas. When


there is

~!ear

comprehension of the advene elements and their counter-

agentl. in all modes34 ; i.e. [in modes such as] the relinquishment of the realms of
existence and sf'mtual levels and in aspects of the universal characteristic etc., and also,
according to their differentiation as: impure, without impurity. realm of existence,
spiritual level,

ODO

still in training and the adept etc. 3S Por: <a> the removal of the

32

The inteldJmaeability of the two cerms samylkpra/JlQ. and WIIyUpmlhIU is noIed in BHSD
(pp.308 cl: 389). For the sake of coosisteDCy I have IrIIISlared bodl cenns as "comet exertion"
here because it is essentially thair viJOlOUS aDd effonful nanue that is brought out in this

33

NaglO IIIMes that tMUplyly' is to be resolved. tacUpIy.-Iy. although the Tib. tnIIISlltOl'reads
it as a Dative form of IpIYI (de tb6 SJMIi p/lyil). Cf. NSO, fn.3.
ReId: ~as pel'Ms.(S2b.7) in pllceof ~-; ct. BbI$ya NSO.21.
Read: dhJfllbhllmi~ 'IlDIlIY~'dyJkIlU uth. slIRvlDlsRvadhlfllbhllmiiaiQliailJldibbedeu in p'1ace of dhIlubbllmy.val:1Wb slmltJyllak$a{JldyJkIrais tath.
slsllvlDlslav6ldbIfllbbflmii"Q'uiQUyIHnU t.IdJ'lsRvln&nvadh'fllbhllmii~
diblJedelu ca; Tib. khamI d6I! sa'i spdI pa dad I spyi'i mlSlwl Jlid I. sop pal 1IWD pa dad I de
biin du U6 pa dad 6c.u ". dad I D6 palJJlld ~ diJj 111Jams dad I daD I slob pa cWj I mi slob

34
3S

COI11iUt.

s.

228
adverse elements; the removal of adverse elements36 here signifies the breaking of
the continuity of those that have already arisen and the non-generation of those that
have not yet arisen. And (b) the production of their counteragenta37 ; the production of their counteragents is [equivalent to] the continuing supply of those that
have already arisen and the generation of those that have not yet arisen. A fourfold
vigour38 arises 39 i.e. a fourfold vigour arises according to its differentiation as an
adverse element or counteragent, which has already arisen or has not yet arisen. In
detail,

these are

for the

relinquishment of the evil, unwholesome

dharms. that bave already arisen.

By this he shows the fourfold arising of

vigour in accordance with scriptural tradition. The term "in detail" refers to additional
text; this is the additional text: For the relinquishment [of evil unwholesome elements
that have already arisen]40 one generates will-power, makes endeavour, undenakes
with vigour, 'seizes' the mind and strives with correct effort. Thus, in detail: one
generates will-power for the non-production of the evil, unwholesome dharmas that
have not yet arisen. Similarly, in detail: one generates will-power for the production of
the wholesome dharmas that have not yet arisen. For the maintenance, increase, [nondeprivation]41 and completion of the wholesome dharmas that have already arisen, one
generates Will-power, makes endeavour, undertakes with vigour, 'seizes' the mind and
strives with correct effort. The maintenance of those that have arisen refers to their
non-decrease 42 . Increase is [equivalent to] continuous production; completion is
[equivalent to] culmination. By the words: "one generates will-power", he shows that
it is an earnest application of the meditative development of vigour4 3 . By "one makes
endeavour" is meant: one focuses on the body and mind for the relinquishment of laziness44 . "One undertakes with vigour, in order to dispel both indolence and excitabilYl72

ity.

How does one undenake? By 'seizing' the sluggish mind through the mental

attentions directed towards the dharmas that are both perceptible4S and agreeable.
When the mind is enhanced46 it strives with correct effon towards just that objective

pa la sogs pa'i bye brag gis (0272b.2).

Y's rendering ~ to follow P which is clearly

mcorrecl

36
37

38
39
40

41
42

43
44

45
46

vipak$lpagtunO is omitted from the Tib.; cf. D272b.3.


Read: ptIli~p6glllllya ca in pIKe of prati_ _lI1IIyaC8j cr. Bh~a NSO.22.
Read: \lfJyBIJI c.tlU1rlhI in pIJce of \lfJyac.vunfbl; cr. Bh_ya N.50.22. ..
praVlltatlt, but B~ya wppm'amte (cf. NSO.23).
Tib. inserts: sdig pa mi dge ba'i cboo skyes 1M mimi (D272b.S) which is not found in the Ms.
SSllPpramol'ya is not found in either P or D; presumably it has been inserted here by Y
because it is traditionally included with this group (cf. Mvy. 19(1)
Read: spariblpitJ as per Ms.(S4a.4) in place of apariblripitJ; Tib. yods su mi JJams pa
(D272b.7).
Read perhaps: sqawavavllyabhJvlDlpn}'OlBIJI in place of sag.uravodyuJaa\lfJyasamlf!dhi",;
Tib. JUS pIT bnsoo frus bI,om pa'i sbyOl' b. (D273Ll). Cf. YI72.20. Y's reconsll'llCtion
here IS probably based OIl P: IUS par bltsoo p bnsoa pa'i 'byor ba (118b.l).
Tib. is slipdy different ...while re1iDquishin& laziDeu"; ..Je 10 spaJ& ,. (02731.1).
Ms.(S4a.j): SI1PvejllDIyl-. but Y's eDIIDdadon 10 Sl/llMIdaDl)'I- is preferred; cf. his fn.l p.172.
Read: uddb_ ciue in place of udtIbIIalp cittam; Tib. .-1JOd p6r 6YfU (02731.2).

D.

229

suppon; what is meant is: it holds fast through the mental attentions directed towards
the dharmas that are both perceptible and agreeable47 . Thus it is shown that the correct
exertions 48 have the nature of vigour and they are [described as] correct exertions
(saroyakpradhlna) since they correctly (saroyak) hold (dhiIrayantJ) body, speech and

mind by means of these [correct exertions}.

c. The Four Bases of Psychic Power.


