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CHAPTER I

WORD
Law abiding
inherent
secular
veil

MEANING
Obeys Law
existing as a natural or basic part of some thing
Not having any connection with religion
cover

omniscient /Q Q "Q Q Q .Q .Q Q Q / US /Q:Q"QQQ.Q QQ/ adjective

FORMAL

having or seeming to have unlimited knowledge:


the omniscient narrator
omniscience

/QQ"QQQ.Q.QQQ Q/

myriad /"QQQ.Q.QQ/ noun [C]

US

/Q:Q"QQQ.QQQQ/

noun [U]

FORMAL

LITERARY

a very large number of something:


a myriad of choices
And now myriads of bars and hotels are opening up along the coast.
myriad

/"QQQ.Q.QQ/

adjective

They offered no solution for all our myriad problems.

flint /QQQQQ/ noun [C or U]


1 (a piece of) shiny grey or black stone that is like glass

2 (a piece of) stone or metal used in a musket to make it fire or in a cigarette lighter to produce a
flinty

/"QQQQ.QQ/

US

/-QQ/

adjective

1 made of or like flint:


a flinty material
2 severe and determined:
The head teacher has a rather flinty manner.

friction (FORCE) /"QQQQ.QQQ/ noun [U]

the force which makes it difficult for one object to slide along the surface of another or to move through a
When you rub your hands together the friction produces heat.
frictional

/"QQQQ.QQQ.QQ/

adjective

weep (CRY) /QQ:Q/ verb [I or T] wept, wept

LITERARY

to cry tears:
People in the street wept with joy when peace was announced.
She wept buckets (= cried a lot) when Paul left.
weep

/QQ:Q/

noun [S]

LITERARY

It might help you to have a good weep.


weepy

/"QQ:.QQ/

adjective

sad and likely to cry:


I'd just waved Peter off at the airport and was feeling a bit weepy.

weepy, weepie

/"QQ:.QQ/

noun [C]

INFORMAL

a film or a book which makes people want to cry because it is sad:


If I were you I'd take some tissues to the cinema - it's a real weepy.

shingle (STONES) /"QQQ.QQ=/ noun [U]


small round stones that cover a beach or the ground by the edge of a river:
a shingle beach
I love the noise of the waves on the shingle.
shingly

/"QQQ.QQ=.Q/

adverb

It was uncomfortable walking barefoot on the shingly beach.

tangible /"Q{Q.QQQ.QQ=/ adjective


real or not imaginary; able to be shown, touched or experienced:
We need tangible evidence if we're going to take legal action.
Other tangible benefits include an increase in salary and shorter working hours.

/"Q{Q.QQQ.QQQ/

tangibly

fusing

adverb

combining
cling (STAY CLOSE) /QQQQ/ verb clung, clung
1 [I usually + adverb or preposition] to stay close or near:
The road clings to (= closely follows) the coastline for several miles, then it turns inland.
2 [I]

DISAPPROVING

to stay close to someone who is caring for you, in a dependent way:

Jenny is the kind of child who always clings whenever she's taken to a new place.
clinging

/"QQQQ.QQ/

adjective (ALSO clingy)

DISAPPROVING

Jimmy is a very clingy child.

manifest /"Q{Q.Q.QQQQ/ verb [T]

FORMAL

to show something clearly, through signs or actions:


The workers chose to manifest their dissatisfaction in a series of strikes.
The illness first manifested itself in/as severe stomach pains.
Lack of confidence in the company manifested itself in a fall in the share price.
manifest

/"Q{Q.Q.QQQQ/

adjective

FORMAL

easily noticed or obvious:


There was manifest relief among the workers yesterday at the decision not to close the factory.
Her manifest lack of interest in the project has provoked severe criticism.
manifestly

/"Q{Q.Q.QQQQ.QQ/

adverb

FORMAL

very obviously:
He claims that he is completely committed to the project and yet this is manifestly untrue.

The government has manifestly failed to raise educational standards, despite its commitment to d
manifestation

/%Q{Q.Q.QQQ"QQQ.QQQ/

noun

FORMAL

1 [C] a sign of something existing or happening:

She claimed that the rise in unemployment was just a further manifestation of the government's i

2 [U] appearance:
Unlike acid rain or deforestation, global warming has no visible manifestation .

will (FUTURE) /QQQ/ modal verb (ALSO 'll)

used to talk about what is going to happen in the future, especially things that you are certain about or th
Clare will be five years old next month.
The train leaves at 8.58, so we'll be in Scotland by lunchtime.
I'll see him tomorrow./I'll be seeing him tomorrow.
Will Susie be there?
It won't be easy to find another secretary.
There'll be trouble when she finds out.
will have
used to refer back to the past from a point in the future:
By the time we get there, Jim will have left.

gulf

an important different between ideas


whence /QQQQQ/ adverb, conjunction

FORMAL

(from) where:
It has been returned to the shop from whence it came.

eternal /Q"QQ:.QQQ/ US /-"QQ`:-/ adjective


lasting forever or for a very long time:
The company is engaged in the eternal search for a product that will lead the market.
Will you two never stop your eternal arguing!
Hope springs eternal.

SAYING

said when you are hopeful that something will happen although it seems unlikely
eternally

/Q"QQ:.QQQ.Q/

US

/-"QQ`:-/

adverb

the eternally changing seasons


eternally weary/sad/cheerful
FORMAL

I'd be eternally (= very or always) grateful if you could arrange it.

assimilate /Q"QQQ.Q.QQQQ/ verb [I or T]


to take in, fit into, or become similar (to):
The European Union should remain flexible enough to assimilate more countries quickly.
You shouldn't expect immigrants to assimilate into an alien culture immediately.
It's hard to assimilate (= learn and understand) so much information.
In this form vitamins can be easily assimilated by the body.
assimilation

/Q%QQQ.Q"QQQ.QQQ/

noun [U]

The assimilation of ethnic Germans in the US was accelerated by the two world wars.
assimilable

/Q"QQQ.Q.QQ.QQ=/

adjective

A textbook needs to be assimilable (= able to be understood) to sell a lot of copies.

fritte to waste money,time or opportunity


tomb /QQ:Q/ noun [C]
a large stone structure or underground room where someone, especially an important person, is buried

penance /"QQQ.QQQQ/ noun [C or U]


an act which shows that you regret something that you have done, sometimes for religious reasons:
As a penance, she said she would buy them all a box of chocolates.
They are doing penance for their sins.

seldom /"QQQ.QQQ/ adverb


almost never:
Now that we have a baby, we seldom get the chance to go to the cinema.
FORMAL

Seldom do we receive any apology when mistakes are made.

mere /QQQQ/ US /QQQ/ adjective [before noun]


used to emphasize that something is not large or important:
The plane crashed mere minutes after take-off.
It cost a mere twenty dollars.
The mere thought of it makes me feel ill.
merely

/"QQQ.QQ/

US

/"QQQ-/

adverb

used to emphasize that you mean exactly what you are saying and nothing more:
I wasn't complaining, I merely said that I was tired.
The medicine won't cure her - it merely stops the pain.
merest

/"QQQ.QQQQ/

US

/"QQQ.QQQ/

adjective

the merest used to emphasize the surprising or strong effect of a very small action or event:
The merest mention of seafood makes her feel sick.
The merest hint of criticism makes him defensive.

restrain /QQ"QQQQQQ/ verb [T]

to control the actions or behaviour of someone by force, especially in order to stop them from doing some
When he started fighting, it took four police officers to restrain him.
[R] She was so angry that she could hardly restrain herself.
You should try to restrain your ambitions and be more realistic.
Growth in car ownership could be restrained by increasing taxes.
restrained

/QQ"QQQQQQQ/

adjective

1 acting in a calm and controlled way:


I was expecting him to be furious but he was very restrained.
2 controlled:
a more restrained policy on mortgage lending
The tone of his poetry is restrained and unemotional.
restraint

/QQ"QQQQQQQ/

noun

1 [U] calm and controlled behaviour:

He showed admirable restraint, and refused to be provoked.

The security forces exercised (= used) great restraint by not responding to hostile attacks and th

2 [C or U] something which limits the freedom of someone or something, or which prevents some
government spending restraints
Lack of space is the main restraint on the firm's expansion plans.

During the recession, the government opted for a policy of pay/wage restraint rather than a reduc
keep/place sb under restraint
to keep a violent person in a way that prevents them from moving freely:
The two prisoners were kept under restraint while they were transported between prisons.

unrestrained /%QQ.QQ"QQQQQQQ/ adjective


not limited or controlled:
unrestrained joy/anger/criticism

curb (CONTROL) /QQ:Q/ US /QQ`:Q/ verb [T]


to control or limit something that is not desirable:
The Government should act to curb tax evasion.
curb

/QQ:Q/

US

/QQ`:Q/

noun [C]

You must try to put a curb on your bad temper/spending habits.

evade /Q"QQQQ/ verb [T]


1

SLIGHTLY FORMAL

to avoid or escape from someone or something:

Just give me an answer and stop evading the question!

The police have assured the public that the escaped prisoners will not evade rec
She leant forward to kiss him but he evaded her by pretending to sneeze.
An Olympic gold medal is the only thing that has evaded her in her remarkable
[+ ing form of verb] He can't evade doing military service forever.

2 evade the issue/question, etc. to intentionally not talk about something or


evasion

/Q"QQQ.QQQ/

noun [C or U]

when you avoid something or someone:

Her speech was full of excuses and evasions and never properly addressed the i
tax evasion (= illegally not paying tax)
evasive

/Q"QQQ.QQQ/

adjective

done in order to avoid something or someone:

By the time the pilot realised how close the plane was to the building, it was too

The Minister was her usual evasive self, skilfully dodging reporters' questions ab

/Q"QQQ.QQQ.QQ/ adverb
evasiveness /Q"QQQ.QQQ.QQQ/ noun
evasively

[U]

might (POWER) /QQQQ/ noun [U]


power, strength or force:
Pizarro defeated the might of the Inca Empire with only a few hundred men.
She struggled with all her might to get free.

with might and main

OLD-FASHIONED LITERARY

with as much effort as possible:


They shouted with might and main but nobody came to rescue them.
mighty

/"QQQ.QQ/

US

/-QQ/

adjective

LITERARY

very large, powerful or important:


In the next game they will face the mighty Redskins.
Through the fields flows the mighty River Po.
mighty

/"QQQ.QQ/

US

/-QQ/

adverb

MAINLY US INFORMAL

very:
They offered to raise salaries by 12% - that's a mighty generous deal.
mightily

/"QQQ.QQ.QQ/

US

/-QQ-/

adverb

FORMAL

with great effort:


He spent ten years struggling mightily with the bureaucracy.

nevertheless /%QQQ.Q.QQ"QQQ/ US /-Q`-/ adverb (SLIGHTLY FORMAL nonetheless)


despite what has just been said or referred to:
I knew a lot about the subject already, but her talk was interesting nevertheless.

wicked (BAD) /"QQQ.QQ/ adjective

OLD-FASHIONED

1 morally wrong and bad:


It was a wicked thing to do.
Of course, in the end, the wicked witch gets killed.
Compare evil; naughty (BADLY BEHAVED).
2 slightly immoral or bad for you, but in an attractive way:
a wicked grin
a wicked sense of humour
There's no rest for the wicked.

