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EE2402PROTECTIONANDSWITCHGEARANNAUNIVERSITY2
MARKSQUESTIONSANDQUESTIONBANKS

EE2402PROTECTIONANDSWITCHGEAR
SHORTQUESTIONSANDANSWERS
UNITIINTRODUCTION
1.Whatarethefunctionsofprotectiverelays
Todetectthefaultandinitiatetheoperationofthecircuitbreakertoisolatethedefectiveelementfromthe
restofthesystem,therebyprotectingthesystemfromdamagesconsequenttothefault.
2.Givetheconsequencesofshortcircuit.
Wheneverashortcircuitoccurs,thecurrentflowingthroughthecoilincreasestoanenormousvalue.If
protectiverelaysarepresent,aheavycurrentalsoflowsthroughtherelaycoil,causingittooperatebyclosing
itscontacts.Thetripcircuitisthenclosed,thecircuitbreakeropensandthefaultisisolatedfromtherestofthe
system.Also,alowvoltagemaybecreatedwhichmaydamagesystemsconnectedtothesupply.
3.Defineprotectedzone.
Arethosewhicharedirectlyprotectedbyaprotectivesystemsuchasrelays,fusesorswitchgears.Ifafault
occurringinazonecanbeimmediatelydetectedandorisolatedbyaprotectionschemededicatedtothat
particularzone.
4.Whatareunitsystemandnonunitsystem?
Aunitprotectivesystemisoneinwhichonlyfaultsoccurringwithinitsprotectedzoneareisolated.Faults
occurringelsewhereinthesystemhavenoinfluenceontheoperationofaunitsystem.Anonunitsystemisa
protectivesystemwhichisactivatedevenwhenthefaultsareexternaltoitsprotectedzone.
5.Whatisprimaryprotection?
Istheprotectioninwhichthefaultoccurringinalinewillbeclearedbyitsownrelayandcircuitbreaker.It
servesasthefirstlineofdefence.
6.Whatisbackupprotection?
Isthesecondlineofdefence,whichoperatesiftheprimaryprotectionfailstoactivatewithinadefinitetime
delay.
7.Namethedifferentkindsofovercurrentrelays.
Inductiontypenondirectionalovercurrentrelay,Inductiontypedirectionalovercurrentrelay&current
differentialrelay.
8.Defineenergizingquantity.
Itreferstothecurrentorvoltagewhichisusedtoactivatetherelayintooperation.
9.Defineoperatingtimeofarelay.
Itisdefinedasthetimeperiodextendindfromtheoccurrenceofthefaultthroughtherelaydetectingthefault
totheoperationoftherelay.
10.Defineresettingtimeofarelay.
Itisdefinedasthetimetakenbytherelayfromtheinstantofisolatingthefaulttothemomentwhenthefault
isremovedandtherelaycanbereset.
11.Whatareoverandundercurrentrelays?
Overcurrentrelaysarethosethatoperatewhenthecurrentinalineexceedsapredeterminedvalue.(eg:
Inductiontypenondirectional/directionalovercurrentrelay,differentialovercurrentrelay)whereas
undercurrentrelaysarethosewhichoperatewheneverthecurrentinacircuit/linedropsbelowa
predeterminedvalue.(eg:differentialovervoltagerelay)
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12.Mentionanytwoapplicationsofdifferentialrelay.
Protectionofgenerator&generatortransformerunit;protectionoflargemotorsandbusbars.
13.Whatisbiaseddifferentialbuszonereduction?
Thebiasedbeamrelayisdesignedtorespondtothedifferentialcurrentintermsofitsfractionalrelationtothe
currentflowingthroughtheprotectedzone.Itisessentiallyanovercurrentbalancedbeamrelaytypewithan
additionalrestrainingcoil.Therestrainingcoilproducesabiasforceintheoppositedirectiontotheoperating
force.