IV.3 abcd

NS1.2

The pliability of stability in the context of the latter leada to pow"r in all
matters - it follows from the cultivation of the eight formative forcea for
the relinquilhment of the five faultl.

The pliability of the stability of mind in the context of that meditltive development of the vigour for the removal and production of those
[dbarmu1 49 consists in the four basel of psychic power because they

are the causell of mental- power in all subjects.

Stability, which refers

to the stability of mind here, should be known al meditative concentration.

Hence, the bases of psychic power follow immediately after the

correct exertions.

Furthermore, thil pliability is to be known as

following from the meditative development of the eight formative forces


that facilitate relinquishment leadinl to the relinquishment of the five
faults.
[SthiraJQti]
[I]

IV.3 a

1172.8

The pliability of stability


text of the latterS 0 etc.

i~

m{t

c9~

The pliability of the stability of mind in the context of the latter, i.e. in the
c9nC9~~

47
48
49
~9

gf lb"t

~{tcUtlltive

develop~ent

of vigour for m.e removal and

Tib. omits: Sll11JvedanIyapt'lllDlJdanIy~ cf. 02731.2.


Read: samylkpradblnlni as per Ms.(S4L6) in place of Y's samylkprah.plni which is in
agreement wilh Ihe Tib. (D273a.2). Cf. my m.32 above.
radaplylys; the TIb. translator hu again misunderslDOd !his compound by tnnslatina it as de
spaD bIJpbyir(Dl6a.S). Cf. my tn.33 above.
~ qrnapyatl sr,biJ# ~ in place of stbifibnna(JyatllJ(lF, cr. Bhl$ya NS1~.

230

production of adverse elements and their counteragents51 ; pliability52 is [equivalent


to] the capacity for mental power in all subjects and this pliability comes about under

the influence of will-power, vigour, mind and examination. Hence he says: pliability
consists in the four bases of psychic power.

Psychic power is [equivalent to]

mental power in all subjects such as the higher know ledges. These are the bases of
psychic power in the sense that they are the suppon for it - what is meant is: the bases
of psychic power are the causes of psychic powerS 3 . Hence he says: because they
are the causes of mental power.

Moreover, they are: (a) the base of psychic

power associated with the formative force that facilitates relinquishment and which
c,~nsists

in the meditative concentration of will-power. (b) The base of psychic power

associated with the formative force that facilitates relinquishment and which consists in
the meditative concentration of vigour. (c) The base of psychic power associated with
the formative force that facilitates relinquishment and which consists in the meditative
concentration of mind. (d) The base of psychic power associated with the formative
force that facilitates relinquishment and which consists in the meditative concentration
of examination. Of these, (a) the meditative concentration of will-power occurs when
one attains single-pointedness of mind while earnestly engaging in the meditative
development of vigour under the influence of will-power. (b) The meditative concentration of vigour occurs .when oDC attains single-pointedness of mind while undertakYl73

ing with vigour due to continual application. (c) The meditative concentration of mind
occurs when oDC attains single-pointedness of mind while holding the mind on mind
alone owing to the 'seed' of previous meditative concentration. (d) The meditative concentration of examination occurs when ODC who has thoroughly analysed the objective
suppon attains single-pointedness of mind.
stability of mind bere, should be known

Stability, wbicb refera to the

a. meditative concentration; the

reference to meditative concentration is for the purpose of distinguishing this from


those [states] characterized by the conditioned elements. The pliability of mind54
pertinent to one who bas undertaken with vigour consists in the four bases of psychic
power; bence 55 , the buel of psychic power are explained immediately
following the correct eunionl.
Furthermore, thil pliability - as to its
purpose 56 and cause, he says: - i. to be known u foUowinl from57 the medi51
52
53
54

5S
56
57

Read: tuyltp vipu,lIpratipdslplylganYvlrya- as per Ms.(S4L7) in place of tasY'm


vipUllpagamlvlrya-; ct. Bhl$ya N51.4. The Tib., which is the basis of Y's emendation, is

mosllikely incomet as the result of the mis-reading as noted above (ct. my fns. 33 &: 49).
Tib. (D273L4) insens las su nut ba ifid (- brmIcJyatJ) which is not found in the Ms.
Read: wyltI pm4rhlnbeu (ddbipIdJ (ddbipldl pldlJiheavl ity lIfhatJ as per Ms.(S4b.l) in
place oftasy~ pratilthlrtbsl ~ (ddlJibeavl ity arthalI and contrary co Y's fn.6 p.l72; it
appeus that the Tib. trlnSlllOl' has abbreviated dlis pusIIe; ct. Y's fn.6.
Ms.(S4b.4): cittasthi-, but Y's emendadOllco cittlkal(tDa{lya~ is preferred OIl the basis of the
Tib.; cf. Y's tn.l p.173.
Read: atalJ in place of talIf; ct. Bhl$ya N5l.6.
Read: kiIppnyojllJJ as per Ms.(S4b.5) in place of liqpayojlUWlL
Ms.(S4b.5): -bb'vllJlnvayl; disregard Y's fn.2 p.173.

231

tative development of the eight formative forcci that facilitate relinquishment leading to the relinquishment of the five
"following from" is [equivalent in meaning tal 'cause'58.

f~ults.

The term

The Five Faults.


Which are the five fauits?

NSl.IO

IVA abed

He says:

(a) Lazinell, (b) the forgetting


instructiona,

(c)

indolence

c:f
and

excitabilit y 59, (d) the absence of formative influence and (e) formative
influence - thOle are considered al
the five faultl.
In the above, indolence and excitability are made one fault.

The

absence of formative influence is a fault at the time of the tranquillization of indolence and excitability.
[the time of] tranquillity.