SAYING

said when you must continue with your work or other activity although you are very tired

despise /QQ"QQQQQ/ verb [T not continuous]


to feel a strong dislike for someone or something because you think they are bad or worthless:
The two groups despise each other.
She despised him for the way he treated her sister.
[R] He despised himself for being such a coward.
despicable

/QQ"QQQQ.Q.QQ=/

adjective

very unpleasant or bad, causing strong feelings of dislike:


despicable behaviour
He's a despicable human being!
It was despicable of her to lie about her friend.
despicably

/QQ"QQQQ.Q.QQQ/

adverb

I think you behaved despicably.

thereof /%QQQ"QQQ/ US /%QQQ"Q:Q/ adverb

FORMAL

of or about the thing just mentioned:


Please refer to the Regulations and in particular Articles 99 and 100 thereof.

intense /QQ"QQQQQ/ adjective


1 extreme and forceful or (of a feeling) very strong:
intense cold/heat/hatred
an intense flavour/colour
He suddenly felt an intense pain in his back.
2 Intense people are very serious, and usually have strong emotions or opinions:
an intense young man
intensely

/QQ"QQQQ.QQQ/

adverb

His strongest criticism is reserved for his father, whom he disliked intensely.
intensity

/QQ"QQQQ.QQ.QQ/

US

/-QQ.QQ/

noun [U]

The explosion was of such intensity that it was heard five miles away.
intensifier

/QQ"QQQQ.QQ.QQQ.QQ/

US

/-Q`/

noun [C] (ALSO intensive)

SPECIALIZED

In English grammar, an intensifier is a word, especially an adverb or adjective, which has little me

In the phrases 'an extremely large man' and 'I strongly object', 'extremely' and 'strongly' are both
intensify

/QQ"QQQQ.QQ.QQQ/

verb [I or T]

to become greater, more serious or more extreme, or to make something do this:


Fighting around the capital has intensified in the last few hours.
intensification

/QQ%QQQQ.QQ.QQ"QQQ.QQQ/

renounce /QQ"QQQQQQ/ verb [T]

noun [U]

FORMAL

to say formally or publicly that you no longer own, support, believe in or have a connection with somethin
Her ex-husband renounced his claim to the family house.
Gandhi renounced the use of violence.
renunciation

/QQ%QQQQ.QQ"QQ.QQQ/

noun [S or U]

the renunciation of violence

solitude /"QQQ.Q.QQQ:Q/ US /"QQ:.QQ.QQ:Q/ noun [U]


the situation of being alone without other people:
a life of solitude
After months of solitude at sea it felt strange to be in company.
It provides one with a chance to reflect on spiritual matters in solitude.

surge /QQ:QQ/ US /QQ`:QQ/ noun [C]


1 a sudden and great increase:
An unexpected surge in electrical power caused the computer to crash.
There has been a surge in house prices recently.
See also resurgence.
2 a sudden and great movement forward:
At the end of the game, there was a surge of fans onto the field.

A tidal surge (= sudden and great rise in the level of the sea) caused severe flooding in coastal a

3 a sudden increase of an emotion:


She was overwhelmed by a surge of remorse.
surge

/QQ:QQ/

US

/QQ`:QQ/

verb [I]

1 to increase suddenly and greatly:


The company's profits have surged.
2 to move quickly and powerfully:
An angry crowd surged through the gates of the president's palace.
A few metres before the end of the race, Jenkins surged into the lead.
3 (of an emotion) to develop strongly and quickly:
She felt a wave of resentment surging (up) inside her.

deprive /QQ"QQQQQ/ verb [T]


to take something, especially something necessary or pleasant, away from someone:
He claimed that he had been deprived of his freedom/rights.
You can't function properly when you're deprived of sleep.
deprive sb of your company

HUMOROUS

to prevent someone from being with someone else:


Where have you been? We've been deprived of your company for far too long!
deprivation

/%QQQ.QQ"QQQ.QQQ/

noun [C or U]

when you do not have things or conditions that are usually considered necessary for a pleasant lif
They used sleep deprivation as a form of torture.
There is awful deprivation in the shanty towns.
There were food shortages and other deprivations during the Civil War.
deprived

/QQ"QQQQQQ/

adjective

not having the things that are necessary for a pleasant life, such as enough money, food or good l
She had a deprived childhood/comes from a deprived background.
a deprived area

turmoil /"QQ:.QQQQ/ US /"QQ`:-/ noun [S or U]


a state of confusion, uncertainty or lack of order:
The whole region is in turmoil.
The country is in a state of political turmoil.
The Stock Exchange is in turmoil following a huge wave of selling.

ease (MAKE LESS) /Q:Q/ verb [I or T]


to make or become less severe, difficult, unpleasant, painful, etc:
To ease the problem of overcrowding, new prisons will be built.
These pills should ease the pain.
After the arrival of the United Nations soldiers, tension in the area began to ease.
ease your mind
to stop you from worrying:
If it will ease your mind, I'll have a word with Charlotte for you.

perchance /QQ"QQQ:QQQ/ US /QQ`"QQ{QQQ/ adverb

OLD USE

by chance; possibly:
Do you know her, perchance?

CHAPTER II
equilibrium /%Q:.QQQ"QQQ.QQ.QQ/ /%QQ.QQ-/ noun [S or U]

SLIGHTLY FORMAL

1 a state of balance:
The disease destroys much of the inner-ear, disturbing the animal's equilibrium.
the country's economic equilibrium
2 a state of mental calmness:
Yoga is said to restore one's inner equilibrium.

inert (NOT MOVING) /Q"QQ:Q/ US /-"QQ`:Q/ adjective


1 not moving or not able to move:
The inert figure of a man could be seen lying in the front of the car.
2 not energetic or interesting:
The narrative is inert and sloppy, as if the author had been writing half-asleep.
inertly

/Q"QQ:Q.QQ/

US

/-"QQ`:Q-/

adverb

repulse (PUSH AWAY) /QQ"QQQQ/ verb [T]

FORMAL

to push away or refuse something or someone unwanted, especially to successfully stop a physical attack
The enemy attack was quickly repulsed.
repulse

/QQ"QQQQ/

noun [S or U]

FORMAL OR OLD-FASHIONED

when someone or something is repulsed


repulsion

/QQ"QQQ.QQQ/

noun [U]

SPECIALIZED

the force in physics that pushes two objects apart:


magnetic repulsion

prevail /QQQ"QQQQ/ verb [I]

FORMAL

1 to get control or influence:


I am sure that common sense will prevail in the end.
And did reason prevail over (= become a more powerful influence than) emotion?
2 to be common among a group of people or area at a particular time:
This attitude still prevails among the middle classes.
prevailing

/QQQ"QQQ.QQQ/

adjective

1 existing in a particular place or at a particular time:


the prevailing attitude
The prevailing mood is one of optimism.
2 prevailing wind a wind which usually blows in a particular place:
The town is kept cool by the prevailing westerly winds.

deed (ACTION) /QQ:Q/ noun [C]


an intentional act, especially a very bad or very good one:

It seems to me that a lot of evil deeds are done in the name of religion.
She's always helping people and doing other good deeds.

approbation /%{Q.QQQ"QQQ.QQQ/ noun [U]

FORMAL

approval or agreement, often given by an official group; praise:


The council has finally indicated its approbation of the plans.

brag /QQ{Q/ verb [I] -gg-

INFORMAL DISAPPROVING

to speak too proudly about what you have done or what you own:
She's always bragging about how much money she earns.
[+ that] They bragged that their team had never been beaten.
braggart

/"QQ{Q.QQ/

US

/-Q`Q/

noun [C]

OLD-FASHIONED DISAPPROVING

someone who proudly talks a lot about themselves and their achievements or possessions

nectar /"QQQ.QQQ/ US /-QQ`/ noun [U]


1 a sweet liquid produced by flowers and collected by bees and other insects:
The bee turns nectar into honey.
2 in ancient Greek and Roman stories, the drink of the gods:
This wine tastes like nectar (= tastes excellent).

chaste /QQQQQQ/ adjective

FORMAL

1 not having had sex, or only having a sexual relationship with the person whom you are married
In the past, a woman needed to be chaste to make a good marriage.
They exchanged a few chaste kisses (= not expressing sexual desire).
2 describes decoration or style that is very simple and smooth:
I like the simple, chaste lines of their architecture.
chastity

/"QQ{Q.QQ.QQ/

US

/-QQ/

noun [U]

the state of not having sexual relationships or never having had sex:
As a monk, he took vows of chastity, poverty and obedience.

weep (CRY) /QQ:Q/ verb [I or T] wept, wept

LITERARY

to cry tears:
People in the street wept with joy when peace was announced.
She wept buckets (= cried a lot) when Paul left.
weep

/QQ:Q/

noun [S]

LITERARY

It might help you to have a good weep.


weepy

/"QQ:.QQ/

adjective

sad and likely to cry:


I'd just waved Peter off at the airport and was feeling a bit weepy.
weepy, weepie

/"QQ:.QQ/

noun [C]

INFORMAL

a film or a book which makes people want to cry because it is sad:


If I were you I'd take some tissues to the cinema - it's a real weepy.

lamb /Q{Q/ noun [C or U]


a young sheep, or the flesh of a young sheep eaten as meat:
lambs gambolling about in the fields
lamb chops
roast lamb
See also mutton.
like a lamb to the slaughter

If a person does something or goes somewhere like a lamb to the slaughter, they do it without kno
Lamb of God
in the Christian religion, a name for Christ
lamb

/Q{Q/

verb [I]

When sheep lamb, they give birth to lambs.

revere /QQ"QQQQ/ US /-"QQQ/ verb [T]

FORMAL

to greatly respect and admire someone or something:


Nelson Mandela is revered for his brave fight against apartheid.
reverence

/"QQQ.QQ.QQQQ/

US

/-Q`.QQQQ/

noun [U]

FORMAL

She has/shows/feels great reverence for her professors.


reverent

/"QQQ.QQ.QQQ/

US

/-Q`.QQQ/

adjective

FORMAL

A reverent silence fell over the crowd.


