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1. What do you mean by Titration?

Sir, Titration is the process of adding the certain reactants to achieve the equilibrium. Those who
have taken college chemistry are familiar with the acid-base titration involving a color changing
indicator. There are many other types of titrations such as potentiometric titrations. These
titrations may use different types of indicators to reach some equivalence point.
2. What do you mean by Gravimetric analysis?
Sir, Gravimetric analysis involves in the determination of the amount of material present by
weighing the sample before and after some transformation.
3. What are the functions of Spectroscopy?
Sir, the functions of Spectroscopy is to measures the interaction of the molecules with
electromagnetic radiation. It consists of many different applications such as atomic absorption
spectroscopy, atomic emission spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence
spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance
spectroscopy, photoemission spectroscopy etc.
4. What do you mean by Crystallography?
Sir, it is a technique that characterizes the chemical structure of materials at the atomic level by
analyzing the diffraction patterns of usually x-rays that have been deflected by atoms in the
material. From the raw data the relative placement of atoms in space may be determined.
5. What do you mean by the process of Separation?
Sir, separation processes are used to decrease the complexity of material mixtures.
Chromatography and electrophoresis is representative of this field.
6. What do you mean by Microscopy?
Well sir, the microscopy is the visualization of single molecules, single cells, biological tissues
and nano- micro materials which is a very important and attractive approach in analytical
science.
7. What do you mean by Calibration Curve?
This is the standard method which allows for determination of the amount of a chemical in a
material by comparing the results of unknown sample to those of a series known standards.
8) What is the difference between Colorimetry and Spectrophotometry?
Colorimetry
This is the technique used to determine the concentration of a solution having color. It measures
the intensity of color and relates the intensity to the concentration of the sample. In colorimetry,
the color of the sample is compared with a color of a standard in which the color is known.
Colorimeter is the equipment used to measure the colored samples and give the appropriate
absorptions.

Spectrophotometry
Spectrophotometer is the instruments used in this technique. It has two main parts, the
spectrometer, which produces the light with a selected color, and the photometer, which
measures the intensity of light. There is a cuvette where we can place our liquid sample. The
liquid sample will have a color, and it absorbs the complementary color of it when a light beam
is passed through that. The color intensity of the sample is related to the concentration of the
substance in the sample. Therefore, that concentration can be determined by the extent of
absorption of light at the given wavelength.
Main diff: A colorimeter quantifies color by measuring three primary color components of light (red,
green, blue), whereas spectrophotometer measures the precise color in the human-visible light
wavelengths. .
Colorimetry uses fixed wavelengths, which are in the visible range only, but spectrophotometry
can use wavelengths in a wider range (UV and IR also).
Colorimeter measures the absorbance of light, whereas the spectrophotometer measures the
amount of light that passes through the sample.