Contents
Preface
vii
Recommended Literature
viii
1 Introduction
1.1 Electrical Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 Production of Electrical Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2.1 Power Stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2.2 Electric Power Production in Different Countries . . .
1.3 Transmission and Distribution of Electrical Energy . . . . . .
1.3.1 Voltage Levels and Net Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3.2 International Interconnected Grids and Synchronous
Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3.3 Grid Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3.4 Power Substations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3.5 Grid Operation and Supervision . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4 Consumption of Electrical Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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iv
Contents
3.2
ThreePhase Transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.1 Design of ThreePhase Transformers . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.2 ThreePhase Transformer Model . . . . . . . . . . . .
4 Per
4.1
4.2
4.3
Unit System
Reason for the Calculation with Per Unit Values . . . .
Example of Use of P.U. Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to Choose Base Voltages for Interconnected Circuit
ements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4 Conversion between Different p.u. Systems . . . . . . . .
47
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El. . . 56
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5 Lines
5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.1 Characteristics of Power Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.2 Reasons for High Transmission Voltages . . . . . . . .
5.2 Line Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.1 Power Line Conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.2 Inductance of a Power Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.3 Capacitance of a Power Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.4 Ohmic Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.5 Conductor Parameters for Cables and Overhead Lines
5.3 Electromagnetic Fields of Overhead Lines . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.1 Electric Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.2 Magnetic Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4 Line Model and Solution of the Wave Equation . . . . . . . .
5.4.1 Equivalent Circuit Diagram of a Line Element . . . .
5.4.2 Telegraph Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.3 Wave Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.4 Interpretation of the Wave Propagation . . . . . . . .
5.4.5 Inclusion of Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.6 Wave Equation of the Lossless Line . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5 Line Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.1 General TwoPort Model of a Line . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.2 Lossless Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.3 Additional Simplifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.4 Comparison of Different Line Models . . . . . . . . . .
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Contents
6.3.1 Open circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.2 Short circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4 Reactive power demand of a line . . . . . .
6.5 Voltage drop along a line . . . . . . . . . .
6.6 Efficiency of high voltage transmission lines
6.7 P U Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.8 P Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.9 Load diagram and load limits . . . . . . . .
6.10 Power cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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vi
Contents
Preface
The part Electric Power Transmission and Distribution of the lecture Electric Power Systems in the fifth semester of the Department Information
Technology and Electrical Engineering at ETH Z
urich is concerned primarily with the power transmission over lines or cables in electric power systems. The aim is to describe the transportation of the electric power from
the generator till the final consumers by means of models and equations in
symmetric as well as in asymmetric operating states.
In contrast with the second part High Voltage Technology, where single
components of the high voltage grid (e.g. circuit breakers) are considered, we
are here more interested in the interactions between the devices in the grid,
and not primarily in the specific design of the individual grid components. As
an introduction, systems consisting of single lines from a source (generator)
to a load are considered. Based on that, the lecture Modelling and Analysis of
Electric Power Systems addresses the electric energy transport in stationary
as well as in transient state of a meshed system1 . In the lecture Optimization
of Liberalized Electric Power Systems in the eighth semester, the basics of
this lecture are again partly reused.
Because of the importance of the transformers in the electric power transmission the basics of transformers are reviewed at first in this lecture. Following a twoport model of a transformer is derived. Then we address the
basic elements of this lecture, the power line and power cable.
After the introduction we derive a mathematical two pole model (Telegraph equation of Maxwell) for power lines. At the solution of the Telegraph
equation we restrict ourselves to stationary, i.e. sinusoidal quantities and
thus obtain the equations, which describe the behaviour of current and voltage along a high voltage line. This part is closed with the interpretation of
the line equations and with the analysis of the interaction between active
and reactive power transport over a high voltage line.
The second part gives an introduction to the calculation of short circuit
currents in threephase high voltage lines. Thereby, we will use a transformation which enables a simplified description of asymmetric threephase
systems (positive, negative and zero sequence components).
A net is considered as meshed if not only one but multiple lines exist between some (or
also all) nodes which serve for the energy transport. With the intermeshing a redundancy
of the transmission paths is achieved, which has a significant importance for the security of
supply. This redundancy implies that the supply of the energy consumer is still warranted
for an outage of a line/power station.
vii
viii
Preface
Z
urich, September 2009
G
oran Andersson
Recommended Literature
For further studies and clarifications we recommend the following books
available at the ETH library for students of ETH Z
urich:
[1] Bergen, A. R. ; Vittal, V.: Power Systems Analysis. 2nd edition.
PrenticeHall, 2000.
[2] Oeding, D. ; Oswald, B. R.: Elektrische Kraftwerke und Netze.
6. Auflage. Springer, 2004.
[3] Crastan, V.: Elektrische Energieversorgung 1. Band 1. Springer, 2000.
1
Introduction
This chapter presents a general overview of electric power systems. The fundamental features and functions of electric power systems and the chain
productiontransmissiondistributionconsumption are discussed.
1.1
Electrical Energy
1.2
1. Introduction
1.2.1
Power Stations
The term renewable is somewhat misleading, as truly renewable sources do not exist
strictly speaking.
Wind power stations can only be operated efficiently at locations where the
wind conditions give enough socalled full load hours per year, e.g., in coastal
regions.
Hydro Power Stations
Hydro power stations use the kinetic and potential energy of water in rivers
and water supply dams. Depending on the head and the flow rate, the exploitation of either the kinetic or potential energy of the water dominates.
One distinguishes between high, middle or low pressure hydro power stations.
High pressure hydro power stations have very high heads in the range
between 500 and 2000 m. The potential energy of the stored water can be
disposed in hydro reservoirs and processed at peak load times. Accordingly,
these power stations are referred to as storage power stations. For energy
conversion socalled Pelton turbines are employed. At low load times the
power produced in other power stations can be used to fill the reservoirs.
These kind of power stations are referred to as pumped storage hydro stations.
The generators are then used as prime movers for the pumps. High pressure
hydro power stations are characterized by their fast response times. They
are able to adapt their power output within short time (minutes) as well as
to strong fluctuations.
One refers to middle pressure hydro power stations in the case of middle
heads until about 50 m and middle flow rates. Potential and kinetic energy
are used equally. Mostly, Francis turbines are employed.
Low pressure hydro power stations are also referred to as run of river
power stations. The heads are relatively low (a few meters), the flow rate
is instead correspondingly larger. Here Kaplan turbines are well suited as
prime movers for the generators. As the water level and the flow rate of
rivers are more or less constant for a short period of time (several hours
until a day), these power stations are predominantly used to cover the base
load. Low pressure hydro power stations can be used for power control too,
however with higher time constants and a smaller power range than the high
pressure power stations.
As a rule of thumb, the following relation holds for the generated active
power in a water power station
P 8QH
(1.1)
where Q is the flow rate in m3 /s, H the head in m, and P the power output of
the turbine in kW. In this equation the efficiency coefficients of the hydraulic
system h , the turbine t and the generators g are incorporated in the
overall efficiency coefficient:
= h t g 0.82
(1.2)
1. Introduction
where
h 0.90 , t 0.93 und g 0.98
The factor 8 in (1.1) results by multiplication of the overall efficiency coefficient by the earths gravitation constant, 9.81 m/s2 .
As seen, the power output of a hydro power station is linearly dependent
of the flow rate and the head.
In Europe and northern America the rivers carry considerably less water
at winter times or after long dry periods than at summer times or times
with frequent rain. In mountain regions melting water plays an important
role in spring. The power producing capacity of a hydro power station is
strongly depending on meteorological conditions. As an example, in winter
in continental Europe often only a quarter of the installed power rating can
be produced.
Thermal Power Stations
In thermal power stations hot combustion gases or steam are processed in
gas or steam turbines. Typical efficiency coefficients of conventional steam
power stations lie below 40 %. By utilizing the excess heat from the turbines
for heating the overall efficiency can be increased significantly . Basically,
one distinguishes between gas turbine and steam turbine power stations:
gas turbine power stations: Here, gas turbines are employed, in principal corresponding to air plane turbines.
steam turbine power stations: Here, steam turbines are employed. Multilevel turbines (high, middle or low pressure component) are often
used. Depending on the way of steam generation one distinguishes
between:
fossil fired power stations (fossil fuel)
nuclear power plants
Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) where both a gas and steam
turbines are used
Thermal power stations are difficult to control compared with hydro power
stations. Regarding the thermal mechanic equipment, dedicated maximal
temperature gradients need to be maintained. This leads to high time constants regarding the changes of output power. Furthermore, the operation
of a thermal power station is economically reasonable mostly only in certain
operation stages. The operation as control power plant is mostly uneconomical. These reasons lead to the fact that steam power stations are employed
mostly for base load coverage. Gas turbines are able to follow varying power
demands within minutes and are employed to cover peak loads as well.
Wind Power
Wind mills use the kinetic energy of wind as energy source. Modern constructions having rotor diameters of 120 m produce power in the range of 5
MW. Mainly in windy coastal regions and vast plains wind energy can be
employed very efficiently and economically.
The produced power of a wind converter P rises with the third power of
the wind speed v:
P v3
(1.3)
Due to natural fluctuations in the wind speed the delivered power varies
quite strongly with wind speed as seen in equation (1.3). Therefore, the
usage of wind energy requires normally fast responding power stations for
the compensation of these power variations.
Solar Power
Solar radiation (sunlight) is employable directly or indirectly for the production of electrical energy. The two dominant technologies are
photovoltaic (direct conversion of sunlight into direct current) and
solar thermic power stations (sunlight for steam production).
The produced power fluctuates mainly between day and night, but as well
between seasons. Besides that, the weather conditions and the cloudiness
influence the produced power.
Fuel Cells
Fuel cells are systems which produce thermal and electrical energy by direct
chemical conversion of fuels. Water is produced as a waste product. Possible
fuels are (bio)gas, kerosene products, hydrogen and alcohol.
Depending on the usage, different technologies are applied. The two most
important types are
Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells: Operating temperature 50 until 80 C, efficiency ca. 50 %, typical applications are in the
transportation sector.
Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC): Operating temperature 600 until 1000 C,
efficiency ca. 70 %, mostly stationary applications.
