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DOI 10.1007/s10649-014-9569-8

view of mathematics teaching

Fulvia Furinghetti & Marta Menghini

Published online: 12 July 2014

# Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

secondary school. During the crucial period of the 1950s and 1960s, when important reforms were

proposed, she was involved in significant events such as the first CIEAEM meetings and the

Royaumont Seminar. She was an active contributor to the development of international cooperation

in mathematics education and was one of the first authors in the journal Educational Studies in

Mathematics. Thanks to pioneers such as Emma, the figure of teacher-researcher took shape and

the milieu of mathematics education was forever changed. The main aim of Emmas work as an

innovative teacher was to actively involve learners. In outlining Emmas action as a mathematics

educator, we will pay particular attention to the use of concrete materials as this was a favorite

means by which she pursued her aims.

Keywords EmmaCastelnuovo . Concretematerials . Intuition . Exploration . CIEAEM . Real life

and mathematics . Teacher-researcher

F. Furinghetti

Department of Mathematics, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy

M. Menghini

Department of Mathematics, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy

e-mail: marta.menghini@uniroma1.it

F. Furinghetti (*)

Dipartimento di Matematica, Universit di Genova, via Dodecaneso 35, 16146 Genoa, Italy

e-mail: furinghe@dima.unige.it

F. Furinghetti, M. Menghini

1 Introduction

Emma Castelnuovo was born in Rome on the 12th of December 1913 and died in Rome on the

13th of April 2014. In the year of her 100th birthday, many Italian and international events

celebrated her life and work: conferences, publications, awards. In particular, the

International Commission on Mathematical Instruction (ICMI) established the Emma

Castelnuovo Award for excellence in the practice of mathematics education (see ICMI website

URL at the end of this article).

The Italian Mathematical Union (UMI) has published a special issue of its journal La

Matematica nella Societ e nella Cultura (Mathematics in society and culture, 2013, s.1, 6)

dedicated to Emma, in which various authors illustrate different aspects of her life and work.

An annotated list of her main publications is in Menghini with collaborators (see website URL at

the end of this article). The website by Fontanari gives access to many of Emmas publications.

Emma grew up in a very significant mathematical family and milieu (see Gario, 2013;

Menghini, 2013). Her father Guido and her uncle Federigo Enriques (brother of her mother

Elbina) were paramount mathematicians and founders of the Italian school of algebraic

geometry. They were both engaged in the development of mathematical instruction (see

Furinghetti & Giacardi, website). At an international level, in 1908, Guido chaired the

International Congress of Mathematicians in Rome when the Commission from which ICMI

sprung was founded and later on in 19121920 and 19281932 served the Commission as a

vice-president; Enriques was awarded honorary membership of ICMI during the International

Congress of Mathematicians in Oslo (1936) for his special activity in mathematics education.

At the national level, they were presidents of the Italian association of mathematics teachers

and directed didactic journals.

Emma graduated in 1936, but due to the Italian racial laws of 1938, she did not gain a

permanent position as a mathematics teacher until after the Second World War. From 1939 to

1943, she taught in the Jewish School in Rome, which was attended by Jewish students who

had been expelled from the state schools due to the racial laws. At the end of the Second World

War, Emma along with several colleagues put her enthusiasm into organizing very successful

conferences for teachers. In 1945 she started to teach in a middle school with pupils aged 11

14 in Rome, where she worked until her retirement in 1979.

In 1946 Emma published a paper that is a kind of manifesto of her view of mathematics

teaching (see Castelnuovo, 1946). The paper shows how she grasps the changing needs of

society by asking for a unique stream of middle school against the different streams existing in

Italy at that time: one stream for the pupils who continued their career possibly until university

and others for those who stopped at 14 or continued in vocational schools. She also claims the

need for taking into account students psychology. She advocates a teaching path that goes

from concrete to abstract, from particular to general. She defines her method as continuous

(because it develops from the students previous knowledge) and active (because the students

themselves experiment and their discoveries and actions contribute to the construction of

mathematical knowledge). She describes the simple tools that she uses for teaching geometry

in her classroom such as folding cardboard and strings. According to Emmas own words, the

inspiration for her method, which was innovative at the time especially in the old fashioned

school world of Italy, originated from reading the treatise of geometry by Alexis-Claude

Clairaut, published in Paris in 1741 and translated into Italian since 1751. This book was

written with didactic intentions, proposing problems to be solved and trying to guide students

in discovery. Even if the pedagogical value of Clairauts book has been questioned (see

Glaeser, 1983), it gave Emma the right inspiration for finding her personal way of teaching.

She referred to Clairaut in the talk delivered at ICME 6 in Budapest during the special

afternoon devoted to mathematics, education, and society (see Castelnuovo, 1989). Her feeling

about the history of mathematics in the classroom echoes the guided reinvention proposed by

Hans Freudenthal (1973).