16MarksQuestions
1.(a)Whatarethecausesofovervoltageonapowersystem?(8)
(b)Whyisitnecessarytoprotectthelinesandotherequipmentofthepowersystem
againstovervoltages?(8)
2.Describethephenomenonoflightning.(16)
3.Whatprotectivemeasuresaretakenagainstlightningovervoltages?(16)
4.(a)Whatistowerfootingresistance?(4)
(b)Whyisitrequiredtohavethisresistanceaslowaseconomicallypossible?(4)
(c)Whatarethemethodstoreducethisresistance?(8)
5.(a)Whatisnecessityofprotectingelectricalequipmentagainsttravelingwaves?(6)
(b)Describeinbrieftheprotectivedevicesusedforprotectionofequipmentagainstsuch
waves?(10)
6.Describetheprotectionofstationsandsubstationsagainstdirectlightningstroke.(16)
7.Describetheconstructionandprincipleofoperationof
(i)expulsiontypelightningarrester,(8)
(ii)Valuetypelightningarrester.(8)
8.WhatisPetersoncoil?Whatprotectivefunctionsareperformedbythisdevice?(16)
9.Writeshortnotesonthefollowing.
(i)klydonographandmagneticlink(4)
(ii)Rodgap(4)
(iii)Arcinghorns(4)
(iv)Basicimpulseinsulationlevel(4)
10.Whataretherequirementsofagroundwireforprotectingpowerconductorsagainstdirectlightning
stroke?Explainhowtheyareachievedinpractice.(16)
11.DeterminetheinductanceofPetersoncoiltobeconnectedbetweentheneutralandgroundtoneutralize
thechargingcurrentofoverheadlinehavingthelinetogroundcapacitiveof0.15f.Ifthesupplyfrequencyis
50Hzandtheoperatingvoltageis132KV,findtheKVAratingofthecoil.(16)
12.(a)Explaintheterminsulationcoordination.(8)
(b)Describetheconstructionofvolttimecurveandtheterminologyassociatedwithimpulsetesting.(8)
13.Explaintheoperationofvarioustypesofsurgeabsorbers(16)
UNITIIOPERATINGPRINCIPLESANDRELAYCHARACTERISTICS
14.Whatistheneedofrelaycoordination?
Theoperationofarelayshouldbefastandselective,ie,itshouldisolatethefaultintheshortestpossibletime
causingminimumdisturbancetothesystem.Also,ifarelayfailstooperate,thereshouldbesufficientlyquick
backupprotectionsothattherestofthesystemisprotected.Bycoordinatingrelays,faultscanalwaysbe
isolatedquicklywithoutseriousdisturbancetotherestofthesystem.
15.MentiontheshortcomingsofMerzPriceschemeofprotectionappliedtoapowertransformer.
Inapowertransformer,currentsintheprimaryandsecondaryaretobecompared.Asthesetwocurrentsare
usuallydifferent,theuseofidenticaltransformerswillgivedifferentialcurrent,andoperatetherelayunderno
loadcondition.Also,thereisusuallyaphasedifferencebetweentheprimaryandsecondarycurrentsofthree
phasetransformers.EvenCTsofproperturnratioareused,thedifferentialcurrentmayflowthroughtherelay
undernormalcondition.
16.Whatarethevariousfaultstowhichaturboalternatorislikelytobesubjected?
Failureofsteamsupply;failureofspeed;overcurrent;overvoltage;unbalancedloading;statorwindingfault.
17.Whatisanunderfrequencyrelay?
Anunderfrequencyrelayisonewhichoperateswhenthefrequencyofthesystem(usuallyanalternatoror
transformer)fallsbelowacertainvalue.
18.Definethetermpilotwithreferencetopowerlineprotection.
PilotwiresreferstothewiresthatconnecttheCTsplacedattheendsofapowertransmissionlineaspartofits
protectionscheme.Theresistanceofthepilotwiresisusuallylessthan500ohms.
19.Mentionanytwodisadvantageofcarriercurrentschemefortransmissionlineonly.
Theprogramtime(ie,thetimetakenbythecarriertoreachtheotherendupto.1%mile);theresponsetimeof
bandpassfilter;capacitancephaseshiftofthetransmissionline
20.Whatarethefeaturesofdirectionalrelay?
Highspeedoperation;highsensitivity;abilitytooperateatlowvoltages;adequateshorttimethermalratio;
burdenmustnotbeexcessive.
21.Whatarethecausesofoverspeedandhowalternatorsareprotectedfromit?
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Suddenlossofallormajorpartoftheloadcausesoverspeedinginalternators.Modernalternatorsare
providedwithmechanicalcentrifugaldevicesmountedontheir
drivingshaftstotripthemainvalveoftheprimemoverwhenadangerousoverspeedoccurs.
22.Whatarethemaintypesofstatorwindingfaults?
Faultbetweenphaseandground;faultbetweenphasesandinterturnfaultinvolvingturnsofthesamephase
winding.
