Past and Present Trends in Research on Latin American Politics, 1950 - 1980

Author(s): David W. Dent
Source: Latin American Research Review, Vol. 21, No. 1 (1986), pp. 139-151
Published by: The Latin American Studies Association
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The following trends suggest that political science research on Latin America has benefitted from both public and private efforts to understand better the Western Hemisphere since Castro's revolution and Kennedy's Alliance for Progress. and Nicaragua.3 In a more comprehensive. talent. TRENDS LATIN 1950-1980* David W Dent TowsonStateUniversity It has been almost two decades since trends in research on Latin American politics were measured in any systematic way. the research assistance of Brandt Kamka. El Salvador. and as a result the returns have been relatively meager. economic. and the helpful comments of the three anonymous LARR reviewers. the history of political institutions. I would like to acknowledge the financial support of Towson State University. Personnel with adequate training and appropriate technical competence have been in scarce supply. Texas. Brazil. study of political research on Latin America. and social change. 29 September-1 October 1983. or organizational experience) has been invested in political studies of Latin America. students. and Chile "receive about one-third of all political science research attention. The subjects that received the most attention in the 1960s were interest groups (the military.1 The early profile of the state of Latin American research in political science developed by Peter Ranis showed that Mexico. Merle Kling found that "little capital (funds.PAST AND PRESENT IN RESEARCH ON AMERICAN POLITICS. and the level of productivity has been low. although less empirical. and the church). and was revised for the Southwestem Political Science Association meeting 20-23 March 1985 in Houston. research techniques adapted to Latin American studies have been of a relatively primitive nature. 139 . First came the increasing influ*This paper was originally presented at the Eleventh International Congress of the Latin American Studies Association."4 A great deal has changed in the study of Latin American politics since Kling's rather dismal assessment of the evolution of political studies and Ranis's empirical measurement of political science research on Latin America for the period from 1961 to 1967. and the nature of political. in Mexico City. Haiti."2 Less than 1 percent of political science research was devoted to Honduras.

coeditors include approximately60 percent of the materialsthat are sent for review by the staff in the Hispanic Division of the Libraryof Congress. But as an annotated bibliography.S.LatinAmericanResearchReview ence of Latin American scholars such as Cardoso.6These trends have produced a movement away from descriptive case studies of single political parties and interest groups to new conceptual frameworks and the integration of Latin American studies and political theory. The Handbook is also selective in that each coeditor is asked to choose only those items that are judged to be of permanent value."the single most important [bibliographic]publication since 1935. to what extent do research interests dovetail with the major political and historical trends that have occurred since 1950? Methodology The major source of data for this research was nineteen volumes of the Handbook of LatinAmericanStudiescovering the years 1950to 1980. the growth in the output of materials on Latin American politics and government is possibly a consequence of better methods of resource acquisition. Its aim is to fill in some of the gaps found in the earlier efforts by Kling and Ranis and to provide a more comprehensive look at trends in research on Latin American politics since 1950. For the purposes of this study.869 140 .5 These centers are now publishing widely read articles on internal politics and internationalrelations. Brazil. The Handbook acquiresa vast amount of materialfrom all over the world pertaining to Latin America and the Caribbean. Asia. the Handbookdoes not include unpublished documents and dissertations. Second. On average. a total of 7. Third. and computerized data storage and retrievalsystems. Foremostamong these bibliographic materials and resources is the Handbookof Latin AmericanStudies. Latin American political research is growing in Europe.7 Fourth. and O'Donnell on the study of LatinAmericanpolitics combined with the development of more institutionalized centers of Latin American political research in the larger countries like Mexico. more competent Latin American bibliographers. Cotler. For example.-Latin American relations have all contributed to an increase in political research on Latin America. and the Soviet Union. and Argentina. what countries receive the most attention and how does this trend fluctuate over time? What categories of research do those interested in political science research focus on and why? Also. more professional journals. the enlargement of graduate programs (including Latin American studies)."8 The purpose of this research note is to measure trends in political science research on Latin America over the past thirty years. the expansion of the Peace Corps. and the growing importance of U.