The maximal nominal power of fuel cell power stations are nowadays in
the range of several MW.
Fuel cells are employable as storage too by using the delivered electrical
energy for the production of hydrogen. The hydrogen can be stored and
be converted back to electrical energy. This technology is referred to as
reversible fuel cell.
1. Introduction
Geothermal Power
Geothermic power stations use the heat from the inner of the earth as primary energy. For this, bore holes to a depth of 5000 m are required. A temperature gradient of about 5 C per 100 m yields a temperature difference
of about 200 C. By the socalled injection bore holes cold water is pressed
in the depth and the heated water rises in the production bore holes. This
heated water is directed to a heat exchanger. Out of the secondary circuit of
the heat exchanger thermal and mechanical/electrical energy is extracted.
More than 99 % of the earth mass has a temperature of more than
1000 C. Correspondingly large or almost inexhaustible is the available potential. Nowadays, about 200 geothermal power stations are in operation.
Currently, a geothermic project named Deep Heat Mining Basel is running in Basel. According to the plans 3 MW of electrical energy and 20 MW
of thermal energy (district heat) will be produced by the five bore holes
(three with a depth of 5000 m in each case, two of 2700 m depth).
An advantage of geothermal energy compared to other alternative energy forms is the (almost) constant availability of the primary energy source.
Thereby the produced power can be adjusted to the needs of the loads.
Operation of Power Stations
As mentioned and discussed above, not only the consumption but also the
production of electrical power varies depending on weather, time of the day,
and season. The difference between the stochastic power producers, i.e. wind,
solar and to some extent hydro power, needs to be balanced by power stations
which can be controlled (dispatched) to the actual total load demand. Figure
1.2 shows the usage of different power station types for energy production
on a winter day in Switzerland. Systems with other mixes of power plants
will exhibit other production patterns.
1.2.2
Power in GW
10
8
Hydro Power With Storage
6
24 h
stations during high wind condition. This is possible since Norway and Sweden can easily regulate their hydro power plants as a response to the wind
power in Denmark. The energy stored in the large hydro reservoirs can be
used when best requested by the system. This socalled balancing power
will become more important in the future due to the increasing number
of stochastic, also called nondispatchable, power sources and their limited
predictable production profiles.
In Switzerland more than 50 % of the overall electricity demand is covered by hydro power, which means that the existing hydro power potential
already is exploited relatively well. In a study published by the Swiss Federal
Office of Energy (BfE = Bundesamt f
ur Energie)) the possible extension of
hydro power in Switzerland is estimated to an additional 16 % until 2050 [7].
Next to hydro power 40 % of the electricity is produced by nuclear power
plants.
1.3
1. Introduction
Figure 1.4. The structure of a power grid with different voltage levels
(Source: VSE).
1.3.1
Level
Low Voltage
Medium Voltage
High Voltage
Abbreviation
LV
MV
HV
nominal voltage
below 1 kV
ca. 50 kV
above 110 kV
The structure of the electric grid can be compared to the road network for traffic. The 400kV and 220kV transmission lines serve for the
transport of bulk power over wide distances, e.g. from large hydro power
stations in the Alps or from nuclear power stations to the large substations
2
The relation between voltage and transmission losses is explained in section 5.1.2.
10
1. Introduction
in the load centers, but also for the power exchanges between different countries and regions. (These latter type of lines are often called tie lines.) The
transmission lines constitute the socalled transmission grid and therefore
correspond to the highways in the road network. Figure 1.5 shows the high
voltage transmission network of Switzerland. The regional power distribution
(subtransmission) in Switzerland is carried out by the 50kVdistribution
network and allows the energy transport from the large substations to the
regional substations (in Switzerland denoted as Kantonswerke (cantonal
substations)). This net is comparable to the regional road network. The distribution from the regional substations to the single communities and loads
corresponds finally to the local roads and is carried out on a voltage level
of 16 kV and 10 kV, referred to as distribution network. As a comparison to
the Swiss grid figure 1.6 illustrates the high voltage net of Germany.
The major differences between the transmission and distribution net are
summarized in Table 1.2.
1.3.2
11
12
1. Introduction
Table 1.2. Comparison between transmission and distribution systems
Task
Voltage Level
Grid Topology
Covered area
Distribution System
Distribution to endusers
LV, MV
Radial or ring
community small region
Transmission System
Transmission of bulk power
HV
Meshed
country continent
ing.
The second point yields a fundamental basis to enable an electricity market
as no trading is possible without transportation possibility.
Basically, different systems can be coupled in two ways, namely
synchronously, i.e. through alternating /threephase current connections or
asynchronously i.e. through dc current connections
If threephase grids are connected directly, i.e. by a connection of all
three phases, these grids run synchronized and are accordingly referred to
as a synchronized zone. Additionally to the two above mentioned aspects,
these zones yield further advantages, especially concerning the operation,
which can be substantially more efficient.
The transmission grid of Switzerland is part of the European interconnected grid, namely of the Union for the Coordination of Transmission of
Electricity (UCTE). The transmission grids of 23 countries from Portugal to Poland are synchronized in this interconnection. About 450 million
people are supplied with energy by the UCTE net. The grids of Denmark,
Finland, Island, Norway and Sweden are part of the interconnected grid of
the Organization for Nordic Electrical Cooperation (NORDEL). The grid
of the UCTE and NORDEL are not synchronized. In order to still enable
an exchange of energy several dc current connections exist High Voltage
Direct Current (HVDC), e.g. between Germany and Sweden, realized with
submarine cables. Several states in Eastern Europe are interconnected with
states of the earlier Sovietunion, referred to as EES/VES interconnection.
In northern Africa Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia etc. form the COMELEC interconnected grid.
In northern America, the gird of USA is organized in three synchronous
zones: Eastern Interconnection, Western Interconnection and ERCOT Interconnection (Texas).
13
1.3.3
Grid Structures
14
1. Introduction
1.3.4
Power Substations
Continuing the comparison of the power network and the road network the
power substations correspond to crossroads. They interconnect the different
voltage levels (e.g., 220 kV and 110 kV) and basically fulfill the following
tasks:
The power substations represent the nodes within the power grid. The
lines of the different voltage levels merge within the substations and
are coupled by transformers.
The power substations are switching stations, in which the in and
outgoing lines depending on the operational demands can be
switched on and off; here, changes within the grid topology are possible.
In the power substations equipment for measurement, supervision, and
control, such as voltage and current transformers, protection systems,
meters, compensation equipment, etc. are located.
3
15
T1
T2
T1
T2
T1
T2
(a)
(b)
(c)
Figure 1.8. Open ring configuration (a), faulty situation (b), reconfigured ring after fault (c).
16
1. Introduction
In Switzerland, the big transmission utilities pass the electric energy
at the 50/16kV and 110/16kV substations to the cantonal utilities
which are responsible for the final distribution to end consumers.
1.3.5
The supervision of a grid is carried out via different regional grid control
centers which are subordinated to the larger control centers. These regional
grid control centers communicate their data with dedicated communication
channels, e.g. radio links, coax cables, and optic fibre cables, to the other
control centers and to the central control center. These communicated data
enable an overview of the operating state of the system at the control center
and allow the system operator to exercise a secure and optimal operation of
the system.
The electrical energy supply is not only characterized by energy (MWh)
and power (MW) but also by quality properties and demands. In order to
use electrical energy the preservation of the voltage form (sinusoidal) as well
as of a constant amplitude and a constant frequency are highly desirable and
important. By means of control and compensating equipment deviations of
the effective voltage from the nominal voltage are kept typically below 10%
at the customers side.
Another important aspect concerns the availability of electrical energy;
by economical reasons it is not realistic to expect a supply availability of
100%. On average, the availability of electrical energy supply amounts about
99.98% in Switzerland which corresponds to around 1.7 hour power outage
per year 4 This value is remarkable especially when considering that the
net planning and operation aroundtheclock is optimized among others according to the following criteria: economic supply of power, reserves, fault
clearings, maintenance and a high utilization of equipment.
Furthermore, no energy can be stored in the power transmission system.
This fact complicates the electrical energy transmission compared with e.g.
a pipeline for the transport of natural gas. Accordingly, the actually needed
power must to be supplied at this actual time instant. If this is not the case,
the following will occur:
If the power demand of the loads is higher than the instantaneous
produced power, the net frequency drops below its nominal value (50
Hz).
4
It is questionable if such a high availability for private persons is needed when considering the increased usage of renewable energy producers and the thereby increased amount
of stochastic energy production. There are system operators with loads which indeed pay
lower current rates but could be disconnected by the system operator in critical situations
(depending on the agreement for example 10 hours a month).
17
If the power stations produce more than the customers are currently
consuming, the net frequency rises above nominal frequency.
The frequency deviation within the UCTE net is normally controlled to be
on f  < 0.05 Hz.
1.4
18
1. Introduction
In addition, the consumed power depends on many other, partly stochastic, factors such as the weather. The generation of electric power needs to
be adjusted to the consumption at every instance. The difficulty consists in
establishing an accurate load forecast for the proceeding day(s). If one does
not succeed in that, it may imply that one needs expensive regulating or
balancing power from the grid because of the unexpected load behavior and
the failing generation reserves.
19
12
10
power in GW
12
Time of day
18
24 h
20
1. Introduction
2
Power in Alternating Current Systems
In this chapter the power of sinusoidal voltages and currents of single and
threepase systems are analyzed. Basically, this serves as a repetition of already known fundamentals which form an important basis for the proceeding
chapters.
2.1
Consider an AC power grid in steady state. The power grid contains passive
elements(R, L, C) as well as pure sinusoidal current and voltage sources,
all with the same frequency. Thereby, all currents and voltages in this network are purely sinusoidal and could be described by their amplitude, their
phase angle based on an arbitrarily defined zero position, and by their frequency. The instantaneous values of voltage and current of an element can
be described by the following equations:
b cos (t)
u (t) = U
i (t) = Ib cos (t )
(2.1b)
= 2f
(2.2)
(2.1a)
(2.3a)
(2.3b)
The root mean square value, or rms value, of an alternating current corresponds to
the value of a dc current, which produces the same heat in a resistance as the alternating
current does.