23.GivethelimitationsofMerzPriceprotection.
Sinceneutralearthingresistancesareoftenusedtoprotectcircuitfromearthfaultcurrents,itbecomes
impossibletoprotectthewholeofastarconnectedalternator.Ifanearthfaultoccursneartheneutralpoint,
thevoltagemaybeinsufficienttooperatetherelay.AlsoitisextremelydifficulttofindtwoidenticalCTs.In
additiontothis,therealwaysaninherentphasedifferencebetweentheprimaryandthesecondaryquantities
andapossibilityofcurrentthroughtherelayevenwhenthereisnofault.
24.WhataretheusesofBuchholzsrelay?
Bucholzrelayisusedtogiveanalarmincaseofincipient(slowdeveloping)faultsinthetransformerandto
connectthetransformerfromthesupplyintheeventofsevereinternalfaults.Itisusuallyusedinoilimmersion
transformerswitharatingover750KVA.
16MarksQuestions
1.Whatarethedifferenttypesofelectromagneticrelays?Discusstheirfieldofapplications.(16)
2.Whatarethevarioustypesofovercurrentrelays?Discusstheirareaofapplication.(16)
3.Describetheoperatingprinciple,constructionalfeaturesandareaofapplicationsofreversepoweror
directionalrelay.(16)
4.Describetheconstructionandprincipleofoperationofaninductiontypedirectionalover
currentrelay.(16)
5.Explaintheworkingprincipleofdistancerelays.(16)
6.Writeadetailednoteondifferentialrelays.(16)
7.Describetherealizationofadirectionalovercurrentrelayusingamicroprocessor.(16)
8.Deriveageneralizedmathematicalmodelofdistancerelaysfordigitalprotection.(16)
9.(a)Howcandigitaldistancerelayingalgorithmbeimplementedonthe8086Micro
processor?(8)
(b)Itispossibletoimplementthesealgorithmsonthe8085microprocessor?(8)
10.ExplainwithsketchesandtheirRXdiagramsforthefollowingdistancerelays.
(i)Impedancerelay(5)
(ii)Mhorelay(5)
(iii)Reactancerelay(6)
11.(a)Explaintheapplicationsofmicroprocessorsinpowersystemprotection.(8)
(b)Explainmicroprocessorbasedinversetimeovercurrentrelay.(8)
UNITIIIAPPARATUSPROTECTION
25.Whatarethetypesofgradedusedinlineofradialrelayfeeder?
Definitetimerelayandinversedefinitetimerelay.
26.Whatarethevariousfaultsthatwouldaffectanalternator?
(a)Statorfaults1,Phasetophasefaults2,Phasetoearthfaults3,Interturnfaults
(b)1,Earthfaults2,Faultbetweenturns3,Lossofexcitationduetofuelfailure
(c)1,Overspeed2,Lossofdrive3,Vacuumfailureresultingincondenserpressurerise,resultinginshattering
oftheturbinelowpressurecasing
(d)1,Faultonlines2,Faultonbusbars
27.Whyneutralresistorisaddedbetweenneutralandearthofanalternator?
Inordertolimittheflowofcurrentthroughneutralandeartharesistorisintroducedbetweenthem.
28.Whatisthebackupprotectionavailableforanalternator?
Overcurrentandearthfaultprotectionisthebackupprotections.
29.Whatarefaultsassociatedwithanalternator?
(a)Externalfaultorthroughfault
(b)Internalfault1,Shortcircuitintransformerwindingandconnection2,Incipientorslowdevelopingfaults
30.Whatarethemainsafetydevicesavailablewithtransformer?
Oillevelguage,suddenpressuredelay,oiltemperatureindicator,windingtemperatureindicator.
31.WhatarethelimitationsofBuchholzrelay?
(a)Onlyfaultbelowtheoillevelaredetected.
(b)Mercuryswitchsettingshouldbeveryaccurate,otherwiseevenforvibration,therecanbeafalseoperation.
(c)Therelayisofslowoperatingtype,whichisunsatisfactory.
32.Whataretheproblemsarisingindifferentialprotectioninpowertransformerandhowarethey
overcome?
1.Differenceinlengthsofpilotwiresoneithersidesoftherelay.Thisisovercomebyconnectingadjustable
resistorstopilotwirestogetequipotentialpointsonthepilotwires.