NOTE: The opposite is irreverent.
reverently

/"QQQ.QQ.QQQ.QQ/

US

/-Q`.QQQ-/

adverb

FORMAL

He laid the wreath reverently in front of the memorial.


reverential

/%QQQ.QQ"QQQ.QQQ/

US

/-Q"QQQQ-/

adjective

FORMAL

He opened the ancient book with reverential care.


reverentially

/%QQQ.QQ"QQQ.QQQ.Q/

wicked (BAD) /"QQQ.QQ/ adjective

US

/-Q"QQQQ-/

OLD-FASHIONED

1 morally wrong and bad:


It was a wicked thing to do.
Of course, in the end, the wicked witch gets killed.
Compare evil; naughty (BADLY BEHAVED).
2 slightly immoral or bad for you, but in an attractive way:
a wicked grin
a wicked sense of humour
There's no rest for the wicked.

SAYING

said when you must continue with your work or other activity although you are very tired

patron (CUSTOMER) /"QQQ.QQQQ/ noun [C]

FORMAL

a person who uses a particular shop, restaurant, hotel, etc., especially regularly; a customer:
Will patrons kindly note that this shop will be closed on 17th July.

patronage

/"Q{Q.QQ.QQQQ/ /"QQQ.QQQQ.QQQ/

noun [U]

FORMAL

the business given to a shop or restaurant, etc. by its customers:


We would like to thank all of our customers for their patronage in the past.
patronize,

UK USUALLY

patronise

/"Q{Q.QQQ.QQQ/

US

/"QQQ.QQQQ-/ /"Q{Q.QQQ-/

verb [T]

FORMAL

to be a regular customer of a shop or restaurant, etc:


We always patronize Beaumont's - the food is so good there.

gush (FLOW) /QQQ/ verb [I usually + adverb or preposition; T]


to flow or send out quickly and in large amounts:
Oil gushed (out) from the hole in the tanker.
Blood was gushing from his nose.
Her arm gushed blood where the knife had gone in.
gush

/QQQ/

noun [S]

a large amount of liquid or gas that flows quickly:


Showers with pumps are more expensive, but they deliver a really powerful gush of water.
gusher

/"QQQ.QQ/

US

/-Q`/

noun [C]

an oil well from which oil flows without the use of a pump (DEVICE)

preach (SPEAK IN CHURCH) /QQQ:QQ/ verb [I or T]


(especially of a priest in a church) to give a religious speech:
Father Martin preached to the assembled mourners.
During the sermon, he preached about the need for forgiveness.
preacher

/"QQQ:.QQQQ/

US

/-QQQ`/

noun [C]

a person, usually a priest, who gives a religious speech

prop (SUPPORT) /QQQQ/ US /QQQ:Q/ verb [T + adverb or preposition] -pp-

to support something physically, often by leaning it against something else or putting something under it:
I propped my bike (up) against the wall.
She was sitting at the desk with her chin propped on her hands.
This window keeps on closing - I'll have to prop it open with something.
prop

/QQQQ/

US

/QQQ:Q/

noun [C]

an object which is used to support something by holding it up:


I need some sort of a prop to keep the washing line up.
FIGURATIVE

A lot of people use cigarettes as a sort of social prop (= to make them feel more confid

beneath (BELOW) /QQ"QQ:Q/ preposition


in or to a lower position than, under:
Jeremy hid the letter beneath a pile of papers.
We huddled together for warmth beneath the blankets.
After weeks at sea, it was wonderful to feel firm ground beneath our feet once more.

Emma was so tired and hungry that her legs were beginning to give way beneath her (= she was about t
beneath

/QQ"QQ:Q/

adverb

She looked out of the window at the children playing beneath.

legitimate /QQ"QQQQ.Q.QQQ/ US /-"QQQQ-/ adjective


1 allowed by law:
The army must give power back to the legitimate government.
2 reasonable and acceptable:
He claimed that the restaurant bill was a legitimate business expense.
3 A legitimate child is one whose parents are legally married at the time of his or her birth.
legitimately

/QQ"QQQQ.Q.QQQ.QQ/

US

/-"QQQQ-/

adverb

Most foreign visitors to Britain enter the country legitimately (= legally).

/QQ"QQQQ.Q.QQ.QQ/

legitimacy

US

/-"QQQQ-/

noun [U]

The government expressed serious doubts about the legitimacy of military action (= about whethe
legitimize,

UK USUALLY

legitimise

/QQ"QQQQ.Q.QQQQ/

US

/-"QQQQ-/

verb [T] (US legitimate)

FORMAL

The government fears that talking to terrorists might legitimize (= make acceptable) their violent

immoral /Q"QQQ.QQ/ US /-"QQ:Q-/ adjective


not within society's standards of acceptable, honest and moral behaviour; morally wrong:
an immoral act
immoral behaviour
It's an immoral tax, because the poor will pay relatively more.
Compare amoral; moral.

/Q"QQQ.QQ.Q/ US /-"QQ:Q-/ adverb


immorality /%QQ.Q"Q{Q.Q.QQ/ US /-Q:"Q{Q.Q.QQ/
immorally

noun [U]

when someone or something is immoral

attain /Q"QQQQ/ verb [T]

FORMAL

to reach or succeed in getting something; to achieve:


He has attained the highest grade in his music exams.
We need to identify the best ways of attaining our objectives/goals.
India attained independence in 1947, after decades of struggle.
attainable

/Q"QQQ.QQ.QQ=/

adjective

FORMAL

possible to achieve:
We must ensure that we do not set ourselves goals that are not attainable.
attainment

/Q"QQQQ.QQQQ/

1 [U]

when you achieve something:

FORMAL

noun

the attainment of a goal


attainment targets
2 [C usually plural]

UK FORMAL

Someone's attainments are the things they have done and the skills

salvation /Q{Q"QQQ.QQQ/ noun


1 [S or U] (a way of) being saved from danger, loss or harm:
After the diagnosis, getting to know Mary was his salvation.

a marriage beyond salvation

2 [U] In the Christian religion, salvation of a person or their spirit is the state of being saved from
The Gospel message is one of personal salvation.

virtue (GOODNESS) /"QQ:.QQQ:/ US /"QQ`:-/ noun [C or U]


a good moral quality in a person, or the general quality of goodness in people:
Patience is a virtue.
Compare vice (MORAL FAULT).
virtuous

/"QQ:.QQQ.QQ/

US

/"QQ`:-/

adjective

1 having good moral qualities and behaviour:


He described them as a virtuous and hard-working people.
2

DISAPPROVING

describes a person who thinks himself or herself morally better than other people:

I'm convinced he only does that charity work so that he can feel virtuous.
virtuously

/"QQ:.QQQ.Q.QQQ/

US

/"QQ`:-/

adverb

condemn /QQQ"QQQ/ verb [T]


to criticize something or someone strongly, usually for moral reasons:
The terrorist action has been condemned as an act of barbarism and cowardice.
The film was condemned for its sexism.
condemnation

/%QQQ.QQQ"QQQ.QQQ/

US

/%QQ:Q-/

noun [C or U]

when you condemn something or someone:


The shooting of the policeman has received universal condemnation.
condemnatory

/QQQ"QQQ.QQ.QQQ/

US

/-QQ:Q.Q/

adjective

a condemnatory speech/tone
condemned

/QQQ"QQQQ/

adjective

1 A condemned person is someone who is going to be killed, especially as a punishment for havin

2 describes a building that has been officially judged not safe for people to live in or to use, or foo

condemn /QQQ"QQQ/ verb [T]


to criticize something or someone strongly, usually for moral reasons:
The terrorist action has been condemned as an act of barbarism and cowardice.
The film was condemned for its sexism.
condemnation

/%QQQ.QQQ"QQQ.QQQ/

US

/%QQ:Q-/

noun [C or U]

when you condemn something or someone:


The shooting of the policeman has received universal condemnation.
condemnatory

/QQQ"QQQ.QQ.QQQ/

US

/-QQ:Q.Q/

adjective

a condemnatory speech/tone
condemned

/QQQ"QQQQ/

adjective

1 A condemned person is someone who is going to be killed, especially as a punishment for havin

2 describes a building that has been officially judged not safe for people to live in or to use, or foo

sneer /QQQQQ/ US /QQQQ/ verb [I or T]

to talk about or look at someone or something in an unkind way that shows you do not respect or approve
You may sneer, but a lot of people like this kind of music.
She'll probably sneer at my new shoes because they're not expensive.
[+ speech] "Is that the best you can do?" he sneered.
sneer

/QQQQQ/

US

/QQQQ/

noun [C]

DISAPPROVING

an unkind facial expression which shows your lack of respect or approval of someone or something
"How much did you say you earned last year - was it fifteen thousand?" she said with a sneer.
sneering

/"QQQQ.QQQ/

US

/"QQQQ.QQ/

adjective

DISAPPROVING

rude and not showing respect:


I don't like that superior, sneering tone of his.
sneeringly

/"QQQQ.QQQ.QQ/

US

/"QQQQ.QQ-/

vagabond /"Q{Q.Q.QQQQ/ US /-QQ:QQ/ noun [C]

adverb

DISAPPROVING

OLD USE OR LITERARY

a person who has no home and usually no job, and who travels from place to place:
They live a vagabond life/existence, travelling around in a caravan.
Compare vagrant.

assert /Q"QQ:Q/ US /-"QQ`:Q/ verb [T]


1

FORMAL

to say that something is certainly true:

[+ that] He asserts that she stole money from him.


2 to do something to show that you have power:
Throughout the Cold War, the Allies asserted their right to move freely between the two Berlins.
She very rarely asserts her authority over the children.
as'sert yourself verb [R]
to behave in a way which expresses your confidence, importance or power and earns you respect
I really must assert myself more in meetings.

consent /QQQ"QQQQ/ noun [U]

SLIGHTLY FORMAL

permission or agreement:
They can't publish your name without your consent.
You can only come on the trip if your parents give their consent.
by common consent
most people agree:
Her latest film, by common consent, is her best yet.
consent

/QQQ"QQQQ/

verb [I]

to agree to do something, or to allow someone to do something:


[+ to infinitive] Very reluctantly, I've consented to lend her my car.
My aunt never married because her father wouldn't consent to her marriage.

proclaim (ANNOUNCE) /QQQQ"QQQQQ/ US /QQQQ-/ verb [T]

FORMAL

to announce something publicly or officially, especially something positive:


All the countries have proclaimed their loyalty to the alliance.
Republican party members were confidently proclaiming victory even as the first few votes came in.