Formative influence [is a faultl at

[Sthiramati]
'fI73.11

[1] Since these five faults are not known, he asks: which are the five faults']60 In

order

to

demonstrate them he says:

IV.4 ab

(a) Luinell, (b) the forgettin. of


inuructionl,

(c)

indolence

and

excitability 61 etc.
Since these faults number six, he says: in the above, indolence aDd excitability
are made one fault - thus there are five. Of these, laziness is a fault at the time of

application because the absence of application is on account of it. The forgetting of


instructions is a. fault on the part of one who has undertaken [to act] because the
absence of the concentration of mind is on account of iL Indolence I excitability is

fault on the part of one woo:;e mind is concentrated because the absence of pliability of
mind is on account of this. The ablence of formative influence il a fault at

58

59
60

61

The Tib. for this final section (Y173.7-9) is sligbtly different: .....what is ill cause? Hence he
says: ... il to be mown IS followiDl hom the cause which is the meditative
deyeloPmeJlt of the formatiYe forcel for the reliDquisbment of the fiy/! faults
(cf. D273b.3).
Read: uddbn~ as per the Ms. in place of uddIu,.q; ct. Nts fn.S p.St.
Read: btarne ~ dcJfI in place of b _ pIIIlca dtJfI; cf. BhI$ya NSt.tO.
Read: uddbavllJ. per Ms.(S4b.6) in place of udb/JavllJ. Cf. also N's fnoS p.S1 of the Bh"ya
where he rejects his Ms. reIdina of uddJuvllt, altbou&h this reading is probably correct.
.

232

the time62 of [the tranquillization of}63 indolence and excitability; the


abs"'1.:e of formative influenco is [equivalent tol indifference because the absence of
the tranquillization of these two is on accoUDt of that. Pormative influence [is a
faultl at [the time of} tranq'.lillity; [the word] "fault" remains in force.

Forma-

tive influence consists in volition, for it is said that tranquillity is due to the attainment
of 'sameness'(samarS) which is because of the removal of indolence and ext;i~bility.

The Eight Formativo Forco, that Facilitate Relinquishment.


N51.16

How are the eight formative forces that facilitate

relinquishment

respectively determined for the relinquishment of those [faults]?


are for the relinquishment of lazinell,
effort, (c) faith and (d) quiescence.

namely:

Four

(a) Will-power, (b)

Moreover, thele should be known

sequentially as:
IV.S ab

(a) The buis, (b) that which il bued


on it, (c) the caule of the former and
(d) the relult;

(a) Will-power is the buil of effort.


based [on will-power].

(b) Effort is that which is

(c) Paith il the cause of that basis, i.e. will-

power, because there is an eagerness in one who hu firm belief.

(d)

Quiescence is the relult of that which is based [on will-power], i.e.


effort, because one who undertake. with vigour attainl a special meditative concentration.
N52

There are four remaininl formative forces that facilitate relinquishment, namely, (a) mindfulnesl, (b) full awarenes., (c) volition and (d)
equanimity which are the counteralontl to tho [other] four taults as
enumerated.

Furthermore, they should be known sequentially, begin-

ning with mindfulness:


IV.S cdef

(a)

the

support,
indolence

non-lOll 64 of the objective


(b)
and

the

underatanding

excitability,

(c)

of
the

formative influence for the removal


of the latter and (d) the employment
of meditative

calm

when

appease-

ment occura.
62
63
64

-avutblylm here, but Bhl$ya (NS1.l4): .kIIe; Tib. tJbe hele (D273b.6) but BhI$ya (D16a.7):
dusna.
Tib. 'Jlkl omits pnSl1IWJr, cf. D273b.6 and also Y's fn.S p.173.
Read perbaps: ~ for meaical reasons in place of 'SaqIlIJOf(T, cf. Nagao's fn.3 p.S2.

233

Ca> Mindfulness is the non-loll of the objective suppon.

(b> Pull

awarene8& is the understanding of indolence and excitability when there


is no loss of mindfulness.

(c) Volition is the formative influence for

the removal of the latter [two] after they have been understood.

(d)

The

employment of meditative calm refers to the equanimity of mind that


occurs when that indolence and excitability are appea!!ed.
[Sthiramati]
Y174.4

[1] [The term]: 'fonnative forces that facilimte relinquishment' (prahlpa-s;upskiIrJQ)65

is [resolved as]: 'formative forces thai lead to relinquishment (prahiIpiIya

samskiIr~)

[i.e. as a ratpUIUla compound). They are for the relinquishment of what? For the
relinquishment of the five faults that have just been described. If so, then this should
be stated: How are the eight formative forcea that facilitate relinquishment
respectively determined for the relinquishment of thole 66 [faultl]?

Of

these, four are for the relinquishment of lnine .. , namely: (a> willpower, (b) effon, (c) faith and (d) quiescence.

Willpower therein is

[equivalent tol eagerness; effort is [equivalent to] vigour; faith is [equivalent to) firm
belief; and "uiescence is [equivalent to) pliability.

Just how are they respectively

determined as leading to the relinquishment of laziness? Hence he says: moreover,


these should be known sequentially al:
IV.S ab

Ca> The buil, (b) that which is based


on it, (c) the cause of the former and
(d) the relult;

Hence he shows that they are conducive to the relinquishment of laziness because they
arise 67 one from the other. (a) Will-power il the balil of effon.
effort. (c) Faith is the cause of that buis68 , i.e. will-power...

(b) Effon
preced~d

il that which is based [on will-power], because eagerness is

by

How so'? He

says: ... because there is an ealemell in one who hal firm belief, for, one
who possesses faith in regard to the cause and result is eager to act. Quiescence: is
the relult of that which is baled [on will-powerl, i.e. effon.

Huw so?

He says: . because ane who undenakes with vigour attainl a special


meditative concentration; for the attainment of a special meditative concentration
is the cause of quiescence.

