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TO ULTRASONICS

20-251-728

Part 1

1.1

Introduction

What is ultrasonics?

Ultrasonics is a branch of acoustics dealing with the generation and use of (generally)

inaudible acoustic waves. There are two broad areas of use, sometimes called as the low- and

high-intensity applications. In low-intensity applications, the intent is to convey information

about or through a system, while in high-intensity applications, the intent is to permanently alter

a system. To some extent, the low- and high-intensity fields are also delineated by a frequency

range and power level. Thus, low-intensity applications typically involve frequencies on the order

of 106 Hz or higher and power levels on the order of milliwatts. High-intensity applications will

typically involve frequencies of 5 to 100 kHz and powers of hundreds to thousands of watts. In

actual fact, the total frequency range of all ultrasonic applications is enormous, ranging from 5 10 kHz to as high as 10 GHz. There are also applications, such as sonar, which are exceptions to

the previous categorizations, since intense power levels are involved in conveying information

via underwater sound.

Ultrasonic materials characterization is the most important application of ultrasonics in

aerospace engineering and engineering mechanics. Historically, ultrasonic nondestructive testing

(NDT) has been used almost exclusively for detecting macroscopic discontinuities in structures

after they have been in service for some time. It has become increasingly evident that it is

practical and cost effective to expand the role of ultrasonic NDT testing to include all aspects of

materials production and application. Research efforts are being directed at developing and

perfecting NDT capable of monitoring (i) material production processes, (ii) material integrity

following transport, storage and fabrication, and (iii) the amount and rate of degradation during

service. In addition, efforts are underway to develop techniques capable of quantitative

discontinuity sizing, permitting determination of material response using fracture mechanics

analysis, as well as techniques for quantitative materials characterization to replace the

qualitative techniques used in the past. Ultrasonic techniques play a prominent role in these

developments because they afford useful and versatile methods for evaluating microstructures,

associated mechanical properties, as well as detecting microscopic and macroscopic

discontinuities in solid materials.

1-2

The main difference between the basic methods of Ultrasonics and the more specialized

ones used in Ultrasonic NDE is in the approach to the elastic medium. In ultrasonics, the material

is usually assumed to be ideal (isotropic, homogeneous, linear, attenuation-free, dispersion-free,

temperature-independent, etc.) in order to study the basic laws of elastic wave propagation in

their simplest form. In ultrasonic NDE, real materials with more complex elastic properties

(anisotropy, inhomogeneity, nonlinearity, attenuation, dispersion, temperature-dependence, etc.)

are considered. The primary purpose of ultrasonic NDE is to understand the wave-material

interaction and assess the sought material properties from the observed deviation in the ultrasonic

response from that of an ideal, defect-free medium. The main topics to be covered in Ultrasonics

and Ultrasonic NDE are listed in the following table.

1-3

Ultrasonics

(high-frequency wave

propagation in elastic

media)

Ultrasonic NDE

(the propagation medium is an

imperfect medium, i. e., a real

material)

Wave-Material Interaction

(special physical phenomena due

to interaction with

imperfections)

isotropic

anisotropic

texture

columnar grains

prior-austenite grains

composites

anisotropy (orientation)

birefringence (polarization)

quasi-modes (three waves)

phase and group directions

residual stress effect

homogeneous

inhomogeneous

polycrystalline

two-phase

porous

composite

attenuation

dispersion (weak)

linear

nonlinear

intrinsic (plastics)

damage (fatigue)

harmonic generation

acousto-elasticity

crack-closure

attenuation-free

attenuative

air, water, viscous couplants

polymers

coarse grains

porosity

absorption

viscosity, relaxation

heat conduction,

scattering

elastic inhomogeneity

geometrical irregularity

dispersion free

dispersive

intrinsic (polymers)

geometrical (wave guides)

relaxation

resonance

wave and group velocity

pulse distortion

temperature-independent

temperature-dependent

nonlinearity

residual stress (composites)

phase transformation (metals)

moisture content (polymers)

velocity change

thermal expansion

no defects

defects

cracks, voids

misbonds, delaminations

reflection, diffraction

attenuation, velocity change

scattering, nonlinearity

ideal boundaries

flat, smooth

rigidly bonded interface

imperfect boundaries

mode conversion

curved, rough

refraction, diffraction

slip, kissing, partial, interphase scattering

plane wave

spherical waves

harmonic

apodization (amplitude)

focusing (phase)

impulse, tone-burst

beam spread

diffraction loss

edge waves

spectral distortion

1-4

In ultrasonics, one is interested in acoustic waves, either propagating or standing, in

solids, liquids and gases. It is of use, at the outset, to note the elementary characteristics of

waves, with more detailed analysis to follow. Recall the main features of a simple harmonic

wave, shown in Figure 1.1.

x

u( x , t ) = A cos[ ( t ) + ],

c

(1.1)

where A denotes the amplitude, = 2 f is the angular frequency, where f is the cyclic

frequency, is the phase angle at x = t = 0, and c denotes the propagation (phase) velocity.

Here, u could represent longitudinal or transverse displacement of a string, particle velocity in a

solid, pressure wave amplitude in a gas, or a number other physical quantities. The basic wave

parameters of propagation, the wavelength and the period of vibration T are related through

c / = 1/ T = f .

u

A

t = t1

c

t2

t3

x

-A

Figure 1.1

1-5

propagation problems, we will use complex notation without explicitly indicating as such.

Equation (1.1) can be written as follows

u( x , t ) = U e i ( k x t ) ,

(1.2)

where U is a complex amplitude that includes the phase term, and k is the so-called wave

number. In this notation, only the real part of the complex quantity corresponds to the actual

physical quantity, therefore the + and - sign conventions are equivalent.

It will be found that three basic types of wave may exist in a material, depending on

whether it is solid or fluid and depending on the nature of its boundaries. The wave types are

dilatational, shear, and surface waves. Propagation velocities will depend on the material, and

may range from 102 m/s to 104 m/s. The basic natures of the waves are shown in Figure 1.2.

The dilatational wave (also called longitudinal or pressure wave) may exist in solids, liquids, and

gases, and is the familiar wave of acoustic theory. It is seen that particle motion is in the same

direction as the propagation direction. A shear wave (also called transverse or equivoluminal

wave), on the other hand, may exist only in a solid. It is seen that particle motion is at right

angles, or transverse, to the direction of propagation. These are the only two types of wave that

may exist in an extended media. If a free surface exists on a solid half-space, a surface (or

Rayleigh) wave may also propagate. Such a wave has a complicated particle motion at the

surface, and has an amplitude that rapidly decays away from the surface. A main point to

emphasize is that these waves are all well known from classical acoustic and elasticity theory. No

"mysterious" new waves are associated with ultrasonics.

Finally, the behavior of waves upon encountering surfaces and boundaries is another

fundamental aspect of wave propagation. The simplest situation is depicted in Figure 1.3a, where

a wave encounters a boundary at right angle or normal incidence. The interaction only involves

reflection of some of the wave and transmission of a portion, with the amount of energy in each

part depending on the material characteristics. A more complicated situation may arise,

particularly in solids, when the wave strikes at an angle, or at oblique incidence. What may

occur, as shown in Fig. 1.3b, is that two types of waves are reflected for a single incident wave.

This phenomenon is known as mode conversion, and is illustrated for the case of a pressure wave

generating both pressure and shear waves. Yet another aspect is involved when waves encounter

edges. Complex scattering and diffraction of the waves may occur, similar to optics. This is

meant to be illustrated by Figure 1.3c.

1-6

Longitudinal Wave:

Shear Wave:

Surface Wave:

Figure 1.2

1-7

a)

Incident Wave

Reflection

1, c1

2, c2

Transmission

b)

Incident Wave

Reflection

i

Liquid

Solid

d

s

c)

Incident Wave

Longitudinal

Transmission

Shear

Transmission

Reflection

i

Edge Diffraction

Figure 1.3

reflection and transmission (a), refraction and mode conversion (b), and

diffraction and scattering (c).

1-8

Historical aspects

Since ultrasonics is a part of acoustics, its development, particularly in the early years, is

to some extent embedded in the broad developments in acoustics. However, the history of

classical acoustics can be traced back to Pythagoras in the 6th century B. C., while investigations

of high-frequency waves did not originate until the 19th century. The era of modern ultrasonics

started about 1917, with Langevin's use of high-frequency acoustic waves and quartz resonators

for submarine detection. Since that time, the field has grown enormously, with applications

found in science, industry, medicine and other areas. The following is meant to identify dates of

some of the major developments in ultrasonics.

1820

1830

1842

Savart developed large, toothed wheel to generate very high frequencies.

Magnetostrictive effect discovered by Joule.

1845

1860

1866

1868

1876

1877

1880

1890

1903

Tyndall developed the sensitive flame to detect high frequency waves.

Kundt used dust figures in a tube to measure sound velocity.

Kirchhoff investigated effect of heat conduction on attenuation.

Galton invented the ultrasonic whistle.

Rayleigh's "Theory of Sound" laid foundation for modern acoustics.

Curie brothers discovered the piezoelectric effect.

Koenig, studying audibility limits, produced vibrations up to 90,000 Hz.

Lebedev and coworkers developed complete ultrasonic system to study

absorption of waves.

Sinking of Titanic led to proposals on use of acoustic waves to detect

icebergs.

Langevin originated modern science of ultrasonics through work on

submarine detection.

1912

1915

1-9

1921

1922

1925

1927

1928

1928

1929

1930

1937

1937

1938

1939

1940

1940

1945

1948

1948

Hartmann developed the air-jet ultrasonic generator.

Pierce developed the ultrasonic interferometer.

Wood and Loomis described effects of intense ultrasound.

Pierce developed the magnetostrictive transducer.

Herzfeld and Rice developed molecular theory for dispersion and

absorption of sound in gases.

Sokolov proposed use of ultrasound for flaw detection.

Debye and Sears and Lucas and Biquard discover diffraction of light by

ultrasound.

Sokolov invented an ultrasonic image tube.

Dussik brothers made first attempt at medical imaging with ultrasound.

Pierce and Griffin detect the ultrasonic cries of bats.

Pohlman investigated the therapeutic uses of ultrasonics.

Firestone, in the United States and Sproule, in Britain, discovered

ultrasonic pulse-echo NDT.

Sonar extensively developed and used to detect submarines.

Piezoelectric ceramics discovered.

Start of extensive development of power ultrasonic processes.

Start of extensive study of ultrasonic medical imaging in the United States.

For more details on this subject, see Karl F. Graff, A History of Ultrasonics, in Physical

Acoustics, Volume XV (Academic Press, New York, 1982).

1-10

1.2

The vibrational characteristics of the simple oscillator will be reviewed first. This will

provide the opportunity to emphasize certain vibrational characteristics of special interest in

ultrasonics. The simple wave equation will then be reviewed. This basic equation will be found

to be applicable to a wide range of ultrasonic wave propagation problems.

A simple, undamped mechanical resonator of mass m and spring constant k is shown in

Figure 1.4.

Figure 1.4

mu + k u = 0 .

(1.3)

where u denotes the displacement from the equilibrium position. Putting this in the form

u + o2 u = 0 ,

o =

k

m

(1.4)

u = B cos o t + C sin o t ,

(1.5)

1-11

where o is the natural (angular) frequency of the free vibration of an undamped mechanical

resonator. This result may also be expressed in terms of an amplitude and a phase angle as

u = D cos ( o t ) ,

(1.6)

where

D =

B2 + C 2 , and tan =

C

.

B

(1.7)

If a dashpot is added to the oscillator, as shown in Fig. 1.5, the equation of motion is

simply

mu + d u + k u = 0 .

(1.8)

u +

o

u + 2o u = 0 ,

Q

(1.9)

where 2o = k / m as before and the so-called quality factor Q is defined here as an impedance

ratio at the resonance frequency

Figure 1.5

1-12

Q =

X reactive

mo

k

=

=

=

Rdissipative

d

d o

mk

.

d

(1.10)

The solution to Eq. 1.9 may take several forms depending on the value of Q. The so-called

damped periodic case (Q ) is the most applicable to ultrasonics and to most vibration

situations. The solution, in exponential form, is

u = e t ( A1 ei t + A2 e i t ) ,

(1.11)

where

= o

1

4Q

and

o

.

2Q

(1.12)

is the natural (angular) frequency of the free vibration of a damped mechanical resonator and

is a decay constant. In terms of sine and cosine functions, the result is

u = e t ( B cos t + C sin t ) = D e t cos ( t ) .

(1.13)

The well-known pattern of free vibration of a damped oscillator is shown in Fig. 1.6. It may be

easily shown that the ratio between amplitudes exactly one period (T ) apart is

u

e - t

Figure 1.6

1-13

u( t )

= e T e/ Q .

u( t + T )

(1.14)

This leads to an other more general definition of the quality factor through the logarithmic

decrement, , given by

u( t )

= T =

.

u( t + T )

Q

= ln

(1.15)

Consider now the forced vibrations of simple oscillators. The case of an undamped

oscillator shown in Fig. 1.4 subjected to a harmonic forcing function exp (i t ) results in the

governing equation

mu + k u = F o e i t

(1.16)

F

u + 2o u = o e i t .

m

(1.17)

or

Fo

k

u =

2

1 2

o

e i t .

(1.18)

Noting that Fo / k is simply the displacement of the spring-mass system under a static force Fo,

the amplitude response may be written as

++u =

st

2

1 2

o

(1.19)

1-14

From the result of Eq. 1.19 and Figure 1.7, it is seen that as o , the amplitude

blows up, i.e., approaches infinity. This is the phenomenon of undamped resonance. When the

forced vibrations of a damped oscillator previously shown in Fig. 1.5 are considered, the

governing equation of motion becomes

u

st

4

3

2

1

/ o

0

0.5

Figure 1.7

u +

1.5

2.5

o

F

u + o2 u = o e i t .

Q

m

(1.20)

Fo

m

u =

2o

i t

o e

+i

Q

2

Fo

k

2

1 2 + i

Q o

o

e i t .

(1.21)

At the resonance frequency, the vibration amplitude m = Q st and it is 90o off-phase with

the driving force. In other words, the peak amplitude at the resonance frequency is determined

1-15

it is possible to express this in terms of a real amplitude and a phase angle as

u =

1 o2

2 2

st

+ 2 "

Q o2 "

#

1/ 2

e i ( t )

(1.22)

and

= atan

Q o

2

1 2

o

(1.23)

The behavior of the amplitude and phase are shown in Fig. 1.8 for various degrees of

damping. It is quite evident that for decreasing values of the quality factor (increasing damping)

the sharpness of the resonance decreases. Put another way, for increasing damping, the

bandwidth of the oscillator increases. It is also seen that the change in phase angle is quite rapid

for small frequency changes at low damping, where the phase angle changes much slower for

heavy damping. A physical quantity of great interest in vibrations is the energy dissipation rate,

which offers another way to define the quality-factor of the system. The probably most basic

definition of this parameter is

Q =

2 U s

,

Ud

(1.24)

where Us denotes the maximum stored energy and Ud is the energy dissipated per each cycle

(this definition is essentially the same as Eq. 1.15). For the simple oscillator, the maximum

stored energy would be given by

Us =

m Fo2

1

k 2m =

,

2

2d2

(1.25)

where m is the maximum vibration amplitude at the resonance frequency as obtained from Eq.

1.22. The energy dissipated per cycle may be found by carrying out the integral

1-16

4

u

st

Q=

5

3.33

2.5

2

2

1

0.7

0.5

0

0

0.5

1

/ o

1.5

Q=

5

3.33

2.5

2

/2

1

0.7

0.5

0

0

0.5

1.5

/ o

Figure 1.8

1-17

Ud =

H Re{F (t )} Re{u(t )} d t

o

Fo2

,

d o

(1.26)

where we took advantage of the fact that the driving force and the velocity are in phase at the

resonance frequency. The quality factor can be expressed as

Q =

mo

=

d

mk

,

d

(1.27)

which is the same as or previous definition. This relates two different measures of system

damping.