2.DifferenceinCTratioerrordifferenceathighvaluesofshortcircuitcurrentsthatmakestherelaytooperate
evenforexternalorthroughfaults.Thisisovercomebyintroducingbiascoil.
3.TapchangingalterstheratioofvoltageandcurrentsbetweenHVandLVsidesandtherelaywillsensethis
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andact.Biascoilwillsolvethis.
4.Magnetizinginrushcurrentappearswhereveratransformerisenergizedonitsprimarysideproducing
harmonics.Nocurrentwillbeseenbythesecondary.
CTsasthereisnoloadinthecircuit.Thisdifferenceincurrentwillactuatethedifferentialrelay.Aharmonic
restrainingunitisaddedtotherelaywhichwillblockitwhenthetransformerisenergized.
33.WhatisREFrelay?
Itisrestrictedearthfaultrelay.Whenthefaultoccursveryneartotheneutralpointofthetransformer,the
voltageavailabletodrivetheearthcircuitisverysmall,whichmaynotbesufficienttoactivatetherelay,unless
therelayissetforaverylowcurrent.Hencethezoneofprotectioninthewindingofthetransformeris
restrictedtocoveronlyaround85%.HencetherelayiscalledREFrelay.
34.Whatisoverfluxingprotectionintransformer?
Iftheturnsratioofthetransformerismorethan1:1,therewillbehighercorelossandthecapabilityofthe
transformertowithstandthisislimitedtoafewminutesonly.Thisphenomenoniscalledoverfluxing.
35.Whybusbarprotectionisneeded?
(a)Faultlevelatbusbarishigh
b)Thestabilityofthesystemisaffectedbythefaultsinthebuszone.
(c)Afaultinthebusbarcausesinterruptionofsupplytoalargeportionofthesystemnetwork.
36.Whatarethemeritsofcarriercurrentprotection?
Fastoperation,autoreclosingpossible,easydiscriminationofsimultaneousfaults.
37.WhataretheerrorsinCT?
(a)Ratioerror
Percentageratioerror=[(NominalratioActualratio)/Actualratio]x100
Thevalueoftransformationratioisnotequaltotheturnsratio.
(b)Phaseangleerror:
Phaseangle_=180/_[(ImCos_I1Sin_)/nIs]
38.Whatisfieldsuppression?
Whenafaultoccursinanalternatorwindingeventhoughthegeneratorcircuitbreakeristripped,thefault
continuestofedbecauseEMFisinducedinthegeneratoritself.Hencethefieldcircuitbreakerisopenedand
storedenergyinthefieldwindingisdischargedthroughanotherresistor.Thismethodisknownasfield
suppression.
39.Whatarethecausesofbuszonefaults?
Failureofsupportinsulatorresultinginearthfault_Flashoveracrosssupportinsulatorduringovervoltage_
Heavilypollutedinsulatorcausingflashover_Earthquake,mechanicaldamageetc.
40.Whataretheproblemsinbuszonedifferentialprotection?
Largenumberofcircuits,differentcurrentlevelsfordifferentcircuitsforexternalfaults._SaturationofCT
coresduetodccomponentandaccomponentinshortcircuitcurrents.Thesaturationintroducesratioerror._
Sectionalizingofthebusmakescircuitcomplicated._Settingofrelaysneedachangewithlargeloadchanges.
41.Whatisstaticrelay?
Itisarelayinwhichmeasurementorcomparisonofelectricalquantitiesismadeinastaticnetworkwhichis
designedtogiveanoutputsignalwhenathresholdconditionispassedwhichoperatesatrippingdevice.
42.Whatispowerswing?
Duringswitchingoflinesorwrongsynchronizationsurgesofrealandreactivepowerflowingintransmission
linecausessevereoscillationsinthevoltageandcurrentvectors.Itisrepresentedbycurvesoriginatinginload
regionsandtravelingtowardsrelaycharacteristics.
43.Whatisaprogrammablerelay?
Astaticrelaymayhaveoneormoreprogrammableunitssuchasmicroprocessorsormicrocomputersinits
circuit.
44.WhatisCPMC?
Itiscombinedprotection,monitoringandcontrolsystemincorporatedinthestaticsystem.
45.Whataretheadvantagesofstaticrelayoverelectromagneticrelay?
Lowpowerconsumptionaslowas1mW
Nomovingcontacts;henceassociatedproblemsofarcing,contactbounce,erosion,replacementofcontacts
Nogravityeffectonoperationofstaticrelays.Hencecanbeusedinvesselsie,ships,aircraftsetc.