After her encounter with Clairauts treatise, Emma suddenly changed her teaching style and

2 years later, in 1948, she published a textbook on intuitive geometry (Castelnuovo, 1948).

With this textbook, she revitalized the teaching of intuitive or practical geometry, which had

been earlier introduced at the beginning of the twentieth century (see Menghini, 2009).

Emmas innovative views on teaching are stressed in Caleb Gattegnos (1953) review where

she is presented as an enthusiast for active methods in geometry. The international circulation of this beautiful book gave her a remarkable visibility outside Italy. It entered school

practice through translations into Spanish and, later, English (see references), and also fostered

contacts with contemporary prominent figures in the field of mathematics education. In 1949

Emma met a group of Belgian teachers working at the innovative cole Decroly of Brussels,

where she again encountered Paul Libois. He had previously been her fathers student in Rome

in 193435 and by then was professor at the Universit Libre of Brussels, where he was

cooperating with the cole.

In the methods of the cole Decroly, Emma recognized a way of opening the minds of

Italian teachers and young students, and to this end she promoted, through grants, study trips to

Brussels (Menghini, to appear). The pedagogical methods of the cole were characteristic: the

teacher guided the students, encouraging them to build upon their understanding and mathematics was connected to reality. There was not a program, but various centers of interest that

connected all the subjects.

From Libois, Emma also took the idea of using mathematical exhibitions as an important

educational tool, not only for the pupils who prepared them, but also for the young teachers

who collaborated. She organized exhibitions in Italy (in Rome and also in other cities) and

abroad. The 1974 exhibition in her school in Rome gave rise to the book Matematica nella

realt (Mathematics in reality, Castelnuovo & Barra, 1976), which was translated into many

languages (see references).

In the 1950s Emma was among the founding members of the Commission Internationale pour

ltude et lAmlioration de lEnseignement des Mathmatiques, the International Commission

for the Study and Improvement of Mathematics Teaching, in which she played an important role

and which she chaired from 1979 to 1981 (see the contributions by Emma, Flix, and Valenti on

the CIEAEM website; Bernet & Jaquet, 1998). In its first years, CIEAEM fostered reflection in

the field of mathematics education by gathering together important people (mathematicians,

epistemologists, mathematics teachers, and mathematics educationalists such as Piaget,

Freundenthal, and Gattegno). Emma contributed to the promotion of ideas elaborated inside

CIEAEM, such as the use of concrete materials in teaching. She designed and carried out a

complete program for the middle school (ages 1114 years) based on the use of concrete

materials, and wrote a chapter in the second of the two books produced by CIEAEM. While

the first was mainly centered on mathematical content (most authors were leading mathematicians, see Piaget et al., 1955), this second book was strongly oriented towards classroom practices

by presenting concrete materials for mathematics teaching (see Gattegno et al., 1958). In 1958

Emma was one of the two Italian participants at the Conference of Royaumont where members of

ICMI, CIEAEM, and national representatives met to discuss curricular reforms in relation to the

movement of modern mathematics (see Furinghetti, Menghini, Arzarello, & Giacardi, 2008).

F. Furinghetti, M. Menghini

In 1963 Emma published the book La didattica della matematica (Didactic of mathematics),

where she describes, besides her method, the main achievements and cultural references of

European mathematics education (Castelnuovo, 1963). This book was translated into Spanish

and German (see references).

In the 1960s and 1970s, the period in which the field of mathematics education was shaped

around new dimensions and became an academic discipline, Emma was involved in important

initiatives. In 1969 she was invited by Freudenthal to deliver a talk at the first ICME in Lyon.

At ICME-3 in Karlsruhe (1976) she was also invited to present an exhibition (comprising more

than 100 posters) prepared with her middle school pupils on the theme Mathematics in real

life. Emma was a member at large of ICMI from 1975 to 1978 (see Furinghetti & Giacardi,

website). In 1968 Freudenthal founded Educational Studies in Mathematics and Emma

published eight papers in this journal from the first volume until 1979 (volumes 1, 2, 5, 7,

8, 10). These years also saw international cooperation in mathematics education realized

through actual initiatives (see Furinghetti, 2014). Invited first by IREM and then by

UNESCO (which was collaborating with ICMI), Emma went to Niger four times, from

1977 to 1982, to teach in classes that corresponded to our middle school (see Bert, website).

On these occasions, her method of intuitive teaching of geometry proved very successful. All

these aspects make Emma a pioneer woman in mathematics education (see Furinghetti, 2008).

Emmas international fame grew particularly in Hispanic countries, where many of her

books were translated. In Spain, the still very active Sociedad Madrilea de Profesores de

Matemticas (SMPM) Emma Castelnuovo was founded in 1991 (see Sociedad Madrilea

de Profesores de Matemticas, website). Besides the many papers and books left by Emma, her

major legacy consists in the motivation she was able to transmit to the teachers she worked

with and inspired. They have learnt in her classroom, through her books, and in the frequent

meetings she used to hold at her home, where everybody was free to go and discuss ideas with

her. Examples of Emmas legacy may be found in the residential courses for teachers of the

Officina matematica (see Castelnuovo, 2008) in Italy, in the activities carried out in Spain

(see Casalderrey & Ramellini, 2004), and possibly in many other countries.