21
22
(2.4)
1
1 + cos (2t)
2
1
sin (t) cos (t) = sin (2t)
2
cos2 (t) =
(2.5a)
(2.5b)
(2.6)
These terms are depicted in figure 2.1. Considering the first part one can
b Ib cos
see that the power oscillates between zero and the maximal value U
because of the cosine term in brackets. The time averaged value of this term
can be expressed by the rms values from equations (2.3a) and (2.3b) as
P =
1 bb
U I cos = U I cos
2
(2.7)
This time averaged value P is called active or real power whereas the factor
cos is called the power factor or simply cos . The SI unit of active power
is Watt (W).
The time averaged value of the second term in equation (2.6) is zero. Due
b Ib sin .
to the sinus term with the frequency 2 it oscillates between 12 U
The amplitude of this oscillation is
Q=
1 bb
U I sin = U I sin
2
(2.8)
and is called reactive power. The unit of the reactive power is volt ampere
reactive (Var).
Sinusoidal quantities can also be described as phasors in the complex
plane. The time function x(t) corresponds to the rotating phasor X:
b
X
b cos (t + ) X =
x(t) = X
(cos + j sin ) = Xej
2
(2.9)
The instantaneous value of the time function x(t) at the time instant t
corresponds to the real part of the phasor which is rotating with the angular
velocity :
23
Zeit
2
p (t) =
1
1 bb
b Ib sin sin (2t)
U I cos 1 + cos (2t) + U
2
{z
} 2
{z
}
1
x(t) =
2 Xejt
(2.10)
(2.11a)
I = I (cos i + j sin i ) = Ie
(2.11b)
= u i
(2.11c)
The angles u and i denote the phases of current and voltage. Taking the
voltage as reference, i.e. u = 0 the currents phase results in relatively
to the voltage (similar to equation (2.1b)).
Forming the product of current and voltage, we get
U I = U Iej(u +i )
(2.12)
(2.13)
24
Figure 2.2. Power triangle relating the active, reactive and apparent powers.
S = S
The (complex) apparent power is denoted as volt ampere (VA), correspondingly to voltage times current.
By use of the conjugate complex value of the current the active power
P and the reactive power Q correspond according to (2.7) and (2.8) to the
real and to the imaginary part of the complex apparent power, respectively:
P = {S} = {U I } = U I cos
Q = {S} = {U I } = U I sin
S = P + jQ
p
S = S = P 2 + Q2
(2.15a)
(2.15b)
(2.15c)
(2.15d)
In figure 2.2, these relations are represented as phasors in the complex plane,
also referred to as the power triangle.
The terms active, reactive and apparent power will now be illustrated
with two examples.
Example: ohmic inductive load Given is the network in figure 2.3. The input power at the parallel connection consisting of resistance and inductance
is to be calculated at steady state.
i(t)
iR (t)
b cos (t)
u(t) = U
iL (t)
25
Using the Kirchhoffs Current Law (KCL), the overall current (in steady
state operation) is obtained as:
i(t) = iR (t) + iL (t)
b
b
U
U
cos t
i(t) = cos (t) +
R
L
2
The instantaneous power is thus
b2
b2
U
U
cos2 (t) +
cos (t) cos t
R
L
2
2
2
b
b
1 U
1 U
=
(1 + cos (2t)) +
sin (2t)
2 R
2 L
U2
U2
=
(1 + cos (2t)) +
sin (2t)
{z
} L {z
}
R
pR (t)
pL (t)
The overall input power to the network p(t) is composed by two terms,
namely by the power at the resistance pR (t) and the power at the inductance
pL (t). Using the equations (2.6), (2.7) and (2.8) yields the active and reactive
power as
P =
U2
R
und Q =
U2
U2
=
L
XL
mit XL = L
The value of the reactive power is positive, i.e. the inductor absorbs reactive
power, it consumes reactive power. This power value corresponds to the
amplitude of the oscillating magnetic energy and its time averaged value
amounts to zero.
The power consumed by the inductance could also be computed via
the magnetic energy. Computing the energy wL (t) which is stored in the
inductance at the time instance t, we obtain
1
wL (t) = Li2L (t)
2
The current in the inductance iL (t) amounts for a sinusoidal voltage to
b
U
cos t
L
2
Inserting this relation into the energy equation we obtain
b2
1 U
wL (t) = L 2 2 cos2 t
=
2 L
2
b 2 cos(2t ) + 1
1 U
=
=
2 2L
2
b2
1 U
= 2 (1 cos (2t))
4 L
iL (t) =
26
pL (t) =
As seen we obtained the same result for the power in the inductance as by
multiplication of current and voltage. The consumption of reactive power in
the inductance corresponds to the amplitude of the time derivative of the
magnetic energy.
As a third possibility, we can compute the power using the complex
phasors. The overall current as complex phasor amounts
U
1
1
I=
=U
+
Z
R jL
Regarding equation (2.13) the overall complex apparent power amounts to
S = U I
Assuming the voltage with reference angle 0 (pure real) results in U =
U = U and
U2
U2
S=
+j
R
L
The real part of the apparent power is the active power which is consumed by
the resistance. The imaginary part of the apparent power equation yields the
reactive power in the inductor. Here, the sign is positive, i.e. the inductance
absorbs or consumes reactive power. This yields:
P = {S} =
U2
R
and
Q = {S} =
U2
L
U2
R
und Q = U 2 C
Here, the sign of the reactive power is negative, i.e. the capacity delivers
27
iR (t)
b cos (t)
u(t) = U
iC (t)
2.2
When working with complex apparent power we often use the Theorem of
the conservation of apparent power. This indicates that the sum of apparent
power delivery of all sources is equal to the sum of the apparent power
consumption by all loads or sinks. This is valid in a network consisting of
multiple sources and consumers, each of them independent of each other.
Thereby one assumes all currents and voltages to be purely sinusoidal and
having the same frequency.
For a single source this theorem can be proved by the use of Kirchhoffs
laws. The proof is more complicated for the general case.
By usage of this theorem one often replaces networks by equivalent
sources (Thevenin equivalents). Figure 2.5 illustrates a net Nb which is supplied by two sources and a further net Na . The sum of the apparent powers
amounts
X
S ab + S 2 + S 3 =
S b,i
(2.16)
i
Example: series impedance The conservation of apparent power is investigated by means of a series element with an impedance of
Z = R + jX
28
S2
Na
S ab
Nb
S3
I2
S2
U2
U1
I
U2
The complex apparent power at the input of a twoport (left hand side,
index 1) amounts
S 1 = P1 + jQ1
In the series circuit the three indicated currents need to be equal:
I1 = I2 = I
The current will yield a voltage drop U at the impedance by which the
output voltage differs from the input voltage (see phasor diagram in figure
2.6). Thus, the voltage at the output is
U 2 = U 1 U = U 1 ZI
The apparent power at the output of the twoport (right hand side, index
2) is obtained as a product of voltage times conjugate complex current:
S 2 = U 2 I 2 = U 2 I
Inserting the expression for U2 , we obtain for the output power
S 2 = (U 1 ZI) I = S 1 ZI2
29
Q2
Input and output power of the twoport differ exactly by the power consumed
by the impedance Z.
The circuit shown in figure 2.6 can be regarded as a simple model of a
high voltage power line, as will be shown later.
2.3
2.3.1
This convention is arbitrary. To receive the same phase order RST at reverse rotating
direction the phases S and T need to be exchanged.
30
uR (t)
uS (t)
uT (t)
4 t
Figure 2.7. Time related devolution of the voltages of the phases R, S and T.
As mentioned, the root mean square values of the phase voltages and the
phase to phase voltages have the following relation:
U = 3 Up
(2.17)
At low level voltage, the values of the phase voltages and the phase to phase
voltages are 230 and 400 V, respectively.
31
UTR
UT
UR
UST
Up
120
US
Up
URS
Figure 2.8. Phasor representation of the three phase voltages(magnitude Up ) and of the phase to phase voltages(magnitude U = 3 Up ).
Up
U
U
U
Figure 2.9. Wye and delta configuration of a consumer: At wye configuration the phase voltage Up lies over the load resistances, at delta
configuration the phase to phase voltage U .
32
2.3.2
Now, the power in the symmetric alternating current systems will be investigated. Again, we start with the time representations of the voltages in the
corresponding phases (see figure 2.7):
bp cos t
uR (t) = U
bp cos(t 2/3)
uS (t) = U
(2.18a)
(2.18b)
bp cos(t 4/3)
uT (t) = U
(2.18c)
(2.19)
Because of the assumed symmetry all three phase voltages have the same
bp . The sum of these phase voltages at each instant is
amplitude U
Equivalently, for the three currents
iR (t) = Ibp cos(t )
iS (t) = Ibp cos(t 2/3)
(2.20a)
(2.20b)
(2.20c)
(2.21)
and again with the assumption that the current magnitudes are equal for
all phases
1 b b
Up Ip (cos (1 + cos (2t)) + sin sin (2t))
2
(2.22)
The angle corresponds to the phase shift between current and voltage,
that is why the sin  and cos  terms are time independent and equal for
all phases.
The sin (2t) and cos (2t) expressions occur in the other two terms as
well, but phase shifted by 2/3 and 4/3, respectively. By means of well
known trigonometrical theorems one can show, that these terms cancel out:
2
4
cos (2t) + cos 2 t
+ cos 2 t
=
 {z }
3
3

{z
} 
{z
}
Phase R
Phase S
Phase T
4
4
= cos (2t) + cos (2t) cos
+ sin (2t) sin
+
3
3
8
8
+ cos (2t) cos
+ sin (2t) sin
= 0 (2.23)
3
3
33
where
8
1
cos
= cos
=
3
2
4
8
3
= sin
=
sin
3
3
2
4
3
(2.24a)
(2.24b)
The instantaneous value of the overall three phases, i.e. the sum of the
instantaneous powers of all three phases, therefore results in a time constant
value and corresponds to the three times the active power of one phase:
p(t) = 3
bp Ibp
U
cos = 3 Up Ip cos = P
2
(2.25)
This means, the oscillating parts of the power in the three phases add to
zero at each time instant and not only in the time averaged value.3
The complex threephase apparent power results from the sum of all
phase apparent powers using equation (2.13)
S = U R I R + U S I S + U T I T
(2.26)
In the symmetric state, all three phase currents and voltages of the same
size, the threephase apparent power can therefore be calculated as three
times the apparent power of one single phase. For phase quantities, one
usually uses by definition the voltage and current of phase R, where the
angle of phase R is assumed to be 0 .
