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P. Sam Johnson

Finite Differences

1 / 45

Overview

Assume that we have a table of values

(xi , yi ),

i = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n

That is, xi = x0 + ih, i = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n. The step length h is called the

interval of differencing.

Suppose that we are required to recover the values of f (x) for some

intermediate values of x, or to obtain the derivative of f (x) for some x in

the range x0 x xn .

The methods for the solution to these problems are based on the

concept of the differences of a function. There are three important

types of differences which we define and disucss in three lectures.

P. Sam Johnson (NITK)

Finite Differences

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Overview

The calculus of finite differences deals with the changes that take place

in the value of the function (dependent variable), due to finite changes in

the independent variable.

Through this, we also study the relations that exist between the values

assumed by the function, whenever the independent variable changes by

(equal or unequal) finite jumps.

On the other hand, in infinitesimal calculus, we study those changes of

the function which occur when the independent variable changes

continuously in a given interval.

We shall study the variations in the function when the independent

variable changes by equal intervals.

The calculus of differences is very useful for the finding the sum of a given

series.

P. Sam Johnson (NITK)

Finite Differences

3 / 45

Differences of y

Suppose a function (usually unknown) y = f (x) is given at discrete values

of x, x0 , x1 , . . . , xn so that we have a table of values

(xi , yi ),

i = 0, 1, 2, . . . n.

xi = x0 + ih,

i = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n.

respectively (note that yi = f (xi ), 0 i n), then

y1 y0

y2 y1

..

.

yn yn1

are called the differences of y .

P. Sam Johnson (NITK)

Finite Differences

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y0 , y1 , . . . , yn1

respectively, we have

y0 = y1 y0 , y1 = y2 y1 , . . . , yn1 = yn yn1

where is called forward difference operator and y0 , y1 . . ., are

called first forward differences.

is not a quantity but an operation.

Finite Differences

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Higher Differences

The differences of the first forward differences are called second forward

differences and are denoted by 2 y0 , 2 y1 , . . . .

The symbol 2 does not represent the square of a quantity but denotes

the repetition of the operation .

Similarly, one can define third forward differences, fourth forward

differences, etc.

In general, the nth differences are defined as

n yi = n1 yi+1 n1 yi .

The forward difference operator can be operated on function-values,

generally denoted as

f (x) = f (x + h) f (x),

P. Sam Johnson (NITK)

x = x0 , x1 , . . . , xn1 .

Finite Differences

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Exercises

1. Evaluate tan1 x, (e x log 2x), (x 2 / cos 2x).

2. Evaluate

5x + 12

,

x 2 + 5x + 16

3. Find the successive differences of f (x) = ab c x and sum the first n

differences.

4. Find the function (with suitable h) whose first difference is

(a) ax + b

(b) sin x

(c) e x

(d) e a+bx

m n f (x) = m+n f (x)

where m and n are positive integers.

P. Sam Johnson (NITK)

Finite Differences

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The following result can be proved by the method of induction and it helps

in expressing, any powers of operated on y (x), in terms of yi s. The

proof is based on continuous substitution.

Theorem

Suppose that we have a table of values (xi , yi ), i = 0, 1, 2, . . . ., n of any

function y = f (x), the values of x being equally spaced with h as the

interval of differencing. Then for any non-negative integer k,

k

X

ki k

yr =

(1)

yr +i .

i

k

i=0

(a) Any higher order forward difference can be expressed in terms of the

preceding differences.

(b) Any higher order forward difference can be expressed in terms of the

entries.

P. Sam Johnson (NITK)

Finite Differences

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Value

of

x

x0

Value

of

y = f (x)

y0

x0 + h

y1

First

Difference

f (x)

Second

Difference

2 f (x)

Third

Difference

3 f (x)

Fourth

Difference

4 f (x)

y0

2 y 0

3 y 0

y1

x0 + 2h

y2

x0 + 3h

y3

x0 + 4h

y4

4 y 0

y1

y2

y1

2 y 2

y3

y0 , the first entry is called the leading term. y0 , 2 y0 , 3 y0 etc. are called the

leading differences. It can be seen that the differences k yi with a fixed

subscript i lie along the diagonal sloping downwards and each difference is written

midway between the values substracted.

P. Sam Johnson (NITK)

Finite Differences

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Shift Operator, E

An operator E defined as

Ef (x) = f (x + h)

is called a shift operator which results in increasing the argument by the

interval of differencing.

E n stands for the operation E being carried n times. Then

E n f (x) = f (x + nh).