Emma lived during a period of ferment in the mathematics education environment and had the

capacity to grasp the spirit of the time. Her commitment to the social aspects of teaching

allowed her to perceive the new requests coming to education from society and to understand

that the problem was not only in updating content, but in identifying suitable methods to face

the new phenomenon of the school for all. As discussed in Furinghetti, Matos, and Menghini

(2013), until the first half of the twentieth century mathematics education was mainly the

business of professional mathematicians, but after the Second World War a need emerged for

new professional expertise featuring a new kind of research. This acknowledged mathematics

education as a scientific discipline: from the 1960s mathematics education had specialized

journals and conferences, and chairs in universities. In this milieu, the active participation of

teachers was important and a new figure of teacher-researcher was emerging. This context

created an environment charged with possibility and suitable for the development of new

teaching methods, like those pioneered by Emma. The use of concrete materials was the

landmark of her method. The experimental work of psychologists and educators such as Ovide

Decroly and Maria Montessori, new teaching aids, and the reform movements of the early

twentieth century had fostered interest among mathematicians in mathematics laboratories,

where students actively used drawing instruments, calculating machines, and manipulatives

(see Barbin & Menghini, 2014). After the Second World War, the use of concrete materials

was taken up again in many contexts. In 1945 an NCTM yearbook was devoted to measuring

and drawing instruments and to the creation of three-dimensional physical models. Gattegno,

as well as the mathematician and psychologist Zoltan Dienes, strongly supported the use of

manipulatives, such as Cuisenaire rods and logic blocks, in classroom activities. Libois used

concrete materials at the cole Decroly in Brussels, and in the UK the Association of Teachers

of Mathematics (ATM) sustained Gattegnos initiative in promoting the use of manipulatives

(see Rogers, to appear).

As mentioned before, Emma was first attracted by Clairauts practical approach to teaching

geometry. But she also realized that the construction of a figure with a ruler and a compass

limits freedom of thought, because you can consider only a finite number of cases: drawing is

static and does not stimulate observation nor lead to new discoveries. She understood that it is

better to construct geometric figures with concrete materials that can be handled, doing and

undoing them (Castelnuovo, 2008). Already by 1948 her book on intuitive geometry refers to

many examples of the use of simple materials such as meccano or elastic strings, and the

consideration of limit cases leads the pupil to imagine moving these objects.

At its best, Emmas approach utilizes concrete materials and hints at new potentialities:

through experiments she fosters explorations, the production of conjectures, examples, and

counterexamples. Children are free to build their knowledge by using direct observation and

imagination (see Lanciano, website). This activity allows the birth of a critical spirit as a main

component of logical thinking. Allowing students to make errors is a fundamental component

of Emmas teaching. Errors have an educational value and also a social one: everyone can

make mistakes, and to analyze them collectively can bring about new discoveries (Arbarello,

2014). In Emmas method, we recognize the seeds of the ideas inspiring subsequent innovations with technology that happened some decades later.

References

Arbarello, E. (2014). Emma Castelnuovo 19132014. NUMI, 41(34), 4852.

Barbin, E., & Menghini, M. (2014). History of teaching geometry. In A. Karp & G. Schubring (Eds.), Handbook

on history of mathematics education (pp. 473492). New York: Springer.

Bernet, T., & Jaquet, F. (1998). La CIEAEM au travers de ses 50 premires rencontres. Neuchtel: CIEAEM.

Casalderrey, F. M., & Ramellini, G. (Eds.) (2004). Ideas de Emmatemtica Castelnuovo, Monografia n. 1 SUMA.

Castelnuovo, E. (1946). Un metodo attivo nellinsegnamento della geometria intuitiva. Periodico di Matematiche,

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Websites

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AnnieBerte.pdf. Retrieved 5 July 2014

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July 2014

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Instruction (1908-2008). The history of ICMI. http://www.icmihistory.unito.it/. Retrieved 5 July 2014

ICMI. (n.d.). The ICMI Emma Castelnuovo Award for excellence in the Practice of Mathematics Education.

http://www.mathunion.org/icmi/activities/awards/emma-castelnuovo-award/. Retrieved 5 July 2014

Lanciano, N. (2014). Mathematics, imagination and reality. The legacy of Emma Castelnuovo. https://www.

researchitaly.it/en/understanding/project-and-success-stories/interviews-and-life-stories/mathematicsimagination-and-reality-the-legacy-of-emma-castelnuovo/. Retrieved 5 July 2014

Menghini, M. with the collaboration of M. Barra, L. Cannizzaro, N. Lanciano, & D. Valenti (2014).

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