Asinglerelaycanperformseveralfunctionslikeovercurrent,undervoltage,singlephasingprotectionby
incorporatingrespectivefunctionalblocks.Thisisnotpossibleinelectromagneticrelays
Staticrelayiscompact
Superioroperatingcharacteristicsandaccuracy
Staticrelaycanthink,programmableoperationispossiblewithstaticrelay
Effectofvibrationisnil,hencecanbeusedinearthquakeproneareas
Simplifiedtestingandservicing.Canconvertevennonelectricalquantitiestoelectricalinconjunctionwith
transducers.
16MarksQuestions
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1.Enumeratetherelayingschemeswhichareemployedfortheprotectionofamodern
alternator.(16)
2.(a)Whatistransverseorsplitphaseprotectionofanalternator?(4)
(b)Whattypeoffaultisthisschemeofprotectionemployed?(4)
(c)Withaneatsketchdiscusstheworkingprincipleofthisscheme.(8)
3.Whattypeofaprotectivedeviceisusedfortheprotectionofanalternatoragainst
overheatingofits(i)stator(ii)rotor?Discusstheminbrief.(8+8)
4.Whattypeofaprotectiveschemeisemployedfortheprotectionofthefieldwindingof
thealternatoragainstgroundfaults?(16)
5.Discusstheprotectionemployedagainstlossofexcitationofanalternator.(16)
6.(a)Whatdoyouunderstandbyfieldsuppressionofanalternator?(8)
(b)Howisitachieved?(8)
7.Brieflydiscusstheprotectionofanalternatoragainst.
(i)Vibrationofdistortionofmotor(4)
(ii)Bearingoverheating(4)
(iii)Auxiliaryfailure(4)
(iv)Voltageregulatorfailure(4)
8.WhattypeofpilotprotectionisusedforEHVandUHVtransmissionlines.(16)
9.(a)Whatiscarrierprotection?(4)
(b)Forwhatvoltagerangeisitusedfortheprotectionoftransmissionline?(4)
(c)Whatareitsmeritsanddemerits?(8)
10.(a)Whatiscarrieraideddistanceprotection.(4)
(b)Whatareitsdifferenttypes?(4)
(c)Discussthepermissiveunderreachtransfertrippingschemeofprotection.(8)
11.(a)Drawandexplainthemerzpriceprotectionofalternatorstatorwinding.(10)

>

(b)Ageneratorisprotectedbyrestrictedearthfault

protection.Thegeneratorratings
are13.2kv,10MVA.Thepercentageofwindingprotectedagainstphasetogroundfault
is85%.Therelaysettingissuchthatittripsfor20%outofbalancecalculatethe
resistancetobeaddedintheneutraltogroundconnection.(6)
UNITIVTHEORYOFCIRCUITINTERRUPTION
46.Whatisresistanceswitching?
Itisthemethodofconnectingaresistanceinparallelwiththecontactspace(arc).Theresistancereducesthe
restrikingvoltagefrequencyanditdivertspartofthearccurrent.Itassiststhecircuitbreakerininterrupting
themagnetizingcurrentandcapacitycurrent.
47.Whatdoyoumeanbycurrentchopping?
Wheninterruptinglowinductivecurrentssuchasmagnetizingcurrentsofthetransformer,shuntreactor,the
rapiddeionizationofthecontactspaceandblasteffectmaycausethecurrenttobeinterruptedbeforethe
naturalcurrentzero.Thisphenomenonofinterruptionofthecurrentbeforeitsnaturalzeroiscalledcurrent
chopping.
48.Whatarethemethodsofcapacitiveswitching?
Openingofsinglecapacitorbank
Closingofonecapacitorbankagainstanother
49.Whatisanarc?
Arcisaphenomenonoccurringwhenthetwocontactsofacircuitbreakerseparateunderheavyloadorfaultor
shortcircuitcondition.
50.Givethetwomethodsofarcinterruption?
Highresistanceinterruption:thearcresistanceisincreasedbyelongating,andsplittingthearcsothatthearc
isfullyextinguished_Currentzeromethod:Thearcisinterruptedatcurrentzeropositionthatoccurs100
timesasecondincaseof50Hzpowersystemfrequencyinac.
51.Whatisrestrikingvoltage?