The inverse operator E 1 is defined as

E 1 f (x) = f (x h).

Finite Differences

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f (x) = f (x + h) f (x) = Ef (x) f (x).

Hence

Ef (x) = f (x) + f (x) = (1 + )f (x).

Here 1 (unity) is an operator just as E and and leaves the function

unaltered when it operates on that function. That is, 1f (x) = f (x).

Since f (x) is arbitrary, we get

E 1 + .

This is known as separation of symbols. We shall define some more

operators later and establish many relations between the operators.

P. Sam Johnson (NITK)

Finite Differences

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With the help of the operators E and , we can prove the above result

which is restated below.

For any non-negative integer k,

k

X

ki k

yr =

(1)

yr +i .

i

k

i=0

Exercises

7. Say true or false : If f (x) = 0, then either 0 or f (x) = 0. False

8. Say true or false : E 2 f (x) and E 2 [f (x)]2 are identical.

Finite Differences

False

12 / 45

Exercise

9. An operator T is said to be linear if

T [af (x) + bg (x)] = aT [f (x)] + bT [g (x)],

where a, b are constants. Prove that the operators E and are linear.

The following theorem says that any value of the function f (x) can be

expressed in terms of leading term and the leading differences of an

ordinary difference table. It can be proved by the method of induction.

Theorem

For all integral values of k, yk =

Pk

k

r =0 r

k y0 .

Exercise

10. Prove the above result with the help of the operators E and .

Finite Differences

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argument, then f (x) is a polynomial of degree (n 1). Thus it is to be

noted that the result of differencing a polynomial once, reduces its degree

by one.

Theorem

Let f (x) be a polynomial of degree n in x. Then the nth difference of this

polynomial is constant. Also the (n + 1)th and higher differences are zero.

The converse of the above theorem is also true. That is, if the nth

difference of a function tabulated at equally spaced intervals are

constant, the function is a polynomial of degree n.

This fact is important in numerical analysis as it enables us to

approximate a function by a polynomial of nth degree if its nth

order differences become nearly constant.

P. Sam Johnson (NITK)

Finite Differences

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Exercises

11. If f (x) = a0 x n + a1 x n1 + + an1 x + an (a0 6= 0), then find

n f (x). Obtain 25 {(x a)(x b) (x z)} where the operand

has only 25 factors and there is no factor of the type (x x).

12. Prove that

x

e =

2

E

ex .

Ee x

,

2 e x

13. Prove that yn y0 is the sum of all entries in the first difference

column of the difference table for (xi , yi ), 0 i n.

That is,

n1

X

yx = yn y0 .

x=0

15. Show that y4 = y0 + 4y0 + 62 y1 + 103 y1 if fourth and higher

differences are zero.

P. Sam Johnson (NITK)

Finite Differences

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Exercises

16. Prove that

n+1

n+1

n+1

y0 + y1 + + yn =

y0 +

y0 + +

n y0 .

1

2

n+1

17. Prove the following identity

X

x=0

y2x

1X

1

=

yx +

2

4

x=0

4

1 +

2

4

y0 .

1.2 x n 2.3 2 x n + 3.4 3 x n 4.5 4 x n +

the interval of differencing being unity.

Finite Differences

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The differences

y1 y0 , y2 y1 , . . . , yn yn1

are called first backward differences and they are denoted by

y1 , y2 , , yn

respectively, so that

y1 = y1 y0

y2 = y2 y1

..

.

yn = yn yn1

where is called the backward difference operator.

P. Sam Johnson (NITK)

Finite Differences

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Value

of

x

x0

Value

of

y = f (x)

y0

x0 + h

y1

First

Difference

f (x)

Second

Difference

2 f (x)

Third

Difference

3 f (x)

Fourth

Difference

4 f (x)

y1

2 y2

3 y3

y2

x0 + 2h

2 y3

y2

y3

x0 + 3h

4 y 4

3 y4

2 y4

y3

y4

x0 + 4h

y4

y4 , the last entry is called the last term. y4 , 2 y4 , 3 y4 etc. are called

the last differences.

P. Sam Johnson (NITK)

Finite Differences

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y1 y0 = y1/2 , y2 y1 = y3/2 , . . . , yn yn1 = yn1/2 .

Similarly, higher-order central differences are defined as

y3/2 y1/2 = 2 y1 , y5/2 y3/2 = 2 y2 ,

2 y2 2 y1 = 3 y3/2

and so on.

