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Problem 1

If ν = 141.4 sin (ωt+30°) V and i = 11.31cos (ωt-30°) A, find for each;

a) The maximum value,


b) The rms value,
c) The phasor expression in polar and rectangular form if voltage is the
reference. Is the circuit inductive or capacitive?

Solution:

(a) Maximum values:


Vmax=141.4 V Imax=11.31 A
(b) rms values:
V=141.42=100 V I=11.312=8 A
(c) Phasor expression in polar and rectangular form:
V=100∠0°=100+j0 V
I=8∠-60°=4-j6.93 A

Problem 2

If the circuit of Problem 1 consist of a purely resistive and a purely reactive


element, find R and X;

a) if the elements are in series

b) if the elements are in parallel

Solution:

(a) Elements in series:

Z= 100∠0°8∠-60°=12.5∠60° Ω=6.25+j10.83 Ω

R=6.25 Ω XL=10.83 Ω

(b) Elements in parallel:

Y= 1Z=0.08∠-60°=0.04-j0.0693

R= 10.04=25 Ω XL= 10.0693=14.43 Ω

Problem 3

Three identical impedances of 10 ∠-15° Ω are Y-connected to balanced three-


phase line voltages of 208 V. Specify all the line and phase voltages and the

1 Vca
c a
currents as phasors in polar form with Vca as reference for a phase sequence of
abc.

Solution: Vcn
Van
Van=120 ∠210° V Vab=208 ∠240° V
Vbc Vbn
Vab
Vbn=120 ∠90° V Vbc=208 ∠120° V

Vcn=120 ∠-30° V Vca=208 ∠0° V b

Ia= VanZ= 120 ∠210°10 ∠-15°=12∠225° A

Ib= VbnZ= 120 ∠90°10 ∠-15°=12∠105° A

Ic= VcnZ= 120 ∠-30°10 ∠-15°=12∠-15° A

Problem 4

A balanced-∆ load consisting of pure resistances of 15 Ω per phase is in parallel


with a balanced-Y load having phase impedances of 8 + j6 Ω. Identical
impedances of 2 + j5 Ω are in each of the three lines connecting the combined
loads to a 110-V three phase supply. Find the current drawn from the supply and
line voltage at the combined loads.

Solutions:

Convert ∆ to equivalent Y having 15/3 = 5 Ω/phase

58+j65+8+j6= 40+j3013+j6×13-j613-
j6=700+j50205=3.41+j0.732=3.49∠12.1° Ω

Current drawn at supply:

Z=2+j5+3.41+j0.73=5.41+j5.73=7.88∠46.65° Ω

I=11037.88=8.06 A from supply

Letting Vt equal voltage at the load, line-to-line voltage:

Vt=8.06×3.49=28.13 V to neutral

Line-to-line V2=3×28.13=48.72 V

Problem 5

A three-phase load draws 250 kW at a power factor of 0.707 lagging from a 440-
V line. In parallel with this load is a three-phase capacitor bank which draws 60
kVA. Find the total current and resultant power factor.

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Solution:

Letting S1 and S2 represent the load and capacitor bank, respectively,

S1=250+j250

S2=0-j60

where S1+S2=250+j190=314∠37.23° kW

I=314,0003×440=412.0 A

p.f=cos37.23°=0.796 lag

Problem 6

A three-phase motor draws 20 kVA at 0.707 power factor lagging from a 220-V
source. Determine the kilovolt ampere rating of capacitors to make the
combined power factor 0.90 lagging, and determine the line current before and
after the capacitor are added. 14.14

Solution;

From the figure,


20
θ=cos-10.9=25.84° 6.85

14.14tan25.84°=6.85

14.14-6.85=7.29 kvar θ=cos-


10.9=25.84°
Without capacitor:

I=20,0003×220=52.5 A

With capacitor:

I=14.14+j6.85×10003×220=41.2 A

Problem 7

Three loads are connected in parallel across a 1400-Vrms, 60-Hz single-phase


supply as shown in Figure 1.

Load 1: Inductive load, 125kVa at 0.28 power factor

Load 2: Capacitive load, 10kW and 40kvar

Load 3: Resistive load of 15kW

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a) Find the total kW, kvar, kVA, and the supply power factor.

Figure 1

An inductive load has a lagging power factor, the capacitive load has a leading
power factor, and the resistive load has a unity power factor.

For load 1:

θ1=cos-1(0.28)=73.74° lagging

The load complex power is

S=P+jQ=S1+S2+S3

=35+j120+10-j40+15+j0

=60 kW+j80 kvar=100∠53.13 kVA

The total current is,

I= S*V* =100,000∠-53.13°1400∠0°=71.43∠-53.13°A

The supply power factor is,

PF=cos53.13=0.6 lagging

(b) A capasitor of negligible resistance is connected in parallel with the above


loads to improve the power factor to 0.8 lagging. Determine the kvar rating of
this capacitor and the capacitance in µF.

Total real power P = 60 kW at the new power factor of 0.8 lagging results in the
new reactive power Q’.

θ'=cos-10.8=36.87°

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Q'=60tan36.87°=45 kvar

Therefore, the required capacitor kvar is,

Qc=80-45=35 kvar

and

Xc=V2Sc*=14002j35,000=-j56 Ω

C=1062π6056=47.37 μF

and the new current is,

I'=S'*V*=60,000-j45,0001400∠0°=53.57∠-36.87° A

Note the reduction in the supply current from 71.43 A to 53.57 A.

Problem 8

A three-phase line has an impedance of 0.4+j2.7Ω per phase. The line feeds two
balanced three-phase loads that are connected parallel. The first load is
absorbing 560.1kVA at 0.707 power factor lagging. The second load absorbs
132kW at unity power factor. The line-to-line voltage at the load end of the line
is 3810.5V.

Determine:

a) The magnitude of the line voltage at the source end of the line.
b) Total real and reactive power loss in the line.
c) Real power and reactive power supplied at the sending end of the line.

Figure 2
a) The phase voltage at the load terminals is

The single-phase equivalent circuit is shown in figure 2. The total complex


power is

With the phase voltage V2 as reference, the current in the line is

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The phase voltage at the sending end is

The magnitude of the line voltage at the sending end of the line is

b) The three-phase power loss in the line is

c) The three-phase sending power is

It is clear that the sum of load powers and the line losses is equal to the
power delivered from the supply, i.e,