Hence quiescence is described as the result of effort

because one who underta!ces with vigour anains a special meditative concentration.

6S

66
67

68

prablpuMlfUkIrlh is inserted 011 !be basis of the TIb. and is not fllUnCi in !he Ms; cf. Y's fn,l
p.174.
Read: efIqJ in plJce of U!f.IqJ; cf.BhI$ya NS1.l6.
prabhlviWVid; Tib. 'bywi bas (D274a.2).
Read: ruytirayasya a:hmthsya in place of ruyliraya:chaadasyr. Ms.(SSa.4): -yasya a:hand..
sya. Ct. BhI$ya NSI.20-21.

234

For thus. joy arises in one who has undenaken with vigour due to the absence of the
fault of conceptual differentiation that consists in disquiet6 9 . The quiescence of body
and mind that results from a joyous mind has the characteristic-7o of pliability; conse-

quently, it is described as: "the attainment of a special meditative concentration".


Y175

Moreover, in this context. it is vigour together with its cause and result that is
described as the counteragent71 to laziness.
[2] [The remaining four formative forces that facilitate relinquishment,

namely: Ca) mindful nell. (b) full awareneSl, (c) volition and (d) equanimity are] the counteragentl to the [othc:r] four faults as enumerated.
Of these. mindfulness is the counteragent to the forgetting of insttuctions. Full aware-

ness is [the counteragentl to indolence and exci;ability. Volition is [the counteragentl


to the absence of formative influence.

Equanimity is (the counteragent1 to formative

influence; in this context it is the equanimity that consists in the formative forces that is
to

be understood. Moreover, since he wishes to discuss the characteristic of mindful-

ness etc. here. he says: furth:I1Dore,


beginning with mindfulne...

lV.S c

they should be Qown sequentially.

[mindfulness refers to:1


(a) nOD-lo,1 of an objective support

etc.
(a)

Mindfulnesl il the non-loll of an objective support; what !5. meant is:

the expression of the content of an insttuction conducive to the stability of mind72 .


Pull awarenesl is the undentandina of indolence and excitability when
there il no

1011

of mindfulness, for, one for whom mindfulness is present

possesses full awareness; this why he says: "when there is no loss of mindfulness".
After they are undentllod, i.e. indolence and excitability; what is meant is: [full
awareness] arises effortlessly due to the coupling of the two, i.e. meditative calm and
penetrating insighL By "equanimity" is meant: the absence of formative influence in
regard to other objects.

This is what is being said: one for whom mindfulness is

present understands the sluggish or excited mind, as it is in reality. when insttuction [is
given]; and in order

to

be rid of indolence and excitability be formatively influences

that [mind]. Also. due to the disappearance of both indolence and excitability, equanimity is created. Thus the meditative calm that belong;; to the mind of such a person
69
70
71
72

Ms.(55a.5): tUullhulyavirariJdy.,nk$llll.vigam!-, but Y's emencWion to daulJhulyaviblp~


~vi6mz1t is preferred on the basis of the Tib.; cf. his fn.3 p.174.
Read: -~:. per Ms.(55a.6) ill place of -/MppId.
Read: prali~:jrvenoium as per Ms.(SSa.6) in place of -pralipakJenoJctam.
Read [Y175.6-81: tCllUnah smrtyldayo vediravyll yadllkramam itil (sJ1lftirl
lIambane'sam(DIjI)mop

iii vist.aralll

anhJIJ

smnir !1m/bane

'UIlIJ!!'JI!!(!U

IV ..s c

iii citwthfIWJJYllvavlldavastvabhilapanam ity

in pI!'ICe oc
Ie punah snwtyldaYo vedjlfilYl yarhlkramam iii I smnir lIarnbane 'sanunosa
iii vur.ttru Ilambaaam iii cirrasthlJMllIyam avavldavastv abhilapanam ity arthatl.
cr. Ms.(55a.7-55b.l): ...y.mDmnam NuI""'..."uno,a i- -yav.vldavastv abhilapanllfl
contrary to Y's tn.] p.17S. The nb. replaca avavllllvlIStvibhillplDm/ with gdamsd.g yid
1cyU brjod(D274b.l).

23S

is [described as] pliability. Moreover, in regard to the inherent meaning of the statement "the stability of pliability", the suffix of state [i.e. the til of karma{JyatJl] ill just like
'bard-ness' etc. [i.e. the -tva of khakkhata-tva]73.

d. The Five Faculties.


The five faculties beginning with faith [were listed] immediately

NS2.11

after the bases of psychic power.

How are they respectively estab-

lished?
IV.6 abcd

When

the

elements

that

are

con-

ducive to liberation are fostered, it is


due to the influence of: (a) willpower, (b) application, (c) non-I08l 74
of the objective support, (d) non-diffusion and (e) analysis.
The words: "from the influence of" remain in force [in each case].
When the root of the wholesome which is conducive to liberation has
been fostered by the bases of psychic power in one who has mental
pliability, it is due to: (a) the influence of will-power, (b) the influence
of application, (c)

the influence of the non-loss of the objective

support, (d) the influence of non-diffusion and (e)


thorough analysis.

th~

influence of

The five faculties beginning with faith should be

known in sequential order.


[Sthiramati]
Yl76

[1]

It is the fact that the five faculties beginning with faith were described

immediately after the bases of psychic power that is referred to.


they respectively established?

How are

The intended meaning is: in what sense (are they

respectively established]? Hence he says:


IV.6 ab
When the

elements

that are

con-

ducive to liberation are fostered, it is


due to the influence of: (a) willpower, (b) application etc.

73
74

svapera- is incorrect. The Ms.(SSb.3) is not clear although the first syllable is definitely /cha.

For khakkha(atva ct. Mvy. #1842; this sentence is omitted from the Tib.

Rem perbaps: 'slJ11lj1l'Bl1JOla; ct. fn.64 above.