Itisthetransientvoltageappearingacrossthebreakercontactsattheinstantofarcbeingextinguished.
52.Whatismeantbyrecoveryvoltage?
Thepowerfrequencyrmsvoltageappearingacrossthebreakercontactsafterthearcisextinguishedand
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transientoscillationsdieoutiscalledrecoveryvoltage.
53.WhatisRRRV?
Itistherateofriseofrestrikingvoltage,expressedinvoltspermicrosecond.Itiscloselyassociatedwithnatural
frequencyofoscillation.
16MarksQuestions
1.(a)Whatisresistanceswitching?(4)
(b)Derivetheexpressionforcriticalresistance.(12)
2.(a)Explainthephenomenonofcurrentchoppinginacircuitbreaker.(12)
(b)Whatmeasuresaretakentoreduceit?(4)
3.Discusstheproblemassociatedwiththeinterruptionof
(i)Lowinductivecurrent(5)
(ii)Capacitivecurrentand(5)
(iii)Faultcurrentifthefaultisverynearthesubstation.(6)
4.ExplainindetailaboutRRRV.(16)
UNITVCIRCUITBREAKERS
54.Whatiscircuitbreaker?
Itisapieceofequipmentusedtobreakacircuitautomaticallyunderfaultconditions.Itbreaksacircuiteither
manuallyorbyremotecontrolundernormalconditionsandunderfaultconditions.
55.Writetheclassificationofcircuitbreakersbasedonthemediumusedforarc
extinction?
_Airbreakcircuitbreaker
_Oilcircuitbreaker
_Minimumoilcircuitbreaker
_Airblastcircuitbreaker
_SF6circuitbreaker
_Vacuumcircuitbreaker
56.Whatisthemainproblemofthecircuitbreaker?
Whenthecontactsofthebreakerareseparated,anarcisstruckbetweenthem.Thisarcdelaysthecurrent
interruptionprocessandalsogeneratesenormousheatwhichmaycausedamagetothesystemortothe
breakeritself.Thisisthemainproblem.
57.WhataredemeritsofMOCB?
_Shortcontactlife
_Frequentmaintenance
_Possibilityofexplosion
_Largerarcingtimeforsmallcurrents
_Pronetorestricts
58.Whataretheadvantagesofoilasarcquenchingmedium?
Itabsorbsthearcenergytodecomposetheoilintogases,whichhaveexcellentcoolingproperties
Itactsasaninsulatorandpermitssmallerclearancebetweenlineconductorsandearthedcomponents
59.Whatarethehazardsimposedbyoilwhenitisusedasanarcquenchingmedium?
Thereisariskoffiresinceitisinflammable.Itmayformanexplosivemixturewitharc.Sooilispreferredasan
arcquenchingmedium.
60.WhataretheadvantagesofMOCBoverabulkoilcircuitbreaker?
Itrequireslesserquantityofoil
Itrequiressmallerspace
Thereisareducedriskoffire
Maintenanceproblemarereduced
61.WhatarethedisadvantagesofMOCBoverabulkoilcircuitbreaker?
ThedegreeofcarbonizationisincreasedduetosmallerquantityofoiloThereisdifficultyofremovingthe
gasesfromthecontactspaceintimeoThedielectricstrengthoftheoildeterioratesrapidlyduetohighdegree
ofcarbonization.
62.Whatarethetypesofairblastcircuitbreaker?
_Arialblasttype_Crossblast_Radialblast
63.Whataretheadvantagesofairblastcircuitbreakeroveroilcircuitbreaker?
TheriskoffireisdiminishedoThearcingtimeisverysmallduetorapidbuildupofdielectricstrengthbetween
contactsoThearcingproductsarecompletelyremovedbytheblastwhereasoildeteriorateswithsuccessive
operations
64.Whatarethedemeritsofusingoilasanarcquenchingmedium?
Theairhasrelativelyinferiorarcquenchingproperties
Theairblastcircuitbreakersareverysensitivetovariationsintherateofriseofrestrikingvoltage
Maintenanceisrequiredforthecompressionplantwhichsuppliestheairblast
65.WhatismeantbyelectronegativityofSF6gas?
SF6hashighaffinityforelectrons.Whenafreeelectroncomesandcollideswithaneutralgasmolecule,the
electronisabsorbedbytheneutralgasmoleculeandnegativeionisformed.Thisiscalledaselectronegativity
ofSF6gas.
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66.WhatarethecharacteristicofSF6gas?