S = 3 U R I R = 3 S R = 3PR + j3QR
(2.27)
Now, the phase to phase quantities instead of the phase quantities of phase
R are inserted into the equation above. The phase to phase voltage results
according to equation (2.17) in
U = 3 UR
(2.28)
Actually, a phase to phase current in the
strict sense is not existing,
this means, there occurs no current of the size 3 times the phasor current
in a alternating current system physically. Nevertheless, such a current can
be defined as a virtual, phase to phase current in order to simplify the
calculation. We therefore define
I = 3 IR
(2.29)
With
this definition, we can reformulate (2.27). Thereby, the factors 3 and
3 cancel out and we obtain for the complex threephase apparent power
3
This has the consequence of having a constant torque over one rotation at threephase
machines. By contrast, the rotor of a single phase motor gets a ripple moment of double
nominal frequency
34
with the conventions in (2.28) and (2.29) the same formula as for the single
phase apparent power in (2.13):
S = U I = U Iej = U I (cos + j sin )
Correspondingly, the known equations (2.15a)(2.15c) apply for the active
and reactive power as well:
P = {S} = {U I } = U I cos
Q = {S} = {U I } = U I sin
S = P + jQ
These values correspond in the symmetric system exactly to the triple power
per phase. The formulas (2.13)(2.15c)thus apply for single phase as well as
for threephase system, as long as the 3times phases sizes are inserted for
the threephase relations of U and I.
2.3.3
WyeDeltaTransformation
size U = 3Up are over the impedances. The total consumed apparent power
is
2
3U R
Sd = 3
(2.32)
Z d
Both connections are then equivalent when they consume the same apparent
power. We therefore put
Sy = Sd
(2.33)
and obtain the following requirement for the impedances
Zy
3U 2R
1
=
2 =
Zd
3
3 3U R
(2.34)
A delta connection is therefore at each instant transformable in a wye connection by multiplying the resistances of the wye connection by a factor of
35
2.4. Summary
3 and connecting them the in delta formation. The new connection consumes the same amount of apparent power as the original one and the phase
conductor carries the same current.
2.3.4
As the same voltage and current situations arise in all three phases in a symmetric alternating current system the three phase system can be analyzed
on the basis of an equivalent single phase system. For this, the following
steps are taken:
1. All elements which are connected in delta form are transformed in a
equivalent wye connection (see section 2.3.3).
2. A single phase diagram for phase R is drawn .
3. The sought quantities are calculated by means of the single phase
diagram of phase R.
4. To obtain the quantities of phases S and T 120 and 240 , respectively,
are in each case added to the sizes of phase R.
5. If necessary, the elements in wye connection are transformed back in
delta connection for then calculating the phase to phase quantities.
Figure 2.10 shows an example of a symmetric three phase system. The
capacitors C connected in delta form are transformed into a wye connection.
Their reactance reduces by the transformation according to equation (2.34)
to a third comparing to the value of the delta connection. Due to
jXC =
1
jC
(2.35)
2.4
Summary
In single phase networks the power oscillates with double power frequency.
In symmetric alternating current systems the oscillating parts or the three
phases balance out and the power is constant in time.
36
Up
L
R
c
3C
L
b
Up
3C
a
R
e
Figure 2.10. Symmetric three phase system and its single phase diagram. Having transformed the delta connection into a wye connection,
the capacities are in parallel to the resistances R. In the single phase
diagram, the neutral points a, f and e are all on the common return
conductor.
37
2.4. Summary
Table 2.1. Overview or real, reactive and complex apparent power.
Denotation
Symbol
Unit
Calculation
Active power
P
MW
U I cos = {S}
Reactive power
Q
MVar
U I sin = {S}
38
3
Transformers
In this chapter a model for power transformers is developed. We start with
the principle of coupled coils and proceed with a idealized model of a single
phase transformer. This basic model is enhanced step wise to a model suitable
for power engineering applications. Finally, we consider models of threephase transformers.
3.1
3.1.1
secondary side
i2
i1
u1
u2
N2
N1
The limbs together with the yoke constitute a magnetically well conducting connection between the primary and the secondary winding. The
39
40
3. Transformers
equidirectional
reverse
(3.1a)
2 = N2 h + 2
(3.1b)
where 1 and 2 describe the flux linkages of the leakage fluxes 1 and
2 with the corresponding inductances.
The direction of the magnetic flux in dependency of the current is determined by the winding direction of the inductor. One distinguished between equidirectional and reverse windings. Usually, the winding direction
is marked by points at the coil taps (see Figure 3.2). If these points are
aligned, one refers to an equidirectional winding; if they lie diagonally the
configuration is in reverse. In the following investigations we always assume
equidirectional windings.
3.1.2
The current i2 = i2 will be introduced later to simplify the derivation of the transformer model.
2
Not all flux lines of the leakage flux are interlinked with all windings of the inductor.
41
2. No leakage fluxes appear, i.e. the same mutual flux flows through both
windings. Hence, the coupling between the two coils is ideal.
3. The iron core has an infinitely high permeability (this corresponds to
an ideal magnetic conductance).
We will now examine an ideal transformer as depicted in Figure 3.1. Using
the induction law and the second assumption
1 = 2 = 0
(3.2)
we obtain the following voltages induced in the primary and secondary windings
d1
dh
= N1
dt
dt
d2
dh
= N2
u2 =
dt
dt
u1 =
(3.3a)
(3.3b)
(3.4)
dh /dt can be eliminated from the equations (3.3a) and (3.3b) yielding
u1
u2
=
N1
N2
(3.5)
which means that the ratio between the voltage and the number of turns
is equal for the primary and secondary windings. The turns ratio, c, is now
defined from3
u1
N1
=
=cR
(3.6)
u2
N2
Since the number of turns is a real value for both windings the turn ratio is
real as well.4
Corresponding to the third assumption ( = ) the magnetic resistance
of the core is zero. Ohms law of the magnetic circuit gives a relation between
the magnetic voltage excitation , the magnetic flux and the reluctance
Rm :
= Rm
(3.7)
The magnetic voltage is the socalled ampereturns, i.e. the product of current times the number of turns of a coil. For the ideal case Rm = 0, there
3
Strictly speaking, this concerns the no load turns ratio. The non ideality of real transformers considered in section 3.1.3 leads to a deviation which is load independent.
4
For threephase transformers, a phase shift between the secondary and primary voltage
can occur which means that the turns ratio is complex (see section 3.2).
42
3. Transformers
u1
primary
secondary
i1
i2
N2
N1
u2
is no magnetic voltage drop along the iron core. The sum of the ampere
windings of primary and secondary side result in
N1 i1 + N2 i2 = Rm h = 0
(3.8)
The quotient between the secondary and primary currents yields the turns
ratio
N1
i2
=
= c
(3.9)
i1
N2
Just as for the voltage also the current on the secondary side is dependent
only on the primary current and on the turns ratio. We now define
i2 = i2
(3.10)
and obtain the situation as depicted in Figure 3.3, and the relation between
the currents can be written as
i2
=c
i1
(3.11)
When assuming sinusoidal currents, the magnetic flux and the thereby
induced voltages are also sinusoidal. Sinusoidal currents and voltages can be
described by phasors according to equation (2.9).
In the equations (3.1a)(3.11) u, i and can be substituted by the corresponding phasors U, I and .
Thus we know how to translate voltages and currents between the primary and secondary sides. Now we want to examine how to convert impedances from one to the other side in the case of an ideal transformer. This conversion is called impedance transformation. Considering Figure 3.4, we can
set up on each side of the ideal transformer an equation:
U 1 = E a1 = c E a2 = c (U 2 + I 2 Z 2 )
1
1
U 2 = E b2 = E b1 = (U 1 I 1 Z 1 )
c
c
(3.12a)
(3.12b)
43
U1
I1
I2
E 1a
E 2a
N1
Z2
Z1
U2
U1
I2
I1
E b1
N2
E b2
N1
U2
N2
impedance transformation
Figure 3.4. Impedance transformation from secondary to primary side.
c U 2 = U 1 I 1Z1
(3.13a)
(3.13b)
0 = c I 2 Z 2 + I 1 Z 1 .
(3.14)
Z1
I2
=c
= c2
Z2
I1
(3.15)
3.1.3
The ideal transformer model in section 3.1.2 is now improved step by step
by considering three important nonidealities.
5
Equation (3.15) is not only valid for elements described as complex numbers but also
for R, L or C.
44
3. Transformers
Flux leakage
The leaking flux interlinked with only one winding can be considered to be
caused by separate coils in the primary and the secondary circuits. In each
case we obtain a leakage reactance for the primary and secondary side with
leakage inductance L1 and L2 , respectively. The leakage fluxes flow in the
air and are therefore linear:
1 = L1 i1
(3.16a)
L2 i2
(3.16b)
2 =
di1
dh
+ N1
dt
dt
di
d
h
u2 = R2 i2 + L2 2 + N2
dt
dt
u1 = R1 i1 + L1
(3.18a)
(3.18b)
Rt = R1 + c2 R2
(3.20)
Lt = L1 + c2 L2
(3.21)
and
This model includes nonidealities originating from flux leakage and ohmic
losses in the windings.
replacemen
45
L1
i1
ideal
R2
L2
i2
u1
u2
N1
N2
Lt
i1
ideal
u1
i2
u2
N1
N2
Figure 3.6. Transformer model with resistances and leakage inductances transformed to primary side.
Core Losses
The magnetic conductor, the iron core, is not completely ideal either. Voltage
and frequency dependent losses are occurring in the conductor. Therewith,
the transformer delivers less power on the secondary side than it consumes
on the primary side. The transformer carries a current on the primary side
although no current is flowing on the secondary side, as the losses in the
iron need to be modelled. These are referred to as no load losses. They are
composed of the primary winding losses and the core losses.