The Q of a system may also be found from the so-called half-power (-3 dB) points of

the resonance curve. These correspond to the two points on the curve where the amplitude is

m / 2 . Forgoing the somewhat lengthy manipulations, the result is

Q

fo

o

=

f 1 f 2

1 2

(1.28)

where f1 and f2 are the half-power frequencies. The quantity f1 - f2 = B is the system

bandwidth.

1-18

1.3

Wave propagation

understand the basic features of propagating waves and some of the mathematical equations

governing simple cases of wave propagation. The propagating harmonic disturbance is a good

place to start. Successive instants in the propagation of harmonic wave were shown in Fig. 1.1. A

simple harmonic propagating wave can be described as follows

x

u( x , t ) = A cos[ ( t )] = A cos( t k x ) ,

c

(1.29)

where k is the so-called wave number which is related to the reciprocal of wavelength

k = 2 / and is introduced mainly for convenience in writing wave propagation expressions.

The phase velocity c is meant to rigorously define the velocity of the wave as the speed with

which two successive points of constant phase move past a certain point. This serves to

distinguish it from other types of velocities associated with waves, such as the group velocity. A

propagating wave may be described by several equivalent expressions. Thus,

u = A cos ( k x t ) = A cos[k ( x c t )]

= Aei ( k x t ) = Aei k ( x ct ) .

(1.30)

These all may be considered expressions for a rightward propagating harmonic wave. A leftward

wave would simply be given by a sign change, as u = A cos (kx + t ).

The relationship between wave propagaton and standing wave vibrations in a system may

be shown by superimposing two oppositely propagating waves. Thus, using simple trigonometric

identities, it may be shown that

u =

A

A

cos ( k x + t ) + cos ( k x t ) = A cos ( k x ) cos( t ) .

2

2

(1.31)

This latter expression describes the vibrations of a system with well-defined nodes and antinodes,

as shown in Fig. 1.9 (node means a point, line or surface of a vibrating body that is free from

vibratory motion).

1-19

t = t1

t2

t3

-A

Figure 1.9

Several other features of simple waves may be easily shown. For example, the

propagation of a pulse of arbitrary shape is shown in Fig. 1.9a. This may be described

mathematically as

u = f xct

(1.32)

where f (x) is an arbitrary function describing the pulse shape. An oscillatory wave packet, such

as shown in Fig. 1.10b, may be described by

u = f ( x c t )cos[k ( x c t )]

(1.33)

Another simple situation involves attenuation of a harmonic wave with distance, possibly

due to internal frictional losses or wave scattering. This may be described by

u = Ae x cos( k x t )

(1.34)

1-20

a)

f(x-ct)

f ( x - c [ t + dt ] )

b)

u

c

f(x-ct)

cos [ k ( x - c t ) ]

Figure 1.10

1-21

1.4

We now will investigate the development of a very basic equation governing the

propagation of waves in many mechanical and electrical systems. In other words, any number of

systems could be used as the starting point for derivation of this equation. The case of a thin

elastic rod will be used here, as shown in Fig. 1.11.

a)

dx

b)

+

x dx

dx

Figure 1.11

A thin rod (a) with coordinate x and displacement u of a section and (b)

the stress acting on a differential element of the rod.

A + ( +

2 u

dx ) A = A dx

,

x

t 2

(1.35)

where A is the cross-sectional area and is the mass density. This reduces to

1-22

2 u

= 2 .

x

t

(1.36)

= E

(1.37)

=

u

.

x

(1.38)

(In elementary mechanics, the strain is defined by = " / " . In the present development,

u " , x ", leading to = u / x . Taking this to differential form would be

= d u / d x . Since u = u (x, t), this becomes the partial derivative, = u / x .)

Substitution of (1.38) in (1.37) and this in (1.36) gives the following equation for waves

in thin rod

2 u

2 u

,

=

x2

t 2

(1.39)

where E denotes Young's modulus. This may be put in the more usual form,

1 2u

2u

,

=

x2

c o2 t 2

co =

E

.

(1.40)

thin rod. It is usually termed simply the wave equation because it represents the situation for so

many problems in mechanical and electrical media. In mechanical systems for example, it covers

transverse waves in strings, torsional waves in rods, and one-dimensional compressional and

shear waves in extended media. Equally numerous situations may be defined in electromagnetics.

It may be shown that a propagating harmonic wave represents a solution of the wave

equation. Thus, substitution of

1-23

u = A sin[k ( x ct )]

(1.41)

into (1.40) leads to c = co. In other words, the propagation velocity of the wave must be co. It

may also be shown that the arbitrary pulse from f (x-c o t ) also satisfies the wave equation

Instead of looking at the propagation of harmonic waves in, essentially, an infinite,

distributed system such as the thin rod of the previous section, consider the vibrations of a finite

system. Using the thin rod as an example, the governing equation would still be (1.40). Suppose

the rod to be undergoing free vibrations, so that

u ( x , t ) = u ( x ) sin( t ) .

(1.42)

2u

+ k2 u = 0 ,

2

x

k=

co

(1.43)

u ( x ) = C sin ( k x ) + D cos( k x ) .

(1.44)

To determine C and D a statement of the conditions (or boundary conditions) at the ends of the

rod must be made. Suppose both ends are completely free then we would have a free-free rod:

At x = 0, " , the stresses are zero. Since = E u / x , this is equivalent to

u

= 0 at x = 0, " .

x

(1.45)

u

= k ( C cos k x D sin k x ) .

x

(1.46)

1-24

Then, at x = 0 ,

u

= 0 gives C = 0. At x = ",

x

u

= 0 gives

x

D sin k " = 0 .

(1.47)

This leads to

k " = n

or

n =

0n = 1, 2,...5

n co

,

"

fn =

(1.48)

n co

2"

(1.49)

These are the natural frequencies of the rod, and lead to the following vibrational modes

u ( x , t ) = D cos(

n

x ) where n = 1, 2,...

"

(1.50)

The first few modes are shown in Fig. 1.12. Note that the distributed system has an infinite

number of modes.

x

u

n =1

n=2

n=3

Figure 1.12

1-25

Only a relatively few types of waves may exist in continuous infinite media. In an

extended fluid medium, only a pressure (or dilatational or longitudinal) wave may exist, while in

a solid, both pressure and shear (or transverse or equivoluminal) waves may exist. The existence

of a free surface on a solid brings in the possibility of a surface wave. The basic natures of these

waves have been previously shown in Fig. 1.2. Some additional details will now be noted.

Generally, the acoustic wave equation of Equation 1.40 can be written for any types of

polarization in the same form

1 2u

2u

=

,

x2

c2 t 2

(1.51)

where u here is the general acoustic displacement in an arbitrary polarization direction and c

is the phase velocity that can be determined as follows

stiffness

.

density

c =

(1.52)

These equations govern all types of one-dimensional wave propagation. Of course, for a

thin rod aligned with the x-direction ( y = z = 0 ),

x = E x

(1.53)

and the longitudinal wave velocity is given by the previously derived result (Eq. 40)

crod =

E

.

(1.54)

In a thin rod, the material is free to move in the lateral direction according to the Poisson effect

as shown in Figure 1.13. In comparison, for a thin plate parallel to the x-y plane ( y = z = 0 ),

the stiffness in the x-direction is increased by the Poisson effect

x =

x ,

1 2

(1.55)

1-26

E

c plate =

(1 )

2

crod

1 2

105

. crod (for = 0.3)

(1.56)

Figure 1.13

For a longitudinal pressure wave propagating in an infinite medium shown in Figure 14.a

y = z = 0, therefore the Poisson effect further increases the stiffness

x =

E (1 )

=

x

x

(1 + )(1 2 )

2 2

1

1

E

(1.57)

E (1 )

(1 )

= crod

116

. crod

(1 + )(1 2 )

(1 + )(1 2 )

cd =

(1.58)

is even higher.

Equation 1.57 can be also written with Lam's constants as follows

x = + 2 x = + 2

5 ux .

(1.59)

where is a Lam constant and is the shear modulus (often denoted by G). In an extended

elastic solid (a so-called "infinite medium"), the pressure wave velocity may be also expressed in

terms of the elastic constants of the medium and the density as

1-27

cd =

+ 2

.

(1.60)

As a final note on pressure waves, the propagation velocity of acoustic waves in a gas can

be obtained from the so-called gas equation p = RT . Here T is the (absolute) temperature

and R denotes the gas constant that is the ratio of the universal gas constant and the average

molecular weight. For an adiabatic process p = K so that the bulk modulus

B = p / = K . The sound velocity is given again by c d = B / as follows

cd =

po

=

RT ,

(1.61)

where

po = static (ambient) pressure

= c p / cv is the specific-heat ratio.

y

y

-x

x

- y

x

Figure 1.14

1-28

rod shown in Figure 1.15. The well-known differential equation governing the bending

deformation of a thin rod is

Figure 1.15

IE

4 v

x 4

= q,

(1.62)

where I is the moment of inertia for the cross-sectional area, v is the transverse displacement,

and q is the distributed load intensity for a unit length. In our case, the load is entirely due to

inertia forces accelerating the beam

q = A

2 v

t 2

(1.63)

4 / x 4 = k 4 and 2 / t 2 = 2 , therefore Equations 1.62 and 1.63 can be combined as

follows

I E k 4 = A 2 .

(1.64)

cf =

I E 2

= 4

k

A

(1.65)

1-29

proportional to the square-root of frequency. For a rectangular bar of height h, the flexural

velocity can be written as

E h2 2

cf = 4

= 0.5373 crod h ,

12

where crod =

(1.66)

wave mode is also the limiting case of the lowest-order asymmetric Lamb mode in very thin

plates (Lamb waves are elastic waves propagating in a solid plate with free boundaries, which

will be discussed in more detailed in Chapter 5). However, for thin plates, the phase velocity can

be calculated from Equation 1.66 by substituting E / (1 2 ) for E.

Another example of transverse wave propagation is the case of shear waves in infinite

solid media, which is illustrated in Fig. 1.16.

yx

- xy

xy

- yx

x

Figure 1.16

1-30

The expressions relating shear stress xy , shear strain xy and transverse particle displacement

v are

xy = xy ,

xy =

v

.

x

(1.67)

1 2v

2v

=

.

x2

c s2 t 2

(1.68)

cs =

(1.69)

It may be shown that the ratio of the two wave velocities in an isotropic solid, for which

E = 2 (1 + ) , the ratio of cd and cs depends only on Poisson's ratio:

cd

=

cs

22

.

1 2

(1.70)

Finally, the velocity of surface waves may be noted. There is not a simple formula for this

velocity. However, an approximate expression is given by

cR

0.87 + 112

.

cs .

1+

(1.71)

Acoustic Impedance

The relationship between stress , displacement u, and particle velocity v for a

propagating wave is of interest. As an example, let us consider a dilatational wave propagating in

an infinite elastic medium:

ux ( x , t ) = Aei( k x t ) ,

(1.72)

1-31

v x ( x, t ) =

ux

= i Aei( k x t ) ,

t

(1.73)

and

x = ( + 2 )

ux

= ( + 2 ) Ai k ei ( kx t ) .

x

(1.74)

The ratio of the pressure (or negative stress) to the particle velocity is called the acoustic

impedance. For a dilatational wave propagating in the positive direction,

c 2 Ai k ei ( kx t )

Zd = x = d

= cd .

vx

i Aei( k x t )

(1.75)

The product of density and wave velocity occurs repeatedly in acoustics and ultrasonics and is

called the characteristic acoustic impedance (for a plane wave). As it will be seen later, it will be

the impedance that acoustically differentiates materials, in addition to the moduli and density.

The densities, velocities and acoustic impedances of a number of materials are summarized in

Table 1.1.

1-32

Table 1.1 Densities, acoustic velocities and acoustic impedances of some materials.

Material

Density

[103 kg/m3]

Acoustic velocities

[103 m/s]

long. cd

shear cs

Impedance

[106 kg/m2s]

Z d = cd

Metals

Aluminum

Iron (steel)

Copper

Brass

Nickel

Tungsten

2.7

7.85

8.9

8.55

8.9

19.3

6.32

5.90

4.7

3.83

5.63

5.46

3.08

3.23

2.26

2.05

2.96

2.62

17

46.5

42

33

50

105

1.25

3.8

2.5

1.18

1.05

2.2

1.4

2.2

2.6

10

5.66

2.73

2.67

5.93

2.3

1.35

1.1

3.3

38

14

3.2

2.8

13

3.2

3.0

1.26

1.0

1.92

1.483

Nonmetals

Araldit Casting Resin

Aluminum oxide

Glass, crown

Perspex (Plexiglas)

Polystyrene

Fused Quartz

Rubber, vulcanized

Teflon

3.42

1.43

3.75

Liquids

Glycerine

Water (at 20oC)

2.4

1.5

1-33

1.7

Wave Dispersion

Dispersion means that the propagation velocity is frequency-dependent. Since the phase

relation between the spectral components of a broadband signal varies with distance, the pulseshape gets distorted and generally widens as the propagation length increases. Figure 1.17 shows

schematically the distortion of a unipolar pulse caused by dispersive wave propagation.

input pulse

c

>0

c

=0

c

<0

Figure 1.17

1-34

Group Velocity

(Fourier) analysis. Figure 1.18 illustrates the dispersive wave propagation of a tone-burst. In the

case of relatively narrow band "tone-bursts", the effect of dispersive wave propagation can be

approximated by the concept of different phase and group velocities.

phase

velocity

group

velocity

Figure 1.18

1-35

Figure 1.19 shows the so-called beating in the case of small (4%) frequency difference

between two harmonic signals.

u1 = cos(1 t )

u2 = cos( 2 t )

+ 2

2

u1 + u2 = cos(1 t ) + cos( 2 t ) = 2 cos( 1

t ) cos( 1

t)

2

2

Figure 1.19

(1.76)

harmonic signals.

The velocity of the modulation on a wave is called the group velocity. For a wave with

one-dimensional modulation envelope, this is defined in the following manner. A modulated

wave is constructed by taking two waves with slightly different values of and k.

u( x , t ) = cos( kx t ) + cos[( k + k ) x ( + ) t ]

= 2 cos[( k +

) x ( +

) t ] cos(

x

t ),

2

2

2

2

(1.77)

1-36

where the first high-frequency term is called carrier wave and the second low-frequency term is

the modulation envelope. This shows that the propagation velocity of the carrier is the phase

velocity

2 ,

cp =

k

k

k+

2

+

(1.78)

and the propagation velocity of the modulation envelope is the group velocity

cg =

.

k

k

(1.79)

The characteristic equation of a certain wave mode provides the relationship between cp

and k. Then, the group velocity can be easily calculated from cp (k) as

cg = c p + k

cp

(1.80)

Very often the phase velocity is given in the form of c p ( ) . Then, the group velocity can be

calculated as follows

cg =

cp

cp

1

cp

(1.81)

1-37

Spectral Representation

f (t

x

)

c

f (t

becomes

x

).

c( )

(1.82)

Let us assume that f (t ) is known at x=0. Its Fourier transform can be written as

F { f ( t )} = F ( ) =

H dt f (t ) exp( i t ) .

(1.83)

The inverse Fourier transform can be used to obtain the signal in the time domain again

F -1{F ( )} = f ( t ) =

1

d F ( ) exp( i t ) .

2

(1.84)

F { f ( t t p )} = F ( ) exp( i t p ) ,

(1.85)

therefore the frequency spectrum of the signal after dispersive propagation over a distance of x

is

F (, x ) = F ( ,0 ) exp[ i

x

] = F (,0) exp[ i x k ( )] .

c( )

(1.86)

It should be mentioned that essentially the same approach based spatial rather than temporal

frequency representation is often used in two- and three-dimensional wave propagation problems,

too.

1-38

There are two main causes of dispersive wave propagation of ultrasonic fields. First,

inherent material behavior such as relaxation in polymers, which is best described by a

characteristic time constant. The degree of the dispersion is generally rather weak and the

dispersion is dependent on the ratio of this time constant to the time period of the ultrasonic

vibration. Second, geometrical effects such as in the case of dispersive Lamb waves when the

dispersion is determined by a characteristic dimension. In this case, the degree of the dispersion

can be very high and the dispersion is dependent on the ratio of this dimension (e. g., plate

thickness) to the acoustic wavelength.