Finite Differences

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Value

of

x

x0

Value

of

y = f (x)

y0

x0 + h

y1

First

Difference

f (x)

Second

Difference

2 f (x)

Third

Difference

3 f (x)

Fourth

Difference

4 f (x)

y1/2

2 y1

3 y3/2

y3/2

x0 + 2h

2 y2

y2

y5/2

x0 + 3h

4 y2

3 y5/2

2 y3

y3

y7/2

x0 + 4h

y4

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follows.

(a) The central differences on the same horizontal line have the same

suffix.

(b) The differences of odd order are known only for half values of the

suffix.

(c) The differences of even order are known only for integral values of the

suffix.

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Averaging Operator,

It is often required to find the mean of adjacent values in the same column

of differences. We denote this mean by , the averaging

(mean)

1

operator defined by yr = 2 yr +1/2 + yr 1/2 .

Thus y1 = 21 [y1/2 + y3/2 ], 2 y3/2 = 21 [ 2 y1 + 2 y2 ], . . . .

An Important Observation : We can observe the following

y0 = y1 = y1/2 ,

3 y1 = 3 y4 = 3 y5/2 .

For example, y1 y0 = y0 = y1 = y1/2 .

Of all the formulae, those involving central differences are most useful in

practice as the coefficients in such formulae decrease much more rapidly.

P. Sam Johnson (NITK)

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Exercises

Deduce the following:

24. E 1/2 E 1/2

2

25. 1 + 2 2 = 1 + 2

19. 1 E 1

20. = 2

26. 2 1 + (1/4)2

q

q

2

2+

big

delta

27.of

1+

22. 21 2 + 1 + 4 write delta in term

2 1+

23. (E 1/2 + E 1/2 )(1 + )1/2 2 +

2

4.

28. E E E 1/2 .

*

P. Sam Johnson (NITK)

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Exercises

29. If y = a(3)x + b(2)x and h = 1, prove that (2 + 6)y = 0.

30. Evaluate 10 [(1 ax)(1 bx 2 )(1 cx 3 )(1 dx 4 )]. abcd*fact(10) *h^10

h

i

problem with sign (positive sign )

f (x)

1

31. Show that f (x)

= f (x)f

(x+1) .

o

n

(x)

.

32. Prove that log f (x) = log 1 + f

f (x)

33. Find the missing yx values from the first differences provided.

yx

0 0 1- -3 -7 -14 -25

yx 0 1 2 4 7 11

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Differential Operator, D

The differential operator D is defined by

Df (x) =

d

[f (x)].

dx

Exercises

Prove the following identities.

34. E e hD (Hint: Taylors series)

35. hD

2

2

3

3

E-1=delta... and use

1 infinite expansion of log

37. yn+1 h(1 +

1

2

5

2

12

()

+ )yn0 .

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Exercises

38. Using the method of separation of symbols, prove the following

identities:

(a) yx n yxn = yx1 + yx2 + 2 yx3 + + n1 yxn . doubt

x

x2

x3

2

(b) y1 x + y2 x 2 + y3 x 3 + = 1x

y1 + (1x)

2 y1 + (1x)3 y1 + .

y0 , y1 , y2 , y3 , y4 , y5 prove that

1

25(c b) + 3(a c)

y2 1 = c +

2

2

256

doubt

where a = y0 + y5 , b = y1 + y4 , c = y2 + y5 .

40. For any positive integer n, prove the following:

x

(a) r nn = nr

,

n x

(b) n = 1.

r <n

doubt

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Exercises

41. Using the method of separation of symbols, prove that

2

3

y0 + y1!1 x + y2!2 x 2 + y3!3 x 3 + = e x [y0 + xy0 + x2! 2 y0 + x3! 3 y0 + ].

Hence find the sum of the following series.

3

10x 2

20x 3

35x 4

56x 5

(b) 1 + 4x

1! + 2! + 3! + 4! + 5! .

y0 + y1 x + y2 x 2 + =

y0

xy0

x 2 2 y0

+

+

+ .

1x

(1 x)2 (1 x)3

43. Using Montmorts theorem find the sum of the series

(a) 1.3 + 3.5x + 5.7x 2 + 7.9x 3 + .

(b) 12 + 22 x + 32 x 2 + 42 x 3 + .

false

44. Say true or false : [f (x).g (x)] and f (x)g (x) are identical.

45. Prove that yi zi = y1 zi + zi+1 yi .

P. Sam Johnson (NITK)

Finite Differences

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The continued product of factors whose first factor is x and successive

factors decrease by a constant difference h, is called a factorial function.

