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LESSON 5: TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES

An identity is a relationship that is true for every value of its variable(s) for which
each side of the equation is defined.
5.1 FUNDAMENTAL IDENTITIES
Reciprocal identities
1
csc = sin

Quotient Identities
sin
sin
tan = cos
cos

1
sec = cos

cot =

cos
cot = sin

1
tan

Pythagorean Identities
sin + cos = 1
1 + tan = sec
1 + cot = csc

Negative Identities
sin = - sin

cos = cos
tan = - tan

Proving Identities can be done in two ways:

1. Transforming only one side making it similar to the other side.
2. Proving both sides to the same expression.
No general method of proving an identity can be given. A few suggestions, however,
will be of great help.
1. Proving only one side requires the choice of the more complicated side to
verify. Have in mind what is to derive in the end.
2. Simplifying of algebraic expressions like factoring, special products, operating
fractions, radicals, etc., and applying fundamental identities to make all terms
simple in form. If possible, transform the functions to sines and cosines.
4. Correct practice.
Remarks: In proving identities, do not
1. cross multiply
2. transpose terms
Note that identities are not required to solve for its variable(s).

1.

cot
csc

= sin (90-

cos
sin
1
sin

sin (90-

sin
( cos
sin )
cos

sin (90-

sin (90-

Let be an acute angle in a right triangle, 90 - is the complement of .

By taking the cofunction of the complementary angles,
sin (90-

) = sin (90-

2.
Proving the left side,
As a difference of two squares:
?

Since,

,
?

Simplifying,

3.

?

Simplifying the numerator,

x
1+sin

x
cos
2
cos x +(1+2 sinx+sin 2 x)

Since ,

,
?

4.

Replace the left side by identities:

?

5.

Neither the left nor the right side may be called more complicated, therefore,
choosing any of the two sides to verify will give the same result. Proving the left
side, multiply the conjugate of any of the numerator or denominator, thus, if the
conjugate of the numerator is multiplied,

6.

Proving the left side, express each function in terms of sine and cosine.
?

The above result has the same case in no. 5.

For variation, if the conjugate of the denominator is multiplied,
?

?
?
?

7.

Proving the left side, factor the numerator.

Since ,

8.
Proving the right side, get the common factor.

Since,

, use

sec4

B + sec4 B

9.

Proving the left side, expand each term.

?
=
By common factoring,
?

10.

Proving the left side, express the tangent function in terms of sine and cosine.
?

?
?

4.2

ADDITION and SUBTRACTION FORMULAS

Addition Formulas
sin(A + B) = sinA cosB + cosA sinB
cos(A + B) = cosA cosB sinA sinB
tan A tan B
tan( A B)
1 tan A tan B
Subtraction Formulas
sin(A B) = sinA cosB cosA sinB
cos(A B) = cosA cosB + sinA sinB
tan A tan B
tan( A B)
1 tan A tan B

Example 2: Find the exact value of the functions using the addition or subtraction
formulas.
a.

sin 375
Solution:
sin 375 = sin(315+60) = sin315 cos60 + cos315 sin60
=

sin 375
b.

1
4

2 1
2 3
2
6

2 2 2 2 =
4
4
6 2

cos 195
Solution:
cos 195 = cos(150 + 45) = cos150 cos45 sin150 sin45
=
cos 195

3 2 1 2

2 2 2 2

2
4

3 1

tan 15

c.

Solution:

tan 45 tan 30
tan 15 tan( 45 30 )
1 tan 45 tan 30
1 13
3 1

1
1 1 3
3 1

tan 15 2 3
d. sin12 cos33 + cos12 sin33
Solution:

2
sin12 cos33 + cos12 sin33 = sin(12 + 33) = sin45 = 2

cos15 cos75 sin15 sin75

e.

Solution:
cos15 cos75 sin15 sin75 = cos(15 + 75) = cos90 = 0

tan 15 tan 75

f. 1 tan 15 tan 75
Solution:
tan 15 tan 75
1 tan 15 tan 75 = tan(15 - 75) = tan(-60) = 3

Example 3:
a.

3
5
cos B
5,
13 , A is in Q2 , B is in Q 3 , find the exact
Given that
value of the functions using the addition or subtraction formulas:
sin A

sin(A + B)
Solution:

b.

sin (A + B) = sinA cosB + cosA sinB

3
5 4 12
33

5
13
5
13

= 65
=
cos(A B)
Solution:
cos (A B) = cosA cosB + sinA sinB
5 3 12
4
16

= 5 13 5 13 = 65

c.

tan(A + B)
Solution:

tan A tan B
1 tan A tan B
34 125
33
1 34 125
=
= 56

tan( A B)

a.