As an example of inherent material dispersion, Figure 1.20 shows the sound velocity as a

function of frequency in polyethylene [M. O'Donnell et al. J. Acoust Soc. Am. 69, 696 (1981)].

Velocity [km/s]

2.8

2.7

2.6

0

10

Frequency [MHz]

Figure 1.20

1-39

To a much less degree than the flexural mode, the longitudinal mode propagating in a thin

plate also becomes dispersive as the frequency increases due to the Poisson effect. As an example

of geometrical dispersion, Figure 1.21 shows the phase and group velocities of the lowest-order

symmetric Lamb mode as functions of frequency in a thin aluminum plate.

Normalized Velocity

1.5

phase

0.5

group

0

0

Normalized Frequency

Figure 1.21

functions of frequency in a thin aluminum plate (the velocities are

normalized to the shear velocity and the normalized frequency is ks d).

1-40

Part 2

MATHEMATICAL

FORMALISMS FOR

ACOUSTIC WAVE

PROPAGATION

concerned with material particles that are small but yet contain many atoms. Within each particle

the atoms move in unison. Therefore, acoustics deals with macroscopic phenomena and is

formulated as if matter were a continuum. Structure at the microscopic level is of interest only

insofar as it affects the medium's macroscopic properties. When the particles of a medium are

displaced from their equilibrium positions, internal restoring forces arise. It is these restoring

forces between particles, combined with the inertia of the particles, which lead to oscillatory

motions of the medium. To formulate a mathematical description of these vibrations, which may

be either traveling waves or localized oscillations, it is first necessary to introduce quantitative

definitions of particle displacement, material deformation, and internal restoring forces.

displacement-strain relation

stress-strain relation

balance of momentum

(deformation)

(constitutive equation)

(Newton's Law)

equation of motion

(wave equation)

wave field

velocity, velocity potential, stress, etc.)

Notation:

position vector

displacement vector

strain matrix

stress matrix

stiffness tensor

( = e1x1 + e 2 x2 + e3 x3 )

2-1

ONE-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEM

x = e1 x1

a)

b)

there are three spatial coordinates but the field parameters change only in

one dimension

=

= 0

x2

x3

Displacement-strain relation

( x ) = x + u( x )

( x + dx ) = x + dx + u( x + dx ) x + dx + u( x ) +

=

[( x + dx ) ( x ) ] dx

u

dx

x

u( x )

dx

x

Stress-strain relation

= C

Balance of momentum (without body force)

2u( x )

( x + dx ) ( x ) = dx

t 2

2u

= 2

x

t

Equation of motion

2u

2u

=

C t 2

x 2

Wave field

x

u = f ( t ) , where c =

c

2-2

THREE-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEM

Physical problem:

differential equations

Mathematical description:

vector notation

indicial notation

differential equations (with abbreviated notation)

Solution:

potential technique

2-3

VECTOR NOTATION

Vector operator nabla

e1

+ e2

+ e3

x1

x2

x3

grad e1

+ e2

+ e3

x1

x2

x3

div

1

2

3

+

+

x1

x2

x3

curl e1 (

3

2

) + e2 ( 1

) + e3 ( 2

)

x2

x3

x3

x1

x1

x2

Laplace operator:

2 =

2

2

+

+

x12

x22

x32

2 div grad

2

2

+

+

x12

x22

x32

2

e1 21 + e 2 2 2 + e3 2 3

2-4

INDICIAL NOTATION

x = e1x1 + e 2 x2 + e3 x3

Free index

ui

vector:

u = e1 u1 + e 2 u2 + e3 u3 = e i ui or simply ui

vector by vector

scalar

ui

= ui, j

x j

vector

u

u

u

u

= e1 1 + e 2 2 + e3 3 = e i ui, j or simply ui, j

x j

x j

x j

x j

Gradient of a scalar

grad f = e1

f

f

f

+ e2

+ e3

= e i f,i or simply f,i

x1

x2

x3

Divergence of a vector

div u =

u1

u2

u3

+

+

= ui,i

x1

x2

x3

2-5

Displacement-strain relation

vector notation

= s u

indicial notation

ij = ( ui, j + u j,i )

differential notation

ij = (

u j

ui

+

)

x j

xi

11 =

u1

,

x1

22 =

u2

,

x2

12 = 21 = (

u1

u2

+

)

x2

x1

23 = 32 = (

u2

u3

+

)

x3

x2

31 = 13 = (

33 =

u3

,

x3

u3

u1

+

)

x1

x3

vector notation

= C :

indicial notation

ij = Cijkl kl

ij = Cij11 11 + Cij12 12 + Cij13 13

+ Cij 21 21 + Cij 22 22 + Cij 23 23

+ Cij 31 31 + Cij 32 32 + Cij 33 33

2-6

SYMMETRY CONSIDERATIONS

lack of rotation

reciprocity

Cijkl = Cklij

most general anisotropic

orthorhombic

cubic symmetry

isotropic

21

9

3

2 (Lame constants and )

2-7

ABBREVIATED NOTATION

11

21

31

12

22

32

13

23

33

!"

""

#

11

21

31

12

22

32

13

23

33

!"

""

#

Stiffness matrix

11 !" C11

22 "" CC12

3323 "" = C1413

31 "" C15

12 #

C16

!" 11 !"

"" 22 ""

33

"

"

C46 " 2 23 "

C56 " 231 "

" "

C66 # 212 #

C12

C22

C23

C13 C14

C23 C24

C33 C34

C15 C16

C25 C26

C35 C36

C24

C25

C26

C34

C35

C36

C45

C55

C56

C44

C45

C46

ij = kk ij + 2 ij , where ij is the so-called Kronecker delta:

ij = 1 if i = j and ij = 0 else. In full details,

In indicial notation,

11

22

33

12

23

31

=

=

=

=

=

=

( + 2 ) 11 + 22 + 33

11 + ( + 2 ) 22 + 33

11 + 22 + ( + 2 ) 33

21 = 2 12

32 = 2 23

13 = 2 31

11 !"

22 ""

3323 "" =

31 ""

12 #

+ 2

0

0

0

0

+ 2

+ 2 0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

"" 22 ""

"" 23323""

"" 231 ""

# 212 #

2-8

Stress-displacement relation

u

u

u

11 = ( 1 + 2 + 3 ) +

x1 x2 x3

u

u

u

22 = ( 1 + 2 + 3 ) +

x1 x2 x3

u

u

u

33 = ( 1 + 2 + 3 ) +

x1 x2 x3

u

u

12 = 21 = ( 1 + 2 )

x2

x1

u

u

23 = 32 = ( 2 + 3 )

x3 x2

u

u

31 = 13 = ( 3 + 1 )

x1 x3

u1

x1

u

2 2

x2

u

2 3

x3

Balance of momentum

vector notation

u

+ f =

indicial notation

ij , j + f i = ui

differential notation

11

2u

+ 12 + 13 + f1 = 21

x1

x2

x3

t

21

22

2u

+

+ 23 + f2 = 22

x1

x2

x3

t

31

32

2u

+

+ 33 + f3 = 23

x1

x2

x3

t

2-9

u f

C: s u =

vector notation

( + ) u + 2 u =

u f

indicial notation

( + ) u j , ji + ui, jj = u&&i fi

2u1

2u2

2u3

2u1

2u1

2u1

2u1

( + )( 2 +

+

) + ( 2 +

+

) = 2 f1

x1 x2

x1 x3

x1

x1

x22

x32

t

2u1

2u2

2u3

2u2

2u2

2u2

2u2

( + )(

+

+

) + ( 2 +

+

) = 2 f2

x1 x2

x2 x3

x22

x1

x22

x32

t

2u1

2u2

2u3

2u3

2u3

2u3

2u3

( + )(

+

+

) + ( 2 +

+

) = 2 f3

x1 x3

x2 x3

x32

x1

x22

x32

t

2-10

u = A p ei ( k x t)

amplitude

angular frequency

wave vector

p

k = dk

wave number

k =

sound velocity

c =

In details,

u1 = A p1 e i t ei k ( d1x1 + d2 x2 + d3x3 )

u2 = A p2 e i t ei k ( d1x1 + d2 x2 + d3x3 )

u3 = A p3 e i t ei k ( d1x1 + d2 x2 + d3x3 )

( + ) d1 d1 + ( c2 )

( + ) d1 d2

( + ) d1 d3

( + ) d1 d2

( + ) d2 d2 + ( c 2 )

( + ) d2 d3

!" p1 !

p2 ""

"

( + ) d3 d3 + ( c 2 )" p3 "#

#

( + ) d1 d3

( + ) d2 d3

0!"

= 0 "

0"#

Nontrivial (non-zero) solution requires that the determinant be zero, which provides the

characteristic equation for any propagation direction d. The solutions of this characteristic

equation are frequency-independent (nondispersive) longitudinal (dilatational) and shear waves.

2-11

generality.

+ 2 c2

0

0

0

c2

0

0

0

c2

!" p1 !

"" p2 ""

# p3 "#

0!"

= 0 "

0"#

cd =

+ 2

cs =

and

and

p2 = p3 = 0

p1 = 0

2-12

u = +

Displacement from scalar and vector potentials

3

2

+

x1

x2

x3

3

1

u2 =

+

x2

x1

x3

2

1

u3 =

+

x3

x1

x2

u1 =

For an isotropic solid, the stress components can be written in terms of the displacement

potentials as follows

2 2

2

2 3

2 2

+

+

)

+

2

(

+

)

x1x2

x1x3

x12

x22

x32

x12

2 2 2

2

2 3

21

22 = ( 2 + 2 + 2 ) + 2 ( 2

+

)

x1x2

x2x3

x1

x2

x3

x2

11 = (

2 2

2

2 2

21

+

+

)

+

2

(

+

)

x1x3

x2x3

x12

x22

x32

x32

2

2 3

2 2

2 3

2 1

12 = 21 = ( 2

+

+

)

x1x2

x2x3

x1x3

x22

x12

33 = (

2

2 1

2 3

21

2 2

+

+

)

x2x3

x1x3

x1x2

x32

x22

2

2 2

2 3

2 2

21

31 = 13 = ( 2

+

+

)

x1x3

x2x3

x1x2

x32

x12

23 = 32 = ( 2

For an isotropic material, the balance of momentum equation was previously written as (without

body forces)

( + ) u + 2 u = &&

u.

2-13

+

.

( + ) + 2 + ( + ) + 2 =

Since 2 = 2 and 0,

] + [].

[( + 2 ) 2 ] + [ 2] = [

Since the scalar and vector potentials are independent,

] or

[( + 2 ) 2 ] = [

[ 2 ] = []

,

( + 2 ) 2 =

.

2 =

or

=

2

1 2

cd2 t 2

and

=

2

1 2

cs2 t 2

cd =

+ 2

and

cs =

scalar displacement potential

= ei( kx1 t )

displacement

u1 = i k

u2 = u3 = 0

stress

11 = ( + 2 ) k 2

22 = 33 = 12 = 23 = 31 = 0

2-14

DILATATIONAL WAVES

no shear deformation

12 = 23 = 31 = 0

12 = 23 = 31 = 0

22 = 33 = 0

11 = ( + 2 ) 11

22 = 33 = 11

+ 2

longitudinal velocity cd =

no lateral strain

axial stress

lateral stress

cd =

lateral strain

axial stress

no lateral stress

Poisson's ratio

Young's modulus

sound velocity

22 = 33 0

11 = ( + 2 ) 11 + 2 22

22 = 33 = 11 + 2 ( + ) 22 = 0

= 22 =

2( + )

11

11

(3 + 2 )

=

11 = = 0

+

22

33

E

crod =

= cs 2 (1 + )

E =

2-15

Poisson effect

axial compression

lateral compression

strain ratio

plate stiffness

sound velocity

22

11 =

22 =

33 =

22

11

0 but 33 = 0

( + 2 ) 11 + 22

11 + 2 ( + ) 22 = 0

11 + 22

=

>

+ 2

11

4 ( + )

=

11 = = 0

+ 2

22

33

K

2

c plate =

= cs

1

K =

( ij = p ij ) ,

12 = 23 = 31 = 0

11 = 22 = 33 = (3 + 2 ) 11

The bulk modulus is defined by the volume contraction

p = B ( 11 + 22 + 33 )

2

B = +

3

2-16

Part 3

REFLECTION AND

TRANSMISSION OF

ULTRASONIC WAVES

Nearly all applications of ultrasonics involve the interaction of waves with boundaries.

Nondestructive testing, medical imaging and sonar are ready examples of this. Even basic studies

of material properties, usually involving the attenuation of waves, require in the final analysis

accounting for boundary interactions.

3.1

The simplest situation of reflection and transmission occurs when waves are impinging

normal to the surface. In Fig. 3.1, the case of a longitudinal wave incident on the interface

between two media is shown. This situation may be described mathematically in terms of three

propagating waves

Incident Wave

Reflection

1 , c1

2, c2

Transmission

Figure 3.1

plane boundary.

3-1

ui = Ai sin ( k1 x t ) ,

(3.1)

ur = Ar sin [( k1 x + t )] ,

(3.2)

ut = At sin( k 2 x t ) .

(3.3)

The amplitude of the reflected and transmitted waves may be found by noting that the

displacements and stresses must be the same (continuous) at the interface. Thus, for x = 0, it is

required that

ui + ur = ut

and

i + r = t .

(3.4)

Rd =

c 2 1 c1

Ar

= 2

1 c1 + 2 c 2

Ai

(3.5)

Td =

2 1 c1

At

=

.

1 c1 + 2 c 2

Ai

(3.6)

and

This gives the ratio of the displacement amplitude. More commonly, the stress (or pressure)

amplitudes are given. Thus,

Rs =

c 1 c1

r

= 2 2

= Rd

1 c1 + 2 c 2

i

(3.7)

Ts =

2 2 c2

t

=

Td ,

1 c1 + 2 c 2

i

(3.8)

and

where R and T are known as the reflection and transmission coefficients. It is seen that these

results are in terms of the respective acoustic impedances of the materials.

3-2

Illustration of the reflection and transmission at various interface combinations are worth

considering. For steel-water, we have s cs = 46.5 106 kg / m 2 s and

w cw = 15

. 106 kg / m 2 s . From Eqs. 3.7 and 3.8, one obtains R = 0.938 and

T = 0.063 . The interpretation of this result is that the amplitude of the reflected stress wave is

0.938 (or 93.8%) that of the incident amplitude. The negative sign indicates that the reflected

wave is 180o out of phase with the incident wave. Thus, when the incident wave is compressive,

the reflected wave is tensile and vice-versa. The transmitted pressure amplitude is but 6.3% of

the incident amplitude. This reflection/transmission situation is shown in Fig. 3.2a. For watersteel, by using the previous values for s cs,, w, and cw, we obtain from Eqs. 3.7 and 3.8

R = 0.938 and T = 1938

. . Thus, the reflected wave amplitude is nearly the same as the

incident amplitude, where the transmitted (stress) amplitude is nearly twice the incident

amplitude, as shown in Fig. 3.2b.

a)

pi

steel

water

pt

pr

b)

water

pi

steel

pt

pr

Figure 3.2

Sound pressure values in the case of reflection from (a) a steel-water and

(b) a water-steel interface at normal incidence.

The preceding result may appear strange, as though conservation of energy were being violated.

However, both wave amplitude and wave velocity determine the time rate of flow of energy (i. e.,

power) at the interface. In terms of power, there should be a net balance. That is,

3-3

Pr + Pt = Pi

(3.9)

should be satisfied. The power per unit area (i. e., intensity) will be given by I = v , where

= C11 u / x and v = u / t . Using Eqs. 3.1-3.3 to calculate Pi, Pr, Pt and substituting in the

power balance expression shows it to be satisfied.

Special cases: Suppose media 2 is vacuum, so that 2 c 2 = 0 . One obtains

Rdfree = 1,

Tdfree = 2 ,

Rsfree = 1,

and

Tsfree = 0

indicating a simple phase reversal of the incident wave. Suppose media 2 is infinitely rigid, so

that 2 c 2 . Then from Eqs. 3.5 through 3.8 one obtains

Rdclamped = 1,

Tdclamped = 0 ,

Rsclamped = 1,

and

Tsclamped = 2

The case of shear waves normally incident on a boundary may also be considered.