Ithasgooddielectricstrengthandexcellentarcquenchingproperty.Itisinert,nontoxic,noninflammableand
heavy.Atatmosphericpressure,itsdielectricstrengthis2.5timesthatofair.Atthreetimesatmospheric
pressure,itsdielectricstrengthisequaltothatofthetransformeroil.
67.Writetheclassificationsoftestconductedoncircuitbreakers.
_Typetest
_Routinetest
_Reliabilitytest
_Commissioningtest
68.Whataretheindirectmethodsofcircuitbreakertesting?
oUnittest
oSynthetictest
oSubstitutiontesting
oCompensationtesting
oCapacitancetesting
69.Whataretheadvantagesofsynthetictestingmethods?
ThebreakercanbetestedfordesiredtransientrecoveryvoltageandRRRV.
Bothtestcurrentandtestvoltagecanbeindependentlyvaried.Thisgivesflexibilitytothetest
Themethodissimple
Withthismethodabreakercapacity(MVA)offivetimeofthatofthecapacityofthetestplantcanbetested.
70.Howdoestheovervoltagesurgeaffectthepowersystem?
Theovervoltageofthepowersystemleadstoinsulationbreakdownoftheequipments.Itcausestheline
insulationtoflashoverandmayalsodamagethenearbytransformer,generatorsandtheotherequipment
connectedtotheline.
71.Whatispickupvalue?
Itistheminimumcurrentintherelaycoilatwhichtherelaystartstooperate.
72.Definetarget.
Itistheindicatorusedforshowingtheoperationoftherelay.
73.Definereach.
Itisthedistanceuptowhichtherelaywillcoverforprotection.
74.Defineblocking.
Itmeanspreventingtherelayfromtrippingduetoitsowncharacteristicsorduetoadditionalrelays.
75.Defineaovercurrentrelay.
Relaywhichoperateswhenthecurrentiaalineexceedsapredeterminedvalue.
76.Defineanundercurrentrelay?
Relayswhichoperateswheneverthecurrentinacircuitdropsbelowapredeterminedvalue.
77.Mentionany2applicationsofdifferentialrelays.
Protectionofgeneratorandgeneratortransformerunit:protectionoflargemotorsandbusbars
78.MentionthevarioustestscarriedoutinacircuitbreakeratHVlabs.
Shortcircuittests,Synthetictests&directtests.
78.Mentiontheadvantagesoffieldtests.
Thecircuitbreakeristestedunderactualconditionslikethosethatoccurinthenetwork.Specialoccasionslike
breakingofchargingcurrentsoflonglines,veryshortlinefaults,interruptionofsmallinductivecurrentsetc
canbetestedbydirecttestingonly.
79.Statethedisadvantagesoffieldtests.
Thecircuitbreakercanbetestedatonlyagivenratedvoltageandnetworkcapacity.Thenecessitytointerrupt
thenormalservicesandtotestonlyatlightloadconditions.Extrainconvenienceandexpensesininstallationof
controllingandmeasuringequipmentinthefield.
80.Definecompositetestingofacircuitbreaker.
Inthismethodthebreakerisfirsttestedforitsratedbreakingcapacityatareducedvoltageandafterwardsfor
ratedvoltageatalowcurrent.Thismethoddoesnotgiveaproperestimateofthebreakerperformance.
81.Statethevarioustypesofearthing.
Solidearthing,resistanceearthing,reactanceEarthing,voltagetransformerEarthingandzigzagtransformer
earthing.
82.Whatarearcinggrounds?
Thepresenceofinductiveandcapacitivecurrentsintheisolatedneutralsystemleadstoformationofarcs
calledasarcinggrounds.
83.Whatisarcsuppressioncoil?
Amethodofreactancegroundingusedtosuppressthearcduetoarcinggrounds.
84.Statethesignificanceofsinglelinetogroundfault.
Insinglelinetogroundfaultallthesequencenetworksareconnectedinseries.Allthesequencecurrentsare
equalandthefaultcurrentmagnitudeisthreetimesitssequencecurrents.
85.Whataresymmetricalcomponents?
Itisamathematicaltooltoresolveunbalancedcomponentsintobalancedcomponents.
86.Statethethreesequencecomponents.
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Positivesequencecomponents,negativesequencecomponentsandzerosequencecomponents.