?

sin(2X+X)
?

?

?

?

2sinX(1 sin2X) + sinX 2sin3X

3 sin X 4 sin3 X = 3 sin X 4 sin3 X
b.

?

sin30 cos + cos30 sin + cos60 cos sin60 sin cos

3
3
1
1
?
2 cos + 2 sin + 2 cos 2 sin
1 1

?
2 2 cos
cos = cos

c.

4.3

5 1 tan X

tan X
4 1 tan X

tan X tan 54 ?

1 tan X tan 54
tan X 1 ?

1 tan X
1 tan X 1 tan X

1 tan X 1 tan X
DOUBLE-ANGLE FORMULAS

sin 2A 2 sin A cos A

cos 2A cos 2 A sin2 A
2 cos2 A 1
1 2 sin2 A
2 tan A
tan 2A
1 tan 2 A

for tanA 1

Example 5: Find the exact value of the functions using the double-angle formulas.
1
tan ,
5 in Q2 , find sin 2
a. if
Solution:
Apply sin 2 2 sin cos

1
5

5
26
26 = 13

1
2 , 270 < < 360 , find cos 2

sin

b. if
Solution:

2
Apply cos 2 1 2 sin

1
1
1 2
2 = 2
c. if

sin

3
5 , in Q1 , find tan 2

Solution:
Apply

tan 2

2 tan
1 tan 2
2 34

3 2
4

a.

1 cos 2 X
tan X
sin 2 X

1 1 2 sin2 X ?
tan X
2 sin X cos X
1 1 2 sin2 X ?
tan X
2 sin X cos X
sin X ?
tan X
cos X
tan X tan X

3
2

9
16

3
2
7
16

24
= 7

b.

cos 4 A 8 cos 4 A 8 cos 2 A 1

?

cos 2 2A
?

2 cos 2 2A 1
?

2 cos 2A 1
2

2 4 cos

2 2 cos 2 A 1 1

A 4 cos 2 A 1 1
8 cos 4 A 8 cos2 A 1 8 cos 4 A 8 cos2 A 1
4

tan 4B

c.

4 tan B 1 tan 2 B
1 6 tan 2 B tan 4 B
?

tan 2 2B
2 tan 2B ?

1 tan 2 2B
tan B
?
2 12tan
2
B

2
1 tan 2B

4 tan B
1 tan2 B

1
1

2 tan B 2
1 tan2 B

4 tan B
1 tan2 B
4 tan2 B
1 2 tan2 B tan 4 B

4 tan B
?
1 tan2 B
2
4
2
1 2 tan B tan B 4 tan B

1tan B
2

1 tan B
2

4 tan B

1 6 tan 2 B tan 4 B
4 tan B 1 tan 2 B
4 tan B 1 tan 2 B

1 6 tan 2 B tan 4 B 1 6 tan 2 B tan 4 B

4.4

HALF-ANGLE FORMULAS

1 cos
sin
2
2
cos

tan

1 cos

2
2

1 cos

2
1 cos
1 cos

sin

for cos -1
for sin 0

sin
1 cos

for cos -1

Example 7: Find the exact value of the functions using the half-angle formulas.
a.

sin 292.5
Solution:

292.5
Let 2

By

sin

585

1 cos

2
2
and since 292.5 is in Q4, sin 292.5 is negative.

Thus, apply

1 cos
1 cos 585
1 cos 225
sin

2
2
2
2
=
=
1 12
1

2 2
2 = 2
=

b. find

cos

5
sin
,
2 if
13 in Q2

Solution:
Since is in Q2 and when divided by 2 is in Q1,
Thus, apply
1 12

1 cos
1
26
13
cos
2
2
2 = 26 or 26
=

c. find

tan

cos

2 is positive.

3
cos
2 if
7 , in Q4

Solution:

tan
2 is negative.
Since is in Q4 and 2 when divided by 2 is in Q2,
Thus, apply
1 37
10
1 cos

tan
2 10
5
2
sin = 7 =

Example 8: Prove the identities.

1 cos
1 cos ?

2
2

sin cos
2
2
a.