However, a small subtlety arises. If the two media are bonded together, then conditions at the

interface would be that v i + v r = v t , i + r = t , and expressions of the form Eqs. 3.5 trough

3.8 would be obtained, with all velocities merely being changed to shear wave velocities.

However, the more common cases of a fluid-solid interface or of two solids separated by a thin

film of lubricant would prevent transmission of shear waves across the interface.

The case of waves normally incident on a layer sandwiched between two media is the

next step of complexity and represents a situation frequently arising in ultrasonics. Reflection at

and transmission through an elastic layer exhibit strong frequency dependence associated with

resonances in the layer. One of the simplest approach to describe this problem is applying the

impedance-translation theorem to the layer [See for example, L. M. Brekhovskikh, Waves in

Layered Media (Academic, New York, 1980) pp. 23-26]. The impedance-translation theorem

says that the input impedance Zinput of a layer can be calculated from the loading impedance

Zload presented by the medium behind the layer and the acoustic impedance Zo of the layer

itself as follows:

3-4

Zinput = Zo

Zload i Zo tan( ko d )

.

Zo i Zload tan( ko d )

(3.10)

Although this theorem is well known and widely used in several area, such as electrical

engineering, it is very instructional to derive it from the boundary conditions prevailing at the

two interfaces. Let us write the stress distribution in the layer in the following general form:

( x ) = A+ exp( i ko x ) + A exp( i ko x ),

(3.11)

which is the sum of a forward and backward propagating plane wave. A+ and A- are the

complex amplitudes of the two waves and we omitted the common exp(-i t ) term. The

velocity distribution is given by

v( x ) =

/x

1

=

[ A+ exp( i ko x ) A exp( i ko x )] .

i o

Zo

(3.12)

Zinput =

( 0 )

A + A

= Zo +

,

v ( 0)

A+ A

(3.13)

where the ratio of the complex amplitudes A+ and A can be determined from the condition

that

Zload =

( d )

A ei ko d + A e i ko d

= Zo + i k d

.

v(d )

A+ e o A e i ko d

A+

Z

e i ko d + Zo e i ko d

= load i k d

A

Zload e o Zo ei ko d

(3.14)

(3.15)

Zinput = Zo

Zo cos( ko d ) i Zload sin( ko d )

(3.16)

3-5

The reflection coefficient of the layer can be easily obtained from (3.7) as

R =

Zinput Z1

(3.17)

Zinput + Z1

from Zload = Z2 . In the simplest case of Z2 = Z1, the reflection coefficient turns out to be

R =

,

i tan( ko d )( Zo2 + Z12 ) 2 Zo Z1

(3.18)

while the transmission coefficient can be calculated from the law of energy conservation as

T =

(1 R ) .

(3.19)

From Equations 3.18 and 3.19, the moduli of the reflection and transmission coefficients

can be written as follows

R =

sin( ko d )

(3.20)

2 sin 2 ( ko d ) + 1

and

T =

1

sin ( ko d ) + 1

2

(3.21)

the surrounding host materials.

The general situation is shown in Fig. 3.2a, where repeated reflections occur within the

layer until a steady reflection, transmission state is reached. Not only do the material impedances

enter, the ratio of layer thickness to acoustic wavelength (d/ o ) strongly influences the result,

too. The particular cases of steel and Plexiglas plates in water are shown in Fig. 3.3b.

3-6

a)

Incident Wave

Reflection

1, c1

o , co

2, c2

Transmission

b)

1

Transmission Coefficient

0.8

Plexiglas

0.6

0.4

0.2

Steel

0

0

0.25

0.5

0.75

1.25

Thickness / Wavelength

Figure 3.3

medium and (b) specific cases of steel and Plexiglas plates in water.

3-7

Equation 3.20 can be used to answer one of the basic questions of ultrasonic

nondestructive evaluation concerning the reflectivity of thin cracks in solids. As an example,

Figure 3.4 shows the reflectivities of air-filled and water-filled cracks in steel as functions of the

frequency-thickness product [J. Krautkramer and H. Krautkramer, Ultrasonic Testing of

Materials (Springer, Berlin, 1977) p. 29]. For very thin cracks,

lim

d 0

R = ko d ,

(3.22)

i. e., the reflectivity is proportional to the product of impedance mismatch, frequency, and layer

thickness.

Reflection Coefficient

air gap

water-filled crack

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

-10

-8

-6

-4

-2

Figure 3.4

of the frequency-thickness product.

3-8

One of the most important consequence of the impedance-translation theorem of Eq. 3.10

is the impedance matching capability of a single layer. When the layer thickness is an odd

multiple of the quarter-wavelength in the layer material, i. e., d = ( 2 n + 1) / 4 , the input and

load impedances are related through

Zo2

Zinput =

.

Zload

(3.23)

This means that perfect matching (total transmission and zero reflection) can be achieved even

between widely different impedances if a quarter-wavelength matching layer of Zo = Z1 Z2

acoustic impedance is applied at the interface. Let us denote the center frequency where the layer

thickness equals to one quarter-wavelength by fo. In the vicinity of this center frequency,

sin( ko d ) 1, and cos( ko d ) , where =

fo f

,

2 fo

(3.24)

R

r 1

r 1

i

,

2 r

2 r

r +1 i

(3.25)

where r = Z2 / Z1 denotes the impedance ratio between the two media to be matched. The

energy transmission coefficient through the matching layer can be approximated as

Tenergy 1 2

( r 1) 2

.

4r

(3.26)

Figure 3.5 shows the energy transmission coefficient through a quarter-wavelength matching

layer between quartz (typical transducer element) and water.

Of course, good matching is limited to the vicinity of the center frequency. The relative

bandwidth (inverse quality factor) can be approximated as

4 2r

1

f f1

18

. r

= 2

,

Q

fo

( r 1)

r 1

(3.27)

3-9

where f1 and f2 are the half-power (-6 dB) points. In the previously given example of quartz

coupled to water, the relative bandwidth is reasonably wide at 69 %. In the case of larger

impedance differences, the bandwidth where good transmission occurs is much lower. For

example, Figure 3.6 shows the energy transmission coefficient through a quarter-wavelength

matching layer between steel and water where the relative bandwidth is only 33 %.

It can be also seen from Equation 3.10 that whenever the layer thickness is equal to an

integer multiple of the half-wavelength, i. e., d = n / 2 , the input impedance is equal to the

load impedance and the presence of the layer does not affect the transmission and reflection

coefficients of the interface between the two surrounding media.

3-10

Energy Transmission

0.8

exact

0.6

unmatched

0.4

0.2

approximate

0

0

0.25

0.5

Thickness / Wavelength

Figure 3.5

layer between quartz and water.

Energy Transmission

1

0.8

exact

0.6

approximate

0.4

0.2

unmatched

0

0

0.25

0.5

Thickness / Wavelength

Figure 3.6

layer between steel and water.

3-11

3.2

when the incident wave strikes at an oblique angle. A large number of possibilities exist,

depending on the combinations of solid, fluid and vacuum of the two media and, if the incident

media is a solid, whether the incident wave is pressure or shear wave. There are two somewhat

opposite approaches to handle this complexity. One can start from the simplest case of

longitudinal wave interaction with a fluid-fluid interface and build up build up the complexity

step-by-step by introducing solid on one side then on the other. We shall follow another approach

by giving formal solution for the most general solid-solid interface for an arbitrary incident wave

then simplify the resulting formulas for the simpler cases. This approach was adapted from B. A.

Auld Acoustic Fields and Waves (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1973) Vol. II, pp. 21-38.

General case: In the most general case, either a longitudinal or a shear incident wave interacts

with a solid-solid interface. This situation is shown in Figure 3.7.

y

Is

Id

si

s1

di

Rs

d1

solid 1

Rd

z

solid 2

s2

d2

Figure 3.7

Ts

Td

3-12

sin di

sin si

sin d1

sin s1

sin d 2

sin s2

=

=

=

=

=

.

cd 1

cs1

cd1

cs1

cd 2

cs2

(3.28)

The particle displacement amplitudes of the incident, reflected, and transmitted longitudinal

waves are I d , Rd , and Td , respectively. Similarly, the particle displacement amplitudes of the

incident, reflected, and transmitted shear waves are I s , Rs , and Ts . Only two stress components

are relevant to the boundary conditions:

yy =

u y

uz

+ ( + 2 )

z

y

(3.29)

and

zy = (

u y

z

uz

),

y

(3.30)

The boundary conditions require that both normal and transverse velocity and stress components

be continuous at the interface:

u(z2) u(z1) "" = 0""

((yy22)) ((yy11)) "" 00""

zy zy #

#

or

uz( d1) + u(zd 2) uz( s1) + u(zs2) "" = u(zi) "" ,

((yydd11)) + ((yydd 22)) ((yyss11)) + ((yyss22)) "" ((yyii)) ""

zy + zy zy + zy #

zy #

(3.31)

where the incident wave can be either longitudinal (Id = 1, Is = 0) or shear (Is = 1, Id = 0).

Equation 3.31 can be written by using the displacement amplitudes as follows

a11

aa21

31

a12

a22

a32

a41 a42

a13 a14

a23 a24

a33 a34

a43 a44

!" Rd !"

"" TRd ""

"# Tss "#

b1 !"

bb2 ""

b43 "#

or

c1 !"

cc2 ""

c43 "#

(3.32)

3-13

depending on whether longitudinal or shear wave incidence is considered. The matrix elements

aij, bi, and ci can be easily calculated from simple geometrical considerations:

a =

cos d1

Z sincosd21

Z dc1s1 sin 2s1

s1

d1

cd 1

cos d 2

sin d 2

Zd 2 cos 2 s2

c

Zs2 s2 sin 2 d 2

cd 2

sin s1

cos s1

Zs1 sin 2 s1

Zs1 cos 2 s1

!"

""

"

Zs2 cos 2 s2 "

#

sin s2

cos s2

Zs2 sin 2 s2

(3.33)

For brevity, the common -i factor was omitted in the last two rows. (The sign of all elements

in the third column of matrix a has been changed with respect to Auld's results to account for

the opposite polarization of the reflected shear wave in his book.)

cos di !"

sin di

"

b = Zd1 cos 2 si "

Z cs1 sin 2 ""

s1

di

cd1

#

and

sin si !"

cos si

c =

Zs1 sin 2si """

Zs1 cos 2 si #

(3.34)

The reflection and transmission coefficients can be determined by applying the well-known

Cramer's rule.

det[a (1) ]

det[a ( 2 ) ]

det[a ( 3) ]

det[a ( 4 ) ]

Rd =

, Td =

, Rs =

, Ts =

,

det[a ]

det[a ]

det[a ]

det[a ]

(3.35)

where a ( i ) is the matrix obtained by replacing the ith column of a by either b or c vectors

depending on whether longitudinal or shear incidence is used. It will be possible to give only a

few specific results, with just the general behavior outlined for most cases. Figure 3.8a-d shows

the schematic diagrams of reflection and transmission of waves for various combinations of

materials. In these figures and in the following, the first index of the reflection and transmission

coefficients indicate the type of the incident wave. For example, Rsd is the dilatational

reflection coefficient for shear wave incidence and Tdd is the dilatational transmission

coefficient for dilatational wave incidence.

3-14

a)

fluid-vacuum

b)

Id

i

Id

Rdd

fluid

fluid 1

vacuum

fluid 2

Rdd

r

Tdd

d2

c)

solid-vacuum

(longitudinal incidence)

d)

solid-vacuum

(shear incidence)

Is

Rds

i

Id

s

r

r

d

Rdd

solid

solid

vacuum

vacuum

Figure 3.8a-d

Rss

Rsd

materials.

3-15

e)

fluid-solid

Id

Rdd

fluid

solid

d

s

f)

solid-fluid

(longitudinal incidence)

g)

s1

R ds

Tds

solid-fluid

(shear incidence)

Is

r = s1 R ss

r = d1

Rdd

Id

d1

solid

solid

fluid

fluid

d2

Rsd

d2

Tdd

Figure 3.8e-g

Tdd

Tsd

materials.

3-16

h)

solid-solid

(longitudinal incidence)

i)

s1

R ds

solid-solid

(shear incidence)

Is

r = s1 R ss

r = d1

Rdd

Id

d1

solid 1

solid 1

solid 2

solid 2

s2

d2

Figure 3.8h-i

Rsd

s2

d2

Tdd

Tds

Tsd

Tss

materials.

Fluid-vacuum: The case of a pressure wave incident on a fluid-vacuum interface is shown in Fig.

3.8a. This is the simplest reflection case and results in

R dd 1 ,

r = i .

(3.36)

Fluid-fluid: Two fluid media in contact result in a reflected and a transmitted (or refracted) wave.

The relationships governing the angles are (Snell's law):

r = i ,

sin d 2

cd 2

sin i

c d1

(3.37)

3-17

sin d 2 =

cd 2

sin i .

c d1

(3.38)

c d 2 < c d1 then

d 2 < i

(3.39)

c d 2 > c d1 then

d 2 > i .

(3.40)

and if

In Figure 3.8b, the dashed line in media 2 is at the incidence angle. When medium 2 is "slower"

than medium 1, the refracted wave is bent or steered toward the normal. When medium 2 is

"faster" than medium 1 (which is the case illustrated), the wave is bent toward the surface.

It may be also seen from (3.31) that for a given ratio of cd 2 / cd1, there will exist an

angle ic (critical angle) for which sin d 2 1, d 2 90. Thus , the refracted wave is

parallel to the interface. For any angle beyond the critical angle, total reflection of the incident

wave occurs.

Solid-vacuum: Since the incident wave is in a solid medium, it may be either pressure (Fig. 3.8c)

or shear (Fig. 3.8d). The most remarkable feature of this and other cases involving solid media is

the phenomenon of mode conversion. What occurs is that a P-wave generates both a P-wave and

an S-wave upon reflection. Similar mode conversion can also occur in the case of an incident

shear wave. The angular relations are as follows:

P-wave incident:

r ( = d ) = i ,

S-wave incident:

r ( = s ) = i ,

sin s

cs

sin d

cd

sin i

(3.41)

cd

sin i

cs

(3.42)

For the case of an incident shear wave, it may be seen that there will again exist a critical value

of the incidence angle for which sin d 1, or d 90 . This will inevitably occur since

3-18

c d > c s always. For an incident angle beyond the critical angle, total reflection occurs for the

shear wave and the reflected P-wave completely disappears.

We shall use this simple case as an example to demonstrate how to obtain the reflection

and transmission coefficients from the previously given general formulas of Eqs. 3.31-3.35. In

the case of a free solid surface, the boundary conditions require that both normal and transverse

stress disappear at the surface but do not put any limitation of the particle displacement. At the

same time, there are no transmitted shear or longitudinal waves to take into account at the

boundary. Consequently, the first two rows and the second and fourth columns of the a matrix

given in Eq. 3.33 can be eliminated and we get a 2-by-2 matrix. For longitudinal incidence:

Zd cos 2s

Zs ccds sin 2d

!" Rdd !

Zs cos 2 s " Rds "

# #

Zs sin 2 s

Zd cos 2s !"

Zs ccds sin 2d "# .

(3.43)

By using Cramer's rule, the longitudinal-to-longitudinal reflection coefficient of the free solid

surface can be obtained as

Rdd =

c2

cos2 2 s s2 sin 2 s sin 2 d

cd

cs2

(3.44)

cd

2

which depends on the Poisson ratio of the solid only and Rdd ( 0 ) = Rdd (90 ) = 1. Naturally,

the longitudinal-to-shear as well as the shear-to-longitudinal and the shear-to-shear wave

reflection coefficients can be calculated in the same way.

Specific mathematical formulas have been obtained for the amplitudes of the reflected

waves, with the results presented in a number of ways. Basically, the reflection behavior is

dependent on incidence angle and material properties (specifically, Poisson's ratio). One

illustration of this is given in Fig. 3.9 for the case of a solid-vacuum interface. In the case of

shear wave incidence (Fig. 3.9b), the critical angle occurs where the R s s becomes -1. Beyond

the critical angle, Rss 1 and the reflected dilatational wave is evanescent. Another useful

representation of this type of data is by a polar plot shown in Fig. 3.10 for = 0.3.