236

The words: "due to the influence of"75 remain in force [in each case]; by
this statement he shows that the term "influence" employed here, i.e. in the phrase "it is
due to the influence of: (a) Will-power, (b) application. ..", remains in force for each
subsequent [faculty] as well.

When the root of the wholesome which is con-

ducive to liberation has been fostered 76 by the bases of pSj'chic power in


one who haa mental pliability ... ; the root of the wholesome whkh is conducive
to liberation finds a support in the mental continuum77 of one who has mental pliability .
... It is due to: (a) the influence of will-power etc., concluding with (e) the
influence of thorough analysis; but not in one who does not have mental pliability. Moreover, this mental pliability comes about through the bases of psychic power.
Therefore, immediately after the bases of psychic power, the five f)lculties beginning
with faith are respectively determined as being due to the influence of the fostering of
the root of the wholesome which is conducive to liberation. It is actually faith that is
referred to by the term "will-power" in the statement: "... from the influence of willpower", for, the effect is expressed figuratively here in regard to the cause [i.e. willpower is the cause of faith}. Just as, for example, [the eating of] yoghurt and melon
[which is the cause} is [figuratively described as} a sudden fever. Alternatively, belief,
serene faith, and eagerness respecively with regard to existence, the possession of
virtue78 and ability are the characteristics of faith. Hence, through the reference to willpower79 in this context, it is actually faith as characterized by eagerness that is referred
to and not will-power.

(b) The influence of application; it is application

(prayoga) since one applies oneself (prayujyatc) by means of this.

By the word

'application', it is vigour that is intended. (c) The influence of the non-loss 80 of


the objective suppon; i.e. due to the influence of the faculty of mindfulness. The
faculty of mindfulness is characterized by the distinct expression of the objective
support 81 . (d) The influence of non-diffusion; i.e. due to the influence of the
faculty of meditative concentration, for, non-diffusion consists in the faculty of meditative concentration because this is characterized by single-pointedness of mind. And

Yln

(e) the influence of thorough analysis; i.e. due to the influence of the faculty of
wisdom because the faculty of wisdom has the nature of the thorough analysis of the
dharmas.

The word "and" shows that the five faculties beginning with faith 82

should be known in sequential order because they are the influences in the
7S
76
77
78
79
80
81
82

Read: lkIhipatySl1la per Ms.(SSb.4) and Bhl$ya NS2.1S in place of adhipatyala


Read: kannB{lyacittasylropite mok,abhlglye kuialsmals iti in place of ksrmapyacittasys
mo/qabhlglyBuUJsmaJaropS{1ssyeti; cf. Bh&$ya NS2.1S-16.
Read: citt.lSlqJtJne as per Ms.(SSb.S) in place of cittsssqJclhlne; Tib. sema kyi rgyud la
(0274b.6).
Tib.: yOlJ taD can (027Sa.2).
Ms.(SSb.7): cchands-; disregard Y's m.3 p.176.
Read: -a~- in place of -SS/U1llDOll-; ct. Bhl$ya NS2.17.
Ms.(S7a.l): -mbanlbhilapans-; disregard Y's m.4 p.176.
Ms.(S7a.2): psilca Sraddbl-; disregard Y's mol p.177.

237

fostering of the root of the wholesome which is conducive to IiberationS3 One who
has faith undertakes with vigour in order to escape from the prison of saIpsiJra, and,
since one who has undertaken with vigour8 4 accomplishes the tbfee teachings, the
faculties of mindfulness, meditative concentration and wisdom follow in sequential
order. Thus, at the level of application on the path of vision, the faculties are considered to be of central importance.
[2] However, others believe that faith etc. are not faculties heeJ.use they influence the

nourishment of the root of the wholesome which is conducive to liberation. Rather,


they are described as faculties because when the root of the wholesome which is conducive to liberation is nourished, faith etc. exercise influence. It is in order to demonstrate just this that he says: "due to the influence of will-power", faith is a faculty; the
latter is to be supplied. Application is [equivalent to] performance. Not forgetting [or
non-loss;

asaIPmo~a; asaIPpramo~a]

objective support.

is [equivalent to] the non-disappearance of the

Non-diffusion is [equivalenl to] non-dispersion.

Analysi;:8S is

[equivalent to] thorough analysis. The mental concomitallts called vigour, mindfulness, meditative concenttation and wisdom are termed faculties because of their influence over application, non-forgetfullness, non-diffusion and thorough analysis. However, the following should be stated in this regard: when the root of the wholesome
which is conducive to liberation has been nourished there is no difference in ownbeing, in comparison with the unnourised state86 , between the influence of will-power
etc. and faith etc. 87 because at that time they are established as faculties due to their
influence over it [Le. the root of the wholesome].

e. The Five Powers.


These same [elements), i.e. faith etc., are described as the powers

N52.21

when they pOlless power.

IV.7 a

Moreover, their possession of power is:


due to the curbing of adverse elemenu;

83

Disregard Y's fn.l p.177 since the Ms.(57a.2) does not substantiate the reading of pU$abhlglya-.

84

85
86
87

Ms.(57a.2): JrabdhsvIryasyS; disregard Y's fn.3 p.177.


Read: vicayatJ in pi;ce of pravicayatJ since this passage seems to be explaining the individual
tenns listed in verse IV.6 cd.
Read: 'ropitlvasthltaS as per Ms.(57a.S) in piau of ropitlvasthlW.
The Till. is worded differendy: "When the root of the wholesome which is conducive to
liberation is either nourished or unnourished, there is no difference in own-bemg between the
influence of will-power etc. and faith etc." thar pa'i eba dad mthun ps'i dge ba'i nsB ba bsJcyed
pB dad nIB bslcyed pB gills kyi dj;s nB 'dun psIs SOlS pi dbad by1 pa dad I dad pi Is sogs pi rad
biin du bye bl7l6 tu gyurpagan yad medde(D275b.3).

238
NS3

When they are not intermixed with ,adverse elements such aD lack of
faith.

