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Rectifier

A rectifier is an electrical device


that converts alternating
current (AC), which periodically
reverses direction, to direct
current (DC), which flows in only
one direction. The process is
known as rectification.
Physically, rectifiers take a
number of forms,
including vacuum
tube diodes, mercury-arc valves,
copper and selenium oxide
rectifiers,semiconductor
diodes, silicon-controlled

rectifiers and other silicon-based


semiconductor switches.
Historically, even synchronous
electromechanical switches and
motors have been used.

INTRODUCTION
Although in our
daily life we use A.C. current
devices. But rectifier is a
Electronicdevicewhichconverts
A.C.powerintoD.C.power.

The study of the


junction diode characteristics
reveals that the junction diode
offersalowresistancepath,when
forward biased, and a high
resistance path, when reverse
biased. This feature of the
junctiondiodeenablesittobeused
asarectifier.
The alternating
signals provides opposite kind of
biasedvoltageatthejunctionafter
eachhalfcycle. Ifthejunctionis

forward biased in the first half


cycle,itsgetsreversebiasedinthe
secondhalf. Itresultsintheflow
offorwardcurrentinonedirection
only and thus the signal gets
rectified.
Inotherwords,we
cansay,whenanalternatinge.m.f.
signalisappliedacrossajunction
diode,itwillconductonlyduring
those alternate half cycles, which
biaseditinforwarddirection.

TYPE OF RECTIFIER
Mainly we have two types of
rectifier:
1.Halfwaverectifier.
2.Fullwaverectifier.
JUNCTION DIODE AS
HALF WAVE RECTIFIER
When a single diode is
usedasarectifier,therectification
ofonlyonehalfoftheA.C.wave
form takes place. Such a

rectification is called halfwave


rectification
JUNCTION DIODE AS
A FULL WAVE RECTIFIER
Arectifierwhichrectifies
both waves of the a.c. input is
calledafullwaverectifier.
Principle:Itisbaseduponthe
principle that a junction diode
offers low resistance during
forwardbiasedandhighresistance,
whenreversebiased.

Connection details:
C o n n e c t i o n s a r e
d o n e a s i n t h e
c i r c u i t . T h e A . C .
s u p p l y i s g i v e n t o
b o t h t h e i n p u t
w i r e s
o f
t h e
t r a n s f o r m e r
a n d
t h e
t w o
e n d s
o f
t h e
s e c o n d a r y
c o
i l i s g i v e n t o t h e
P s i d e o f t h e t w o
d i o d e s
a n d t h e N
s
i
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t
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i
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t
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t
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o
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n
d o f
t h e c a p a c i t o r a n d
t h e o t h e r e n d t o
t h e c e n t e r t a p
l e a d a n d t o
t h e r e s i s t o r . F
u r t h e r ,
t h e
o t h e r
e n d
o f
c a p a c i t o r
w i t h
t h e
d i o d e
c o n n e c t
i o n
i s c o n n e c t e d t o t h e
o t h e r e n d o f t h e
r e s i s t o r . C o n n e c t 2
l e a d s o n b o t h
t h e ends of the resistor to measure

the output and this is connected to the

+ve & -veterminals of the bulb

FULL WAVE RECTIFIER

A f u l l w a v e r e c t i fi e r i s
a device which is used
to rectify a l l t h e
alternating current
components in an

alternating supply
and make it purely
a d i r e c t current. The two
alternating halves of an
alternation current
a r e r e c t i fi e d i n a
f u l l w a v e r e c t i fi e r w h i c h i s
a n advantage over a half
w a v e re c t i fi e r. M o s t
e l e c t ro n i c d e v i c e s c a n n o t
withstand very high voltage
or alternating current due to
its i n t e n s e h i g h
p o w e r. T h e u s e o f
batteries in
a l l devices is not practical
as their replacement and
durabilityis a huge problem as
the device has to be dismantled

eachtime for such a


replacement. So these rectifiers
are used inmost of the electronic
devices like TVs, Radios,
Chargers, L i g h t i n g s e t c .
There are several stages in
a rectifier.
Based on their rectification t
hey areclassified into two.
T h e single staged & multi
staged. In the multi staged
rectifiers,m o r e t h a n t w o
diodes are used and these
a r e u s e d i n t h e abovementioned devices. The singled
staged rectifier has only2diodes,
the one we are to discuss in this
project. The multid i o d e
rectifier has only 2
diodes, the one we are

todiscuss in this projec


t. The multi diode
r e c t i f i e r s h a s a n efficiency
~ 94.6% while that of the single is
only 81.2%

Applications[edit]

The primary application of


rectifiers is to derive DC power
from an AC supply (AC to DC
converter). Virtually all electronic
devices require DC, so rectifiers
are used inside the power
supplies of virtually all electronic
equipment.
rectifiers are used In most of the
electronic devices like TVs,

Radios, Chargers, L i g h t i n g s
etc.