3-19

1.2

longitudinal-tolongitudinal

Reflection Coefficient

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

longitudinal-toshear

0

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

1.2

shear-to-shear

Reflection Coefficient

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

shear-to-longitudinal

0

0

10

15

20

25

30

35

Figure 3.9

from a solid-vacuum interface as functions of the angle of incidence for

two different Poisson's ratios (solid lines: = 0.3, dashed lines: = 0.35).

3-20

a)

30o

45

15o

0o

15o

30o

45 o

60o

60o

75o

75o

90o

90o

b)

30o

45

60o

75o

90o

Figure 3.10

15o

0o

15o

30o

45 o

60o

75o

90o

Polar diagram of the longitudinal (solid line) and shear (dashed line) wave

reflection coefficients from a solid-vacuum interface in the case of (a)

longitudinal and (b) shear incident waves ( = 0.3).

3-21

The reflection and transmission coefficients determined from Eq. (3.32) denote

displacement ratios (without explicitely indicating it). In many cases, it is necessary to express

the relative strength of the reflected and transmitted waves in terms of stress, intensity, or power.

The stress coefficients can be obtained from the corresponding displacement coefficients by

accounting for the impedance differences as follows:

( displacement )

( stress )

Zj

Z1

( stress )

or simply,

=

Zj

Z1

(3.45)

where stands for either R (j = 1) or T (j = 2), and and are either d or s. For

propagating modes, the intensity coefficients then can be easily calculated as a product of the

corresponding displacement and stress coefficients:

( intensity )

( displacement ) ( stress )

2

Zj

Z1

(3.46)

Finally, for propagating modes the power coefficients can be obtained from the corresponding

intensity coefficients by accounting for the different refraction angles as follows:

( power )

( intensity )

cosj

cos1

2

=

Zj cosj

Z1 cos1

(3.47)

It should be mentioned that the power coefficients are identically zero for evanescent waves,

which do not carry energy away from the interface. The law of energy conservation can be

written as follows:

)

)

R( power

+ R( power

+ T( dpower ) + T( dpower ) 1.

s

d

(3.48)

( power )

( power )

(3.49)

3-22

Fluid-solid: This case shown in Fig. 3.8d is of great interest when the fluid is liquid. Figure

3.11 shows the energy reflection and transmission coefficients for two cases of particular

importance, i. e., for aluminum and steel immersed in water. Generally the transmission is much

higher from water into aluminum than into steel, which is caused by the more than eight times

higher density of the latter. Note that there is a wide range of incidence angle above the second

(shear) critical angle for which the water wave is completely reflected. Of course there is no

transmission into the shear component at normal incidence. The longitudinal transmission

disappears above the first critical angle which is approximately 13.5 for aluminum At this

angle, the transmitted longitudinal wave propagates along the surface. At higher angles, the

longitudinal transmitted wave is evanescent and does not carry energy away the interface.

Solid-fluid: Two cases may arise here, that of an incident P-wave, and an incident S-wave, as

shown in Figs. 3.8f and g. Again, this is of great interest when the fluid is a liquid. The specific

case of an aluminum/water interface is shown in Fig. 3.12. It is very important to realize that,

according to the Reciprocity Theorem, the energy transmission coefficients are the same for the

fluid-solid and the corresponding solid-fluid interfaces. For example, at 18 angle of incidence,

the energy transmission coefficient from water into aluminum is 45.7 %, and the refraction

angle of the shear wave is 39.4. At the same 39.4 angle of incidence, the energy transmission

coefficient of the aluminum-water interface for an incident shear wave is also 45.7 % and the

compressional wave in the water is refracted at 18.

Solid-solid: This situation is complicated by the fact that the two media may be solidly bonded

together, or there may be a lubricated interface. The nature of distinction between the two

situations is that for a bonded interface, both the normal and shear stresses must match at the

interface. For a lubricated, or so-called slip, interface, it is only the normal stress and normal

displacement that must match. It should be noted that the angles of reflection and transmission

are not changed by the interface condition, only the various wave amplitudes are affected. The

specific case of a Plexiglas/aluminum combination is shown in Fig. 3.12. The behavior in Fig.

3.12 is somewhat complicated because of the four possible secondary waves generated by mode

conversion. The first critical angle, i = 25.6, is the angle at which the transmitted (or refracted)

longitudinal wave disappears. The second critical angle, i = 62.4, corresponds to the angle of

total reflection of the incident wave. Above this angle, all incident energy is reflected either as a

longitudinal wave or as a mode-converted shear wave. Between 25.6 and 62.4, one has a

method of generating (just) shear waves in steel. This technique of assuring a single transmitted

wave by working above the first critical angle is often used in everyday NDE.

3-23

a)

Coefficients

1

0.8

reflection

0.6

longitudinal

transmission

0.4

shear

transmission

0.2

0

0

10

15

20

25

30

b)

Coefficients

1

0.8

reflection

0.6

0.4

shear

transmission

longitudinal

transmission

0.2

0

0

10

15

20

25

30

Figure 3.11

(b) steel immersed in water.

3-24

a)

1

Energy Reflection Coefficients

0.9

0.8

shear

0.7

0.6

longitudinal

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

70

80

90

b)

0.6

0.5

shear

longitudinal

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Figure 3.12

Plexiglas/aluminum interface in the case of longitudinal incidence.

3-25

Rayleigh wave

Another interesting application of Eq. (3.43) is to derive the characteristic equation of the

free vibration (as opposed to forced vibrations) of a solid-vacuum interface (free surface). The

free vibration has to satisfy the homogeneous equation of

Zd cos 2s

Zs ccds sin 2d

!" Rd !

Zs cos 2 s " Rs "#

#

Zs sin 2 s

0!"

0#

(3.50)

The mathematical condition on the existence of a nontrivial solution (the trivial solution is

Rd = Rs = 0) is that the determinant, i. e., the denominator of Eq. (3.50) be zero:

cs2

cd

2

(3.51)

Later we shall show that this is the characteristic equation of the well-known Rayleigh wave with

sound velocity cR lower than both shear and longitudinal wave velocities in the unbounded

solid:

1

sin s

sin d

=

=

.

cs

cd

cR

(3.52)

Relative velocities:

=

cs

cd

cR

cs

(=

1 2

)

2(1 )

(3.53)

(3.54)

6 8 4 + 8 (3 2 2 ) 2 16 (1 2 ) = 0

(3.55)

3-26

Approximate expression

0.87 + 112

.

1+

(3.56)

reflected P-wave has an amplitude of 0.35% and negative phase ( = 0.3). s can be readily

calculated from

sin s =

cs

sin i = 0.55 sin 50 = 0.41 which yields s = 24.2

cd

and the shear wave reflection coefficient is -1.08 (since the shear wave impedance is much lower

than the longitudinal one, the displacement amplitude of the reflected shear wave can be higher

than the amplitude of the incident longitudinal wave) It is worthwhile to mention, that the phase

of the reflected shear wave includes an arbitrary 180 component depending on the choice of the

coordinate system.

S wave incident. Suppose s = i = 20 again. Then the shear-to-shear reflection coefficient is

R s 0.69 and d can be determined from

sin d =

cd

sin s d = 38.5 .

cs

The shear-to-longitudinal reflection coefficient is R d 0.53. Note that the critical angle of

incidence of the shear wave is 32.3 and beyond that angle, there is no reflected pressure wave.

3-27

Part 4

RAYLEIGH WAVES

after I. A. Viktorov, Rayleigh and Lamb Waves (Plenum, New York, 1967) pp. 1-6.

In 1885, the English scientist Lord Rayleigh demonstrated theoretically that waves can be

propagated over the free surface of an elastic half-space. The amplitude of these surface waves

decays rapidly with depth, i. e., the vibration is limited to a shallow layer of approximately one

wavelength below the surface.

x2

x1

x3

surface wave

x1

x3

4-1

u = +

Displacement potential

(4.1)

Wave equations:

=

1 2

cd2

kd2

1 2

and

cs2

= ks2

(4.2)

Wave velocities:

cd =

+ 2

and

cs =

(4.3)

u2 = 0

= 0 , 1 = 3 = 0 , 2 =

x2

(4.4)

2

2

+

+ kd2 = 0

2

2

x1

x3

2

+

+ ks2 = 0

2

2

x1

x3

(4.5)

(4.6)

transverse particle displacement:

u1 =

x1

x3

(4.7)

u3 =

+

x3

x1

(4.8)

4-2

2

)

11 = ( 2 + 2 ) + 2 ( 2

x1x3

x1

x3

x1

(4.9)

33 = (

2

x12

) + 2(

2

x3

2

)

+

x1x3

x32

(4.10)

shear stress:

2

2 2

31 = 13 = ( 2

+

)

x1x3

x12

x32

(4.11)

= F ( x3 ) ei ( k R x1 t )

= G( x3 ) ei ( k R x1 t )

and

(4.12)

2

x12

2

x12

2

x32

2

x32

kd2

ks2

= 0

2 F

x32

= 0

2G

x32

= ( k R2 kd2 ) F

(4.13)

= ( k R2 ks2 ) G

(4.14)

F ( x3 ) = Ae

2 2

x3 k R

kd

and

G( x3 ) = B e

2

x3 k R

k s2

(4.15)

= Ae d x3 ei ( k R x1 t )

(4.16)

4-3

= B e s x3 ei ( k R x1 t )

d =

where

k R2 kd2

(4.17)

s =

and

k R2 ks2

(4.18)

The surface wave solution is a combination of coupled partial (longitudinal and shear) waves.

The B/ A ratio is determined by the condition that the surface is traction free. Both partial waves

are evanescent, i. e., k R > ks > kd

The boundary conditions require that both normal and transverse stresses be zero on the surface

at x3 = 0

33 = (

2

2

2

+

+

+

)

2

(

)

x1x3

x12

x32

x32

= ( + 2 ) 2d k R2 2 i s k R

(4.19)

2

2 2

)

31 = 13 = ( 2

+

x1x3

x12

x32

= 2 i d k R ( 2s + k R2 )

(4.20)

0!"

0#

( + 2 ) 2d kR2

2 i d k R

2 i s k R

( 2s + k R2 )

!" A! ,

"# B"#

(4.21)

0!"

0#

( 2s + kR2 )

2 i d k R

!" A!

"# B"#

2 i s k R

( 2s + k R2 )

(4.22)

( 2s + k R2 )2 4 s d k R2 = 0

(4.23)

4-4

=

cs

cd

1 2

c

) and = R

2(1 )

cs

(=

(4.24)

6 8 4 + 8 (3 2 2 ) 2 16 (1 2 ) = 0

(4.25)

Approximate expression

0.87 + 112

.

1+

(4.26)

0.96

0.95

0.94

0.93

0.92

0.91

0.9

exact

0.89

approximation

0.88

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

B

2 + k R2

2i k

= s

= 2 d 2R .

A

2 i s kR

s + kR

(4.27)

4-5

By substituting the Rayleigh wave number from the characteristic equation, we get a simplified

ratio

B

d

= i

.

A

s

(4.28)

The displacement potentials (without the common ei ( k R x1 t ) term) can be written as follows:

= A e d x3 and = i A e s x3 ,

(4.29)

of the amplitude ratio between the vector and scalar potentials, which is a negative pure

imaginary number. Like the characteristic velocity ratio = c R / cs = ks / k R between the

Rayleigh and shear waves, the amplitude ratio is also a function of Poisson's ratio only and it

value is approximately 1.5.

u1 =

= i A ( k R e d x3 s e s x3 )

x1

x3

(4.30)

+

= A ( d e d x3 k R e s x3 ).

x3

x1

(4.31)

and

u3 =

The 90 phase difference between the normal and tangential displacements indicates that the

particle trajectories are ellipses. The aspect ratio of the elliptical particle trajectory changes with

depth. Interestingly, the ratio of the normal and transverse displacement components on the

surface turns out to be the same as the amplitude ratio between the vector and scalar potentials:

4-6

u3

kR

= i d

= i .

u1 x = 0

kR s

3

(4.32)

Even more surprisingly, the same ratio also shows up between the shear 13 and normal 33

stresses that can be written as follows

13 = i A 2 k R d ( e d x3 e s x3 )

(4.33)

and

33 = A ( k R2 + 2s )( e d x3 e s x3 ).

(4.34)

Both 13 and 33 have contributions from both longitudinal and shear partial wave

components decaying with different rates according to e d x3 and e s x3 , respectively. For

both stresses the amplitudes of the longitudinal and shear components must be equal so that the

combined stress could be zero on the free surface. As a result, they must have identical functional

dependence on x3 , i.e., in any plane parallel to the surface the ratio between the shear and

normal stresses is constant. What is more surprising that this ratio turns out to be again the same

as the amplitude ratio between the vector and scalar potentials:

i2k

13

= 2 R d2 = i .

33

kR + s

(4.35)

11 = A

%J

R

d

d 3

s 3 (

J)

2s + k R2

&

(4.36)

4-7

1.2

= 0.3

1

normal

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

transverse

-0.2

0

0.5

1.5

1.2

= 0.3

11

Normalized Stress

0.8

0.6

13

0.4

33

0.2

0

-0.2

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

4-8

Propagating wave (csurf > cbulk or ksurf < kbulk ):

u( x1, x3 ) = D e

sin bulk =

2

2

k surf

kbulk

x3 ) i t

i( k surf x1 +

(4.37)

cbulk

csurf

(4.38)

x1

cs,d

x3

Evanescent wave

u( x1, x3 ) = D e

2

2

k surf

kbulk

x3

i( k surf x1 t )

= D e x3 / e

i( k surf x1 t )

(4.39)

x1

x3

4-9

Part 5

LAMB WAVES

after I. A. Viktorov, Rayleigh and Lamb Waves (Plenum, New York, 1967)

Lamb waves are elastic perturbations propagating in a solid plate (or layer) with free

boundaries, for which displacements occur both in the direction of wave propagation and

perpendicularly to the plane of the plate. Examples of the resulting deformations are shown in

Figure 1. The coordinate system is shown in Figure 2.

a) symmetric

b) asymmetric

Figure 5.1

x3

x1

2d

x2

Figure 5.2

wave direction

Coordinate system.

5-1

= A1 exp[i ( k1 x1 + k3 x3 )] + A2 exp[i ( k1 x1 k3 x3 )] .

(5.1)

where k3 = kd2 k12 = i d . Similarly for the vector potential can be written as

= B1 exp[i ( k1 x1 + k3 x3 )] + B2 exp[i ( k1 x1 k3 x3 )]

(5.2)

These potential functions can be expressed in the following symmetric forms

= As ch( d x3 ) exp(i k x1 ) + Aa sh( d x3 ) exp(i k x1 )

(5.3)

(5.4)

and

Boundary Conditions

33 ( x3 = d ) = 33 ( x3 = d ) = 31( x3 = d ) = 31( x3 = d ) = 0

(5.5)

normal stress:

33 = (

2

2

2

)

2

(

)

+

+

+

x1x3

x12

x32

x32

(5.6)

shear stress:

5-2

31 = 13 = (2

2

2 2

+

2)

x1x3

x12

x3

(5.7)

The normal stress on the upper surface of the plate can be written with the shear and longitudinal

velocities in the plate as

33 / =

cd2 2 2

2

2

(

)

2

(

) .

+

+

x1x3

cs2 x12

x32

x12

(5.8)

The required partial derivatives are the following (without the common exp[i k x1 ] term):

2

= k 2 [ As cosh( d x3 ) + Aa sinh( d x3 )]

(5.9)

= 2d [ As cosh( d x3 ) + Aa sinh( d x3 )]

(5.10)

2

= i k s [ Bs cosh( s x3 ) + Ba sinh( s x3 )]

x1 x3

(5.11)

x12

2

x32

33 / = ( k 2 + 2s ) cosh( d d ) As + ( k 2 + 2s ) sinh( d d ) Aa

+ 2 i k s cosh( s d ) Bs + 2 i k s sinh( s d ) Ba = 0 .