[+ that] It was the famous speech in which he proclaimed that socialism was dead.
[+ two objects] She was proclaimed Queen at the age of thirteen after the sudden death of her father.
proclamation

/%QQQQ.QQ"QQQ.QQQ/

US

/%QQQ:.QQQ-/

noun [C or U]

an official announcement:
to issue a proclamation
A bloody civil war followed the proclamation of an independent state.

attire /Q"QQQQQ/ US /-"QQQQ/ noun [U]

FORMAL

clothes, especially of a particular or formal type:


I hardly think jeans are appropriate attire for a wedding.
attired

/Q"QQQQQ/

US

/-"QQQQQ/

adjective [after verb]

FORMAL

She was attired from head to foot in black.

throne /QQQQQ/ US /QQQQQ/ noun [C]


the special chair used by a ruler, especially a king or queen
the throne noun [S]
the state of being a ruler:
Elizabeth II ascended/came to the throne (= became queen of Britain) when her father died.
Queen Victoria was on the throne (= was queen) at that time.
Charles is next in line to the throne (= will become king next).

CHAPTER III
miserable (UNHAPPY) /"QQQ.QQ.Q.QQ=/ US /-Q`-/ adjective
1 very unhappy:
She's miserable living on her own.
2 unpleasant and causing unhappiness:
miserable weather
What a miserable existence! How could anyone live in such dreadful conditions.
miserably

/"QQQ.QQ.Q.QQQ/

US

/-Q`-/

adverb

"I'm so unhappy, " sobbed Chris, miserably.


It's been miserably wet (= raining a lot) all week.
misery

/"QQQ.QQ.Q/

US

/-Q`-/

noun

1 [C or U] We have witnessed the most appalling scenes of human misery.


Ten years of marriage to him have made her life a misery.
2 [C]

INFORMAL

someone who is often very unhappy and is always complaining about things:

Oh come on, don't be such a misery!


put sth out of its misery
to kill an animal because it is in great pain, so that it does not have to suffer any more
put sb out of their misery

INFORMAL

to stop someone worrying, usually by giving them information that they have been waiting for:

We try to put our students out of their misery and give them their exam results as early as possib

annihilate /Q"QQQ.Q.QQQQ/ verb [T]

1 to destroy completely so that nothing is left:


a city annihilated by an atomic bomb
2

INFORMAL

to defeat completely:

He was annihilated in the finals of the competition.

/Q%QQQ.Q"QQQ.QQQ/

annihilation

noun [U]

During the Cold War the threat of nuclear annihilation was always on people's minds.
INFORMAL

The opposition party's candidate suffered annihilation (= complete defeat) at the polls.

intellect /"QQ.QQQ.QQQ/ US /-QQ-/ noun

1 [U] the ability to understand and to think in an intelligent way, or the ability to do these things t
Her energy and intellect are respected all over the world.
He is a man more noted for his intellect than his charm.
2 [C]

FORMAL

intellectual

a highly educated person whose interests are studying and other activities that involv

/%QQ.QQQ"QQ.QQQ.QQ/

US

/-QQQ"QQ.QQQ-/

adjective

relating to your ability to think and understand things, esp complicated ideas:
Looking after a baby at home all day is nice but it doesn't provide much intellectual stimulation.
I like detective stories and romances - nothing too intellectual.
intellectual

/%QQ.QQQ"QQ.QQQ.QQ/

US

/-QQQ"QQ.QQQ-/

noun [C]

a highly educated person whose interests are studying and other activities that involve careful thin
She was too much of an intellectual to find popular films interesting.
intellectually

/%QQ.QQQ"QQ.QQQ.Q.QQ/

US

/-QQQ"QQ.QQQ-/

adverb

She's hoping to find a job which is more demanding intellectually.


intellectualize,

UK USUALLY

intellectualise

/%QQ.QQQ"QQ.QQQ.Q.QQQQ/

US

/-QQQ"QQ.QQQ-/

verb [I or T]

to think about or discuss a subject in a detailed and intellectual way, without involving your emotio
She couldn't stand all that pointless intellectualizing about subjects that just didn't matter.
intellectualism

/%QQ.QQQ"QQ.QQQ.Q.QQ.QQQ/

US

/-QQQ"QQ.QQQ-/

noun [U]

USUALLY DISAPPROVING

grope /QQQQQ/ US /QQQQQ/ verb

1 [I or T] to feel with your hands, especially in order to find or move towards something when you
She groped for her glasses on the bedside table.
I had to grope my way up the dark stairs.
2 [T]

INFORMAL

to touch someone's body in order to get sexual pleasure, usually when the person d

He groped me as I was going to the bar.


grope

/QQQQQ/

US

/QQQQQ/

noun [C]

INFORMAL

a sexual touch, usually an unwanted and unpleasant one

strive /QQQQQQ/ verb [I] strove or strived, striven or strived

to try very hard to do something or to make something happen, especially for a long time or against diffic
[+ to infinitive] Mr Roe has kindled expectations that he must now strive to live up to.
In her writing she strove for a balance between innovation and familiar prose forms.

distress /QQ"QQQQQ/ noun [U]

1 a feeling of extreme worry, sadness or pain:

She claimed that the way she had been treated at work had caused her extreme emotional and ps
Many of the horses were showing signs of distress at the end of the race.
2 when you are suffering or are in great danger and therefore in urgent need of help:
Six people were rescued by helicopter from a fishing boat in distress off the Cornish coast.
a distress signal
distress

/QQ"QQQQQ/

verb [T]

to make someone feel very upset or worried:


I hope I haven't distressed you with all these personal questions.

/QQ"QQQQQQ/

distressed

adjective

She was deeply distressed by the news of his death.


The government is taking steps to stimulate business development in (economically) distressed
distressing

/QQ"QQQQQ.QQ/

adjective (US USUALLY distressful)

The television reports about the famine were particularly distressing.


It was deeply distressing for him to see his wife in such pain.
distressingly

/QQ"QQQQQ.QQ.QQ/

adverb

ignorant /"QQ.QQQ.QQQ/ US /-QQ`-/ adjective


1 not having enough knowledge, understanding or information about something:
Many teenagers are surprisingly ignorant about current politics.
We remained blissfully ignorant of the troubles that lay ahead.
2

not polite or respectful:

UK INFORMAL

Ignorant lout!
ignorance

/"QQ.QQQ.QQQQ/

US

/-QQ`-/

noun [U]

lack of knowledge, understanding or information about something:


Public ignorance about the disease is still a cause for concern.
Patients, it is claimed, were kept/left in ignorance of what was wrong with them.
Ignorance is bliss.

SAYING

said to emphasize that sometimes it is better for you if you do not know all the facts about a situa

asylum (PROTECTION) /Q"QQQ.QQQ/ noun [U]

protection or safety, especially that given by a government to foreigners who have been forced to leave th
to seek/apply for political asylum

incessant /QQ"QQQ.QQQ/ adjective


never stopping, especially in an annoying or unpleasant way:
incessant rain/noise/complaints
incessantly

/QQ"QQQ.QQQ.QQ/

entail /QQ"QQQQ/ verb [T]

adverb

FORMAL

to make something necessary, or to involve something:


Such a large investment inevitably entails some risk.
[+ ing form of verb] Repairing the roof will entail spending a lot of money.

prevail /QQQ"QQQQ/ verb [I]

FORMAL

1 to get control or influence:


I am sure that common sense will prevail in the end.
And did reason prevail over (= become a more powerful influence than) emotion?
2 to be common among a group of people or area at a particular time:
This attitude still prevails among the middle classes.

/QQQ"QQQ.QQQ/

prevailing

adjective

1 existing in a particular place or at a particular time:


the prevailing attitude
The prevailing mood is one of optimism.
2 prevailing wind a wind which usually blows in a particular place:
The town is kept cool by the prevailing westerly winds.

liberate /"QQQ.QQ.QQQ/ US /-Q`.QQQ/ verb [T]


1 to help someone or something to be free:
They said they sent troops in to liberate the people/the country from a dictator.
2

HUMOROUS

to steal something:

She liberated those spoons from a restaurant last week.


liberating

/"QQQ.QQ.QQ.QQQ/

US

/-Q`.QQ.QQQ/

adjective

making you feel free and able to behave as you like:


Taking all your clothes off can be a very liberating experience.
liberation

/%QQQ.Q"QQQ.QQQ/

noun [U]

1 when something or someone is freed:


the liberation of France from Nazi occupation
Leaving school was such a liberation for me.

2 used to refer to activities connected with removing the disadvantages experienced by particular
the women's liberation (INFORMAL lib) movement
animal liberation organizations
liberator

/"QQQ.QQ.QQ.QQQ/

US

/-Q`.QQ.QQ`/

noun [C]

People came out into the streets to welcome the liberators.

subdue /QQQ"QQQ:/ US /-"QQ:/ verb [T]


to reduce the force of something, or to prevent something from existing or developing:
The fire burned for eight hours before the fire crews could subdue it.
He criticized the school for trying to subdue individual expression.
subdued

/QQQ"QQQ:Q/

US

/-"QQ:Q/

adjective

1 If a colour or light is subdued, it is not very bright:


subdued lighting
2 If a noise is subdued, it is not loud:
subdued laughter/cheers
3 If a person is subdued, they are not as happy as usual or they are unusually quiet:
He seemed a bit subdued at lunch - is he all right?

sojourn /"QQQQ.QQ/ US /"QQQ.QQQ`:Q/ noun [C]

LITERARY

a short period when a person stays in a particular place:


My sojourn in the youth hostel was thankfully short.
sojourn

/"QQQQ.QQ/

US

/"QQQ.QQQ`:Q/

verb [I usually + adverb or preposition]

LITERARY

the gist /QQ"QQQQQ/ noun [S]


the most important pieces of information about something, or general information without details:
That was the gist of what he said.
I think I got (= understood) the gist of what she was saying.

drudgery /"QQQQQ.QQ.Q/ US /-Q`-/ noun [U]


hard boring work:
the drudgery of housework
drudge

/QQQQQ/

noun [C]

I feel like a real drudge - I've done nothing but clean all day!

eternal /Q"QQ:.QQQ/ US /-"QQ`:-/ adjective


lasting forever or for a very long time:
The company is engaged in the eternal search for a product that will lead the market.
Will you two never stop your eternal arguing!
Hope springs eternal.