with forty-one works cited over the same time period. The breakdown of research attention into fiveyear intervals in table 2 shows particular sensitivity in the cases of Brazil. followed by Brazil. El Salvador received scarcely more attention. when President Goulart was 141 . But more recent data from the Handbookwould seem to suggest that greater attention is being paid to the smaller countries of Central America and the Caribbean following the Sandinista Revolution in Nicaragua.10 His results also found Mexico to be the most favored nation for field research. and Argentina. Reagan's Caribbean Basin Initiative. For example. Chile. a smaller number of projects or citations. and the American invasion of Grenada in 1983. The most researched countries were found to be Brazil. Brazil received a low of 10. For example.4 percent during the 1961-65 period. Peru. and Costa Rica." and "Government and Politics" in the Handbookwere examined. The trends that emerged when geographical areas of research were examined by five-year intervals from 1950 to 1980 suggest a surprising amount of continuity combined with research responsiveness to major political events. Henry Kenski asked his sample to list both countries in which they had done field research and countries on which they felt they had the most expertise. El Salvador. The results are presented in table 1. Colombia." Kenski found the top five to be Mexico.9 Pastand PresentTrendsin Geographical Areasof Research The first step in measuring geographical areas of research was to count the number of Handbookcitations per country for the thirty years under investigation. and Chile. Chile. Argentina. Chile. Argentina. and Mexico. most Latin Americanists ignore Honduras. civil strife in El Salvador. These findings vary somewhat from the trends that Ranis discovered using a shorter time span. Cuba. Peru. Nicaragua. Haiti." "Government and International Relations. and Cuba. For example. As indicated in table 1. These five countries accounted for about 58 percent of all citations for the 1950-80 period. and strictly North American sources on Latin American political research. only nineteen works of a political nature were cited and annotated in the Handbookfor Nicaragua over a span of thirty years. Brazil. In the category of "perceived expertise.RESEARCH ON LATIN AMERICAN POLITICS citations from the sections entitled "Government. In a survey of teachers of Latin American politics at American universities in 1974. it would seem that the inflated position of Mexico in Ranis's findings was a consequence of his strictly North American sources and a more limited time span.5 percent of the citations during the 1950-55 period but a high of 20. The countries in Latin America that receive the least attention are those in Central America and the Caribbean. Panama.

0 aThe "General"categoryin the Handbook (1.0 6. CIncludesBelize. Chile received from 3.0 5.FrenchGuiana. Grenada.Martinique. Barbados. Argentina received most of its research attention while either the Perons were in power or Peronism was a major factor in Argentine politics. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s. St.0 9. however.Latin American ResearchReview TABLE 1 Geographical Areasof Research. Guyana.01%. Jamaica.0 6.0 3. research attention declined dramatically to less than 7 percent for the 1976-80 period. dlncludes Antigua. After the overthrow of Isabelita Peron in 1976. Haiti.0 1.0 2.0 1. with 16.542 99. overthrown and the Brazilian military began a long tenure of political control.0 Totals 6.0 2.064 679 453 679 128 107 129 576 69 59 399 122 4 206 419 151 193 12.0 16.0 2. and Nicaragua.327 items) was omitted from this table.0 10.0 2.0 percent of all citations for the twenty-year period.Honduras.1e ob 3. and Trinidadand Tobago. El Salvador.0 10.0 2. Kitts. Costa Rica. bTheactualpercentagefor Surinamis .1950-1980 Areasa Geographical Numberof Articles/Books Percentage of Total (%) Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Cuba Dominican Republic Ecuador Guatemala Mexico Panama Paraguay Peru Puerto Rico Surinam Uruguay Venezuela Other Central Americac Other Caribbeand 803 302 1.3 to 7.0 7. The interest in Cuba clearly corresponds to the 142 .6 percent of all citations. This rapid decline in attention (from over 15 percent to 7 percent) occurred despite the "dirty war" that was part of Argentine security policy and the human rights component of President Carter's Latin American policy. made Chile the most researched country in Latin America during the 1971-75 period. The election and overthrow of Salvador Allende. eRoundingcaused the total to deviate from 100%in this and the other tables.