(5.12)

The other three boundary conditions can be expressed in the same way to obtain the following

system of linear homogeneous equations for As , Aa , Bs , and Ba .

As

0

A

0

a

a

= ,

Bs

0

0

Ba

(5.13)

5-3

( k 2 + 2s ) cosh( d d )

( k 2 + 2s ) cosh( d d )

2 i k d sinh( d d )

2 i k d sinh( d d )

(k 2 + 2s )sinh( d d )

2 i k s cosh( s d )

( k 2 + 2s )sinh( d d )

2 i k s cosh( s d )

2 i k d cosh( d d )

(k 2 + 2s ) sinh( s d )

2 i k d cosh( d d )

( k 2 + 2s )sinh( s d )

2 i k s sinh( s d )

2 i k s sinh( s d )

( k 2 + 2s ) cosh( s d )

( k 2 + 2s ) cosh( s d )

(5.14)

It is readily seen that the above system is satisfied if the following to subsystems are satisfied

( k 2 + 2s ) cosh( d d )

2 i k s cosh( s d )

2 i k d sinh( d d ) ( k 2 + 2s ) sinh( s d )

As

0

B = 0

s

(5.15)

( k 2 + 2s )sinh( d d )

2 i k s sinh( s d )

2 i k d cosh( d d ) ( k 2 + 2s ) cosh( s d )

Aa

0

B = 0 .

a

(5.16)

and

The subsystems have nontrivial solutions only when their determinants are equal to zero. This

leads to the following two characteristic equations, determining the eigenvalues of the wave

number k.

( k 2 + 2s )2 tanh( s d ) 4 k 2 d s tanh( d d ) = 0

(5.17)

( k 2 + 2s )2 tanh( d d ) 4 k 2 d s tanh( s d ) = 0

(5.18)

for asymmetric modes. These characteristic equations (Eqs. 5.17 and 18) give the wave number

(or phase velocity) as a function of frequency for the symmetric and asymmetric families of

Lamb modes, respectively. The group velocity can be calculated from the following definition

5-4

.

k

cg =

(5.19)

The characteristic equation of a certain wave mode provides the relationship between cp and k.

then the group velocity can be easily calculated from cp ( k ) as

cg = c p + k

cp

k

(5.20)

Very often the phase velocity is given in the form of cp ( ) . Then, the group velocity can be

calculated as follows

cg =

cp

cp

1

cp

(5.21)

Equations 5.17 and 18 give the wave number as a function of frequency for different Lamb

modes. At the same time, the boundary conditions (Eqs. 5.13 and 14) determine the

As / Bs and Aa / Ba ratios, i. e., the relative part of the longitudinal and shear partial waves in

each Lamb mode (eigenvector). For a symmetric Lamb mode, the scalar and vector potentials

can be expressed from Eqs. 5.3 and 5.4 as follows

= As cosh( d x3 ) exp(i k x1 )

(5.22)

and

= As

2 i k d sinh( d d )

( k 2 + 2s ) sinh( s d )

sinh( s x3 ) exp(i k x1 ) .

(5.23)

Similarly, for an asymmetric Lamb mode, the scalar and vector potentials are

= Aa sinh( d x3 ) exp(i k x1 )

(5.24)

5-5

and

= Aa

2 i k d cosh( d d )

(k 2 + 2s ) cosh( s d )

cosh( s x3 ) exp(i k x1 ) .

(5.25)

Finally, both displacement and stress components can be readily calculated from the following

well-known relationships:

u1 =

,

x1

x3

(5.26)

u3 =

+

,

x3

x1

(5.27)

11 = (

33 = (

2

2

2

+

+

)

2

(

) ,

x1x3

x12

x32

x12

2

2

2

2

+

+

+

)

2

(

) ,

x1x3

x12

x32

x32

31 = 13 = (2

2

2 2

+

2) .

x1x3

x12

x3

(5.28)

(5.29)

(5.30)

5-6

a1

s1

s2

a2

5

4

3

s0

2

1

a0

0

0

Normalized Frequency

2

s0

s1

a1

a0

0

0

Normalized Frequency

Figure 5.3

Normalized (a) phase and (b) group velocity of the lowest-order Lamb

modes in an aluminum plate (the velocities are normalized to the shear

velocity and the normalized frequency is ks d ).

5-7

Asymptotic Behavior

lim c p =

E

(1 2 )

and cg = c p .

(5.31)

lim c p = 4

E

3 (1 2 )

and cg = 2 c p .

(5.32)

At high frequencies, the velocities of both zero-order modes approach the Rayleigh velocity. All

other modes appear at a certain cut-off frequency and approach the shear velocity at very high

frequencies.

Cut-Off Frequencies

2 d = (2 n 1) d

2

or 2 d = n s , where n = 1, 2, ...

(5.33)

2 d = (2 n 1) s

2

or 2 d = n d , where n = 1, 2, ...

(5.34)

For symmetric modes, the axial or longitudinal displacement (parallel to the plane of the plate) is

an even function of the through-thickness coordinate while the lateral or transverse (normal to

the plane of the plate) displacement is an odd function:

u1( x3 ) = u1( x3 )

and

u3 ( x3 ) = u3 ( x3 ) .

(5.35)

For asymmetric modes, the symmetry is just the opposite

u1( x3 ) = u1( x3 )

and

u3 ( x3 ) = u3 ( x3 ) .

(5.36)

5-8

Part 6

ACOUSTIC RADIATORS

Spherical Waves

A radiation source whose nature is completely opposite to the infinite plane radiator is the

point source, capable of emitting spherical waves. Consideration of this type of source is useful

because superposition of such source permits finite sized radiators to be analyzed. The procedure

is to consider the acoustical problem of waves from an oscillating spherical cavity of radius a.

The velocity amplitude of the cavity oscillation is vo. The situation is shown in Figure 1a. With

the assumption that the cavity radius is small with respect to the acoustic wavelength (a<<)

and that the radius, or the distance of the point of observation from the source, is large relative to

the wavelength (r>>), the cavity shrinks to a point source, as shown in Figure 1b.

a)

b)

vo

Figure 6.1

Spherical waves from (a) an oscillating cavity and (b) from an equivalent

point source.

Both pressure and velocity distributions have to be of the form of a spherical wave:

p( r ) = po

ei ( k r t )

r

(6.1)

6-1

and

v (r ) = v o

ei ( k r t )

.

r

(6.2)

p

v

=

,

r

t

(6.3)

p

1

ei ( k r t )

= (i k ) po

r

r

r

(6.4)

v

ei ( k r t )

= i vo

.

t

r

(6.5)

where

and

By substituting Eqs. 6.4 and 6.5 into Eq. 6.3, the specific acoustic impedance of a spherical wave

can be written as follows

Zsph =

p(r )

p

i

= o =

.

1

v (r )

vo

ik

r

(6.6)

At large distance from the source, the specific acoustic impedance approaches that of a plane

wave:

lim Zsph = c ,

(6.7)

while near to the source, it approaches the pure imaginary impedance of a vibrating mass:

lim Zsph = i r .

r0

(6.8)

6-2

The acoustic field radiated by a vibrating cavity of very small radius (a << ) can be

calculated from the known velocity va of the radiator at its surface.

p( a) = po

ei ( k a t )

= i a v a ei t ,

a

(6.9)

po = i a2 v a e i k a ,

(6.10)

or approximately

po i a 2 v a ,

(6.11)

since ka << 1. This result is usually expressed with the volume velocity of the source So

So = 4 a 2 v a

(6.12)

So

.

4i

(6.13)

as

po

wave. Obviously, as the wave propagates outward, the radiated power per unit area,

i. e., the intensity of the wave, must diminish. The second thing to note is that the decrease in the

pressure goes as 1 / r , a simple inverse law. Thus, the ratio between the stresses at two

successive locations is given by

p( r2 )

r

= 1 ei k ( r2 r1 ) ,

p( r1 )

r2

where

r2 > r1

(6.14)

p( r2 )

r

= 1

p( r1 )

r2

(6.15)

6-3

The above result for the simple point source of radiation has far-reaching applications in

acoustic wave analysis. By combining sources of various strengths and in various geometrical

arrangements, it becomes possible to form acoustic fields of complex shape. As a start, suppose a

simple source, having a radiation field as shown in Figure 6.2a, is placed on a rigid baffle (or

reflector). The result is a hemispherical field having a field strength equivalent to a double

source, 2So, in a free field, as shown in Figure 6.2b. More complex field shapes are shown in

Figure 6.3. The geometry of the pattern is characterized by source separation distances relative to

the acoustic wavelength (such as by d / for a dipole).

a)

b)

0

So

2 So

90

Figure 6.2

mirror

the surface of a rigid mirror (baffle).

The radiation field of a bipole, i. e., a pair of two identical monopoles separated by a short

distance d, can be given as follows

p( r ) = po

ei( k r1 t )

ei( k r2 t )

+ po

.

r1

r2

(6.16)

r1 r + sin d / 2 and r2 r sin d / 2 ,

(6.17)

6-4

where denotes the polar angle between the point of observation and the normal of the dipole

radiator. In the slowly changing denominator of Eq. 6.16, r1 and r2 can be further

approximated simply by r to get

p( r ) = 2 po

e i( k r t )

D( ) ,

r

(6.18)

where

D( ) =

ei k sin d / 2 + e i k sin d / 2

= cos ( k sin d / 2 )

2

(6.19)

denotes the so-called directivity pattern or function of the bipole. Figure 6.3 shows the directivity

pattern of a bipole at different frequencies. At low frequencies, the radiation pattern is essentially

omnidirectional like that of a monopole. At higher frequencies, an increasing number of sidelobes appear at distinct directions where there is constructive interference between the two point

sources while minima occur at directions corresponding to destructive interference.

Similar approach can be used to study the radiation field of higher-order radiators, too.

For example, the radiation field of a tripole of full diameter d (the separation between

neighboring elements is d / 2) is

e i( k r t )

p( r ) = 3 po

D( ) ,

r

(6.20)

where

D( ) =

ei k sin d / 2 + e i k sin d / 2 + 1

1

= [2 cos ( k sin d / 2) + 1]

3

3

(6.21)

Figure 6.4 shows the directivity pattern of a tripole at different frequencies. As always, at low

frequencies, the radiation pattern is essentially omnidirectional. At higher frequencies,

6-5

d / = 0.2

30o

15o

0o

15o

30o

45 o

45 o

60o

60o

75o

75o

90o

90o

d

d / = 0.5

30o

15o

0o

15o

30o

45 o

45 o

60o

60o

75o

75o

90o

90o

d/=1

30o

45 o

60o

15o

0o

15o

30o

45 o

60o

75o

75o

90o

Figure 6.3

90o

Radiation pattern of a bipole at different frequencies.

6-6

d / = 0.2

30o

15o

0o

15o

30o

45 o

45 o

60o

60o

75o

75o

90o

90o

d

d / = 0.5

30o

45

15o

0o

15o

30o

45

60o

60o

75o

75o

90o

90o

d/=1

30o

45

60o

75o

15o

0o

15o

30o

45

60o

75o

90o

Figure 6.4

90o

Radiation pattern of a tripole at different frequencies.

6-7

the radiation pattern becomes more and more directional as the main lobe becomes narrower and

the side-lobes become weaker. These two main features of the directivity pattern are affected by

two different parameters. The width of the sidelobe is mainly determined by the full diameter of

the radiator (in our case it is denoted by d). The relative strength of the side-lobes is determined

by the number of individual point sources constituting the radiator. An aggregate of discrete

point sources of identical strength might have very narrow side-lobes depending on the overall

size of the radiator, but the intensity of these side-lobes lying in the diffraction directions is as

high as that of the main lobe. We shall see that in the case of continuously distributed radiators,

the radiation pattern is very weak beyond the main lobe.

Rayleigh Integral

Radiation from point sources also finds important use in Huygens' Principle. This states

that every point on a wave surface in turn acts as a simple source. This permits successive steps

of a wave front to be reconstructed from a previous state. Superposition of elementary point

sources can be used to determine the radiation field of continuous radiating surfaces of arbitrary

velocity distributions. Let us assume that a source is located in the x,y plane of a Cartesian

coordinate system. The source velocity distribution is v o ( x , y ) within the source aperture of A

and zero everywhere else, i. e., the radiator is working in a baffle. The field of a point source

acting in a baffle was shown to be

p(r ) =

So ei ( k r t )

,

2i

r

(6.22)

where So denotes the volume velocity of the source. An infinitesimally small elementary

radiator of dA = dx dy area in the x,y plane produces a differential pressure

dp(r ) =

v o dA ei ( k r t )

.

2i

r

(6.23)

By superposition, the total field of the radiator can be obtained by integration over the surface of

the radiator (without the e i t term)

6-8

p(r ) =

ei k r'

,

dx' dy' v o ( x' , y' )

2i A

r'

(6.24)

where x' and y' are the coordinates of the elementary radiator and r' denotes the coordinate of

the point of observation with respect to this elementary radiator

r' =

( x x ' )2 + ( y y ' )2 + z 2

(6.25)

and

r = x2 + y2 + z2 .

(6.26)

Equation 24 is called the Rayleigh Integral and is widely used to study the radiation field

of distributed acoustical sources. In complicated cases, the integral is solved by numerical means.

In simple cases, the integral can be carried out analytically by using certain approximations. Two

main regions can be distinguished depending on the distance of the point of observation from the

plane of the radiator. Close to the transducer, in the so-called near-field or Fresnel region, the

radiator produces a more or less collimated beam which can be approximated as a perturbed

plane wave. Far from the transducer, in the so-called far-field or Fraunhofer region, the radiator

produces a diverging spherical wave and it can be approximated as point source with a given

radiation pattern.

Piston Source

The single most important radiation source in ultrasonics is that of the circular piston

radiator. It is representative of many ultrasonic transducers, and the concepts and results are

applicable to many more complex problems. These include such results as the far-field/near field

transition and the directivity pattern, as well as beam spreading. The original analysis of this

important problem was done by Lord Rayleigh in his famous work entitled Theory of Sound. The

coordinate system used to calculate the acoustic field of a piston radiator is shown in Figure 6.5.

6-9

y

x

P(r, )

r'

dA

A

Figure 6.5

In the case of a circular piston radiator, the Rayleigh integral can be simplified to a onedimensional integral of r', which can be solved numerically. Figure 6 shows the acoustic field of

a circular piston radiator at a/ = 10. Detailed pictures of the beam profile are shown in Figure

6.7 for four different distances.

z = 20 a

z = 10a = N

z=a

Figure 6.6

6-10

.a

z = 0.01 N = 01

. N = a

z = 01

z = N = 10 a

z = 2 N = 20 a

-2

-1

/a

Figure 6.7

different distances for a / = 10.

6-11

Even in this simple case, the Rayleigh integral cannot be evaluated analytically without

certain approximations. In the far-field, the so-called Fraunhofer approximation can be used for

the distance between the elementary radiators and the observation point. In the Fraunhofer

approximation, Equation 6.25 can be written as

r' =

( x x ' )2 + ( y y ' )2 + z 2

r x'

y

x

y' ,

r

r

(6.27)

and r' can be substituted into the rapidly changing exponential term in the Rayleigh integral

while in the slowly changing denominator it is further approximated simply by r:

x

y

i k ( x' + y' )

ei k r

r

r .

p(r ) =

dx' dy' v o ( x' , y' ) e

2 i r A

(6.28)

It is easy to recognize that the radiation field is a spherical wave weighted by a directivity pattern

depending on the direction of observation only:

p(r ) = i

ei k r

x y

F( , ) ,

r

r r

(6.29)

where

x

i k ( x' + y' )

1

x y

r

r .