SAYING

said when you are hopeful that something will happen although it seems unlikely
eternally

/Q"QQ:.QQQ.Q/

US

/-"QQ`:-/

adverb

the eternally changing seasons


eternally weary/sad/cheerful
FORMAL

I'd be eternally (= very or always) grateful if you could arrange it.

morbid /"QQ:.QQQ/ US /"QQ:Q-/ adjective

DISAPPROVING

too interested in unpleasant subjects, especially death:


a morbid fascination with death

/"QQ:.QQQ.QQ/ US /"QQ:Q-/ adverb DISAPPROVING


morbidity /%QQ:"QQQ.Q.QQ/ US /%QQ:Q"QQQ.Q.QQ/ noun [U]
morbidly

DISAPPROVING

insinuate /QQ"QQQ.QQ.QQQ/ verb [T]


to suggest, without being direct, that something unpleasant is true:
[+ (that)] Are you insinuating (that) I'm losing my nerve?
What are you insinuating, Daniel?
insinuating

/QQ"QQQ.QQ.QQ.QQQ/

US

/-QQQ/

adjective

suggesting ideas without stating them directly:


She didn't reply - she merely smiled that insinuating smile.
Both songs are in danger of being banned for their sexy, insinuating lyrics.

insinuation

/QQ%QQQ.QQ"QQ.QQQ/

noun [C or U]

[+ that] We resent these insinuations that we are not capable of leading the company forward.

bliss /QQQQ/ noun [U]


perfect happiness:
Lying on a sunny beach is my idea of sheer bliss.
wedded/domestic bliss
blissful

/"QQQQ.QQQ/

adjective

extremely or completely happy:


a blissful childhood/holiday
We spent a blissful year together before things started to go wrong.
in blissful ignorance
not knowing any of the unpleasant facts about something:
All the time his business was failing, he kept his wife and family in blissful ignorance.
blissfully

/"QQQQ.QQQ.Q/

adverb

in an extremely happy way:


They seemed blissfully happy.
All this time I was blissfully unaware of the situation.

might (POWER) /QQQQ/ noun [U]


power, strength or force:
Pizarro defeated the might of the Inca Empire with only a few hundred men.
She struggled with all her might to get free.
with might and main

OLD-FASHIONED LITERARY

with as much effort as possible:


They shouted with might and main but nobody came to rescue them.
mighty

/"QQQ.QQ/

US

/-QQ/

adjective

LITERARY

very large, powerful or important:


In the next game they will face the mighty Redskins.
Through the fields flows the mighty River Po.
mighty

/"QQQ.QQ/

US

/-QQ/

adverb

MAINLY US INFORMAL

very:
They offered to raise salaries by 12% - that's a mighty generous deal.
mightily

/"QQQ.QQ.QQ/

US

/-QQ-/

adverb

FORMAL

with great effort:


He spent ten years struggling mightily with the bureaucracy.

hinder /"QQQ.QQQ/ US /-QQ`/ verb [T]


to limit the ability of someone to do something, or to limit the development of something:
High winds have hindered firefighters in their efforts to put out the blaze.
Her progress certainly hasn't been hindered by her lack of experience.

mongoose /"QQQ.QQ:Q/ US /"QQ:Q-/ noun [C] plural mongooses

a small tropical animal with a long tail which eats snakes, rats and birds' eggs

dwell /QQQQ/ verb [I usually + adverb or preposition] dwelt or dwelled, dwelt or dwelled

FORMAL

to live in a place or in a particular way:


She dwelt in remote parts of Asia for many years.
dwell on sth phrasal verb
to keep thinking or talking about something, especially something bad or unpleasant:
In his speech, he dwelt on the plight of the sick and the hungry.
dweller

/"QQQQ.QQ/

US

/-Q`/

noun

city/town/cave, etc. dweller a person who lives in a city, town, cave, etc.
dwelling

/"QQQQ.QQ/

noun [C]

FORMAL

a house or place to live in:


There is an estimated shortfall of some five million dwellings across the country.

famine /"Q{Q.QQ/ noun [C or U]

when there is not enough food for a great number of people, causing illness and death, or a particular per
Another crop failure could result in widespread famine.
There were reports of refugees dying of famine.
Thousands of people emigrated during the Irish potato famine of 1845-46.

flour /QQQQQQ/ US /QQQQQ`/ noun [U]


powder made from grain, especially wheat, used for making bread, cakes, pasta, pastry, etc.
See also cornflour.
flour

/QQQQQQ/

US

/QQQQQ`/

verb [T]

to put flour on a surface to prevent food from sticking:


Grease and flour (= put a thin layer of flour on) the tins thoroughly.
floury

/"QQQQQ.QQ/

US

/"QQQQQ`.Q/

adjective

1 covered in flour, or tasting or feeling like flour:


She wiped her floury hands on a cloth.
2

UK

describes potatoes that are dry and break into small pieces when they are cooked

vaunted /"QQ:Q.QQQ/ US /"QQ:Q.QQQ/ adjective

FORMAL

praised frequently in a way that is considered to be more than acceptable or reasonable:


His (much) vaunted new scheme has been shown to have serious weaknesses.

CHAPTER IV
impulse (DESIRE) /"QQ.QQQQ/ noun [C + to infinitive]
a sudden strong desire to do something:
I had this sudden impulse to shout out "Rubbish!" in the middle of her speech.
on (an) impulse
because you suddenly want to, although you haven't planned to:

"I didn't know you were looking for some new shoes." "Oh, I wasn't - I just bought them on impul

impulsive

/QQ"QQQ.QQQ/

adjective

showing behaviour in which you do things suddenly without any planning and without considering
Don't be so impulsive - think before you act.
an impulsive man/decision/gesture
impulsively

/QQ"QQQ.QQQ.QQ/

adverb

conscience /"QQQ.QQQQQQ/ US /"QQ:Q-/ noun [C or U]

the part of you that judges the morality of your own actions and makes you feel guilty about bad things th
a guilty conscience
a question/matter of conscience
You didn't do anything wrong, - you should have a clear conscience (= not feel guilty).
My conscience would really trouble me if I wore a fur coat.
He's got no conscience at all (= does not feel guilty) about leaving me to do the housework.
be/weigh on your conscience
to make you feel guilty:

I ignored an old woman who asked me for money in the street yesterday, and it's been on my con
in all conscience

UK

(US in good conscience)

SLIGHTLY FORMAL

without feeling guilty:


You couldn't, in all conscience, ask her to pay the whole bill!

notorious /QQQ"QQ:.QQ.QQ/ US /QQQ"QQ:Q.Q-/ adjective


famous for something bad:
one of Britain's most notorious criminals
The company is notorious for paying its bills late.
notoriously

/QQQ"QQ:.QQ.Q.QQQ/

US

/QQQ"QQ:Q.Q-/

adverb

The crime of rape is notoriously (= famous as being) difficult to prove.


notoriety

/%QQQ.QQQ"QQ.Q.QQ/

US

/%QQQ.QQ"QQQ.Q.QQ/

noun [U]

the state of being famous for something bad:


He achieved/gained notoriety for murdering eleven women in the north of England.

exalt /QQ"QQQQ/ US /-"QQ:QQ/ verb [T]


1

FORMAL

OLD USE

exalted

to raise someone to a higher rank or more powerful position


to praise someone a lot

/QQ"QQQ.QQQ/

US

/-"QQ:Q.QQQ/

adjective

She rose to the exalted (= very high) post of Foreign Secretary after only three years in the gover

ennoble /Q"QQQ.QQ=/ US /-"QQQ-/ verb [T]


1 to make someone a member of the nobility (= highest social rank)
2

LITERARY

to make something or someone more admirable:

He has this theory that suffering can ennoble a person's character.

sect /QQQQ/ noun [C]

USUALLY DISAPPROVING

a religious group which has developed from a larger religion and is considered to have extreme or unusua

When he was sixteen he ran away from home and joined a religious sect.
allude to sb/sth phrasal verb

FORMAL

to mention someone or something in an indirect way:


She mentioned some trouble that she'd had at home and I guessed she was alluding to her son.

turban /"QQ:.QQQ/ US /"QQ`:-/ noun [C]

a head covering for a man, worn especially by Sikhs, Muslims and Hindus, and made from a long piece of
See picture turban.
turbaned

/"QQ:.QQQQ/

/"QQ`:-/

US

adjective

a turbaned man

stammer /"QQ{Q.QQ/ US /-Q`/ verb [I or T]

to speak or say something with unusual pauses or repeated sounds, either because of speech problems o
[+ speech] "Wh-when can we g-go?" she stammered.
He dialled 999 and stammered (out) his name and address.
Compare stutter (SPEAK).
stammer

/"QQ{Q.QQ/

/-Q`/

US

noun [C usually singular]

Robert has a bit of a stammer.


stammerer

/"QQ{Q.QQ.QQ/

US

/-Q`.Q`/

noun [C]

a person who stammers


stammeringly

/"QQ{Q.QQ.QQ.QQ/

US

/-Q`-/

adverb

oppress (RULE) /Q"QQQQ/ verb [T often passive]


to govern people in an unfair and cruel way and prevent them from having opportunities and freedom:
For years now, the people have been oppressed by a ruthless dictator.

/Q"QQQQQ/

oppressed

adjective

oppressed minorities
the poor and the oppressed
oppression

/Q"QQQQ.QQ/

noun [U]

when people are governed in an unfair and cruel way and prevented from having opportunities an
Every human being has the right to freedom from oppression.
War, famine and oppression have forced people in the region to flee from their homes.
the oppression of women
oppressive

/Q"QQQQ.QQ/

adjective

cruel and unfair:


an oppressive government/military regime

/Q"QQQQ.QQ.QQ/ adverb
oppressiveness /Q"QQQQ.QQ.QQQ/ noun
oppressively

oppressor

/Q"QQQQ.QQ/

US

/-Q`/

[U]

noun [C]

someone who treats people in an unfair and cruel way and prevents them from having opportuniti
Sisters, we must rise up and defeat our oppressors.

prejudice /"QQQQQ.Q.QQQ/ noun [C or U]

an unfair and unreasonable opinion or feeling, especially when formed without enough thought or knowle
Laws against racial prejudice must be strictly enforced.
[+ that] The campaign aims to dispel the prejudice that AIDS is confined to the homosexual community.

