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Bolts & Nuts :Depending upon the Service parameters, various bolting material specified in the piping
classes is as follows

Alloy steel stud Bolts & Nuts

Stainless steel Bolts & Nuts


Black carbon steel Bolts & Nuts

Gaskets :As per service requirements the gaskets specified are :



SS Spiral wound gasket with asbestos filler

SS Spiral wound gasket with carbon filler

SS Spiral wound gasket with Teflon filler

Compressed asbestos fiber gaskets (CAF)

Corrugated Jacketed gaskets with different filler

Rubber gaskets

Metallic RTJ gaskets etc.

Strainers :-

Temporary strainer

Tee type strainer

Y type strainer

Specialities filters

Steam traps :-





Ball float type

Branch Connection :-

Pipe to pipe branch without Reinforcing pad

Pipe to pipe branch with Reinforcing pad

Spectacle Blind / Blind and spacer.


Single piece spectacle blind (upto 10" dia )

Two piece Spacer and blind ( pipe dia 12" and above)

Facing to suit raised face, RTJ etc.


Small Bore Piping :Generally piping upto 11/2" nominal bore is termed as small bore piping and is having
socket weld or screwed construction. In very high pressure system (e.g.1500# and 2500#
rating) it can be Butt weld construction


Large Bore piping :Piping systems having 2" and above nominal bore. Upto size 24" is considered as large bore
Above 24" Size. i.e. 26" and above upto any size (114" for RPL project ) is extra large bore


Materials :2.1

Carbon Steel (CS) :-

Carbon steel to various specifications is the most commonly specified material for most
of the Process and utility services for pipe and piping components having temperature limits
between-290 C upto 4540 C for noncorrosive and corrosive services depending upon the suitability
safety and Economy.

Low Temperature Carbon steel (LTCS) :

Low temperature carbon steel pipe and piping components are specified for service
temperature range from -300 C to 450 C


Alloy Steel (AS) :Alloy steel pipe and piping components are specified for high temperature services
(above 4540 C)
Commonly specified alloy steel grades depending upon the temperature and services are


carbon-1/2 molydenum

1 1/4 chrome (P11)

2 1/4 chrome (P22)

5 Chrome (P5)

9 chrome (P9)

Stainless Steel (SS) :Application of stainless steel in material selection and material specification in broader
concept is as follows.


Corrosive services :Where service fluid is corrosive and the use of carbon steel is not acceptable from
contamination purity, iron pickup and health hazard and where galvanised piping or nonferrous piping is also not acceptable in all such cases stainless steel is specified.


High temperature services :Where the higher temperature services for which alloy steel cannot be used generally
stainless steel of suitable grade (SS304 H grade) is used for temperature above 560 0 C /
5850 C.


Cryogenic services :For extreme low temperature services, temperature below -100 0 C and up to - 2000 C
stainless steel material generally specified


Lined Piping :Where the service is corrosive and does not have much temperature. Lined Piping
depending upon the economy and effectiveness. Is specified. Various types of lined
piping systems are there in the Hydrocarbon industry usage. e.g.


Epoxy lined carbon steel :Generally for seawater services of large diameter and long piping runs as it has very low
co-efficient of friction.


Rubber lined piping :Rubber lined carbon steel piping with flanged piping and fittings is another alternate for
services like deminaralised water and other chemicals where economy. Moderate
temperature and iron pickup are main consideration.




Cement lined carbon steel :Carbon steel piping lined with reinforced cement from inside is also suitable for services
like sea water but the co-efficient of friction, length and size of piping system involved
may be deciding factors.
Other examples of lined piping are glass lined,teflon lined, polypropylene lined
etc.depending upon the type of fluid And its application
Non-ferrous piping
Non ferrous piping e.g. high-density polyethylene (HDFE) Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) RCC
etc. are also specified based on suitability of its application.


Special materials :Special materials in piping system are specified depending upon the criticality of service,
temperature, corrosion and abrasion resistance and suitability e.g.




Duplex stainless steel

SS 321 grade


P91 grade alloy steel (high strength. High temperature resistant)

Basis of material specification / piping classes :Various parameter which from the basis of material specifications / piping classes are as


Pressure :-

Pressure of the piping system ranges from vacuum pressure to very high pressures
accordingly. The categorization of piping classes is done based on the pressure ratings
Pressure ratings are normally applicable to flanges. Flanged valves, socket weld fittings
and socket weld valves.

Flanges and flanged valve rating:These are


150# rating

300# rating

600# rating

900# rating

1500# rating

2500# rating

Socket weld fittings :These are normally


3000 # rating

6000# rating

9000# rating

Socket weld valves :These are normally 800# rating


Temperature :Wide range of temperature from - 2000 C upto 7500 C from the basis of number of piping
classes in preparation of material specification and its suitability.
Accordingly, the different and broader categorisation of piping classes based on
temperature and service conditions of system are as follows.

-290 C to 1000 C

-290 C to 1500 C

-290 C to 2600 C

-290 C to 3990 C

-290 C to 4270 C

-290 C to 4540 C

-290 C to 5380 C

-290 C to 5500 C

-290 C to 5660 C

-290 C to 5930 C

-290 C to 6500 C

-290 C to 8000 C etc.

The above temperature ranges depending upon the service fluid. Service requirements
are base material e.g. CS. AS. SS. GI. Corrosion requirements etc. from the basis for
generation of a suitable piping class.

Service or fluid :Various hydrocarbon and utility service necessitate Specific requirements from material
selection point of view to be considered in the piping classes.
Various process and utilities in general are as follows.


Process :-

Hydrocarbon - non corrosive

Hydrocarbon - corrosive

Hydrocarbons with Sulphur

Hydrocarbons with Hydrogen

Hydrocarbons with hydrogen and H 2 S

Hydrocarbon With Sour water NACE

Caustic (25% and above)

Caustic - PWHT (less then 20%)



Amine - (PWHT)

Sour water - NACE




Slops - light. heavy. Cracked

Hydrochloric acid

Sulphuric acid

Blow downs

Fuel oil

Fuel gas

Oils - lube. Seal. Flushing etc.


Utilities :-

Steam - low. Medium, high pressure.

Condensate - low, medium, high pressure

Air - Instrument air, Plant air, breathing air.

Water - cooling water supply and return

Water - cooling water (fresh)

cooling water (sea water)
Boiler feed water.
Desalinated Water.
Potable water
Treated water
Process water
Utility water