F( , ) =

dx ' dy ' v o ( x ', y ' ) e

2 A

r r

(6.30)

F {v o ( x ', y ' )} = v~o ( k x , k y ) =

1

i ( k x x ' + k y y ')

dx ' dy ' v o ( x ', y ' ) e

,

2 A

(6.31)

so that

x y

x

y

F ( , ) = v~o ( k , k ) .

r r

r

r

(6.32)

/ r = sin , so that the Fraunhofer approximation simplifies to

6-12

(6.33)

Due to the axial symmetry of the problem, the two-dimensional Fourier transform simplifies to a

Hankel transform:

v~o ( kr ) =

2

a

1 a

d' ' v o ( ' ) d e i kr 'cos( ) = d' ' v o ( ' ) J o ( kr ' ) ,

2 0

0

0

(6.34)

where Jo is the zeroth-order Bessel function of the first kind. For even velocity distribution

within the aperture of the piston, Eq. 6.34 can be solved by using

H d Jo ()

= J1( )

(6.35)

J (k a)

v~o ( kr ) = a 2 v o 1 r

.

kr a

(6.36)

p( r , ) = po

ei k r

D( ) ,

r

(6.37)

where

po = i a 2 v o and D( ) =

2 J1 ( a k sin )

.

a k sin

(6.38)

The acoustic field is a spherical wave modified by the directivity function representing

the angular dependence. A plot of the directivity function D( ) = D( a k sin ) is shown in

Figure 6.8. Note that the first zero at 383

. defines the main lobe of the beam. The

directivity function is determined by the a k = d / product, i. e., the ratio between the

transducer diameter d = 2a and the wavelength. Figure 6.9 shows a polar representation of the

directivity function at three different transducer diameter-to wavelength ratios.

6-13

1.0

0.8

0.6

2 J1 ( )

0.4

0.2

0

-0.2

0

10

12

14

16

18

20

Figure 6.8

6-14

30o

15o

0o

15o

30o

45 o

45o

60o

60o

75o

75o

90o

90o

d / = 0.5

30o

15o

0o

15o

30o

45 o

45o

60o

60o

75o

75o

90o

d / = 1.2

30o

15o

0o

45 o

30o

60o

75o

Figure 6.9

15o

45o

60o

90o

90o

75o

d / = 3

90o

6-15

Note that for d/ = 0.5, the field is nearly hemispherical, as for a point source. For increasing

d / , the beam becomes more and more directive. The half-angle of divergence d can be

calculated either from the first zero of the directivity function

a k sin d 383

.

(6.39)

or, more realistically, from the half-intensity (-3dB) point of the beam

a k sin d 162.

.

(6.40)

A typical immersion type ultrasonic transducer used in NDE has 1/2" diameter and works in

water at 10 MHz. This means that the ak product is as high as 250, therefore, for all practical

purposes, sin d d can be assumed. From Eq. 6.40, the half-angle of divergence is

d

162

.

= 0.26 ,

ak

a

(6.41)

We now investigate the near field (or Fresnel zone) of a radiator. Exact analytical solution

of the Rayleigh integral (Eq. 6.24) is not available except along the axis (r = z ) of the radiator.

There r '2 = '2 + z 2 and the pressure distribution can be calculated from

a

p( z ) = i v o d' '

z

0

ei k r'

.

r'

(6.42)

p( z ) = i v o

a2 + z 2

dr' ei k r' ,

z

(6.43)

2 2

p( z ) = p p ei k z [1 ei k ( a + z z ) ] ,

(6.44)

6-16

Equation 6.44 represents the complex amplitude of the pressure field along the axis of a piston

radiator. The magnitude of the pressure can be obtained from

p( z ) = p p 2 2 cos[ k ( a2 + z 2 z )] .

(6.45)

. We can re-write Eq. 6.45 into a simpler form by using the following trigonometric identity

2 2 cos = 2 sin

.

2

(6.46)

Finally,

p( z ) = 2 p p sin[ k ( a 2 + z 2 z )] .

(6.47)

A mathematical analysis of the locations of the maxima and minima along the axis for the

circular piston radiator gives the following:

z max =

4 a 2 2 ( 2 n 1)2

( n = 1, 2,...)

4 ( 2 n 1)

(6.48)

z min =

a 2 2 n 2

( n = 1, 2,...) .

2 n

(6.49)

and

for a/ = 10 ratio

of piston radius to wavelength. The near-field/far-field transition occurs at z / a = 10. Beyond this

distance the intensity decreases as 1 / r 2 . From Eq. 6.47,

lim p( r ) = p p k lim ( a 2 + r 2 r ) = p p k

a2

,

2r

(6.50)

6-17

p( r ) p p

N

.

r

(6.51)

It should be noted that the last maximum in Eq. 6.48 occurs at n = 1 and is usually

referred to as the near-field/far-field transition:

z max ( n = 1) = N =

4 a 2 2

a2

for

a >> .

(6.52)

Beyond this last maximum, the amplitude of the wave drops as 1 / r , and the intensity as 1/ r 2 .

This is the far-field behavior previously obtained from the Fraunhofer approximation. Thus, N

marks the transition between the near-field (Fresnel zone) and far-field (Fraunhofer region) of the

radiation.

Normalized Intensity

1/ r2

0

0

0.5

1.5

z/N

Figure 6.10

a/ = 10 (N = 10 a).

6-18

the radiated field. Above, we gave a definition for N as the distance of the farthest maximum

along the axis of the radiator and derived a simple formula for it from the exact expression for

the acoustic field. It is very instructional to consider a much simpler approach to estimate the

near-field/far-field distance from conditions on constructive interference between elementary

radiators within the aperture of the piston radiator. In the near-field, both constructive and

destructive interference can occur between different elements on the surface of the radiator since

their distances from the point of observation can differ by many wavelengths. The closest point

on the surface of the radiator from a point of observation lying on the axis is obviously the center

of the piston and this distance is denoted by r. The farthest point is one on the circumference of

the aperture and the corresponding distance is

limited by

r '

a2

r2 + a2 r

.

2r

(6.53)

Destructive interference starts when the difference is larger than / 2 ( in phase). Therefore,

from Eq. 6.53, we again get N a 2 / , the same as our previous result given in Eq. 6.52. In

connection with our previous example, we mentioned that a typical immersion type ultrasonic

transducer used in NDE has 1/2" diameter and works in water at 10 MHz. This means that the

near-field/far-field transition is at approximately 280 mm

This concept of near-field/far-field separation leads to the following approximate means

of representing the sound field of a piston radiator shown in Figure 6.11. The solid line is the

numerical solution of the Rayleigh equation. The -10 dB point (-20 dB in pulse-echo mode) is

relative to the axial pressure (in the near-field, there are sharp minima along the axis, therefore

the maximum axial pressure was taken as reference). Naturally, the solid line asymptotically

approaches the predictions of the far-field model when the beam diameter is calculated from the 10 dB points of the directivity function (dotted line). The dashed line represents the so-called

"searchlight" model, which assumes that there is no divergence in the near-field and the far-field

spherical wave continuously matches this collimated beam at the near-field/far-field transition.

As it is apparent in Fig. 6.11, this overly simplistic model badly overestimates the beam diameter

in the far-field. The often used "simplified" model fares much better in the far-field. This model

assumes that the beam actually converges in the near-field and contracts to half of its original

6-19

diameter at the near-field/far-field transition. Beyond this point, the beam starts to diverge and

reaches its original diameter at z = 2.5 N.

2

-10 dB contour

"searchlight"

model

simplified model

-10 dB

0

-1

-2

0

Figure 6.11

2

z

N

6-20

The mechanical impedance presented by the total reaction force of the medium on the

vibrating aperture is called the radiation impedance Zr and it is defined as the ratio between the

total force F acting on the piston and the source velocity vo:

F =

H dx dy p( x, y,0) .

(6.54)

Zr =

F

ei k r'

=

dx dy dx' dy'

.

r'

vo

2i A

A

(6.55)

The fourfold integral in Eq. 6.55 can be reduced to tabulated functions of a single variable for a

circular piston of radius a with a series of mathematical manipulations. The final result is

Zr = c a2 [ R( ka) i X ( ka)] ,

(6.56)

where

R( ka ) = 1

2 J1( 2 k a )

2k a

and

X (k a) =

2 H1( 2 k a )

,

2k a

(6.57)

Here J1 denotes the first-order Bessel function of the first kind and H1 is the first-order Struve

function of the first kind. Figure 6.12 shows the R( ak ) and X ( ak ) functions at small

arguments. Above ak = 10, the real part of the radiation impedance becomes simply

Rr Z = c a 2 as R( a k ) approaches unity. At a k < 2 ( or a < / 3) , R( ak ) drops to

zero. Rr is essentially the product of the specific acoustic impedance of the medium and the

radiating area. The third term R(ak) introduces a frequency-dependent correction which is

usually negligible at the very high frequencies used in ultrasonic NDE applications.

6-21

lim Zr = Z [

ak 0

( a k )2

8ak

]

i

2

3

(6.58)

and the imaginary part reduces to a simple mass load presented by the evanescent vibration in the

medium

1.2

R(ak)

R(ak), X(ak)

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

X(ak)

0

0

10

15

20

ak

Figure 6.12

R( ak ), at small arguments.

lim Im{Zr} = i

a 0

8

a3 .

3

(6.59)

6-22

Although this case is far from typical in ultrasonic NDE, the low-frequency results are of great

importance in understanding the phenomenon of decreasing scattering from small cracks at

relatively low frequencies.

The total radiated power of a radiator can be most easily calculated from the far-field

distribution where asymptotic approximations are readily available. From Eqs. 6.37 and 38,

lim p( r , ) = po

ei k r

D( ) ,

r

(6.60)

where

po = i a 2 v o and D( ) =

2 J1 ( a k sin )

.

a k sin

(6.61)

The total radiated power Pr can be obtained from integrating the far-field intensity

I ( ) =

po2

2c r

D2 ( )

(6.62)

/2

po2 / 2

Pr = 2 d r 2 sin I ( ) =

d sin D 2 ( ) ,

c 0

0

(6.63)

which is, of course, independent of r. Rewriting Eq. 6.63 with the source velocity yields

Pr =

c a 4 k 2 v o2 / 2

d sin D 2 ( ) .

4

0

(6.64)

!"

#

2

2 J1 ( sin )

2 J1 ( 2 )

2 / 2

R( ) =

d sin

.

= 1

2 0

2

sin

(6.65)

6-23

Of course, Eq. 6.65 shows that the total radiated power can be also expressed with the real part

Rr of the complex radiation impedance

Pr =

1

2

Rr vo2 .

(6.66)

Diffraction Correction

In practical NDE problems, it is the highest importance to properly account for the spread

of the acoustic beam in the detected signals. The loss of reflection from an ideal mirror caused by

beam spread is called the diffraction loss. Knowledge of this loss is of great importance so that

we can take it into account in the evaluation of the data by applying a diffraction correction.

According to our previous results the acoustic field radiated by a circular piston transducer

behaves more or less as a well-collimated beam up to the near-field/far-field transition and

approaches a diverging spherical wave beyond that. Consequently, the diffraction loss must be

fairly small when z << N, and must be proportional to z in the far-field.

Let us assume that two identical transducers are used in a pitch-catch mode of operation

and the distance between them is denoted by z. Naturally, the same experiment can be carried

out also in a pulse-echo operation with a normally aligned mirror, but then the distance between

the transducer and the mirror is only z / 2. The measured signal is proportional to the integrated

pressure over the receiver's aperture

Fr ( z ) =

H dx dy

p( x , y , z ) ,

(6.67)

Ar

x

y

i k ( x' + y' )

ei k r

r

r

p(r ) =

dx' dy' v o ( x' , y' ) e

.

2i r A

(6.68)

DL ( z ) =

Fr ( z )

Fr ( z = 0)

(6.69)

6-24

For a circular piston, the diffraction correction can be calculated from [P. H. Rogers and A. L.

Van Buren "An exact expression for the Lommel diffraction correction," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 55,

724 (1974)]:

DL ( s) = 1 e i 2 / s [ J0 (2 / s) i J1(2 / s )] ,

(6.70)

where s denotes the normalized distance z / N . Figure 6.13 shows the magnitude of the Lommel

diffraction correction for a circular piston radiator. In the far-field the diffraction correction

approaches

lim DL (s ) = i / s ,

(6.71)

which is also plotted in Fig. 6.13 with dotted line. Roughly we can assume that there is no beam

spread at all up to the near-field/far-field transition and that the beam diverges like a spherical

wave beyond that point. This crude assumption is acceptable very close to the transducer or at

very large distances, but causes approximately 3 dB error in the vicinity of the transition region.

Diffraction Correction

far-field asymptote

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0

10

z/N

Figure 6.13

radiator.

6-25

ud

F

O

The resulting radial displacement ud at the point of observation P at large r distance can be

written in the following form

ud =

udo i kd r

e

.

r

(6.72)

line of force. On the other hand, at an observation point lying in a perpendicular direction to the

line of force, symmetry requirements allow only transverse (shear) displacement.

us

r

P

us =

uso i k s r

e

r

(6.73)

6-26

Arbitrary Orientation

us

ud

O

F

ei k d r

r

(6.74)

ei k s r

.

r

(6.75)

ud ( r , ) = udo cos

and

us ( r , ) = uso sin

As the above derivation illustrates, the derivation of the directivity functions of a point source in

an infinite elastic medium is very easy from simple symmetry requirements. A general solution

of the acoustic field (Green function) is much more involved [see, e. g., J. D. Achenbach, Wave

Propagation in Elastic Solids (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1984) pp. 96-100]. The far-field

asymptotic solution gives the following simple formulas for the amplitude of the longitudinal and

shear spherical waves

udo =

F

F

and uso =

.

4 ( + 2 )

4

(6.76)

6-27

longitudinal

shear

Longitudinal (solid line) and shear (dashed line) wave directivity patterns of a point source acting

in an infinite isotropic solid.

6-28

Rs

ud

P

F

r

solid

= d

P

vacuum

Rd

Id

un

by a concentrated normal force F acting at point O, we can determine the normal

displacement un ( r , ) at point O resulting from the application of a radial point force F at

point P :

ud ( r , )

u (r, )

= n

.

Fnormal

Fradial

(6.77)

The normal surface displacement is the sum of the normal displacement components produced by

the incident longitudinal, reflected longitudinal and reflected shear waves:

un ( r , ) = ui ( r ) [cos Rd ( )cos Rs ( )sin s ] ,

(6.78)

where sin s = ( cs / cd )sin and the incident displacement contains the dependence on radius

ui ( r ) = udo

ei k d r

.

r

(6.79)

function Dd can be expressed as

6-29

Dd ( ) =

1

[cos Rd ( )cos Rs ( )sin s ] ,

2

(6.80)

Naturally the shear wave radiation function can be also calculated in the same way.

ud

P

= s

P

r

solid

Is

vacuum

un

d

Rs

Rd

Again, the normal surface displacement is the sum of the normal displacement components

produced by the incident shear, reflected longitudinal and reflected shear waves. According to the

sign convention of Figure 3.7,

un ( r , ) = ui ( r ) [sin + Rs ( )sin + Rd ( )cos d ] ,

(6.81)

ui ( r ) = uso

ei k s r

.

r

(6.82)

Ds ( ) = sin + Rs ( )sin + Rd ( ) cos d .

(6.83)

The shear directivity function is zero both at = 0 and = / 2 , therefore we did not use

normalization at all.

6-30

a)

30o

15o

0o

15o

30o

45 o

45 o

60o

60o

75o

75o

90o

90o

b)

30o

45 o

60o

75o

90o

15o

0o

15o

30o

45 o

60o

75o

90o

Longitudinal (a) and shear(b) directivity patterns of a normal point force acting on an aluminum

half-space [Hutchins et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 70, 1362 (1981)].

6-31

Part 7

TRANSDUCERS

Electro-Mechanical Transformer

v

1:n

F !" = z11

V#

z21

z22 # I #

z12

(7.1)

The total (electrical plus mechanical) power flowing into the transducer is

Ptotal =

1

2

Re{Fv *} +

1

2

Re{z11v v *} +

1 Re{VI *}

2

1

2

Re{z12I v *} +

1

2

Re{z21v I *} +

1

2

Re{z22I I *}

or mechanical

1

2

(7.2)

1

2

Re{z22I I *}

Re{z11v v*} loss, but the transformation itself from electrical to mechanical or

1

2

Re{z12I v *} +

1

2

Re{z21v I *} 0 therefore

z12 = z21 *.