0 2.0 1.01 3.01 (1157) 101.0 (4) (1) (50) (30) (58) (50) 101.0 (27) (59) 7.0 5.0 (85) 1.0 1.0 10.0 (26) (11) 8.0 5.0 (9) (12) (14) (59) (19) (10) 1.0 2.0 1.0 Guatemala 5.0 (24) (20) (37) (1) (27) (21) (29) Other Central America 2.0 5.20 (378) 101.0 (11) (224) 14.0 (17) (23) (19) Panama 1.0 1976-80 (%) 7.0 3.0 (40) Ecuador 6.0 16.0 4.0 (255) (101) (45) 19.RESEARCH ON LATIN AMERICAN POLITICS TA B L E 2 GeographicalAreas of Researchby Five-YearPeriods.0 2.0 6.0 (91) (298) 3.0 (23) 20.0 (60) (23) (24) 3.0 (4) (14) (14) (9) (9) (6) (138) .0 3.0 7.0 1.0 11.0 2.0 Brazil 11.0 (84) (11) (6) .0 (95) (13) (7) (1) 2.0 Peru 3.0 1.0 (42) (54) 17.0 (11) (21) 4.0 3.0 15.0 2.0 5.0 8.0 Chile 4.0 13.31 (1225) Note: Figures in parentheses are base numbers for the adjacent percentages.0 (28) (66) (43) (48) .0 13.0 (20) 2.0 1.0 7.0 (21) 11.0 7.0 3.0 1.0 (218) (36) (12) 18.0 (133) (48) (26) (8) 6.0 (324) (111) (18) (16) (16) Mexico 2.0 3.0 14.0 9.0 6.0 2.01 (1) Uruguay 6.0 (64) Bolivia 3.0 (168) (113) (30) (6) (1) Paraguay (21) 9.0 (21) .0 3.0 (13) Dominican Republic (130) (69) 1971-75 (%) 4.0 Cuba 3.10 (1420) 101.0 9.0 2.0 .0 (70) (129) 1.0 (27) (1) (21) 5.0 (169) 7.0 4.0 1956-60 (%) 1961-65 (%) 1966-70 (%) 17.0 Venezuela 8. 143 .0 .0 1.0 Puerto Rico 6.0 1.0 2.2 Surinam 7.0 Other Caribbean Totals .0 Colombia 6.0 5.0 (224) (55) (14) (16) (100) 7.0 (11) (24) 1.0 (70) 20.0 8.01 2.0 (237) (84) 3. 1950-1980 Geographical 1950-55 Area (%) Argentina 17.0 6.0 11.40 (418) 99.2 2.0 2.00 (1944) 100.0 (49) (75) 4.2 1.0 (83) (182) (195) 1.0 6.0 1.0 6.3 1.0 (151) 7.0 (100) (127) 2.0 (23) 6.

the more likely it is to draw the attention of political researchers. dictators and oligarchs of various types. Thus the radicalrenovationist policies of Castro and Allende and their impact on the United States and Latin America served to increase greatly the amount of research attention devoted to these two small Latin American countries. third. Chile and Cuba tied for third-placeranking among total citations for the thirty-yearperiod of investigation. revolutionary programs. human rights. and political violence. second. have received so much research attention. all of which occurred during the 1961-65 period. whether stable or unstable. Mexico'sposition in the top five is largely due to its geographical accessibility to North American researchers. ranked second in research attention in 1950-55 and third in 1970-76 but dipped to a sixth-place ranking in 1961-65. Second. "alien"leftist ideologies. received a great deal of attention during the 1950-80 period because of populist forms of government. when research attention shifted to Braziland Cuba. and the Alliance for Progress. and its relatively successful politicalapparatus. SubjectAreas of Research The kinds of studies done by political scientists on Latin American politics include a broad range of subjects. Mexico. These five subjects make up a paltry 6 percent of the total subjects studied during this thirty-yearperiod. The larger the Latin American country. revolutionary movements. education and student politics. The larger countries are also more developed and therefore somewhat easier places to conduct fieldwork in comparison with the smaller Latin American countries. military rule. political socialization. for example. despite their small size. political development and leadership characteristicsare also important in explaining patterns of research attention.Third. First. size plays a major role in determining which countries attractthe most research.Latin American ResearchReview early stages of the Castro revolution. with an overall ranking of fifth for the thirty-year period. and forms of charismaticleadership. The trends presented in table 3 indicate that the political subjects of research reflect a strong interest in four areas: first. Fourth. and politics and the news media. and fourth. The above four categories constitute 53 percent of the subjects of research during the 1950-80 period. the five least studied subjects include the role of women in politics. government institutions and functions. its economic growth rate since 1950. terrorism. In contrast. the Cuban missile crisis. the Bay of Pigs invasion. and Cold War hysteria serve in part to explain why Chile and Cuba. Argentina and Chile. It is interesting 144 . political parties and elections. The patterns that are revealed in the top five countries combined with the relatively consistent patterns of most of the others can be explained in several ways.