'Why is there an initial and subsequent explanation of faith etc. ']

Because:

IV.7 b

the latter is the result of the former:

Por, one who possesses faith undenakes with vigour in regard to


cause and result.

Mindfulness is present for one who haa undenaken

with vigour ; the mind of one for whom mindfulness is present becomes
concentrated: one whose mind is concentrated understands [phenomtna]
as they are in reality.

The faculties that penain to the elements which

are conducive to liberation, and which have been nourished, have now
been described.
Now,

should the elements that are conducive to

penetration be

known as being in the state of a 'faculty' or in the state of a 'power'?

IV.7 cd

The elements conducive to penetration are in twos, i.e. both faculties


and powers.

The [state of] heat and the summit are faculties; the receptivities and
highest mundane realizations are powers.
[Sthiramati]
Yl77.22

[1] These same [elements], i.e. faith etc., which are discussed immediately

after the faculties, are delcribed al the powers when they pOlles. power.
Moreover, their posleslion of power i. due to what? Hence he says:

IV.7 a

Due to the curbing of adverse elementl;

Yl78

Because the adverse elements are curbed. In order to demonstrate just this, he says:
when these faculties such as faith are not intermixed with adverse elements
such as lack of faith, i.e. with lack of faith 88 , laziness, forgetfulness, distraction89
and lack of full awareness whi.ch are adverse to faith etc.; what is meant is: they do not
intermi~gle

[with adverse elements] because, being extremely attenuated they do not

manifest time and again - at that time they are described as 'powers'. These faculties are
intermixed with adverse elements at that time because the elements th!lt are

adve~

to

them have not been erased.


[2] If the faculties are possessed of adverse elements that have not been subdued, how
then, can faith etc. be described as 'faculties' by way of the influence of mundane purity
in [Chapter m.lO titled] 'The Reality of the Skills'? Because in that section the faculties
88
39

Ms.(S7L7): id/ BSraddhya-; disMgard Y's fn.l p.178.


Ms.(S7a.7): -viqepa-; disMgard Y's fn.2 p.178.

239

are intellded as being without differentiation but here they are differentiated in order
demonstrate the differentiation of the root of the wholesome which is conducive

to
to

penetration - therefore there is no contradiction. Only hence does he say: "these same
faculties ... are described as 'powers'''.
[3] For, one who possesses faith undertakes with vigour in regard to
the cause and result90 ; i.e. he connects the cause with its respective result and vice

versa. Thus, because of his faith in the result, one who possesses faith undertakes
with vigour in regard

to the cause. Mindfulness is present for one who has


undertaken with vigour because it depends upon the latter91 . The mind of one

for whcm mindfulness is present becomes concentrated, i.e. it becomes


single-pointed because there is no distraction. One

whos~

mind is concentrated

understands [phenomena] as they are in reality; i.". the wisdom that is


assisted by meditative concentration becomes pure. The facultiel that pertain to
the elements which are conducive to liberation, and which have been
nourished 92 , have now been described.
[4]

The elements which are conducive to penetration follow immediately after the

elements which are conducive to liberation and the powers follow immediately after the
faculties, hence this should be stated: should the elements conducive to penetration be known al being in the state of a 'faculty' or in the Itate of a
'power,93? Similarly, do the essential natures of the faculties and the powers consist
Yl 79

in the elements that are conducive to penetration, or are their essential natures separate
from them? Hence, [answering] all of these [questions] he says:
IV.7 cd

The elements conducive to penetration are in twos: both faculties and

powers.
Alternatively, in the same way that the elements that are conducive to liberation are
characterized by the meditative development of the counteragent, or are characterized
by faith etc., so too are the elements that are conducive

to

penetration; consequently, he

says: "the faculties that pertain to the elements which are conducive to liberation, and
which have been nourished94 , have now been described etc." Hence he then says: "the
elements conducive to penetration are in twos".

90
91

92
93
94

Read: hetuphalSlfl L~ per Ms.(S7b.2) in place of helUphale; cf. Bh~ya NS3.4.


tatparatvltis omitled from the Tib. (cf. D276a.2).
Read: avaropit6JJJOlqa- in place of ropitavimoQa-; cf. Bh~ya NS3.6.
Ms.(S7b.4): baIJVI-; disregard Y's fn.6 p.178.
Read: avaropila- in place of ropita-; cf. Bh~ya NS3.6.

240
[51 The [states of] heat95 and the lummit are facultiel; they are definitely
faculties because these [roots of the1 96 wholesome are feeble since it is untenable97 that
there are powers 98 among them. The receptivities and highest mundane realizations are powers.

The receptivities and highest mundane realizations are

definitely powers for it is impossible that these can be faculties because of their
strength. Moreover. faith etc. are threefold according to their differentiation as weak,
middling and strong. The weak and middling of these are the faculties and the strong
are the powers.

Those that are weak are the [states of] heat; the middling are the

summits. However the strong therein are divided into four: the weak, the middling md
the strong are, respectively, the weak, middling and strong receptivities; while the
strongest of the strong are the highest mundane realizations. Moreover, all99 of these
elements that are conducive to penetrati.lln lOO , together with their associated elements,
have meditative concentration and wisdom for their essential nature; the aspect of heat
in the latter is the [state of] heat. For example, from the rubbing together of kindling
sticks, heat is produced which is the first mark of

th;}

arising (utpatti-cihna) of the fire

which has the capacity to bum that [fuel]. Similarly, the [state of] heat is so-called lOI
because its nature precedes the 'fire' of the noble path which has the capacity to
Yl80

consume the 'fuel' of all moral defilement. The summit [is so-called] since it extends
up until the summit away from fickle roots of the wholesome. The receptivities [are
so-called] because they consist in perseverance in the meaning of the [four] truths. The
highest mundane realizations are so-called because they are accompanied by impurity
and also because they are foremost among the other impure dharmas.