Of course, there are twelve different descriptions for the same electromechanical

transformer. For example,

F !" = a11

I#

a21

v !" = y11

I#

y21

# V#

y12 ! F !

y22 "# V "#

a12

a22

(7.3)

(7.4)

... etc.

7-1

Piezoelectricity

based on H. Kuttruff, Ultrasonics, Fundamentals and Applications

(Elsevier, London, 1991) pp. 78-118

At high frequencies, it is not sufficient to excite the radiating body just at one single point

since it would deform and thus not every portion would oscillate with equal phase and amplitude.

At sufficiently high frequencies, virtually none of the component elements are really rigid,

instead all elements behave as transmission lines exhibiting certain resonances due to their

limited dimensions. In the simplest case, a piezoelectric transducer consists of a layer of

piezoelectric material with thin metal electrodes on both sides. If an alternating electrical voltage

is applied to these electrodes, the thickness of the layer will vary according to the variation of the

electrical field. It is particularly important that the piezoelectric effect is reversible and thus can

be employed also for the transduction of alternating mechanical displacements or forces into

corresponding electrical signals, i. e., for the detection of ultrasound.

Piezoelectricity is caused by a particular, rather common kind of asymmetry in the

structure of a crystal ("piezo" means pressure). Due to this asymmetry, certain elastic

deformations of the crystal cause a displacement of its positively charged ions with respect to the

negative ones in such a way that each of its elementary cells acquires an electrical dipole moment

which is proportional to the strain.

The best known piezoelectric material is quartz (silicon dioxide, SiO2) which in nature is

found for example in rock crystals and ordinary sand. It is the material in which the piezoelectric

effect was discovered by J. and P. Curie in 1880. Quartz has low electrical and mechanical

losses, it is easily cut and ground, very resistant to chemical agents and can be used at high

temperatures. Several important piezoelectric materials are basically ferroelectric. A ferroelectric

material exhibits an internal dielectric moment even without an electric field applied to it. This

moment is of uniform orientation within certain local regions called domains. Since adjacent

domains are polarized randomly, the material as a whole appears unpolarized. Above a certain

temperature, the so-called Curie temperature, the material loses its ferroelectricity. From a

phenomenological point of view, ferroelectricity is very similar to ferromagnetism. Ferroelectric

materials have very high dielectric constants (electric permitivity). When polarized, ferroelectric

7-2

materials are strongly piezoelectric. The most important ferroelectric materials are barium

titanate (BaTiO2) and lead zirconate titanate (Pb(Zr,Ti)O3) called PZT. These are ceramics

manufactured from powder base materials into arbitrary shapes. Generally, the sintered material

is poled by the application of an electric DC field of about 20 kV/cm at elevated temperature.

During this process the domains with polarization in the field direction grow at the expense of

the others. By cooling down the material in the presence of the strong polarizing electrical field,

the dielectric moment is frozen into the ceramics. Poled ferroelectric materials are subject to

some aging, i. e., their polarization decreases depending on the mechanical stresses, electrical

fields, and temperatures to which they are exposed. New and promising materials for ultrasonic

transducers are piezoelectric polymers such as polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) which are

available in the form of thin foils.

+ + + + + + +

- - - - - - +

Si

+

Si

Si

+ + + + + + +

Figure 7.1

- - - - - - -

7-3

Piezoelectric Equations

Below, the piezoelectric effect will be explained as employed in the most important and

most common type of ultrasonic transducer, a single plate vibrating in its thickness or expansion

mode. Let us consider a disk of thickness b which is cut in a suitable way from a piezoelectric

crystal. Its transverse dimensions are supposed to be very large compared to its thickness. This

arrangement combines the function of an electro-mechanical transformer, a mechanical resonator

and a piston radiator.

= F

A

Figure 7.2

Piezoelectric plate.

external forces. Due to its piezoelectric nature, this deformation produces a dielectric polarization

in the material. When the plate is electrically short-circuited, the polarization induces an

electrical charge on the electrodes. The charge density or dielectric displacement D is

proportional to the strain S in the material:

D = eS .

(7.5)

The inverse piezoelectric effect occurs in the plate when an electrical voltage is applied to

its electrodes producing an electrical field E. When the plate is clamped, the electrical field

produces a given normal elastic stress in the plate

= eE,

(7.6)

7-4

where e is the so-called piezoelectric constant. If the plate is not completely clamped, the elastic

stress will cause a variation of the thickness depending upon the induced stress and the

mechanical load. It is a characteristic of the reversible piezoelectric effect that the same constant

.

N / Vm .

e enters both equations. For example, in x-cut quartz, e 0159

Due to the piezoelectric effect, part of the dielectric displacement in a piezoelectric

material is caused by mechanical deformation. Equation 7.5 represents only this part of the

dielectric displacement which is proportional to the elastic strain in the material. Naturally, a

piezoelectric material is also a dielectric material therefore there will be an additional dielectric

displacement directly due to the applied electric field. Due to the inverse piezoelectric effect, part

of the elastic stress in a piezoelectric material is caused by the electrical field. Equation 7.6

represents only this part of the stress which is proportional to the strength of the electrical field in

the material. Naturally, a piezoelectric material is also an elastic solid which experiences an

additional stress when deformed. Thus the constitutive equations for a piezoelectric material can

be written as follows

D = S E + e S

(7.7)

= e E + KE S .

(7.8)

Here, S is the dielectric constant of the material under constant strain (e. g., the plate is

clamped in such a way that its thickness is forced to remain constant). Similarly, KE is the

elastic constant of the material in the case of a constant electric field (e. g., the electrodes are

short-circuited or connected to a source of constant voltage).

In order to understand the operation of a piezoelectric transducer, it is necessary to regard

both relations at the same time. At first, let us assume that the disk is completely free of forces,

i. e., = 0. It follows from Equations 7.7 and 8 that

S =

e

E

KE

(7.9)

and

7-5

D = ( S +

e2

) E.

KE

(7.10)

e2

= S +

KE

(7.11)

is larger than that of the clamped plate. The electrical energy stored in the piezoelectric material

per unit volume is

D E = S E

e2

+

E2.

2 KE

(7.12)

The second term on the right side of Equation 7.12 represents the interaction energy due to the

piezoelectric effect. If we divide it with the total stored energy, we obtain the so-called coupling

factor:

k2 =

e2 E

e2

=

.

KE D

K E

(7.13)

The coupling factor is a dimensionless combination of the piezoelectric, dielectric and elastic

properties. It can be used to re-write Equation 7.11 in the following simple form

S = (1 k 2 )

(7.14)

By similar reasoning, one finds for a piezoelectric plate with open-circuit electrical

electrodes (D = 0) that

= ( KE +

k2 =

e2

KD S

e2

) S = KD S ,

S

(7.15)

(7.16)

7-6

and

K E = K D (1 k 2 )

(7.17)

This means than the mechanical stiffness of a piezoelectric plate decreases when the electrodes

are short-circuited or kept at a constant voltage. The mutual dependence of the electrical and

mechanical properties of a piezoelectric material (Equations 7.14 and 17) may be quite strong

since the coupling factor of some materials is as high as 0.5 or even more (for quartz, the

coupling factor is approximately 0.1).

Equations 7.7 and 8 describe the connection between electrical and mechanical quantities

in a piezoelectric material of infinite lateral dimensions. A one-dimensional elastic wave

propagating through this plate satisfies the following wave equation

2u

= 2 .

x

t

(7.18)

2u

E

= KE 2 e

x

x

x

(7.19)

KE

2u

E

2u

e

=

x

x 2

t 2

(7.20)

E

e S

=

x

S x

(7.21)

7-7

and

e2 2u

2u

( KE +

)

= 2 .

S x 2

t

(7.22)

c =

KD

=

e2

KE +

S

=

KE

(1 k 2 )

(7.23)

This simple result is the direct consequence of the homogeneity of the wave equation.

Since there are no piezoelectric forces generated in the bulk of the material, the sources of the

generated sound wave are localized on the faces of the plate. The tensile and compressive

stresses acting on the opposite faces of the plate are of magnitude e = e E . The transmission

line equivalent circuit of a piezoelectric disk are shown in Figure 7.3.

Zo

Z2

Figure 7.3

(rear medium)

(front medium)

Z1

7-8

Z1, Z2 and Zo denote the characteristic impedance of the front and rear medium and the

piezoelectric material, respectively. In the simplest case the front and rear media are identical

(Z1 = Z2). The stress amplitudes produced by the exciting electrical pulse in the piezoelectric

material and the front medium are po and p1, respectively.

e ( t ) = p1( t ) po ( t ) ,

(7.24)

where e = eV / b . The particle velocities of both waves are obtained from the sound

pressures by dividing them with the corresponding characteristic impedances. At the surface of

the plate, they must be equal

p

p

o = 1.

Zo

Z1

(7.25)

po ( t ) =

Zo

e (t )

Zo + Z1

and

p1( t ) =

Z1

e (t ) .

Zo + Z1

(7.26)

The radiated pulse is however further complicated by the fact that the pressure waves traveling in

both directions in the plate are repeatedly reflected at the boundaries. At each reflection, their

amplitudes are reduced by the reflection coefficient

R =

Z1 Zo

,

Z1 + Zo

(7.27)

which is usually negative (i. e., the characteristic impedance of the piezoelectric material is

higher than that of the medium it radiates into). Figure 7.4 shows the schematic diagram of the

reverberating acoustic field within the piezoelectric plate. The (pressure) transmission coefficient

from the plate into the surrounding medium is T = 1 + R . Thus the total pressure in the front

medium is

pr ( t ) = p1( t ) + T [ po ( t ) + R po ( t 2 ) + R2 po ( t 3 ) + ...],

(7.28)

7-9

where = b / c is the one-way propagation time through the piezoelectric plate. Figure 7.4

shows the schematic diagram of multiple reflections within a piezoelectric plate.

b = c

T R 4 po

R 4po

R3 po

R3 po

R2 po

R2 po

R po

R po T po

po

Z1

Figure 7.4

T R3 po

R 4 po

po

Zo

T R2 po

T R po

p1

Z1

Equation 7.28 can be re-written as follows

pr ( t ) =

Z1

{ e ( t ) (1 R )[ e ( t ) + R e ( t 2 ) + R2 e ( t 3 ) + ...]} .

Zo + Z1

(7.29)

7-10

e (t ) =

pr ( t ) =

eV

e Vo i t

e

= o ei t , where o = o

b

b

(7.30)

Z1

o {1 (1 R ) e i [1 + R e i + R2 e 2 i + ...]}

Zo + Z1

Z1

Z1

(1 R ) e i

1 e i

=

o [1

] =

o

.

Zo + Z1

Zo + Z1 1 R e i

1 R ei

(7.31)

pr =

o Z1 (1 e i )

( Z1 + Zo ) ( Z1 Zo ) e i

o

1 ei

= o

=

.

Z

Z

(1 e i ) + o (1 + e i )

1 i o cot( 12 )

Z1

Z1

(7.32)

Figure 7.5 shows the frequency-dependence of the normalized intensity of the radiated

/ o2 for different = Zo / Z1 impedance ratios. Sharp resonances occur in the transfer

field

function whenever f = n ( n = 1, 2, 3, ...) , i. e., the plate thickness b is an odd

pr2

multiple of the half-wavelength. The bandwidth of these resonance peaks is determined by the

impedance ratio between the piezoelectric material and the surrounding medium. Under the

condition of Z1 << Zo , which is often fulfilled, we obtain

B =

2 cd Z1

.

b Zo

(7.33)

B

4 Z1

=

,

f1

Zo

(7.34)

7-11

it becomes apparent that the relative bandwidth is determined by the relative impedance

mismatch between the two materials.

Normalized

Intensity

pr2

o2

=3

= 10

= 30

0

0

0.5

Figure 7.5

1.5

2

Normalized Frequency, f

2.5

for different = Zo / Z1 impedance ratios.

Because of the axial resonance of the piezoelectric plate, the peak sensitivity is always

unit, but the bandwidth is proportional the acoustic impedance of the surrounding medium, i. e.,

it might be very low for low-impedance materials like water, which is often used as coupling

medium. The resonance can be eliminated or at least greatly reduced by a highly attenuating

backing of similar acoustic impedance Z2 to that of the piezoelectric material. However, in that

case, Equation 7.28 reduces to

pr ( t ) = p1( t ) + Tpo ( t ) =

Z1

Zo

e (t ) T

e (t ) .

Z1 + Zo

Zo + Z2

(7.35)

pr ( t ) =

Z1

Z1

2 i o e i / 2 sin( 12 )

o (1 e i ) =

Zo + Z1

Zo + Z1

(7.36)

7-12

In the case of perfect loading on the back side, the peaks of the transducer's response are again at

f = n ( n = 1, 2, 3, ...) while the bandwidth is constant at B = 1 / ( 2 ) regardless of the

degree of acoustic mismatch between the piezoelectric element and the material the transducer

radiates into (the relative bandwidth B / f1 = 1 , i. e., 100 %). At the same time, the peak

sensitivity is only

pr

2 Z1

Z

=

2 1 .

o

Zo + Z1

Zo

(7.37)

layers to enhance the acoustic coupling between the high-impedance piezoelectric plate and the

low-impedance fluid in the vicinity of the center frequency. A single quarter-wavelength

matching layer of Zm = Zo Z1 acoustic impedance assures perfect matching at its resonance

frequency and increases the relative sensitivity to two, but the bandwidth of good matching

becomes again limited by the = Zo / Z1 impedance ratio. Good acoustic matching in a wider

frequency range requires a multiple-layer matching network.

7-13

Figure 7.6 shows the schematic diagram of a piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer. The

active element is a piezoelectric or ferroelectric disk. It converts electrical energy such as an

excitation pulse from a driver into ultrasonic energy. It also works in reverse and converts

ultrasonic energy into electrical energy. The most commonly used materials are polarized

ceramics which can be cut in a variety of manners to produce longitudinal or shear waves. The

backing is usually a highly attenuating, high-density material that is used to control the vibration

of the transducer by absorbing energy radiating from the back face of the piezoelectric element.

When the acoustic impedance of the backing matches that of the active element, the result will be

a heavily damped transducer that features a broad bandwidth but may be lower in sensitivity. If

there is a mismatch in acoustic impedance between the piezoelectric element and the backing,

more sound energy will be reflected forward. This results in a transducer that is narrower in

bandwidth, but has higher sensitivity.

connector

electrical

network

housing

backing

electrical lead

electrodes

piezoelectric

disk

matching layer &

wear plate

Figure 7.6

In the case of contact transducers, the main purpose of the face plate is to protect the

active element from the environment. In angle-beam, delay-line, and, especially, in immersion

transducers, the face plate has the additional purpose of serving as an acoustic transformer

7-14

between the high impedance of the active element and the coupling medium of lower impedance

(angle-beam transducers usually use plastic wedges, delay-line transducers have glass buffers,

while immersion transducers use ordinary water for coupling). The impedance transformation is

accomplished by selecting a matching layer that is one quarter-wavelength thick and of the

desired acoustic impedance (geometrical mean of the two impedances to be matched). Often a

simple electrical network or terminator is also used to match the electrical impedance of the

transducer to those of the driver (in transmission) and/or the amplifier (in reception).

Figure 7.7 shows the typical echo signals and frequency responses of commercial (Ultran)

immersion transducers. The first transducer (Model 1113) is a 5-MHz narrow band transducer

with 23 % relative (-6 dB) bandwidth and 1.4 s (7 cycles) waveform duration. The second

transducer (Model 1626) is a 10-MHz broadband transducer with 96 % relative bandwidth and

0.15 s (1.5 cycles) waveform duration.

7-15

a)

-10

0.2

Amplitude [dB]

Amplitude [V]

0.3

0.1

0

-0.1

-0.2

-0.3

-20

-30

-40

45

50

55

Time [s]

b)

10

Frequency [MHz]

-20

Amplitude [dB]

Amplitude [V]

0.1

-0.1

-25

-30

-35

-40

-45

-50

49

50

Time [s]

Figure 7.7

51

10

15

20

Frequency [MHz]

transducers.

7-16

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