87.Definepositivesequencecomponent.
has3vectorsequalinmagnitudeanddisplacedfromeachotherbyanangle120degreesandhavingthephase
sequenceasoriginalvectors.
88.Definezerosequencecomponent.
Theyhas3vectorshavingequalmagnitudesanddisplacedfromeachotherbyananglezerodegees.
89.Statethesignificanceofdoublelinefault.
Ithasnozerosequencecomponentandthepositiveandnegativesequencenetworksareconnectedinparallel.
90.Definenegativesequencecomponent.
Ithas3vectorsequalinmagnitudeanddisplacedfromeachotherbyanangle120degreesandhasthephase
sequenceinoppositetoitsoriginalphasors.
91.Statethedifferenttypesoffaults.
Symmetricalfaultsandunsymmetricalfaultsandopenconductorfaults.
92.Statethevarioustypesofunsymmetricalfaults.
Linetoground,linetolineanddoublelinetogroundfaults
93.Mentionthewithstandingcurrentinourhumanbody.
9mA
94.Statethedifferenttypesofcircuitbreakers.
Air,oil,vacuumcircuitbreakers.
95.Defineperunitvalue.
Itisdefinedastheratioofactualvaluetoitsbasevalue.
96.Mentiontheinductancevalueofthepetersonscoil.
L=1/3wc2
97.Definesinglelinediagram.
Representationofvariouspowersystemcomponentsinasinglelineisdefinedassinglelinediagram.
98.Differentiatebetweenafuseandacircuitbreaker.
Fuseisalowcurrentinterruptingdevice.Itisacopperoranaluminiumwire.Circuitbreakerisahighcurrent
interruptingdeviceanditactasaswitchundernormaloperatingconditions.
99.Howdirecttestsareconductedincircuitbreakers?
Usingashortcircuitgeneratorasthesource.Usingthepowerutilitysystemornetworkasthesource.
100.Whatisdielectrictestofacircuitbreaker?
Itconsistsofovervoltagewithstandtestofpowerfrequencylightningandimpulsevoltages.Testaaredonefor
bothinternalandexternalinsulationwithswitchinbothopenandclosedconditions.
16MarksQuestions
1.Discusstherecoveryratetheoryandenergybalancetheoryofarcinterruptioninacircuitbreaker.(16)
2.Explainterms:
i)Restrikingvoltage(3)
ii)Recoveryvoltage(3)
iii)RRRV(3)
iv)DeriveexpressionsforrestrikingvoltageandRRRV.(3)
v)Whatmeasuresaretakentoreducethem?(4)
6.Withneatsketch,describetheworkingprincipleofanaxialairblasttypecircuitbreaker.(16)
7.(a)DiscusstheoperatingprincipleofSF6circuitbreaker.(10)
(b)Whatareitsadvantagesoverothertypesofcircuitbreakers?(3)
(c)Forwhatvoltagerangeisitrecommended?(3)
8.Describeconstruction,operatingprincipleandapplicationofvaccumcircuitbreaker.Forwhatvoltagerange
isitrecommended?(16)
9.(a)Whatarethevarioustypesofoperatingmechanismswhichareusedforopeningandclosingofthe
contactsofacircuitbreaker?(10)
(b)Discusstheirmeritsanddemerits.(6)
10.(a)Enumeratevarioustypesofratingsofacircuitbreaker.(4)
(b)Discusssymmetricalandasymmetricalbreakingcapacity,(4)
(c)Makingcapacity(4)
(d)Shorttimecurrentcapacity.(4)
11.Whatarethedifferentmethodsoftestingofcircuitbreakers?Discusstheirmeritsand
demerits.(16)
12.WhatisthedifficultyinthedevelopmentofHVDCcircuitbreaker?Describeits
constructionandoperatingprinciple.(16)
13.(a)WhatarethephysicalchemicalanddielectricpropertiesofSF6Gas(8)
(b)Defineswitchgear.Whataretheessentialfeaturesofswitchgear(8)
14.A3phasealternatorhasthelinevoltageof11kV.Thegeneratorisconnectedtoa
circuitbreaker.Theinductivereactanceuptothecircuitbreakeris5_/phase.the
distributedcapacitanceuptocircuitbreakerbetweenphaseandneutralis0.001F.
DeterminepeakrestrikingvoltageacrosstheCB,frequencyofrestrikingvoltage,
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averagerateofrestrikingvoltageuptopeakrestrikingvoltage,maximumRRRV.(16)

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