violence. with the two exceptions of Cuba and Chile. The second trend is the increased amount of research attention devoted to Central America and the Caribbean beginning with the 1976-80 period. with over 25 percent of all citations. political parties and elections. and elitism combined with a more polemical style of writing and analysis... The dominance of the subject area of revolutionary movements. Seven countries received over 70 percent of all citations between 1950 and 1980. the Caribbean Basin Initiative. Thus the North American perspective is more likely to employ bureaucratic.RESEARCH ON LATIN AMERICAN POLITICS to note that in most cases. The North American perspective tends to be less polemical and more electic in analyzing the "causes" of development and underdevelopment. the invasion of Grenada. The first trend is the amount of attention being devoted to the larger Latin American countries. The third trend is the decline in the volume of literature for the military-authoritarian governments as 145 . the subjects of political research remain remarkably constant over the period of investigation. . For example. and political ideology.'11 Using the Handbookand a much broader time frame. Ranis found that "interest groups and political party research account for almost one-third of all political science investigation on Latin America . and President Reagan's efforts to topple the Nicaraguan government with a "secret army" of counterrevolutionaries (contras). is influenced basically by two opposing perspectives for understanding government and politics. it was found that interest groups and political parties account for no more than 10-15 percent of the political science research on Latin America. economic control. and political variables in its research designs. This interest no doubt results from the Sandinista Revolution in Nicaragua and the downfall of Anastasio Somoza Debayle in 1979. terrorism. The Latin American perspective often stresses such variables as class. government institutions and functions. and various types of leaders in table 3 suggests a much different pattern than Ranis found in his investigation during the 1960s. cultural. The emphasis on revolutionary issues. Thus the data in table 3 suggest that North American researchers are much more interested in interest groups and political parties than their Latin American counterparts. FutureTrendsand ResearchAgendas Several trends emerge on the basis of the government and politics citations in the Handbookof Latin American Studies during the 195080 period. This discrepancy in orientations is perhaps best explained by the fact that Latin American scholars often stress relevance and the desire to act more than methodological elegance. The 1981-85 period should reflect a continued interest by political scientists and others in the events in El Salvador.

0 (16) (12) (244) Theoreticaland empiricalanalysis (93) 2.2 (4) (193) Education 3.0 9.0 (576) Economicissues (69) (5) (654) 6.Latin AmericanResearchReview TABLE 3 SubjectAreasof Research byFive YearPeriods.1950-1980 SubjectArea Revolutionary issues Governmentand legal institutions Parties.4 (7869) (3) 2.0 12.0 (16) 101.0 (63) (45) (727) 8.0 10.0 (153) (37) (497) Churchand state 22. intellectuals. aThisresidualcategoryincludes women in politics.0 (787) 9. human rights.0 1.0 98.0 (12) 1. criminaljustice.6 (432) (689) Note: Figuresin parentheses are base numbers for the adjacentpercentages. groups and elections International relationsand foreign affairs Countryand comparative studies Leaders TotalPeriod (%) 1950-55 (%) (2000) 11.0 4.0 Totals 1.0 (7) (140) Othera (2) 1.0 (312) 3.0 2.0 Urban issues 4. politicalprisoners.0 (849) Armed forces 27.0 5.0 25. 146 .0 (4) .0 3.0 18.0 (76) (151) 10.0 7.0 1.0 (186) 9.0 (5) 2.0 1956-60 (%) (13) 99.4 (2) (271) (8) (4) (8) .0 2.0 1.0 3.0 (21) .0 10.0 2.0 35.politicalsocialization. and the media and politics.4 3.0 13.0 3.0 (206) (54) (52) (413) Agrarianissues 8.