He claims that prejudice against homosexuals would cease overnight if all the gay stars in the country we
without prejudice to sth

FORMAL OR LEGAL

If a decision or action is made without prejudice to a right or claim, it is made without having an e
My client accepts the formal apology without prejudice to any further legal action she may decide
prejudice

/"QQQQQ.Q.QQQ/

verb [T]

1 Someone or something that prejudices you influences you unfairly so that you form an unreason
His comments may have prejudiced the voters against her.
2

FORMAL

Something or someone that prejudices something else has a harmful influence on it:

The fact that you were late all this week may prejudice your chances of getting a promotion.
prejudiced

/"QQQQQ.Q.QQQQ/

adjective

DISAPPROVING

showing an unreasonable dislike for something or someone:


The campaign is designed to make people less prejudiced about AIDS.
The media has been accused of presenting a prejudiced view of people with disabilities.
Some companies are prejudiced against taking on employees who are over the age of 40.
prejudicial

/%QQQQQ.Q"QQQ.QQ/

adjective

SLIGHTLY FORMAL

harmful or influencing people unfairly:

The judge decided that allowing the videotape as evidence would be prejudicial to the outcome of

queer (HOMOSEXUAL) /QQQQQ/ US /QQQQ/ adjective

OFFENSIVE

(especially of a man) homosexual


NOTE: Homosexuals sometimes use this word in a way that is not offensive.
queer

/QQQQQ/

US

/QQQQ/

noun [C]

OFFENSIVE

a homosexual, especially a man

ought (DUTY) /Q:Q/ US /Q:Q/ modal verb

used to show when it is necessary, desirable or advantageous to perform the activity referred to by the fo
You ought to be kinder to him.
We ought not/oughtn't to have agreed without knowing what it would cost.
"We ought to be getting ready now." "Yes, I suppose we ought (to)."

earnest /"Q:.QQQQ/ US /"Q`:-/ adjective


1 serious or determined, especially too serious and unable to find your own actions amusing:
He was a very earnest young man.
2 in deadly earnest completely serious:

These fanatics are in deadly earnest when they say they want to destroy all forms of government.

3 in earnest When something begins in earnest, it has already started but is now being done in a
The election campaign has begun in earnest.
4 be in earnest to be speaking honestly:

I thought he was joking - I didn't realize he was in earnest.

/"Q:.QQQQ.QQ/ US /"Q`:-/ adverb


earnestness /"Q:.QQQQ.QQQ/ US /"Q`:-/ noun
earnestly

[U]

grumble /"QQQQ.QQ=/ verb [I]


1 to complain about someone or something in an annoyed way:
She spent the evening grumbling to me about her job.
[+ speech] "You never hang your coat up, " she grumbled.
2 If your stomach grumbles, it makes a low continuous noise, usually because you are hungry.
mustn't grumble

UK HUMOROUS

something you say to mean that your life is not bad and that you should not complain about it:
"How's it going then, Mike?" "Oh, all right. Mustn't grumble."
grumble

/"QQQQ.QQ=/

noun [C usually plural]

a complaint:
If I hear any more grumbles about the food, you can do the cooking yourself!
grumbler

/"QQQQ.QQQQ/

US

/-QQQ`/

noun [C]

a person who complains a lot

attenuate /Q"QQQ.QQ.QQQ/ verb [T]

FORMAL

to make something smaller, thinner or weaker:


Radiation from the sun is attenuated by the Earth's atmosphere.
attenuated
attenuation

/Q"QQQ.QQ.QQ.QQQ/

US

/Q%QQQ.QQ"QQ.QQQ/

/-QQQ/

adjective

noun [U]

FORMAL

FORMAL

deny (NOT TRUE) /QQ"QQQ/ verb [T]


to say that something is not true:
He will not confirm or deny the allegations.
[+ that] Neil denies that he broke the window, but I'm sure he did.
[+ ing form of verb] Neil denies breaking the window.
there's no denying
it is true:
There's no denying that this has been a difficult year for the company.
deniable

/QQ"QQQ.Q.QQ=/

adjective

possible to deny:
The facts are simply not deniable.
denial

/QQ"QQQ.QQ/

noun [C]

a statement that something is not true:


The prime minister issued a denial of the report that she is about to resign.
[+ that] Officials did not believe the runner's denial that he had taken drugs.

petty /"QQQ.Q/ US /"QQQ-/ adjective


1 [before noun]

DISAPPROVING

unimportant and not worth giving attention to:

Prisoners complain that they are subjected to too many petty rules and restrictions.
2 [after noun] complaining too much about unimportant things:
Don't be so petty!
pettiness

/"QQQ.Q.QQQ/

US

/"QQQ-/

noun [U]

DISAPPROVING

It was the pettiness of their arguments that irritated her.

forbear (STOP YOURSELF) /QQ:"QQQQ/ US /QQ:Q"QQQ/ verb [I] forbore, forborne

FORMAL

to prevent yourself from saying or doing something, especially in a way that shows control, good judgmen

His plan was such a success that even his original critics could scarcely forbear from congratulating him.

The doctor said she was optimistic about the outcome of the operation but forbore to make any promises
forbearance

/QQ:"QQQ.QQQQQ/

US

/QQ:Q-/

noun [U]

FORMAL

the quality of patience, forgiveness and self-control shown in a difficult situation:

[+ (that)] He thanked his employees for the forbearance (that) they had shown during the comp
forbearing

/QQ:"QQQ.QQQ/

US

/QQ:Q"QQQ.QQ/

adjective

FORMAL

patient and forgiving:


The vicar praised what he called her "kind and forbearing nature".

chaste /QQQQQQ/ adjective

FORMAL

1 not having had sex, or only having a sexual relationship with the person whom you are married
In the past, a woman needed to be chaste to make a good marriage.
They exchanged a few chaste kisses (= not expressing sexual desire).
2 describes decoration or style that is very simple and smooth:
I like the simple, chaste lines of their architecture.
chastity

/"QQ{Q.QQ.QQ/

US

/-QQ/

noun [U]

the state of not having sexual relationships or never having had sex:
As a monk, he took vows of chastity, poverty and obedience.

incarnate /QQ"QQ:.QQQ/ US /-"QQ:Q-/ adjective [after noun]


in human form:
One survivor described his torturers as devils incarnate.
incarnation

/%QQ.QQ:"QQQ.QQQ/

US

/-QQ:Q-/

noun

1 [C] a particular life, in religions that believe that we have many lives:
He believes that he was a Roman warrior in a previous incarnation.
Compare reincarnation.

2 [C] a particular physical form or condition of something or someone that is changing or develop
This film is the latest incarnation of a fairy tale that dates back to the Middle Ages.

3 the incarnation of sth an extreme example, in human form, of a particular characteristic or ty


He was the incarnation of evil (= was extremely evil).
She's the incarnation of everything I hate about politics.
4 [U] the appearance of a god as a human

demon /"QQ:.QQQ/ noun


1 [C] an evil spirit

2 [C usually singular]

a person who does a particular activity with great skill or energy:

APPROVING

She works like a demon.


Stefan has a demon serve.
3 [C] a person who behaves very badly:
HUMOROUS

That's the last time I look after her kids - I'll be glad when the little demons go home.

4 [C] a negative feeling such as guilt or regret which causes you to behave badly:
She had her demons and, later in life, they drove her to drink.
the demon drink (US the demon alcohol)

HUMOROUS

alcohol and its unpleasant effects

/%QQ:.QQ"QQQ.Q.QQQ/

demoniacal

adjective (ALSO demoniac)

FORMAL

wild and evil:


A demoniacal light had entered his eyes.

/%QQ:.QQ"QQQ.Q.QQQ/ adverb FORMAL


/QQ"QQQ.QQ/ US /-"QQ:.QQQ/ adjective

demoniacally
demonic

wild and evil:


He had a demonic (= cruel) gleam in his eye.

/-"QQ:.QQ-/ adverb
demonize, UK USUALLY demonise /"QQ:.QQ.QQQQ/ verb
demonically

/QQ"QQQ.Q.QQQ/

US

[T]

to try to make someone or a group of people seem as if they are completely evil:
During the 1930s and 40s, the Nazis used racist propaganda in an attempt to demonize the Jews.
demonology

/%QQ:.QQ"QQQ.Q.QQQ/

US

/-"QQ:.QQ-/

noun [U]

the study of demons and other evil creatures

sage (WISE) /QQQQQ/ adjective

LITERARY

wise, especially as a result of great experience:


sage advice
my sage old grandfather
sage

/QQQQQ/

noun [C]

LITERARY OR HUMOROUS

a person, especially an old man, who is wise


sagely

/"QQQQQ.QQ/

adverb

LITERARY

He nodded his head sagely.

desert (RUN AWAY) /QQ"QQ:Q/ US /-"QQ`:Q/ verb [I or T]


to leave the armed forces without permission and with no intention of returning:
Soldiers who deserted and were caught were shot.
How many people desert from the army each year?
deserter

/QQ"QQ:.QQQ/

US

/-"QQ`:.QQ`/

noun [C]

a person who leaves the armed forces without permission


desertion

/QQ"QQ:.QQQ/

US

/-"QQ`:-/

noun [C or U]

During the war, desertion was punishable by death.


There were thousands of desertions in the last weeks of the war.
FIGURATIVE

There have been mass desertions from (= a lot of people have left) the party in recent

envy /"QQ.QQ/ verb [T]


to wish that you had something that another person has:
I envy her ability to talk to people she's never met before.
[+ two objects] I don't envy you the job of cooking for all those people.
envy

/"QQ.QQ/

noun [U]

the feeling that you wish you had something that someone else has:
I watched with envy as she set off for the airport.
Compare jealousy at jealous (UNHAPPY).
be the envy of sb
to be liked and wanted by a lot of people:
Her hair is the envy of the office.
enviable

/"QQ.QQ.Q.QQ=/

adjective

If someone is in an enviable situation, you wish you were also in that situation:
She's in the enviable position of being able to choose who she works for.
enviably
envious

/"QQ.QQ.Q.QQQ/ adverb
/"QQ.QQ.QQ/ adjective

wishing you had what another person has:


I'm very envious of your new coat - it's lovely.
Compare jealous (UNHAPPY).
enviously

/"QQ.QQ.Q.QQQ/

adverb

I was looking enviously at your plate, wishing I'd had the fish.
enviousness

/"QQ.QQ.Q.QQQQ/

noun [U]

grumble /"QQQQ.QQ=/ verb [I]


1 to complain about someone or something in an annoyed way:
She spent the evening grumbling to me about her job.
[+ speech] "You never hang your coat up, " she grumbled.
2 If your stomach grumbles, it makes a low continuous noise, usually because you are hungry.
mustn't grumble

UK HUMOROUS

something you say to mean that your life is not bad and that you should not complain about it:
"How's it going then, Mike?" "Oh, all right. Mustn't grumble."
grumble

/"QQQQ.QQ=/

noun [C usually plural]

a complaint:
If I hear any more grumbles about the food, you can do the cooking yourself!
grumbler

/"QQQQ.QQQQ/

US

/-QQQ`/

noun [C]

a person who complains a lot

doom /QQ:Q/ noun [U]


death, destruction or any very bad situation that cannot be avoided:
A sense of doom hung over the entire country.
The newspapers are always full of doom and gloom (= bad news and unhappiness) these days.
doom

/QQ:Q/

verb [T usually passive]

to make someone or something certain to do or experience something unpleasant, or to make som


[+ to infinitive] Are we doomed to repeat the mistakes of the past?
Mounting debts doomed the factory to closure.
doomed

/QQ:QQ/

adjective

certain to fail, die or be destroyed:


This is a doomed city.