The reactive part of the losses in the iron can be modelled as a magnetization inductance. This consumes the magnetization current which is
calculated in the following.
We start again with the Ohms law of the magnetic circuit according
to equation (3.7). Considering the magnetic resistance of the core Rm 6= 0
yields
= Rm h = N1 i1 + N2 i2
(3.22)
Assuming a current of i2 = 0 on the secondary side we obtain the magnetization current as
Rm h
i1 i =0 = im =
(3.23)
2
N1
Taking into account this equation as well as eq. (3.22) the primary current
46
3. Transformers
N2
i2
i2 = im +
N1
c
(3.24)
The primary current is the sum of the magnetization current and the transformed secondary current. The magnetization current is tapped off between
primary and secondary side and amounts to less than 1% of the nominal current for realistic power transformers. In the circuit we can incorporate this
current by introducing a magnetizing or main inductance Lh (see Figure
3.7). The value of this inductance can be derived from the equation for the
Rt
Lt
i1
i2
ideal
im
u1
u2
Lh
N1
N2
induced voltage
dh
dim
= Lh
(3.25)
dt
dt
For real transformers, this inductance is very large as compared with the
leakage inductances
Lh Lt
(3.26)
N1
The active losses in the core are modelled by a resistance Rh . In the circuit,
we introduce this in parallel with the magnetization inductance. Analogous
to the inductances we have
Rh Rt
(3.27)
Rt
Lt
i1
ideal
ir
u1
Rh
i2
im
u2
Lh
N1
N2
47
The model in figure 3.8 now takes all the above discussed deviations from
the ideal transformer into account. These are summarized again:
Flux leakage (inductive by Lt )
Winding losses (ohmic by Rt )
Core losses (ohmic by Rh and inductive by Lh )
Because of (3.26) and (3.27) the shunt elements Rh and Lh are often neglected at nominal operation conditions of the transformer. The transformer
can then be modelled as a complex serial impedance Z t = Rt + jLt and
an ideal transformer with turns ratio c = N1 /N2 . Figure 3.9 shows such
an equivalent model. This represents an important and often used model in
power system analysis. In noload operations (i2 = 0), these shunt elements
can often not be neglected.
Zt
I1
ideal
I2
U2
U1
N1
N2
3.2
ThreePhase Transformer
Apart from wye and delta connection there exists for example the possibility of a
socalled zigzag connection, analogous labelled as Z or z connection. Other types of connections are also possible.
48
3. Transformers
1. The connection of the high voltage winding is labelled with a capital
letter (D for delta or delta and Y for wye).
2. The connection for low voltage winding is described with lower case
letters (d or y).
3. A number which indicates the phase shift between primary and secondary winding as a multiple of 30 is also added (n in equation (3.31),
counterclockwise).
Transmission Grid
Generator
T
S
ZE
Figure 3.10. Ydconnection for connecting a generator or a distribution system to the transmission grid. On the high voltage side the
transformer neutral point is grounded via an impedance Z E .
3.2.1
49
Three limb transformers are also common. Their principal design is similar
to the five limb configuration, only the additional not winded limb (left and
right) are missing.
primary winding
yoke
limbs
secondary winding
(3.28)
This is the reason why the resulting flux in the yoke is zero. Only at asymmetric conditions the flux over the yoke and the possibly existing additional
limbs (fourth and fifth) are nonzero. The design of the iron parts has therefore a considerable influence on the operation behavior at asymmetric load.
3.2.2
In principal, the single phase model from section 3.1.3 can be used for modelling each single phase of the threephase transformer.
Considering the conditions at Yd or Dy configurations, namely for unequal connections of primary and secondary sides, two aspects can be observed:
1. The same voltages are not connected at primary and secondary inductances. The phase voltage is at one side, the phase to phase voltage at
the other side. Considering for example the Yd configuration in figure
3.10, the phase to phase voltage U lies over the generator side windings and the phase voltage U p is applied over the high voltage side
windings. Therewith, the actual turns ratio changes compared with
the winding ratio.
2. Phase to phase and phase voltages differ concerning the phase shift
too. Hence, additional to the amplitude a change of the phase occurs.
Depending on the vector group and the phase connection the possible
phase shifting amounts to an integer multiple of /6 = 30 .
50
3. Transformers
Zt
I1
I2
ideal
U1
ejn/6
U2
kN1 N2
Figure 3.12. Single phase transformer model taking the three phase
connections into account.
Both of these points influence the turns ratio. The effect in amplitude is
incorporated by the multiplication of the regular turns ratio with the factor
k. According to the reasoning above the following holds
1
Dyconfiguration: k =
3
Ydconfiguration: k = 3
(3.29a)
(3.29b)
We incorporate the phase shift into the model by adding a pure phase shifting
element to the ideal transformer in figure 3.9. The phase shift may add up
to an integer multiple of /6 = 30 . Accordingly, we multiply the turns ratio
by a phasor with magnitude 1 and phase n/6
ejn/6
where n Z (see figure 3.12). We remember that n occurs as well in the
labelling of vector groups, namely as a number after the labelling of the connections (e.g., Ydn). The norm of the transformation ratio is not influenced
due to
ejn/6  = 1
(3.30)
However,the resulting turns ratio contains also a phase shift and is therefore
described by a complex number. Finally, we obtain
k
N1 jn/6
e
=cC
N2
(3.31)
Figure 3.13 shows a single phase equivalent network of this model. The ideal
transformer and the phase shifting element are merged here to one element.
In a real power transmission grid many connections exist via transformers. The different voltage levels, generators and loads are connected via transformers. If transformers operate in parallel, the vector group connections
need to be observed in special.
51
Zt
U1
I2
I1
U2
Figure 3.13. Single phase transformer model with complex turns ratio
modelling a three phase transformer.
52
3. Transformers
4
Per Unit System
This chapter deals with the description with per unit values. This is nothing
else than relating a size to a predefined base unit and then describing it as a
multiple of this unit. This description is common in power engineering and
can be helpful e.g. when dealing with certain quantities in electric grids.
4.1
53
54
description of the p.u. values within the same range can be achieved although
the original systems were of different ratings (e.g. choose 100 MVA = 1 p.u.
for the calculation of large grids and 1 MVA = 1 p.u. for smaller grids). This
aspect can be advantageous when using numerical calculation methods.
Another advantage of these systems is essential for the description of
electric machines and transformers. For example, the leakage reactance of a
transformer in p.u., with the transformer ratings as base units, see below,
corresponds to its relative short circuit voltage, which usually is in the order
of 0.05  0.20 p.u., whereas its value in ohm can vary over a very wide range
depending on size and voltage level.
4.2
We will now represent the values of a simple circuit in the p.u. system. For
1
this, we consider the example in figure 4.1, where XL = L and XC = C
.
For the series connection of the elements R, jXL and jXC we obtain
I
jXL
jXC
U = RI + jXL I jXC I
(4.1)
(4.2)
UB
UB
UB
UB
where u is the voltage related to the base voltage UB . u is a dimensionless
value and is described in p.u.. The base voltage UB is often chosen close to
the nominal voltage of the system. The index B, stands for Basis, and
denotes the nominal value.
Furthermore, a base power SB will be introduced. The choice of SB is
arbitrary because two base values of the quantities in the relation
u=
SB = UB IB =
UB2
ZB
(4.3)
S
SB
(4.4)
55
and voltage in equation (4.2) the base values for current and impedance are
defined by the following relations:
SB
UB
U2
UB
ZB =
= B
IB
SB
IB =
(4.5)
(4.6)
I
IB
(4.7)
RIB
jXL IB
jXC IB
i+
i
i
UB
UB
UB
(4.8)
i=
equation (4.2) yields
u=
The base value of the nominal impedance ZB is the base for all impedances
within the system, real and imaginary and complex ones. The p.u. values of
the impedances are thus:
R
ZB
XL
xL =
ZB
XC
xC =
ZB
r=
(4.9a)
(4.9b)
(4.9c)
Now, all p.u. values can be placed into the original voltage equation (4.1)
and we obtain the following in p.u.:
u = ri + jxL i jxC i
(4.10)
(4.11)
for the circuit depicted in figure 4.1 where the overall impedance of the
circuit is
Z = R + jXL jXC
(4.12)
with the overall impedance in p.u.
z = r + jxL jxC =
Z
ZB
(4.13)
(4.14)
It is seen that this equation has the same form and structure as eq. (4.1).
56
4.3
Based on the preceding sections the following statements are valid for a
linear system consisting of circuit elements.
As only one base power shall exist within the whole grid, it is useful
to chose the base power SB according to the most often occurring power
values. These are mostly described as threephase powers. Typical values in
high voltage nets are 1 MVA for medium or 100 MVA for higher voltage
levels.
In the case of base voltages, it is common to define a phase to phase
base voltage for all nodes within each part of the net located between two
transformers (i.e. at the same voltage level). This grid base voltage is often chosen in order to enable the most suitable interpretation of the p.u.
node voltages, i.e. to reflect the operational status of the system. Often, the
nominal voltage is chosen as base voltage.
To illustrate these fundamentals of the p.u. calculation an example regarding the conversion of / kV/ MVAModell into the p.u. system is given
below.
5.5
1
2:1
5.5
1.375 : 1
120 kV
1 kA
Load
Given is the system shown in figure 4.2. The voltage of the source on
the left hand side is 120 kV. All impedances as well as all transformer turns
ratios are known. The load on the right hand side consumes a current of 1
kA. To be determined is the overall p.u. model and the p.u. voltages of this
system with the base voltages of 120 kV at node 1, 50 kV at nodes 2 and 3
and 40 kV at node 4.
Figure 4.3 shows the solution of the example in SI units. This can be
achieved by means of the standard methods of network theory.
The scheme above is depicted as p.u. model in figure 4.4. A base power
of SB = 100 MVA has been chosen. Based on the given base voltages of each
node all voltages, currents and impedances are translated into p.u. values.
Of interest is the description of the transformer turns ratio in p.u. Thereby,
the base value can be set on e.g. the nominal turns ratio of the transformer.