0 100.0 4.0 12.0 (87) (75) (30) (18) (35) 4.0 100.0 4.0 7.0 28.0 (103) (55) (120) (189) (104) 6.0 (395) (528) (432) (383) 1976-80 (%) 25.0 3.0 3.0 2.0 10.0 4.0 4.0 (160) (231) (157) (87) 10.0 6.0 6.0 1.0 8.0 2.0 10.0 7.0 10.0 3.0 1971-75 (%) (2005) (1562) 147 .0 5.0 20.0 2.0 8.0 (169) (204) (162) (138) 11.0 1.0 3.0 3.0 (106) (116) (112) (97) 7.0 (56) (60) (53) (24) (129) 4.0 (1356) 6.0 4.0 1.0 2.0 (72) (69) (24) 4.0 5.0 26.0 (59) (69) (45) (8) (68) 4.0 6.0 8.ON LATIN AMERICAN RESEARCH POLITICS Table3 (continued) 1961-65 (%0) 1966-70 (%o) (56) (51) (31) 99.0 (100) (59) (18) (75) (147) 5.0 10.0 3.0 (1867) (92) 101.0 23.0 11.0 11.0 (28) (39) (231) (271) 2.0 2.0 6.0 2.0 (87) (128) (214) (134) 6.0 10.

The prime prospects for this type of analysis are Argentina. and research foci. TheBreakdown of Military-Authoritarian Regimes/ LatinAmerican politics now seem to have entered another cycle of democraticrule after more than a decade of predominantly military governments. Political scientists will continue to follow research agendas that are popular or feasible. How can one explain the breakdown of governments based on armed bureaucrats who must rely on force and violence to rule over any sustained period of time? This topic of scholarly analysis should also strive to elucidate the structural.budgetary. All of these trends do not suggest that the situation found by Merle Kling over twenty years ago has been corrected. Moreover. Brazil. and institutional effects of military rule. Unlike the situation in the United States and Europe. CareerAnalysisof PoliticalElites / One of the large gaps in our understanding of LatinAmericanpolitics is the need for backgroundinformation on political leaders in executive and legislative positions. and what happens in the media will no doubt shape funding opportunities. and Bolivia. Uruguay. researchtechniques are of a sophisticated nature. But the study of Latin American politics has progressed to the point that the investment has reaped major returns: personnel with adequate training and technicalcompetence are no longer in short supply. With more than 90 percent of the governments of South America now in the hands of democraticallyelected leaders. What follows is a call for careful scholarship that will add to the growing quality of materials on Latin American government and politics.LatinAmericanResearchReview these governments have made way for the return to civilian rule. and the level of productivityis increasing at a dramaticrate. this trend should be even more pronounced for the 1981-85 period. 148 . researchersare woefully ignorant of the careers and behavior patterns of the individuals who make legislative and executive policy in Latin America. graduate programs. research agendas that center on militaryauthoritarianand fascist regimes will be constrained by having to deal with "safe" topics in-country while reserving the more incisive critical analyses and investigations of government and politics for publication outside the country. Research agendas for the future can never be precisely or comprehensively enumerated. The fourth trend is derived from the growing number of Latin American political scientists whose professional training and research competence will clearly contribute to theoretical and empirical understanding of Latin American political phenomena.