Their pre-

eminence is due to the fact that the origination of the path of viSion occurs immediately
after [the realization of] them.

Moreover, they are momentary, [whereas] the other

elements that are conducive to penetration are continuous. In the above, the root of the
wholesome [the realization of] which is conducive to liberation, should be known as
the yoga that destroys the power that causes s;upsJra to come into being. [The realization of] those conducive to penetration [should be known] as the yoga that generates
the power for the arising of dharmas that are not accompanied by impurity.

9S
96
97
98
99
100
101

'fIkl: u~msgatJni but B~ya (NS3.10):

u~nugatalJ1.

Tib. (0276a.7): lfSa ba which is not found in the Ms.


Ms.(S7b.6): asvatantrarvld but Y's emendation to ayuktatvJd is prefened on the basis of the
Tib.; cf. his fn.2 p.179.
Tib. omits baJllJlm; cf. D276a.7.
Ms.(56a.1): sarvl{lye- but Y's emendation to sarvlpi is preferred on the basis of !he 'fib.; cf.
D276b.3.
Ms.(S6a.1): nirvedha-; disIegard Y's fn.3 p.179.
Ms.(S6a.2): ucyante but Y's eJnendation to ucyale is prefemci.

241

f. The Seven Limbs of Enlightenment.


N53.13

The limbs of enlightenment follow immediately after the powers.


How are they established?
IV.8 abed

<a> The limb of the basil. (b) the

limb of own-being, (e) the limb of


setting forth is the third, (d) the limb
of lidvantage is the fourth and (e) the
limb of the ablence of defilement is
considered as threefold.
The limbs of enlightenment refer to the limbs that lead to enlightenment on the path of vision.

Of thele. (a) the limb of the basil of

enlightenment refers to mindfulness.


to the analysis of the dblUllJu.
vigour.

(b) The limb of own-being refers

(c) The limb of setting forth refers to

(d) The limb of advantage refers to delipt.

(e) The limb of the

absence of defilement which is threefold refers to: quielcence, meditative concentration and equanimity.
of defilement taught u
N54

IV.9 ab

But why is the limb of the absence

threefold?
It is

taught by

way

of:

<a)

the

underlying cause, (b) the basis and


(c) the own-being;
<a) The underlying cause of the absence of defilement refers to
quiescence because defilement il caused by dilquiet and [quiescence] is
the counteragent to the latter.
concentration.

(b) The basis refers to meditative

(c) The own-being refers to equanimity.

[Sthiramati)
1180.10

[1] Since the path of vision arises immediately after the highest [mundane] realizations

and because it is characterized by the limbs of enlightenment, he says: the limbs of

enlightenment follow immediately after the powers.

How are they

estabiished 1021 The intended meaning is: for what purpose are they established?
Hence he says:
IV.8 a
(a) The limb of the basis, (b) the
limb of own-being etc.
The limbs of enlightenment refer to the limbs that lead to enlightenment
on the path of vision. It is [described as] vision (darsana>
102

Read:

~ kstbaIJJ vysvastblDam

N~~.1~.

S:iJlCC

[the aspirant) has

in place of kstIwrJ etlDi vysvsstblpYlUJtr, cf. Bh"ya

242

the perception, for the very first time, of a reality that was previously unseen; and since
it causes the attainment of the noble spiritual levels it is the path (muga); hence it is
describt:d as the path of vision (dmana-muga). For, in the state of [the realization of]
the elements that are conducive to penetration 103 , the [four] truths are perceived as
though concealed by a fine silken cloth; [whereas) in the state of the path of vision, it is
as though that [cloth] has been removed. In the above, enlightenment104 , which refers
to the perfect comprehension of reality, consists in the direct intuition that is free from
conceptual differentiation. With regard to that, the six beginning with mindfulness are
[described as] its limbs because they are in conformity with enlightenment. However,
the analysis of the dharmas is [equivalent to] enlightenment because it has the nature of
understanding 105 and it is a 1imb' because it is a 'companion' to the others 106. Another
[school] believes that the analysis of the dharmas, which is included in the path that
brings an immediate result

(lnantarya~muga),

is [only] a limb of enlightenment but

that [analysis] which is included in the path of liberation (v;mukti-m:rga) is [equivalent


to J enlightenment.

YlBl

[2]

Of these, (a) the limb of the bais of enlilhtenmentl07 refers

to

mindfulness; because the absence of disttaction in regard to an objective support is


through the force of mindfulness.

(b) The limb of own-being refers to the

analysis of the diJarm..; because enlightenment has direct intuition for its ownbeing 108 . (c) The limb of seninl forth refers to vilour; because the level of
ordinary people is completely transcended through vigour.

(d) The limb of

advantage refers to delight; because the benefits to body and mind 109 are on
account of this.
fold

refers

to:

(e) The limb of the absence of defilement which is threequiescence,

meditative

because these are counteragenLS to defilement.

concentration

and

equanimity

Alternatively, it is because they are

differentiated as the underlying cause, the basis and the own-being of the absence of
defilement
[3]

But why is the limb of the absence of defilement taught as three-

fold? The intended meaning is: in what sense is it taught as threefold?

Hence he

says:

103
104

105
106
107

IDS
109

Ms.(S6a.6}: nirvedha-; disregard Y's fn.3 p.lSO.


Read: bodhir nirvibJpam as per Ms.(S6a.6) in place of bodhinirvikalpam.
Ms.(S6a.7): -nabodhltmabtvldbut Y's reading of (ava)bodh'tmakatvld is preferred on the basis
of the Tib.; cf. D277a.4.
Tib.: de dag gis grogs su gyur pas; ct. D277a.4.
Ms.(S6a.7): bociher 1-; disregard Y's fn.l p.lSl.
Tib. omit> jlJlna reading simply: "because this is the own-being of enlightenment"; byaJi chllb
tyi no bo iIid yiIJpa'iphyir(D277a.S).
Ms.(S6b.1): kJyacittJ-; disregard Y's fn.3 p._Sl.