5.5
2:1
1.375 : 1
120 kV 118 kV
59 kV
55 kV
40 kV
37 kV
1 kA
Load
This yields a turns ratio of 1 p.u. in our example, if primary and secondary
voltages amount to 1 p.u.:
cB =
U1B
120 kV
=
= 2.4 : 1
U2B
50 kV
(4.15)
The actual turns ratio of the transformer results from the actual connected
voltages
118 kV
c=
= 2.0 : 1
(4.16)
59 kV
Now we can relate the actual turns ratio of the transformer c to the base
value cB which yields the turns ratio c in p.u.:
c =
c
2.0
=
= 0.833 : 1 p.u.
cB
2.4
(4.17)
Analogously, the turns ratio of the second transformer can be related to the
base value.
0.038 p.u.
1
0.833 : 1 p.u.
4 0.188 p.u. 5
0.22 p.u. 3
1.10 : 1 p.u.
0.4 p.u.
1.0 p.u.
Load
The resulting node voltages are presented in Figure 4.5, given in p.u.
values.
From this description, one can easily check the percentage of the corresponding voltage drop or deviation from the given rated voltage level, respectively. The reasons of clarity and comparability as mentioned in section
4.1 are thus well illustrated.
58
1.1 : 1 p.u.
0.188 p.u.
0.93 p.u.
1.00 p.u.
1.10 p.u.
0.98 p.u.
0.833 : 1 p.u.
1.0 p.u.
0.22 p.u.
1.18 p.u.
0.038 p.u.
0.4 p.u.
Load
Z 1 /c2B
Z1
Z1
2 /S = c2 U 2 /S = U 2 /S = z 1
U2B
B
B
B
B 2B
1B
(4.19)
One notifies the same value on both sides of the transformer impedances in
p.u. as long the base transmission ratio cB is given according to (4.15).
The series impedance of real transformers (refer to the simplified model
in section 3.1.3) is about z t  0.05 . . . 0.15 p.u.
4.4
When converting between two different p.u. systems one has to recalculate
alt into a new system with
a given p.u. base system having the base values XiB
new
the values XiB . Practically, one needs to perform this for example when
the p.u. data of a generator needs to be adapted to the base values of the
connected power grid
Generally, the way via the base system neutral / kV/ MVAsystem leads
always to the goal. Namely, one transforms all quantities given in p.u. system
A into / kV/ MVA sizes and chooses then an arbitrary new unified base
system B, valid for all sizes. However, this way is relatively tedious.
It is easier to transform the quantities directly to the new base values.
Therefore, one needs to multiply the actual p.u. value with the ratio of the
old to the new base value.
59
(4.20)
old
ZB
new
ZB
(4.21)
As the base value of the impedance originates from the base values of voltage
and power, according to equation (4.6), the following holds hold
z
new
old
=z
UBold
UBnew
2
new
SB
old
SB
(4.22)
60
5
Lines
In this chapter a very important system component in power transmission
systems the power line will be modelled and analyzed. First, we examine distributed line parameters of various line configurations and discuss the
electromagnetic fields close to overhead lines. Next, we introduce a line model
which allows the derivation of a equation of the line in steady state conditions. Finally, we investigate the line models for different line lengths with
different approximations.
5.1
5.1.1
Introduction
Characteristics of Power Lines
When the current is flowing through the metallic conductors electric and
magnetic fields are created and the electric power is carried by these fields
(Poyntings vector S = E H).
In power systems the primary task of a line is the secure transport of
powers between different locations in the grid. Utilized are either overhead
lines or cables. They differ in their construction and the operating conditions
and therefore their usage is different. A considerable difference is the cost:
at equal voltage levels the costs for a cable can be up to about 10 till 20
times higher than those of an overhead line. Therefore the construction of
overhead lines is preferred from an economical point of view.
The geometry of overhead lines or cables is characterized by that it
is not varying along one direction, namely along the direction of the line.1
Therefore, a parallel configuration of the conductors is considered. This is an
approximation which considerably simplifies the mathematical calculation
without compromising the accuracy of the results.
Power lines can be considered as a homogenous construction possibly including multiple single conductors. Thereby, the properties are characterized
by distributed parameters (e.g., inductance per line length in mH/km). A line
can therefore a priori not be described by lumped parameters as known from
the theory of circuits. Simplified, a line section can though be modelled by a
configuration using lumped circuit elements, i.e. impedances. Depending
on the type of analysis, this simplification is valid up to a certain line length
1
A certain sag between two towers evolves at overhead lines due the weight of the
conductors. This can be incorporated approximatively by an assumption of an average
distance to earth, refer to equation (5.51).
61
PSfrag
62
5. Lines
Generator
PG
PL
UG
Um
Load
UL
5.1.2
(5.1)
If R is the overall line resistance, this yields the following transmission losses
P :
2
P = RI = R
Ptrans
Um
2
(5.2)
Relating the power losses to the transmitted power we obtain the the relative
power loss as
P
Ptrans
=R
Ptrans
Um 2
(5.3)
63
Ka
Kmin
Uopt
R l
L l
I
E
G l
C l
l
Figure 5.3. Left hand side: magnetic (H) and electric (E) field of a
high voltage overhead line; right hand side: line model of a short section
of a line with concentrated parameters.
5.2
Line Parameters
64
5. Lines
5.2.1
65
steel
5.2.2
i
2x
(5.4)
x2
i
r 2
(5.5)
x
i
2r 2
(5.6)
66
5. Lines
y
dl
Wire
x
r
The overall inductance is summed up by the fields inside and outside the
conductor.
Outer Inductance For determining the part of the inductance originating
by the field outside the conductor we consider the magnetic flux from the
conductor surface within a radius R. Each field line surrounds the conductor
exactly once, therefore the flux linkage2 corresponds to the flux within the
rectangle with radius r until R according to figure 5.7. The length of the
rectangle is assumed as one length unit (1 l.u.). The flux linkage is calculated
as
Z
Z R
Z R
i
0 i R
a =
Ba (x)da =
Ba (x)dx = 0
dx =
ln
(5.7)
2
r
A
r
r 2x
where we have used da = 1 dx and Ba (x) = 0 Ha (x) as differential area.
The relation between the flux linkage a and inductance la is
a = la i
(5.8)
0 R
ln
2
r
(5.9)
2
The concept of the flux linkage is normally applied for coils. Thereby, the flux linkage
is the part of the flux which intersects all windings of the coil(s). The infinitely long
conductor can be imagined as a coil with one single winding which is closed at infinity
( and + are assumed to be the same point).
67
Infinitely long
wire with
radius r
area da
1l.u
.
Ba
0
i
dx
Inner Inductance For the derivation of the inner inductance we first compute the magnetic energy within one length unit of the conductor:
Z
Z r
1
1
x 2
0 i2
2
Wm = 0
Hi dV = 0
i
2xdx
=
(5.10)
2
2
2r 2
16
V
0
represents the relative permeability of the conducting material. In the case
of copper or aluminium one can assume 1.
Denoting the part of the inductance resulting of the flux linkage within
the conductor by li , we obtain
Wm =
1 2
li i
2
(5.11)
0
8
(5.12)
From equation (5.12) one can conclude that the inductance is independent
of the conductor radius r.
If we now sum the outer and inner inductances of equations (5.9) and
(5.12), we obtain the total inductance of the conductor per length unit.
0
R
l = li + la =
+ ln
(5.13)
2 4
r
If inserting the value for 0 in this equation the inductance per km can be
computed:
R
4
l = 2 10
+ ln
H/km
(5.14)
4
r
By using that /4 = ln e/4 equation (5.14) can be written as
l = 2 104 ln
R
H/km
r
(5.15)
68
5. Lines
i2
in
Phase n
Phase 2
R1
i1
Phase 1
i3
Phase 3
Figure 5.8. System with n phases.
where
r = re/4
(5.16)
r
i1 0 R1
ln
2
r
(5.17)
69
d1k
d1k
Phase 1
R1
R1 d1k
Phase k
a
2
b
3
We consider now the part originating from phase k of the flux linkage
with phase 1 (see Figure 5.9). As shown in figure 5.9 the magnetic field lines
are represented by ik concentric circles with the center in the conductor
of phase k. The field line 1 does not include the conductor phase 1 and
yields consequently no contribution to the flux linkage. The field line 3 is
interlinked with phase 1, 5 as well, though outside of radius R1 . The field
lines 2 and 4 represent the borders between phases 1 and k where the flux
contribute to the flux linkage of phase 1 if integrating up to R1 . Hence, only
those field lines yield a contribution to the flux linkage which intersect the
axis A between the points a and b.
The flux linkage between phase 1 and phase k can be computed with
equation (5.7):
ik 0 R1 d1k
1k =
ln
(5.18)
2
d1k
The overall flux linkage of phase 1 can now be found by superposition of the
single parts of all phases and results in
n
X
0
R1
R1 d12
R1 d1n
1 =
1k =
+ . . . + in ln
i1 ln + i2 ln
2
r1
d12
d1n
k=1
(5.19)
This expression can be split into two parts:
0
1
1
1
i1 ln + i2 ln
+ . . . + in ln
+
1 =
2
r1
d12
d1n
n
0 X
+
ik ln (R1 d1k )
(5.20)
2
k=1

{z
}
A
70
5. Lines
n
X
k=1
ik ln (R1 d1k )
n
X
k=1
ik ln R1 =
{z
B=0
n
X
k=1
dik
ik ln 1
R1
(5.21)
P
Since nk=1 ik = 0 it holds that B = 0. To calculate the overall flux linkage,
we let R1 and obtain
n
X
dik
A (R1 ) = lim
ik ln 1
=0
(5.22)
R1
R1
k=1
Finally, the total flux linkage of phase 1 results thus according to (5.20) in
0
1
1
1
i1 ln + i2 ln
1 =
+ + in ln
(5.23)
2
r1
d12
d1n
(5.24)
where the inductances l1k are dependent only of the geometry of the conductor configuration. The overall flux linkage for phase k results in
0
1
1
1
k =
i1 ln
+ + ik ln + + in ln
(5.25)
2
dk1
rk
dkn
with obvious notation.