1 sin

1 cos
1 cos 1 cos 1 cos ?
2

2
2
2
2

1 cos 1 cos
1 cos2 ?
2

2
4
2
sin2 ?
2

2
4
sin ?
1 2

2
1 sin 1 sin

b.

45 tan B sec B
2

tan

B
tan 45
?
2
tan B
B
1 tan tan 45
2
B
tan 1
?
2
tan B
B
1 tan
2
1 cos B
?

1
sin B

tan
B

cos B
1 1sin
B
tan

1 cos B sin B
sin B
sin B 1 cos B
sin B

tan B

sin B cos B 1 cos B

cos B sinB cos B 1 sin B sinB cos B 1 ?

cos B sinB cos B 1

cos2 B sin2 B sinB cos B ?

?
sinB cos B 1

cos B sinB cos B 1

1 ?

cos B
secB = secB

c.

tan

X
X
2 sin2 cot X sin X
2
2

1 cos X
2
sin X

1 cos X cos X ?
sin X
2

1 cos X
1 cos X
2

sin X
2

?
1 cos X1 cos X
sin X
2
1 cos X ?

sin X
sin2 X ?

sin X

cos X ?

sin X

sin X sin X
4.5

PRODUCT FORMULAS

sin X cos Y 21 sin X Y sin X Y

cos X sin Y 21 sin X Y sin X Y
cos X cos Y 21 cos X Y cos X Y

sin X sin Y 21 cos X Y cos X Y

4.6

SUM/DIFFERENCE FORMULAS
sin A sin B 2 sin 21 A B cos 21 A B

cos A cos B 2 cos 21 A B cos 21 A B

cos A cos B 2 sin 21 A B sin 21 A B
Example 9: Express each of the following as a sum or difference.
a. sin28cos46

b. cos50sin12

sin 28 46 sin 28 46
1
sin 74 sin18
2
1
2

sin 50 12 sin 50 12
21 sin 62 sin 38

c. cos63cos8

d. sin125sin74

1
2

cos 63 8 cos 63 8
1
cos 71 cos 55
2
1
2

21 cos125 74 cos125 74

1
2

cos 51 cos199

a. sin95 + sin25
b. sin63 sin27

2 sin 95225 cos 95225 2 sin 60 cos 35

2 cos 63227 sin 63227 2 cos 45 sin18

c. cos48 + cos42
d. cos78 cos18

2 cos 482 42 cos 48242 2 cos 45 cos 3

2 sin 78218 sin 78218 2 sin 48 sin 30

Example 11: Prove the identities.

sin 5 sin 3
tan 4
a. cos 5 cos 3
2 sin 21 5 3 cos 21 5 3 ?

2 cos 21 5 3 cos 21 5 3
sin 4 ?

cos 4
tan 4 tan 4

b. sin 45 A sin 45 A 2 sin A

?

2 cos 21 45 A 45 A sin 21 45 A 45 A
?

2 cos 45 sin A
?
2
sin A
2

2
2 sin A 2 sin A

cos 220

cos100 cos 20 0

2 cos 21 220 100 cos 21 220 100 cos 20

?
2 cos160 cos 60 cos 20
?

Since 160 is in Q2 and its reference angle is 20, cos 160 = -cos 20
Thus,
?
1
2 cos 20 cos 20
2
?

cos 20 cos 20
0=0
d. sin 6 X sin 4 X sin 2 X 4 sin 3 X cos 2 X cos X
?

?

?

?

2 cos X sin 5 X sin X

2 cos X 2 sin 5 X2 X cos 5 X2 X
?

4 cos X sin 3 X cos 2 X

4 sin 3 X cos 2 X cos X 4 sin 3 X cos 2 X cos X

EXERCISES
Lesson 4.2: Trigonometric Identities
Name: __________________________________
Course/Section: ___________________________

Score: ____________
Date: _____________

I.

a.

1. find the exact values of sine, cosine and tangent of

165
Solution:
i. sin 165 = sin (135 + 30) = sin135 cos 30 + cos 135 sin 30
2 3
2 1
1

6 2
2 2
2 2
=
= 4
ii. cos 165 = cos (135 + 30) = cos135 cos 30 - sin 135 sin 30

1
2 3 2 1

6 2

2
2
2
2

=
= 4
iii. tan 165 = tan (135 + 30)
3
1
3
3
tan 135 tan 30

1 1

= 3 2
= 1 tan 135 tan 30 =

b.