No scholarly biographies exist on even such important Latin American leaders as Fidel Castro and Jose MariaVelasco Ibarra. The RelationshipbetweenElectoralBehaviorand DemocraticRule / Knowledge of electoral systems and participatoryattitudes is rather weak except for some of the research on the Venezuelan system by Enrique Baloyraand John Martz. more research attention will be devoted to institutional analysis. EconomicPolicy-Making/ Not enough attention has been devoted to the politics of economic policy-makingin Latin America.16Unfortunately. The Politics of Urban Labor/ Except in the cases of Argentina and Mexico.RESEARCH ON LATIN AMERICAN POLITICS PoliticalBiographyI The field of Latin American politics has not been one in which good biographies have been available to help scholars understand political leadership and development.other Latin American democracies have not attractedthe attention needed on this subject. Institutionsand Processes/ The call for this kind Legaland Governmental of researchagenda results partly from the fact that only 10 percent of all research between 1950 and 1980 focused on legal and institutional aspects of politics. and the Dominican Republic.15however. SustainingDemocracyin LatinAmerica/ More theory-buildingand comparative cross-nationalresearch designs are needed to help to explain the sustenance of democracyin such countries as Colombia. The pathbreaking works by Charles Anderson12and Albert Hirschman13have provided important beginnings for studies of political economy.Venezuela. 149 . knowledge of labor unions and labor movements in Latin Americahas not kept pace with knowledge of other importantactors in the political game. Costa Rica. Except for the recent works of Gary Wynia14and Pedro-PabloKuczynski. careful analyses of political economy in Latin America are difficult to find. Perhapswith the return of democraticinstitutions and the demise of authoritarianregimes that have restricted scholarship. ContrastingStylesof LatinAmericanand NorthAmericanPoliticalAnalysis / How is political life viewed and analyzed by different political researchers? This old debate is one that needs renewed attention because of the increasing influence of Latin American scholars on Latin American political studies. particularlyby Latin American scholars.

"Research in Latin America and the Caribbean on International Relations and Foreign Policy: Some Impressions. 3. NOTES 1. Bolivia." LARR 18. no.S. perceptive and careful studies. Jr. 1964). see Abraham F.17 Therefore. and to the ever-increasingnumber of active researchers. Julio Cotler is a Peruvian associated with the Instituto de Estudios Peruanos (IEP) in Lima. is also notable. 2. For a comprehensive list of Latin American and Caribbean political research centers. and Peru needs to be investigated. 168. 4. In Europe. Taylor. Jamaica. The interconnections between illegal economic activities and key actors in the political system will no doubt have lasting effects on the structure of power and the organization of the economy of those countries. . Lowenthal. Ibid." in Social Science Researchon Latin America. Fernando Henrique Cardoso is a Brazilian associated with the Centro Brasileiro de Analise e Planejamento (CEBRAP) in Sao Paulo. concluded twenty-two years as coeditor of the Handbookof Latin American Studies with the following assessment of the gains that have been made in the study of government and politics: While pensadores still publish throughout the hemisphere (some having found a fashionable and inferentially militant genre in dependencia)the generational change in Latin American universities that began in the 1960s now produces regularly more insightful. In 1979 Philip B. 5. 3 (1967):71-78. Ibid. however. based on the substantialchange in the environment fostered by professional organizationssuch as the Latin American Studies Association. the literature on Latin American government and politics has attained a level of sophistication that few could have envisioned in the 1950s." LARR 3. 150 Peter Ranis. 1 (1983):154-74. 72. May the next thirty years continue to expand the wealth of literature and the level of sophistication so evident in the current study of Latin American poiitics. Guillermo O'Donnell. Despite the fact that much needs to be done in the study of Latin American politics. The coming of age of literature on Latin Americacan be attributedto scholarlycompetition. was formerly associated with the Centro de Estudios de Estado y Sociedad (CEDES) in Buenos Aires and is currently with the Instituto Universitario de Pesquisas do Rio de Janeiro (IUPERJ)as well as the Kellogg Institute of International Studies at the University of Notre Dame. an Argentine. "Trends in Research on Latin American Politics: 1961-67.. The qualitative and quantitativeimprovement in the U. those of us who labor to understand political life and social change in Latin America have some reason to rejoice over what has been accomplished during the past thirty years.. no. 6. few institutes and scholars have attained this level. "The State of Research on Latin America: Political Science.Latin AmericanResearchReview The Politics of Drug Traffickingin Select Latin American Countries / The growing impact of drugs (primarily marijuana and cocaine) on the politics of Colombia. edited by Charles Wagley (New York: Columbia University Press. Merle Kling.