In the following two sections two important special cases regarding multiphase systems are considered, namely the two and threephase system.
System with Two Phases
Consider a system according to the left part of figure 5.10 consisting of two
identical conductors (phases) with radius r with a separation distance D.
With equation (5.25) and the assumption i1 + i2 = 0 we obtain
0
1
1
1 =
i1 ln + i2 ln
2
r
D
1
1
0
=
i1 ln i1 ln
2
r
D
0
D
=
i1 ln
(5.26)
2
r
The same holds for 2 . Therewith, the inductances of both conductors per
length unit are the same and equal
0 D
ln
(5.27)
2 r
The overall inductance is composed of the self and mutual inductance.
l1 = l2 =
71
2r
2r
72
5. Lines
2r
5.9 a geometric average value of the distance between the single conductors
of the phases should be used. It can be shown that the equivalent radius
of a bundled phase with n symmetrically placed single conductors can be
calculated by the following relation:
= nRn1 r
(5.30)
req
The notation corresponds to figure 5.11. It is easy to show that the equivalent
radius is enlarged by splitting one phase in a bundled conductor consisting
of multiple single phases having the same crosssection area. Accordingly,
the inductance is reduced.
Of course, the equivalent radius is also computable for the physical conductor radius r (see figure 5.7):
n
req = nRn1 r
(5.31)
The distance between the phases is much larger that the distances of the
single conductors within the phase bundle. Hence, the distance between the
midpoint of the conductor bundle instead of the geometric average of the
single distances can be inserted.
Transposition of Phases
In the previous subsection a general relation for the flux linkage in a multiphase system has been derived. Thereby we assumed that the single phases
are placed in a symmetric configuration, e.g. placed at the corner points of
an equilateral triangle. However, often the three phases are not arranged
exactly symmetrically.
Quite often all three phases are placed horizontally or vertically. That
is why the single phases are linked with different fluxes. If these differences
are too large, countermeasures need to be taken. A general method consists of continuously exchanging the position of the phases (see figure 5.12),
wherewith a transposition of the conductor is obtained.
We consider a transposed line with a phase line configuration according
to figure 5.13 with following assumptions:
73
Transpositions
Position
1
Section 1
Section 2
repetition
Section 3
2
d12
d23
1
d13
74
5. Lines
1. Each phase (R, S And T) takes each position (1, 2 and 3) over equal
length sections of the line.
2. iR + iS + iT = 0
We calculate now the average flux linkage per length unit over three line
sections for phase R:
1 (1)
(2)
(3)
R =
R + R + R
(5.32)
3
(i)
R represents the flux linkage per length unit within section i of the line,
with i = 1, 2, 3. Inserting equation (5.25) in equation (5.32), we obtain
1 0
1
1
1
R =
+ iT ln
iR ln + iS ln
3 2
r
d12
d13
1
1
1
+ iR ln + iS ln
+ iT ln
r
d23
d12
1
1
1
+ iR ln + iS ln
+ iT ln
(5.33)
r
d13
d23
dm =
p
3
(5.35)
The distance dm is the geometric mean of the distances between the three
phases.
Applying the second assumption stated above, i.e. iR + iS + iT = 0,
equation (5.34) can be further simplified to
R =
0
dm
iR ln
2
r
(5.36)
0 dm
ln
2
r
(5.37)
Due to the transposition of the line the same average inductance per unit
length for all three phases is obtained:
lR = lS = lT
(5.38)
The average inductance of a transposed line is the same for all phases and
amounts per length unit to
L =
0 dm
ln
2
r
(5.39)
75
q2
q3
qk
(k)
++
+
++
++
(k)
++
++
qn
++
++
q1
Contribution = 0
++
+
Phase 1
q4
5.2.3
(k)
(k)
(k)
qk
qk
R
dR =
ln (k)
20 R
20 R
(5.41)
76
5. Lines
(k)
n
(i)
1 X
R
qi ln (i)
20
R
i=1
(5.42)
(5.43)
Similar to the deviation of the magnetic flux linkage, we assume the radius
(i)
to be R , this means we relate the voltage of the conductor to a
infinitely faroff point. With equation (5.43) we obtain
u =
n
1 X
1
qi ln (i)
20
R
i=1
(5.44)
(5.46)
(5.47)
77
C12
C23
C13
C10
C20
C30
=
Cm
20
2H dm
ln
A req
(5.49)
with dm and req as above. H is the geometric mean of the phase line distances
from the earths surface (see figure 5.16)
p
H = 3 H1 H2 H3
(5.50)
As depicted in figure 5.17, a sag appears between two towers due to the
weight of the conductor lines. By this, the distance between conductor and
4
Already a very small charge density at the earths surface is sufficient to obtain this.
78
5. Lines
2
d12
d23
1
d13
H2
H1
H3
A23
Earth
A13
A12
3
1
2
Figure 5.16. General configuration of a threephase power line with
mirror conductors.
h
Hmin
the earth surface is not constant. This sag can be incorporated by defining
a reduced distance
1
H = Hmin + h
(5.51)
3
in the equation stated above.
The geometric mean of the distances between the phase conductors and
the mirror conductors is (see figure 5.16)
p
A = 3 A12 A23 A13
(5.52)
If the height of the phase lines is large compared with the distances between
the phases, 2H/A 1, holds. By this, the equations (5.48) and (5.49) yield
the same result for the capacitances per length unit.
5.2.4
Ohmic Losses
Real power lines are not lossless. Thus, an additional series resistance and
a shunt conductance need to be incorporated besides the inductance and
capacitance per unit length.
79
In the case of direct current, the ohmic resistance of a conductor can relatively simply be calculated by its crosssection area, length and specific
conductivity. But when the conductor carries an alternating current, the
skin effect needs to be incorporated when calculating the ohmic resistance.5
This effect implicates that the current is not distributed homogenously over
the conductor crosssection but is pushed to the outer boundary of the conductor, i.e. the current density is increasing outwards. Thereby, the effective
conductor crosssection is decreased compared with the direct current leading conductor. In a 50 Hz system, this increase typically amounts to a few
percent.
When having a configuration as shown in figure 5.5 the ohmic alternating current resistance approximately corresponds to the direct current
resistance of the aluminium conductor. Thereby, the increasing effect of the
resistance due to the current displacement approximately balances out the
current part which flows in the steel core. More exact values can be gained
by measurements of the nominal operation frequency, i.e. 50 or 60 Hz, and
the operational temperature. These values are provided by the conductor
manufacturer.
The ohmic series resistance per unit length R gives rise to losses in the
conductor, where part of the losses are dissipated to air by convection and
radiation. The allowable current capability is limited by a maximal heating
of the conductor; long term conductor temperatures above 80 C can lead to
a weakening for commonly used conductor materials (aluminium and steel).
For a conductor temperature of , the resistance can be calculated by6
R = R20
(1 + ( 20 C))
(5.53)
R20
=
20
A
(5.54)
Shunt Conductance
The per unit conductance G represents the corona discharges at the surface of conductors and leakage current losses across the insulators in the
5
Apart from the skin effect, other effects which influence the ohmic resistance occur
within the conductor line: The proximity effect describes the current displacement in the
conductor by fields of adjacent conductors. The spirality effect describes the increase of
the ohmic resistance due to the design of the individual conductors.
6
For aluminium and copper a temperature coefficient of = 0.004 K1 is normally
used.
80
5. Lines
case of overhead lines. In the case of cables, the dielectric losses within the
solid isolators contribute to G . The operational losses are almost identical
with the opencircuit losses, which for overhead lines are weather dependent.
For example, on a foggy and humid day, one can clearly hear the cracking
noise due to partial discharges or corona discharges. However, the corona
phenomenon occurs less on a dry summer day, whereby the corona losses
decrease considerably. For overhead lines only approximate values based on
measurements can be gained for G . On the other hand, exact test measurements are possible for cables.
5.2.5
81
nominal voltage in kV
R in /km
XL = L in /km
YC = C in S/km
230
0.050
0.407
2.764
345
0.037
0.306
3.765
500
0.028
0.271
4.333
765
0.012
0.274
4.148
nominal voltage in kV
R in /km
XL = L in /km
YC = C in S/km
5.3
115
0.059
0.252
192.0
230
0.028
0.282
204.7
500
0.013
0.205
80.4
In relation with the increased use of mobile phones during the last decades
more concerns about possible harmful effects of electromagnetic fields to
human beings have been expressed. Overhead lines cause both electric and
magnetic fields. An important difference between the fields generated by
antennas used for mobile communication and high voltage lines is the operating frequency. The fields of high voltage lines have a low frequency of
50 Hz, or 60 Hz, whereas the fields from antennas lie in the GHz domain.
Moreover, the very aim of antennas is the generation and radiation of fields
whereas this is only an undesirable side effect in the case of high voltage
lines.
To gain a feeling how strong the electromagnetic fields of a high voltage
line close to the ground are, a high voltage line with the dimensions given
in figure 5.18 is considered in this section.
Since we consider a symmetric threephase system, the voltage in the
single conductors are in each case phaseshifted by 120 , and the voltages
and currents in the conductors vary with the power frequency of 50 Hz.
These voltage and current variations influence the electromagnetic fields.
The field strength is dependent on the considered time instant, i.e. the fields
are also alternating.
5.3.1
Electric Field
The electric field of a high voltage line depends on the voltage, the form of the
tower and the configuration of the conductor lines. The analytic calculation
of the electric field is very difficult because the earth impedance needs to be
incorporated. Hence, we abandon the derivation and present only the results
82
5. Lines
12 m
12 m
20 m
y
uS (t)
uR (t)
uT (t)
umax
t1
t2
t3
83
E (kV/m)
2, 5
400 kV
2, 0
1, 5
220 kV
1, 0
110 kV
0, 5
0
80
60 40
20
20
40
60
80x (m)
20
40
60
80x (m)
20
40
60
80x (m)
E (kV/m)
2, 5
2, 0
1, 5
1, 0
400 kV
0, 5
220 kV
110 kV
0
80
60 40
20
E (kV/m)
2, 5
400 kV
2, 0
1, 5
220 kV
1, 0
110 kV
0, 5
0
80
60 40
20
84
5. Lines
the same time, the field assumes on average the maximal value (t1 ) or the
minimal value (t2 ) at these time instants. The time instant t3 is an example
where the field is not symmetric.