255
Solution:
i. sin 255 = sin (210 + 45) = sin 210 cos 45 + cos 210 sin 45
1 2
3 2
1

2 6
2 2
2 2
=
= 4
ii. cos 255 = cos (210 + 45) = cos 210 cos 45 - sin 210 sin 45

1
3 2 1 2
2 6

2 2 2
2

= 4
=
iii. tan 255 = tan (210 + 45)
3
1
3
tan 210 tan 45
3
1 2 3
1
3
= 1 tan 210 tan 45 =
=

c.

375
Solution:

i. sin 375 = sin(315 + 60) = sin 315 cos 60 + cos 315 sin 60
2 1
2 3
1

6 2
2 2
2 2
=
= 4
ii. cos 375 = cos (315 + 60) = cos 315 cos 60 - sin 315 sin 60
2 1
2 3
1

2 6
2 2
2 2
=
= 4
iii. tan 375 = tan (315 + 60)
1 3
tan 315 tan 60
= 1 tan 315 tan 60 = 1 1 3 = 2 3

2. find the exact values of sin A B , cos A B , and tan A B , given:

8
5
sin A
tan B
17 ,
12 , A and B in Q1
a.
Solution:
i. sin (A + B) = sinA cosB + cosA sinB
8 12 15 5
171

= 17 13 17 13 = 221
ii. cos(A + B) = cosA cosB sinA sinB
15 12
8 5
140

17
13
17
13

= 221
=
tan A tan B
tan( A B)
1 tan A tan B
iii.
8
5

15 12
8 5
171
1

15
12

= 140
=

b.

cos A

12
24
cot B
13 ,
7 , A in Q2 , B in Q3

Solution:
i. sin (A + B) = sinA cosB + cosA sinB
5 24 12
7
36

= 13 25 13 25 = 325
ii. cos(A + B) = cosA cosB sinA sinB
5
7
12 24
323

13
25
13
25

= 325
=
tan A tan B
tan( A B)
1 tan A tan B
iii.

5
7

12 24
5 7

36
1

12
24

= 323
=

c.

sin A

1
2
sin B
3,
5 , A in Q1 , B in Q2

Solution:
i. sin (A + B) = sinA cosB + cosA sinB
1
21 2 2 2
4 2 21

3
5
3 5
15
=
=
ii. cos(A + B) = cosA cosB sinA sinB
2 2
21 1 2
2

1 42

3
5 3 5
=
= 15
tan A tan B
tan( A B)
1 tan A tan B
iii.

2 2 21

4
21

2 2 21
1

4
21

25 2 9 21
82
=

3. find the exact values of sin A B , cos A B , and tan A B , given:

3
12
tan A
cos B
4,
13 , A and B in Q1
a.
Solution:
i. sin (A - B) = sinA cosB - cosA sinB
3 12 4 5
16

= 5 13 5 13 = 65
ii. cos(A - B) = cosA cosB + sinA sinB
4 12 3 5
63

5
13
5
13

= 65
=
tan A tan B
tan( A B)
1 tan A tan B
iii.
3 5

4 12
3 5
16
1

4
12

= 63
=
16
7
sin A
cos B
17 ,
8 , A in Q2 , B in Q3
b.
Solution:

i. sin (A - B) = sinA cosB - cosA sinB

16 7
33

17 8
17
=
ii. cos(A - B) = cosA cosB + sinA sinB

33 7 16

17 8 17
=
tan A tan B
tan( A B)
1 tan A tan B
iii.
16

33
16

33

c.

cos A

15
7
15
7

15
8

112 3 55
136
=

15
8

7 33 16 15
136
=

112 3 55
= 7 33 16 15

2
5
sinB
3,
8 , A in Q3 , B in Q4

Solution:
i. sin (A - B) = sinA cosB - cosA sinB
5 39 2 5
195 10

3 8 3 8
24
=
=
ii. cos(A - B) = cosA cosB + sinA sinB
5 5
2 39
5 5 2 39

3 8
3 8
24
=
=
tan A tan B
tan( A B)
1 tan A tan B
iii.
5

2
5
1

2
=

39
5
195 10

39 = 2 39 5 5

4. find the exact values using the addition and subtraction formulas
a. sin210cos105 + cos210sin105

b. cos15cos75 sin15sin75

tan 45 tan 135

c. 1 tan 45 tan 135

a.

tan 45 A

1 tan A
1 tan A

sin A B
tan A tan B
b. cos A cos B

1
3

cos X cos X
sin X
3
2
2

d.

e. sec X 2 sec X

II.