It is denoted by [x]n where n is a positive integer, which determines the

number of factors in [x]n . Thus

[x]n = x(x h)(x 2h) (x (n 1)h).

For convention, we take [x]0 = 1.

When h = 1,

[x]n =

x!

x

= n!

(x n)!

n

(x > n).

Exercise

46. Prove that for any positive integer n,

[x]n = (x (n 1)h)[x]n1 .

P. Sam Johnson (NITK)

Finite Differences

28 / 45

In fact f (x) = [x]n where n is a positive integer, is called the factorial

polynomial of degree n and the various differences of a factorial

polynomial are again factorial polynomials.

[x]n = nh[x]n1 is a polynomial of degree (n 1) in factorial notation.

In general, n [x]n = n!hn , a constant term and k [x]n = 0 for k > n.

When h = 1,

[x]n = n[x]n1

2 [x]n = n(n 1)[x]n2

..

..

.

.

n [x]n = n!.

Hence differencing of functions in factorial notations resembles the

differentiating of functions when h = 1.

P. Sam Johnson (NITK)

Finite Differences

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differences. It helps in finding the successive differences of a

polynomial directly, by a simple rule of differentiation. When h = 1,

we have

[x]n = n[x]n1

[ax + b]n = an[ax + b]n1 .

That is, the result of differencing [x]n is analogous to that of

differentiating x n .

It is easier to find [x]n than r x n when a given polynomial is expressed

as factorial polynomial. Is this possible? Yes. The following theorem gives

an affirmative answer.

Theorem

Every polynomial of degree n can be expressed as a factorial polynomial of

the same degree and vice versa. important rule

P. Sam Johnson (NITK)

Finite Differences

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x, x 1, x 2, . . .

successively.

We put the coefficients of different powers of x in order beginning with

the highest power of x.

If any power of x is missing in order, we should first make the given

function complete by taking its coefficient as zero and then employ this

method.

Finite Differences

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The method is illustrated with an example.

Suppose f (x) = x 4 12x 3 + 24x 2 30x + 9

f (x) = A[x]4 + B[x]3 + C [x]2 + D[x]1 + E

Putting x = 0, 1, 2 and 3 in equation (1), we get four equations in A, B, C

and D. Solving them, we get the required polynomial in factorial notation.

Exercises

47. Express 2x 3 3x 2 + 3x 10 in factorial notation by both the

methods.

48. Fill the blank: The coefficient of the highest power of x

(remains unchanged / may change) while

transforming a polynomial to factorial notation.

49. If f (x) = (2x + 1)(2x + 3) (2x + 15), find the value of 4 f (x).

P. Sam Johnson (NITK)

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Negative Integer

We now discuss the factorial function [x]n , when n is any negative integer.

For any positive integer n, define

[x]n =

1

1

=

.

(x + h) (x + nh)

[x + nh]n

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The first difference of [x]n ,

[x]n = nh[x](n+1) .

In general,

r [x]h = (1)r n(n + 1) (n + r 1)hr [x](n+r ) .

When h = 1, we have the following:

(a) r [x]n = (1)r n(n + 1) (n + r 1)[x](n+r ) .

(b) r [ax + b]n = (1)r n(n + 1) (n + r 1)ar [ax + b](n+r ) .

(c) [x]n = n[x](n+1) .

(d) [ax + b]n = na[ax + b](n+1) .

P. Sam Johnson (NITK)

Finite Differences

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Exercises

50. Express the function

x 4 12x 3 + 24x 2 30x + 9

in factorial notation, the interval of differencing being unity.

51. Using factorial notation, obtain the function whose first difference is

x 3 + 4x 2 + 9x + 12.

52. Express 2x 3 3x 2 + 3x 10 and its successive difference in factorial

notation.

53. A third degree polynomial passes through (0, 1), (1, 3), (2, 7) and

(3, 13). Find the polynomial.

54. Prove that [x]r [x rh]n = [x]r +n .

55. Find the relation between , and in order that + x + x 2 may

be expressible in one term in the factorial notation. doubt

P. Sam Johnson (NITK)

Finite Differences

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difference operation. That is, if yx = ux , then yx = 1 ux . The

symbol 1 or 1/ is called the inverse of the operator .

We have the following important results.

[x]n+1

n+1 .

n+1

b]n = [ax+b]

a(n+1) .

(a) 1 [x]n =

(b) 1 [ax +

[x]n+1

n+1 .

n+1

b]n = [ax+b]

a(n+1) .