"The Study of Latin America in the USSR." Handbookof Latin American Studies 41 (Austin: University of Texas Press. the Handbook has categorized internal political literature under the heading of "Government and Politics. Gustavo Andrade. Joseph D. Enrique A. Peter T Johnson. 1979)." LARR 16." Then from 1961 (Volume 23) until 1971 (Volume 33). 517. Charles W. Taylor. and Karl-Christian Goethner." LARR 9. Pedro-Pablo Kuczynski. Wynia. Political Attitudes in Venezuela: Societal Cleavagesand Political Opinion (Austin: University of Texas Press. For Europe. no. "Recent Research on Latin America in West Germany. "Latin American Studies in Japan. "Bibliography: Current Practices and Future Trends. "The Soviet Latin Americanists.RESEARCH 7. no. no.J." LARR 3. no.: Van Nostrand." LARR 14. 1 (1981):107-23." LARR 17. Ranis. Albert 0. David E. "Trends in Research." LARR 18. But editorial policy changes in the preparation of the Handbookmade it necessary to include some inter-American titles in the compilations. Politics and Economic Change in Latin America (Englewood Cliffs. Barnard. continuing in alternation. 3 (1983):165-78. Journeys toward Progress: Studies of Economic Policy-Making in Latin America (New York: Twentieth-Century Fund.. S.. and Jerry F." LARR 16. 15. no. Jr. 14. "Teaching Latin American Politics at American Universities: A Survey. no. 1978). including the Caribbean nations. 1963-68 (Princeton: Princeton University Press. and Mark Sidel. 9. N. 17. 13." LARR 17." LARR 10. The emphasis in this study of past and present trends is on internal politics in Latin America. no. 10. no. Philip B. "Latin American Studies in the People's Republic of China. "Research at GDR Universities in Latin America. Hirschman. 1 (1967):77-87. 1 (1983):261. no. ON LATIN AMERICAN POLITICS For Asia. Anderson. Peruvian Democracyunder Economic Stress: An Account of the BelaundeAdministration. Vol'skii. For example.J. Stansfield. see Victor V. "Latin American Studies in Japan. the Handbookstaff categorized constitutional and political affairs under the heading of "Government." This period (1961-71) also witnessed the Handbook'sshift from an annual edition that included both the humanities and social sciences to an annual edition that covers the humanities one year and the social sciences the next." LARR 18." with subheadings that distinguish between a general category and various subregional categories. 1 (1983):143-53. 1 (1975):91. 1 (1973):147-56. no. 11." 72. "Recent Soviet Efforts in Latin American Studies. no. 1979). Hough. 2 (1980):262-68. 3 (1983):179-84. Baloyra and John D. 12. Cole Blasier. Henry C. 16. "The Japanese Contribution to Latin American Studies. 2 (1974):95-104. Narayanan. "The Study of Latin American P'olitics in Biitish Universities. Fumio Nakagawa. see Volker Luhr. From1973 (Volume 35) on." LARR 18. no. no. 1 (1979):234-38. starting with 1950 (Volume 22). 3 (1982):173-92. "The Evolving Soviet Debate on Latin America. For the Soviet Union. 8." LARR 8. 1 (1982):105-13. Gary W. Martz. no. 1977). 1963). Kenski. The Politics of Latin American Development (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1967). 1 (1981):124-43." LARR 18. 151 ." LARR 15. the internal political literature and international relations materials were categorized together under the heading "Government and International Relations. "Latin American Studies in India. "South America: East Coast. R. see Carmelo Mesa-Lago.

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