Using the double-angle formulas,

1. find the exact values of sin 2 , cos 2 , and tan 2 , given:
4
cot
3 , 90 180
a.
Solution:
i. Apply sin 2 2 sin cos
3 4
24
2

= 5 5 = 25
2
ii. Apply cos 2 1 2 sin
2

3
7
1 2
5 = 25
=
2 tan
tan 2
1 tan 2
iii. Apply
3
6
2
3

4
4
2
2
3
9
7
24
1
1

4
16

= 16 =
7
=

b.

sin

1
3 , in Q1

Solution:
i. Apply sin 2 2 sin cos
1 2 2
4 2
2

3
3

= 9
=
2
ii. Apply cos 2 1 2 sin
2

1
7
1 2
3
= 9
=
2 tan
tan 2
1 tan 2
iii. Apply
2

2
2 2

2
4
2
4
2
2
2

4 2
14

1
1

=
16 = 16 = 7
=

c.

sec

25
25
csc
7 ,
24

Solution:
i. Apply sin 2 2 sin cos
24 7
336
2

= 25 25 = 625
2
ii. Apply cos 2 2 cos 1
2

7
527
2
1
25

=
= 625
2 tan
tan 2
1 tan 2
iii. Apply
24
48
2

48

7
7
2
24
576
527
336
1
1

7 =

49 =
49 = 527
=
2. Prove the identities.

3
a. sin 4 A cos A 4 sin A 8 sin A

sec 2 X
sec 2 X
2 sec 2 X
b.

c.

tan 3B

3 tan B tan 3 B
1 3 tan 2 B

1 sin 2 cos sin

cos sin
d. cos 2

sin 3u cos 3u
1 2 sin 2u
e. cos u sin u
sin 2u cos u cos 2u sin u cos 2u cos u sin 2u sin u
cos u sin u
=
sin 2u cos u sin u cos 2u cos u sin u
cos u sin u
=

sin 2u cos u sin u cos2 u sin2 u cos u sin u

cos u sin u
=
2
cos u sin u sin 2u cos u sin u
cos u sin u
=

sin 2u cos2 u 2 sin u cos u sin2 u =

1 2 sin 2u 1 2 sin 2u

4
4
f. cos sin cos 2

III.

Using the half-angle formulas,

1. find the exact values of
a. sin 75

75
150
Let 2
Since 75 is in Q1, sin 75 is positive.

Thus, apply

Then,

sin

1 cos

2
2
1 cos 150
2
=

sin 75

3
1
2

1
= 4

2 6

b. cos 67.5

67.5
135
Let 2
Since 67.5 is in Q1, cos 67.5 is positive.

Thus, apply

Then,

cos

1 cos

2
2

cos 67.5

1 cos 135
2
=

2
1
2

c.

sin
2 is positive.
Since is in Q2,
sin

Thus, apply

Then,

sin

sin

1 cos

2
2

2 =

1
1
7
2

2 7
= 7

3
tan
2 , if
4 , 180 < < 270
d.

cos
2 is negative.
Since is in Q3,
cos

Thus, apply

cos

1 cos

2
2

4
1

cos
2
2 =
Then,

10
10

1
2 2
= 2

A
2
a.
A
cos A 1 2 sin2
2

cos A 1 2 sin2

B
csc B cot B
2
b.
1
cos B

= sin B sin B
1 cos B
= sin B
B
B
tan tan
2
2

cos 2 1 2 sin2

Recall:
Let:

A
2 then 2 A

tan

sin
c.

2 tan

1 cos

2
sin
Recall:
B

Let: B then 2 2
B 1 cos B
tan
2
sin B
Thus,
tan

1 tan 2

sin
cos
1
2
= cos

2 sin cos
2
2
=
2

sin = sin

X
2
cos X
2 X
1 tan
2
d.
X
sin2
2
1
X
cos2
2
1
X
cos2
2
=
X
X
cos2 sin2
2
2
X
2 X
cos
cos2
2
2
=

Recall:

2 then 2A
Let:

2
2
Thus,
A

1 tan 2

Recall:

Let:

X
2 then 2 X

cos X = cos X

e.

1 tan U tan

Thus, cos X =

cos2

X
X
sin2
2
2

U
sec U
2

sin U 1 cos U

cos U sin U =
1 cos U
1

cos U =
cos U 1 cos U
cos U
=
sec U = sec U
1

2
1 cot

f.

