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XRD

Fig. 1 and Fig 2 shows XRD spectra of ZnO thin films transferred on PET substrate with
different conditions. When the transfer took place with the help of spherical lens for fluence
of 130mJ/cm2 and 160 mJ/cm2 (2mm spot diameter), diffraction peaks (100), (002), (101)
were obtained which indicates the presence of ZnO on PET substrate. However the intensities
of (100), (002), (101) diffractions peaks for both the samples were smaller than standard
XRD pattern of ZnO [Fig 3].
These results can be explained by the high fluence energies and also the placement of
spherical lens which ablated the material and a dense film was not transferred which can be
seen in the SEM images also. The lattice spacings d were calculated by substituting the
experimental 2 value into the Braggs equation . The lattice constants were calculated . Both
the values of d and c are tabulated below.

Fig 1a

Fig 1b

When the transfer took place without the use of spherical lens for fluence energy of 45
mJ/cm2 and 3 mm spot diameter, intensities of diffractions peak (100) was high [Fig 2a] as
compared to the previous results. (002) diffraction peak was similar whereas (101) peak was
absent.
When PET substrate was preheated at 100 0 C, fluence energy of 15mJ/cm2 and 3 mm spot
diameter was used for transfer which shows the presence of (100), (002), (101) diffractions
peaks in Fig 2b and intensities of each peak was higher than the all previous results. The
result can be explained by the heating of substrate which helps in bonding of the ZnO

nanorods at low fluence energies. Diffraction peaks were well indexed to the diffraction
pattern of hexagonal phase ZnO (Fig 2a, 2b; JCPDS

00-001-1136 ), indicating a wurtzite

strucure with high crystallinty. These results are comparable with the standard XRD spectra
of ZnO. Lattice spacing d and lattice constant c are calculated in the Table 1.
Fig 2a,2b shows the dominance of (100) peaks which explains that the ZnO nanorods gets
oriented along the (100) direction as compared to the preffered direction of (101) in glass
substrate before the transfer.

Fig 2a

Fig 2b

Full Width Half Maximum is also calculated in the table. FWHM of (100) diffractions peaks
decreased from 0.23620 for 160 mJ/cm2 to 0.07870 for 45 mJ/cm2 indicating an enhancement
in the crystal quality of ZnO nanorods array. But FWHM again increases when substrate was
preheated at 1000 C which indicates that ZnO nanorods are more crystalline when transfer
took place at low fluence but
without the aid of substrate heater.
Fig 3. shows the XRD spectra of
ZnO thin films on ITO coated glass
substrate in which ZnO nanorods
were oriented (101) direction and
also shows the presence of (100)
and (002) peaks.But after the

Fig 3: XRD spectra of ZnO on glass substrate before transfer.

transfer, (101) peaks were absent or have very less intensity in all the samples and nanorods
got oriented along (100) direction.

Table 1:
Fluence

2Theta(deg)

d()

a( )

c( )

FWHM

energy(mJ/cm2)
130

31.7688

2.813

3.248

5.171

(radian)
0.1181

2.

34.4578

2.599

0.2362

3.

36.3098

2.471

0.1574

31.7858

2.811

5.

34.4608

2.599

.2362

6.

36.2157

2.477

.1574

31.730

2.816

8.

34.4141

2.602

.0590

9.

36.3098

2.471

.1574

31.8017

2.810

.1574
.1181

Sr.
No.

1.

4.

7.

10.

160

45

15

11.

34.4943

4
2.597

12.

36.3067

2.471

3.245

3.251

3.245

5.187

5.152

5.187

0.2362

.0787

.1574