243

IV.9 ab

It

is

taught

by

way

of:

(a)

the

underlying cause, (b) the basis and


(c) the own-being;
<a> The underlying cause of the absence of defilement refers to quiescencellOj the absence of defilement is [equivalent to] purification. The underlying
cause (nidiIna) is [equivalent to] the cause [k.!lrapa]. As to why it is the underlying
cause, he says: because defilement is caused III by disquiet and because
[quiescence] is the counteragent to the latter.

This is what is being said:

[quiescence] is the underlying cause of the absence of defilement because it is the


counteragent to the underlying cause of defilemenL Disquiet consists in physical and
mental inefficiency; when this exists, mind becomes distracted because single-pointedness of the mind is impossible. Moreover, defilement, such as passion, arises in one
whose mind is distracted; thus, disquiet is the cause of defilemenL The counteragent to
that disquiet is quiescence. How so? Because quiescence brings about physical and
mental efficiencyl12. In this way quiescence is determined to be the underlying cause
of the absence of defilement.

(b) The b is refen to meditative concentra-

tion. The mind is concentrated in one whose body and mind are assisted by quiescence; when the mind becomes concentrated, One understands [phenomena] as they are
in reality and moral defilement is relinquished because one sees them as they are in
reality. Thus, the basis of the absence of defilement is meditative concentration. (c)
The own-being refers to equanimity because this is the counteragent to: (a)
mind's unevenness, (b) mind's absence of meditative calm and (c) mind's state of
Yl82

effon 1l3 , all of which are conformable to the defiled condition. Thus, the own-being of
the absence of defilement is equanimity.
[4] However, others believe that when defilement which is to be relinquished through

vision has been relinquished by means of the paths of relinquishment 1l4 , wisdom is
generated llS that is free from the encumbrances of that defilement, is pure in its ownbeing, is incorporated in the path of liberation1l6 and is positively determined in regard
to the knowable. That wisdom is described as equanimity in this context since one
shows equanimity in thinking: "there it' extinction in regard to extinction", because
what is to be done has been done.
110
111
112
113

114
lIS
116

Read: asll1Jltleiasya nidJDSlJI prairabdhirin place of praSrabd1Ur asarpk1eianidJDlITI; cf. Bhl$ya


NS4.2.
Bhl$ya (NS4.2): hetutvlt, but'Jlkl (Ms.S6b.3): hetubtvltwhich is preferred..
Read: karmsllyatly. lpldanll in place of brmsllyatlpldan'l; Ms.(S6b.7): karmallyatlyl
'pldanJL Tib. las su nui bar 'gyur ta (D277b.4).
Read: cittaslbhog'vasthit'yli as per Ms.(S6b.6) and contrary 10 Y's fnoS p.lS1, in place of
cittlbhog'vasthitlyJi; Tib. sems mol ba daJi bcu /MI... omitting avasthita (cf. D277b.6).
Read: pn/JI{wnJrgair darianaheye as per Ms.(S6b.7) in place of prabl{lair mlrgair darSanaheye
disregarding Y's fn.l p.182; Tib. spas ba'i lam mams kyis 1lJ#J0li bas splli bar bya
bal...(D277b.7).
Ms.(S6b.7): prBJlyallr, disregard Y's fnol p.182.
Ms.(S6b.7): vimukrivimlrg. but Y's reading of vimukriml1p is comet.

244

g. The Bight Limbs of the Path.


N54.6

The limbs of the path follow immediately after the limbs of enlightenment.

How are they respectively established?

IV.9 cd & 10 ab

The eightfold limbs of the path consist in:

(I)

accurate determination,

(b) the attainment [of others], (c) the


threefold confidence of others
(d)

the

counteragent

to

and

adverse

elements;
On the path of meditative development. the limb for the accurate
determination of the path of vision l17 is mundane correct view which is
obtained subsequently to the supramundane - by means of this, one
The limbs for the

accurately determines one's own understanding.

attainment of others arc correct intention and correct speech because


their attainment is on account of speech together with that which causes
its arising.

The limbs for the confidence of others are threefold: correct

speech. correct action and correct livelihood. for. by meanl of these


respectively:
IV.IO cd

It is considered that another is informed in regard to vision. morality


and aUlterity.

One ha. confidence in wisdom on account of correct speechl18. i.e.


on account of discussion and conainty in regard to doctrinal disputation.

[One has confidence] in morality on account of correct action

because one does not perform action that should not be performed.
[One has confidence1 in austerity on account of correct livelihood
because of the Dharma and also because one's desire for garments etc.
is in moderation.
The limb that is the counteragent to adverse elements is threefold:
correct effon, correct mindfulness and correct meditative concentration.
for. these are respectively:
IV.II ab

The

counteragents

to:

(a)

moral

defilement. (b) secondary defilement

117
118

Read: bhlvanJmIlge darSanamlrgasya paricchetUDgam which accords with both the Tib. 1IU
(ct. 0278a.4) and Dhl$ya (D17b.3) which reads: bsgom ~'i Jam gyi ISM mthon ba'i Jam la
...yons su gcod~'i yan Jag ste (D17b.3).
Omit tasya (NS4.1S) since it is not found in the Tib. Dhl$ya nor in the 'fikl.

245

and

(c)

what

is

adverse

to

supremacy;
For the adverse elements are threefold: (a) the moral defilement to be
abandoned by meditative development, (b) the secondary defilements of
N55

indolence and excitability and (c) that which is aJverse to supremacy

and is an obstruction to the achievement of the special qualities.

Here,

correct effon is the counteragent to the first, since the meditative development of the path is on account of that.

Correct mindfulness [is the

counteragent] to the second, because one who has properly applied


mindfulness in regard to the causal-signs of tranquillization etc., is free
from indolence and excitability.

Correct meditative concentr