CHAPTER V
devote sth to sth/sb phrasal verb

1 to give all of something, especially your time, effort or love, or yourself, to something you believ
He left government to devote more time to his family.
She has devoted all her energies/life to the care of homeless people.
[R] At the age of 25, he decided to devote himself to God.
2 [often passive] to use a space, area, time, etc. for a particular purpose:
Over half his speech was devoted to the issue of unemployment.
The report recommends that more resources be devoted to teaching four year olds.
devoted

/QQ"QQQ.QQQ/

US

/-"QQQ.QQQ/

adjective

extremely loving and loyal:


a devoted fan/husband
Lucy is devoted to her cats.

/QQ"QQQ.QQQ.QQ/

devotedly
devotion

/QQ"QQQ.QQQ/

US

US

/-"QQQ.QQQ-/

/-"QQQ-/

adverb

noun [U]

1 loyalty and love or care for someone or something:


He inspired respect and devotion from his pupils.
She will be remembered for her selfless/unstinting devotion to the cause.
2 religious worship:
He knelt in humble devotion.
devotional

/QQ"QQQ.QQQ.QQ/

US

/-"QQQ-/

adjective

connected with the act of religious worship:


devotional music/poems/practices
devotions

/QQ"QQQ.QQQQ/

US

/-"QQQ-/

plural noun

acts of religious worship, especially prayers

myth /QQQ/ noun

1 [C or U] an ancient story or set of stories, especially explaining in a literary way the early histor
ancient myths
The children enjoyed the stories about the gods and goddesses of Greek and Roman myth.
Most societies have their own creation myths.
2 [C + that]

DISAPPROVING

a commonly believed but false idea:

Statistics disprove the myth that women are worse drivers than men.
mythical

/"QQQ.Q.QQQ/

adjective

1 existing only in stories:


the mythical island of Atlantis

a mythical hero
dragons and other mythical creatures
2 imaginary or not real:
Start living life here and now instead of waiting for that mythical day when you'll be slim.
mythological

/%QQQ.QQ"QQQ.Q.QQQ/

US

/-Q"QQ:.QQQ-/

adjective

connected with myths:


a mythological hero/creature
mythology

/QQ"QQQ.Q.QQQ/

US

/-"QQ:.QQ-/

noun [U]

1 myths in general:
She's fascinated by the stories of classical mythology (= ancient Greek and Roman myths).
2 a popular belief that is probably not true:
It's just a piece of popular mythology that people always get sacked when they are away.
mythologize,

UK USUALLY

mythologise

/QQ"QQQ.Q.QQQQQ/

US

/QQ"QQ:.QQ-/

verb [I or T]

MAINLY US

to create a false picture of a situation:


People tend to mythologize (about) their youth/the past.

fable /"QQQ.QQ=/ noun [C or U]


a short story which tells a general truth or is only partly based on fact, or literature of this type:
the fable of the tortoise and the hare
fabled

/"QQQ.QQ=Q/

adjective [before noun]

LITERARY

describes something or someone who has been made very famous, especially by having many sto
the fabled film director Cecil B. De Mille

ritual /"QQQ.QQ.QQ/ US /"QQQQ.Q-/ noun [C or U]


a set of fixed actions and sometimes words performed regularly, especially as part of a ceremony:
Coffee and the newspaper are part of my morning ritual.
The birds were performing a complex mating ritual.
ritualistic

/%QQQ.QQ.QQ"QQ.QQQ/

ritualistically

US

/%QQQQ.Q-/

/%QQQ.QQ.QQ"QQ.QQ.QQQ/

US

adjective

/%QQQQ.Q-/

adverb

dispense (PROVIDE) /QQ"QQQQQQ/ verb [T]


to give out things, especially products, services or amounts of money, to people:
There is a vending machine on the platform that dispenses snacks.
dispenser

/QQ"QQQQQ.QQQ/

US

/-QQ`/

noun [C]

a machine or container that you can get something from:


a cash/soap/drinks dispenser

prevalent /"QQQQ.QQ.QQQ/ adjective


existing very commonly or happening frequently:
These diseases are more prevalent among young children.
Trees are dying in areas where acid rain is most prevalent.
prevalence

/"QQQQ.QQ.QQQQ/

noun [U]

the prevalence of smoking amongst teenagers

crucify /"QQQ:.QQ.QQQ/ verb [T]


1 to kill someone by tying or nailing them to a cross and leaving them there to die
2

INFORMAL

to severely punish or damage someone or something:

He's going to crucify me when he finds out what I've done!

convention (CUSTOM) /QQQ"QQQQ.QQQ/ noun

1 [C or U] (an example of) a usual or accepted way of behaving, especially in social situations, oft

They defied/flouted/broke with convention by giving up their jobs and becoming self-sufficient
Convention dictates that it is the man who asks the woman to marry him and not the reverse.
In many countries, it is the/a convention to wear black at funerals.
2 [C] a common way of showing something in art or writing:
an artistic convention
conventional

/QQQ"QQQQ.QQQ.QQ/

adjective

1 traditional and ordinary:


conventional behaviour/attitudes/clothes
conventional medicine/farming
a conventional wedding
DISAPPROVING

I find his art rather dull and conventional.

NOTE: The opposite is unconventional.

2 describes weapons which are not nuclear, or methods of fighting a war that do not involve nucle
conventional weapons/bombs
conventionally

/QQQ"QQQQ.QQQ.QQ.Q/

conventionality

adverb

/QQQ%QQQQ.QQQ"{Q.Q.QQ/

US

/-Q.QQ/

noun [U]

callous /"Q{Q.QQ/ adjective


unkind or cruel; without sympathy or feeling for other people:
It might sound callous, but I don't care if he's homeless. He's not living with me!

/"Q{Q.Q.QQQ/ adverb
callousness /"Q{Q.Q.QQQQ/ noun
callously

[U]

clench /QQQQQQ/ verb [T]


to close or hold something very tightly, often in a determined or angry way:
The old man clenched his fist and waved it angrily at us.
With a knife clenched in/between his teeth, he climbed up the tree to cut some coconuts.
"Get out of here, " she said through clenched teeth.

fist /QQQQ/ noun [C]


a hand with the fingers and thumb held tightly in:
She clenched her fists.
Protestors were shaking their fists at the soldiers.

sermon /"QQ:.QQQ/ US /"QQ`:-/ noun [C]

1 a part of a Christian church ceremony in which a priest gives a talk on a religious or moral subje
The Reverend William Cronshaw delivered/preached the sermon.
Today's sermon was on the importance of compassion.
2

DISAPPROVING

a long talk in which someone advises other people how they should behave in orde

I really don't think it's a politician's job to go delivering sermons on public morality.
sermonize,

UK USUALLY

sermonise

/"QQ:.QQ.QQQQ/

US

/"QQ`:-/

verb [I]

DISAPPROVING

to give a long talk to people, telling them how they should behave in order to be better people:
My grandmother's all right until she starts sermonizing and then she's unbearable.

blaspheme /%QQ{Q"QQ:Q/ verb [I]


to use words which show a lack of respect for God or religion, or to swear
blasphemous

/"QQ{Q.QQ.QQQ/

adjective

considered offensive to God or religion:


a blasphemous remark

/"QQ{Q.QQ.QQ.QQQ/ adverb
/"QQ{Q.QQ.QQ/ noun [C or U]

blasphemously
blasphemy

something which you say or do that shows you do not respect God or a religion:
to be accused of blasphemy
FIGURATIVE HUMOROUS

Elvis Presley fans think that any criticism of him is blasphemy.

optimism /"QQ.QQ.QQ.QQQ/ US /"Q:Q.QQ-/ noun [U]

the tendency to be hopeful and to emphasize the good part of a situation rather than the bad part; the be
There was a note of optimism in his voice as he spoke about the company's future.

Judging from your examination results, I think you have cause/grounds/reason for cautious optimism ab
NOTE: The opposite is pessimism.
optimist

/"QQ.QQ.QQQQ/

US

/"Q:Q.QQ-/

noun [C]

someone who always believes that good things will happen:


She's a born optimist (= someone who has always been optimistic).
optimistic

/%QQ.QQ"QQQ.QQQ/

US

/%Q:Q.QQ-/

adjective

She is optimistic about her chances of winning a gold medal.


optimistically

/%QQ.QQ"QQQ.QQ.QQQ/

US

/%Q:Q.QQ-/

adverb

pessimism /"QQQ.Q.QQ.QQQ/ noun [U]

the tendency to emphasize or think of the bad part of a situation rather than the good part, or the feeling
There is now a mood of deepening pessimism about/over the economy.
An underlying pessimism infuses all her novels.
NOTE: The opposite is optimism.
pessimist

/"QQQ.Q.QQQQ/

noun [C]

Don't be such a pessimist!


pessimistic

/%QQQ.Q"QQQ.QQQ/

adjective

The tone of the meeting was very pessimistic.