(c) 1 [x]n =

(d) 1 [ax +

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The calculus of finite differences is very useful for finding the sum of a

given series.

The inverse operator 1 is especially useful to find the sum of a series.

This is explained below.

If ur = yr = yr +1 yr , then u1 + u2 + + un = yn+1 y1 .

Exercise

Find the sum to n terms of the series.

56. 2.3.4 + 3.4.5 + 4.5.6 +

57.

58.

1

1

1

3.4.5 + 4.5.6 + 5.6.7 +

13 + 2 3 + + n 3 .

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Suppose there is an error in the entry y3 of a table. As higher differences are

formed, this error spreads out and is considered magnified. How it effects the

difference table, as shown below.

x

x0

y = f (x)

y0

x1 = x0 + h

y1

f (x)

2 f (x)

3 f (x)

y0

2 y 0

3 y 0 +

y1

x2 = x0 + 2h

y2

y1 +

3 y1 3

y2 +

x3 = x0 + 3h

y2 2

y3 +

3 y2 + 3

y3

x4 = x0 + 4h

y4

y3 +

3 y 3

y4

x5 = x0 + 5h

..

.

P. Sam Johnson (NITK)

y5

..

.

..

.

Finite Differences

y4

..

.

..

.

January 31, 2015

38 / 45

(a) The error increases with the order of differences.

(b) The coefficients of s in any column are the binomial coefficients of

(1 )n .

Thus the errors in the fourth difference column are , 4, 6, 4, .

(c) The algebraic sum of the errors in any difference column is zero.

(d) The maximum error in each column, occurs opposite to the entry y3

containing the error.

The above facts enable us to detect errors in a difference table.

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Exercises

59. One entry in the following table is incorrect and y is a cubic

polynomial in x. Use the difference table to locate and correct the

error.

x 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

y 25 21 18 18 27 45 76 123

60. The following table gives the values of y which is a polynomial of

degree five. It is known that f (3) is in error. Correct the error.

x

y

0

1

1

2

2

33

3

254

4

1025

Finite Differences

5

3126

6

7777

40 / 45

When one or more values of y = f (x) corresponding to the equidistant

values of x are missing, we can find these using any of the following two

methods.

First Method. We assume that the missing term or terms as a, b etc. and

form the difference table. Assuming the last difference as zero, we solve

these equations for a, b. These give the missing term / terms.

Second Method. If n entries of y are given, f (x) can be represented by a

(n 1)th degree polynomial. That is, n y = 0.

Since E 1, therefore (E 1)n y = 0. Now expanding (E 1)n and

substituting the given values, we obtain the missing term / terms.

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Exercises

61. Find the missing term in the table:

x 2

3

4

5

6

y 45 49.2 54.1 - 67.4

62. Find the missing terms in the following data.

x 45 50 55 60 65

y 3

2

- -2.4

63. Assuming that the following values of y belong to a polynomial of

degree 4, compute the next three values.

x 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

y 1 -1 1 -1 1 - - -

Finite Differences

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Additional Exercises

Exercises

64. Match the following :

+

E

2

hD

log(1 )

65. Express any value of y in terms of yn and backward differences of yn .

in factorial notation. Hence show that 5 u = 0.

67. Obtain the function whose first difference is 2x 3 3x 2 + 3x 10.

68. If y =

1

(3x+1)(3x+4)(3x+7) ,

Finite Differences

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Additional Exercises

Exercises

71. Prove that (n Cr +1 ) =

n+1 C

r +1

nC

r +1 .

73. If yx is a polynomial for which fifth difference is constant and

y1 + y7 = 784, y2 + y6 = 686, y3 + y5 = 1088, find y4 .

Finite Differences

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References

Richard L. Burden and J. Douglas Faires, Numerical Analysis Theory and Applications, Cengage Learning, Singapore.

Kendall E. Atkinson, An Introduction to Numerical Analysis, Wiley

India.

David Kincaid and Ward Cheney, Numerical Analysis Mathematics of Scientific Computing, American Mathematical

Society, Providence, Rhode Island.

S.S. Sastry, Introductory Methods of Numerical Analysis, Fourth

Edition, Prentice-Hall, India.

Har Swarup Sharma, A Textbook of Numerical Analysis, Ratan

Prakashan Mandir, Delhi.

B.S. Grewal, Numerical Methods in Engineering & Science, Khanna

Publishers, Delhi.

P. Sam Johnson (NITK)

Finite Differences

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