2
sin

cos

2 =

sin
1
2
sin

sin2
cos
2
2 =
sin
2

2
sin cos
2
2
=
2 sin
sin =
2=2

2
csc

IV.

sin tan 2
2
2

sin

Recall:

2 then 2
Let:

2
2
Thus,

Express each of the following as a sum or difference.

1
cos142 21 cos142 21
1. sin142 sin21 = 2
1
1
cos 121 cos 163
cos 163 cos 121
= 2
= 2

1
cos 43 48 cos 43 48
2. cos43 cos48 = 2
1
cos 91 cos 5 1 cos 91 cos 5
= 2
= 2

1
sin 44 105 sin 44 105
3. sin44 cos105 = 2
1
sin149 sin 61 1 sin149 sin 61
= 2
= 2
1
sin 27 46 sin 27 46
4. cos27 sin46 = 2
1
sin 73 sin 19 1 sin 73 sin19
= 2
= 2
1
cos123 59 cos123 59
5. sin123 sin59 = 2
1
1
cos 64 cos 182
cos 182 cos 64
= 2
= 2

1
sin 7A 4A sin 7A 4A
6. cos7A sin4A = 2
1
sin11A sin 3A
= 2
1
sin 54 17 sin 54 17
7. sin54 cos17 = 2
1
sin 71 sin 37
= 2
1
cos125 74 cos125 74
8. cos125 cos74 = 2
1
cos 199 cos 51
= 2
A
A
1
sin 54 17 sin 54 17
9. sin 4 cos 4 = 2
1
sin 71 sin 37
= 2

10. cos 90 5 A

sin 90 2A

=
=
=
=

1
sin180 7A sin 3 A
2
1
sin180 7A sin 3A
2
1
sin180 cos 7A cos 180 sin 7 A sin 3A
2
1
sin 7A sin 3 A
2

V.

Express each of the following as a product.

20 10
20 10
2 sin
cos

2
2

= 2 sin15 cos 5
1. sin20 + sin10 =
1
6 2 cos 5
= 2

62 24
62 24
2 sin
sin

2
2

= 2 sin 43 sin19
2. cos62 cos24 =
40 32
40 32
2 cos
cos

2
2

= 2 cos 36 cos 4
3. cos40 + cos32 =
28 27
28 27
2 cos
sin

2
2

4. sin28 sin27 =
14 67
14 67
2 sin
cos

2
2

= 2 sin 40.5 cos 26.5

5. sin14 + sin67 =
= 2 sin 40.5 cos 26.5
71 8
71 8
2 sin
sin

2
2

6. cos71 cos8 =
67 54
67 54
2 cos
sin

2
2

= 2 cos 60.5 sin 6.5

7. sin67 sin54 =
38 26
38 26
2 cos
cos

2
2

= 2 cos 32 cos 6
8. cos38 + cos26 =
33 56
33 56
2 cos
sin

2
2

= 2 cos 44.5 sin 11 .5

9. sin33 sin56 =
= 2 cos 44.5 sin11 .5
28 32
28 32
2 sin
sin

2
2

= 2 sin 30 sin 2
10. cos28 cos32 =
= 2 sin 30 sin 2 = sin 2
VI.

Prove the identities.

1. sin40 + sin20 = cos10

40 20
40 20
2 sin
cos

2
2

=
2 sin 30 cos 10 =
1

2 2 cos 10 =
cos 10 = cos 10
sin 75 sin15
1

3
2. cos 75 cos 15
75 15
75 15
2 cos
sin

2
2

75

15

75

15

2 cos
cos

2
2

=
2 cos 45 sin 30
2 cos 45 cos 30 =
1
2
3
2 =
1
1
3 = 3
sin sin 3
tan 2
3. cos cos 3
3
3
2 sin
cos

2
2

3
3
2 cos
cos

2
2 =

tan 2 = tan 2

4. cos A cos 2A cos 3 A cos 2 A 1 2 cos A

(cos A + cos 3A) + cos 2A =
A 3A
A 3A
2 cos
cos
cos 2A
2
2

=
2cos 2A cos(-A) + cos 2A =
cos 2A 1 2 cos A = cos 2A 1 2 cos A
5. sin X sin 2 X sin 3 X sin 2 X1 2 cos X
(sin 3X + sin X) + sin 2X =
3X X
3X X
2 sin
cos
sin 2 X
2
2