The doctors are pessimistic (= not hopeful) about his chances of recovery.
pessimistically

/%QQQ.Q"QQQ.QQ.QQQ/

adverb

pedestal /"QQQ.Q.QQQQ/ noun [C]


a long thin column which supports a statue, or a tall column-like structure on which something rests:
In the riot, the statues were toppled from their pedestals.
A flower arrangement in a large basket stood on a (flower) pedestal in the corner of the room.
put sb on a pedestal
to believe that someone is perfect
Compare knock [someone] off [their] pedestal at knock (HIT).

benevolent /QQ"QQQ.QQ.QQQ/ adjective


kind and helpful:
He was a benevolent old man, he wouldn't hurt a fly.
benevolence

/QQ"QQQ.QQ.QQQQ/

benevolently

/QQ"QQQ.QQ.QQQ.QQ/

noun [U]
adverb

She smiled benevolently at me.

owe (HAVE DEBTS) /QQ/ US /QQ/ verb [T]

to need to pay or give something to someone because they have lent money to you, or in exchange for so
[+ two objects] I owe Janet ten pounds.
We still owe $1000 on our car (= We still need to pay $1000 before we own our car).
I owe you a drink for helping me move.
I think you owe (= should give) me an explanation/apology.
See also IOU.
I owe you (one)

INFORMAL

used as a way to thank someone for helping you and showing that you will do something for them
Thanks for the help, Bill - I owe you one.
owe sb a living

INFORMAL

to have to provide money for someone to live on, whether they deserve it or not:
He seems to think the world owes him a living.
No one owes you a living.
owe it to yourself
to deserve and need to do something which will be good for you:
Take a few days off work - you owe it to yourself.
owing

/"QQ.QQ/

US

/"QQ-/

adjective [after verb]

UK

still to be paid:
We have several hundred pounds owing on our car.

eternity /Q"QQ:.QQ.QQ/ US /-"QQ`:.QQ.QQ/ noun [U]


1 time which never ends or which has no limits:
They haven't been given these rights for (all) eternity - they should justify having them just like
Religions gain some of their worldly power by claiming they have the key to eternity (= a state of

2 an eternity a very long time:


The film went on for what seemed like an eternity.
Nine months is a long time for anyone, but it's an eternity for the very young.
send sb to eternity

LITERARY

to kill someone

beseech /QQ"QQ:QQ/ verb [T] beseeched or besought, beseeched or besought

OLD USE

to ask for something in an anxious way that shows you need it very much; beg:
Stay a little longer, I beseech you!

weep (CRY) /QQ:Q/ verb [I or T] wept, wept

LITERARY

to cry tears:
People in the street wept with joy when peace was announced.
She wept buckets (= cried a lot) when Paul left.
weep

/QQ:Q/

noun [S]

LITERARY

It might help you to have a good weep.


weepy

/"QQ:.QQ/

adjective

sad and likely to cry:


I'd just waved Peter off at the airport and was feeling a bit weepy.
weepy, weepie

/"QQ:.QQ/

noun [C]

INFORMAL

a film or a book which makes people want to cry because it is sad:


If I were you I'd take some tissues to the cinema - it's a real weepy.

disgust /QQQ"QQQQ/ noun [U]


strong feeling of disapproval and dislike at a situation or person's behaviour, etc:
She walked out in disgust.
We are demonstrating to show our anger and disgust at the treatment of refugees.
He resigned from the committee in disgust at the corruption.
Beresford, much to his disgust, was fined for illegal parking.
disgust

/QQQ"QQQQ/

verb [T not continuous]

to make you feel extreme dislike or disapproval:


Doesn't all this violence on TV disgust you?
disgusted

/QQQ"QQQ.QQQ/

adjective

feeling extreme dislike or disapproval of something:


She was disgusted at the way they treated their children.
I'm totally disgusted with your behaviour.
disgustedly

/QQQ"QQQ.QQQ.QQ/

adverb

fanatic /QQ"Q{Q.QQ/ US /-"Q{Q-/ noun [C]


a person whose strong admiration for something is considered to be extreme or unreasonable:
a fitness/film fanatic
fanatical

/QQ"Q{Q.Q.QQQ/

US

/-"Q{Q-/

adjective

His enthusiasm for aerobics was almost fanatical.

Gary's fanatical about football.


fanatically

/QQ"Q{Q.Q.QQQ/

US

/-"Q{Q-/

adverb

The band has a fanatically loyal British following.


fanaticism

/QQ"Q{Q.Q.QQ.QQQ/

US

/-"Q{Q-/

noun [U]

a cigarette lighter to produce a flame

f another or to move through a liquid or gas:

s, then it turns inland.

n a dependent way:

o a new place.

sion not to close the factory.

is is manifestly untrue.

s, despite its commitment to do so.

festation of the government's incompetence.

nifestation .

hat you are certain about or things that are planned:

eems unlikely

ntries quickly.

e two world wars.

l a lot of copies.

n important person, is buried

mes for religious reasons:

nothing more:

very small action or event:

to stop them from doing something, or to limit the growth or force of something:

onding to hostile attacks and threats.

ething, or which prevents something from growing or increasing:

ge restraint rather than a reduction in public investment.

orted between prisons.

ne or something:

ed prisoners will not evade recapture for long.

by pretending to sneeze.

evaded her in her remarkable career.

y service forever.

lly not talk about something or not answer something

never properly addressed the issue.

was to the building, it was too late to take evasive action.

dodging reporters' questions about her possible resignation.

ugh you are very tired

re bad or worthless:

ns or opinions:

r adjective, which has little meaning itself but is used to add force to another adjective, verb or adverb:

tremely' and 'strongly' are both intensifiers.

ething do this:

ave a connection with something:

ed severe flooding in coastal areas.

ar too long!

red necessary for a pleasant life:

enough money, food or good living conditions:

equilibrium.

half-asleep.

cessfully stop a physical attack against you:

than) emotion?

ements or possessions

person whom you are married to:

laughter, they do it without knowing that something bad is going to happen and therefore act calmly and without fighting agains

ugh you are very tired

ularly; a customer:

QQQ-/

verb [T]

FORMAL

powerful gush of water.

or putting something under it:

to make them feel more confident).

beneath her (= she was about to fall over).

time of his or her birth.

military action (= about whether it is allowed by law).


[T] (US legitimate)

FORMAL

make acceptable) their violent actions.

morally wrong:

s they have done and the skills they have learned.

s the state of being saved from evil and its effects by the death of Jesus Christ on a cross:

rally better than other people:

ially as a punishment for having committed a very serious crime, such as murder.

eople to live in or to use, or food that has been officially judged not safe to eat

ially as a punishment for having committed a very serious crime, such as murder.

eople to live in or to use, or food that has been officially judged not safe to eat

s you do not respect or approve of them:

proval of someone or something:

nd?" she said with a sneer.

eely between the two Berlins.

r power and earns you respect from others:

e first few votes came in.

sudden death of her father.

ritain) when her father died.

l conditions.

omplaining about things:

to suffer any more

they have been waiting for:

exam results as early as possible.

n people's minds.

omplete defeat) at the polls.

the ability to do these things to a high level:

g and other activities that involve careful thinking

much intellectual stimulation.

ctivities that involve careful thinking and mental effort:

US

/-QQQ"QQ.QQQ-/

verb [I or T]

y, without involving your emotions or feelings:


that just didn't matter.

USUALLY DISAPPROVING

e towards something when you cannot see easily:

sure, usually when the person does not want you to do this:

for a long time or against difficulties:

o live up to.

her extreme emotional and psychological distress.

gent need of help:

ss off the Cornish coast.

in (economically) distressed areas (= those in economic difficulty).

ut something:

ng with them.

know all the facts about a situation

ho have been forced to leave their own countries for political reasons:

than) emotion?

m a dictator.

ages experienced by particular groups within society:

developing:

e unusually quiet:

osition]

LITERARY

mation without details:

eems unlikely

ading the company forward.

blissful ignorance.

t of something:

dwelt or dwelled

FORMAL

npleasant:

the country.

s and death, or a particular period when this happens:

pasta, pastry, etc.

hen they are cooked

or reasonable:

t - I just bought them on impulse."

nning and without considering the effects they may have:

u feel guilty about bad things that you have done or things you feel responsible for:

feel guilty).

do the housework.

erday, and it's been on my conscience ever since.

e north of England.

er only three years in the government.

red to have extreme or unusual beliefs or customs:

s alluding to her son.

and made from a long piece of cloth which is wrapped around the top of the head many times

because of speech problems or because of fear and anxiety:

opportunities and freedom:

d from having opportunities and freedom:

e from their homes.

s them from having opportunities and freedom:

out enough thought or knowledge:

o the homosexual community.

the gay stars in the country were honest about their sexuality.
it is made without having an effect on that right or claim:

er legal action she may decide to take.

y so that you form an unreasonable opinion about something:

s a harmful influence on it:

es of getting a promotion.

ople with disabilities.


are over the age of 40.

e prejudicial to the outcome of the trial.

he activity referred to by the following verb:

our own actions amusing:

stroy all forms of government.

rted but is now being done in a serious and complete way:

lly because you are hungry.

hould not complain about it:

and restrictions.

orne

FORMAL

at shows control, good judgment or kindness to others:

bear from congratulating him.

forbore to make any promises at this early stage.

cult situation:

ey had shown during the company's difficult times.

person whom you are married to:

ne that is changing or developing:

he Middle Ages.

a particular characteristic or type of behaviour:

vity with great skill or energy:

n the little demons go home.


behave badly:

ompletely evil:

attempt to demonize the Jews.

e have left) the party in recent months.

at situation:

lly because you are hungry.

hould not complain about it:

appiness) these days.

ing unpleasant, or to make something bad certain to happen:

ourself, to something you believe in or to a person:

ng four year olds.

n a literary way the early history of a group of people or about natural events and facts:

Greek and Roman myth.

y when you'll be slim.

reek and Roman myths).

ed when they are away.

Q-/

verb [I or T]

MAINLY US

terature of this type:

especially by having many stories written about them:

as part of a ceremony:

em there to die

pecially in social situations, often following an old way of thinking or a custom in one particular society:

bs and becoming self-sufficient.

rry him and not the reverse.

a war that do not involve nuclear weapons:

some coconuts.

lk on a religious or moral subject, often based on something written in the Bible:

ow they should behave in order to be better people:

n public morality.

DISAPPROVING

n order to be better people:

e's unbearable.

or a religion:

m is blasphemy.

ather than the bad part; the belief that good things will happen in the future:

ason for cautious optimism about getting a university place.

n the good part, or the feeling that bad things are more likely to happen than good things:

on which something rests:

corner of the room.

ey to you, or in exchange for something they have done for you:

you will do something for them in the future:

erve it or not:

d justify having them just like most other people have to.

he key to eternity (= a state of existence outside normal life).

esought

OLD USE

me or unreasonable:

and without fighting against the situation.