As a comparison, the natural static air field obtains a field strength of
around 0.1 kV/m. In connection with a thunderstorm, values up to 20 kV/m
are possible. Also in a house we are constantly exposed to electric fields from
different appliances. Within a distance of 30 cm field strengths up to 0.5
kV/m can be measured around electric devices. The human skin serves as a
safety shield and is sufficient for not enabling electric fields of transmission
lines to enter. In buildings, the electric field coming from outside and varying
with 50 Hz is reduced to at least one tenth. The values of electric fields which
are generated by high voltage lines at 2 m above ground (figure 5.20) are
thus not much stronger than those we are exposed to from other sources.
5.3.2
Magnetic Field
In contrast with the electric field the magnetic field can be computed analytically quite easily as the earth influences the magnetic field only insignificantly. Using the law of BiotSavart, a straight currentcarrying conductor
creates a magnetic field with the value
0 I
(5.55)
2R
Thereby R denotes the distance between the point at which the field is computed and the conductor, and the direction of the field is always tangential
to the circles around the conductor.
This can now be applied for the calculation of the magnetic field for
a threephase line. For each conductor the value and the direction of the
magnetic field is determined. Then, the three field vectors resulting of the
three phases are summed up and the overall value of the field is computed.
As the field of a straight conductor only depends on the distance between
the conductor and the point at which the field is computed (5.55), we can
use a twodimensional model to derive the formulas. For a single conductor
the relations are given in figure 5.21.
The value of the magnetic field at location (xB h) results with (5.55) in
B =
B = B =
0 I
(xB xw )2 + (h yw )2
(5.56)
Thereby we assume that I flows in the positive z direction, i.e. out from the
paper. In opposite direction I becomes negative.
In order to sum up the magnetic fields of all three phases, B is split into
x and y coordinates:
Bx = B cos
By = B sin
(5.57)
(5.58)
85
(xw yw )
R
B
.
(xB h)
x
With
sin =
cos =
this results in
Bx =
By =
p
p
xB xw
(xB xw )2 + (h yw )2
yw h
(xB xw )2 + (h yw )2
0 I(yw h)
2((xB xw )2 + (h yw )2 )
0 I(xB xw )
2((xB xw )2 + (h yw )2 )
(5.59)
(5.60)
(5.61)
(5.62)
86
5. Lines
Beff (T)
8
1000 A
700 A
500 A
2
0
80
60
40
20
20
40
60
80x(m)
a
B
x
87
that the overall field is more or less perpendicular (normal) to earth at large
distances (figure 5.23).
We assume that the distance between P and the conductor corresponds
to the distance in x direction, for example the distance for the conductor on
the left hand side amounts to x + a. In phasor notation the magnetic field
at P results in
0
IR
I
I
B=
+ S+ T
(5.64)
2 x + a
x
xa
With the approximation
1
1
1+
(5.65)
(5.66)
From the condition that the sum of the currents is equal to zero at each
time instant
IR + IS + IT = 0
(5.67)
the simple formula
B=
0 a
(I I R ) , a x
2 x2 T
(5.68)
is derived, and therewith also the absolute value of the magnetic field at
large distances
aIph
3Iph a
0
= 3.5 107 2 , a x
(5.69)
B=
2
x2
x
Thereby Iph denotes the phase current in A; with x and a in meter a flux
density B in T results. For the calculation of the field directly below an
overhead line, (5.69) cannot be employed, because the assumption that the
distance between the conductors is much smaller that the distance to the
point of computation does not hold anymore. Regarding (5.69), the field
would be infinite at x = 0, which obviously is not correct. However, the
formula for the calculation of the magnetic field at large distances is useful
and shows the quadratic decrease of the field with increasing distance.
Although magnetic fields are hardly damped by the human skin, they
induce only small currents within the body. Electric household devices, such
as mixers or electric irons generate magnetic fields with amounts up to 10 T
at a distance of 30 cm. For causing heart problems for humans alternating
field strengths at a frequency of 50 Hz and 1 Tesla are needed. This is ten
thousand times more than the field strength below a high voltage line.
7
1
x+a
1
x
1
a
1+ x
1
x
a
x
(xa)
x2
88
5. Lines
5.4
The model of a power line forms an important prerequisite for planning and
operation of electric power systems. Thereby we assume the system to be in
steady state, which is actually never exactly fulfilled in practice, but quite
often a sufficiently good approximation. The always present load variations
keep the system always in a dynamic state. However, for many tasks it is
enough to make a snapshot of the operating state and to neglect the short
term transients. This approach is justifiable because the load variations are
fairly small over a short period of time. More significant load changes extend
over a longer time period (a number of ten minutes) at normal operation.
Therefore, a model with constant loads describes the instantaneous operation state with a sufficient accuracy. The normal operation state can thus
be described by a system of nonlinear algebraic equations which are derived
in this chapter.
Transient processes, such as a large load step or the outage of a power
station, cannot be modelled by these equations. Only after the dynamic
transients have decayed the equations derived in this section can be used for
the calculation of the stationary operation state.
How long this computed stationary operation state is valid depends on
the load variations at normal operation. At fast load changes (e.g. in the
surrounding of day load peaks) the stationary solution needs to be redetermined more often than at times with only few load changes (e.g. during
night hours).
An important precondition for the validity of the circuitbased model to
be developed is that the distances between the conductors are small compared with the characteristic electromagnetic wave length. Thereby, it is
ensured that the field between the conductors approximately coincides with
the static field. This holds both for electric fields and for magnetic fields. In
addition, we can assume that these fields are practically decoupled.
Thereby it is possible to associate the charges and the surrounding flux of
the conductors with the voltage and the current by usage of capacitances and
inductances. Capacitances and inductances are considered to be distributed
and given per length unit. For also ensuring the validity of the capacitor and
inductor model in axial line direction, a short piece of the line is considered
89
(length element x, see figure 5.24). For each line element it holds
Q = C U
= L I
where Q denotes the charge and the flux per line unit length. Both quantities can be determined by measurements of a finite line element. As these
quantities are proportional to the length of the line element, the capacitance
per unit length C and the inductance per unit length L can be defined.
The behavior of a power line is determined by its length and the per unit
length parameters R , L , G and C . The actual design of overhead lines
is often very dependent on local conditions. This means, the characteristic
values cannot be determined by lab measurements, as it is the case for devices
like generators and transformers. This holds generally also for cables, which
are delivered to the site. The per unit length inductance and capacitance of
power cables depend on sitespecific factors such as installation type (e.g.,
configuration and distance of phase conductors), connection and grounding
of the cable sheaths or shields as well as on the electric characteristics of the
surrounding soil.
5.4.1
The line model is derived starting from a single line element. By usage of
the per unit length parameters derived in section 5.2 an infinitesimally small
line element, as shown in figure 5.248 , is considered. In this equivalent circuit
diagram of the line element, voltages and currents are shown, with which
the general differential equation of the homogenous line can be derived.
In order to analyze the phenomena on a power line one would need to use
the general theory of electromagnetic phenomena, i.e. Maxwells field theory.
As certain assumptions can be made regarding the geometric configuration of
the line, several model simplifications can be assumed concerning the circuit
model. The per unit length capacitance and inductance are assumed constant
along the power line. Thereby, there exists a field pattern perpendicular to
the conductors, which corresponds to the static field lines. The propagation
velocity is dependent on the dielectric and the magnetic materials of the
power line, see below.
The propagation of waves on power lines is an important characteristic
of the power line theory. A line section, attached to a source at one end,
behaves differently than a lumped circuit element. Depending on the length
of the line, approximations can be introduced, and these are often used in
practice. They are discussed more in detail later on.
8
For visualization of the line model often a series connection of inductances and capacitances is shown, which is a useful representation for the analysis. However, such a
circuit does not reflect the wave propagation properties for a power line. Hence, we do not
consider this model in more detail.
90
5. Lines
i(x, t)
u(x, t)
R x
L x
G x
i(x + x, t)
C x
u(x + x, t)
x + x
91
5.4.2
The Differential Equation for the Power Line The Telegraph Equation
In the following we assume that each small element of the line can be modelled by the equivalent circuit diagram depicted in figure 5.24.
Voltage u and current i are functions of the location x along the line and
of the time t:
u = u(x, t)
i = i(x, t)
When moving along the line from position x a small step x, voltage and
current at position x + x are according to Kirchhoffs laws
i (x, t)
(5.71a)
t
u (x + x, t)
i (x + x, t) = i (x, t) G x u (x + x, t) C x
t
(5.71b)
u (x + x, t) = u (x, t) R x i (x, t) L x
= G u (x + x, t) C
x
t
(5.72a)
(5.72b)
(5.73)
= R +L
i
(5.74a)
x
t
i
= G +C
u
(5.74b)
x
t
The equations (5.74a) and (5.74b) constitute a system of partial linear first
order differential equations with constant coefficients and are referred to as
the Differential Equations of Power Lines.
10
We have here assumed that the derivatives of the functions i and u exist, and these
functions are hence continuous.
92
5. Lines
(5.75a)
(5.75b)
Both partial differential equations (5.75a) and (5.75b) are valid for arbitrary
time dependencies of voltage and current, hence also for transients. They are
valid for inhomogeneous conductors too when incorporating the locational
dependency of the linear electric constants (e.g., R = R (x)).
In the next section well solve these differential equations for sinusoidal
excitations, in which case the equations often are referred to as the Power
Line Equations.
5.4.3
The differential equations (5.75a) and (5.75b) are solved here for the special
case of pure sinusoidal excitation. This excitation form is very important in
physics as transfer functions can be defined for this form of excitation. The
sinusoidal function is namely, besides a constant, the only function which
appears in the same form at the output of a linear physical network as it
enters at the input, albeit with changed amplitude and phase.11
If the line is excited by an arbitrary signal form, the signal can be decomposed into its frequency components by means of the Fourier transformation.
For each component of the signal, the solution of the differential equation is
determined and one obtains the solution for the given excitation signal as a
sum of the single solutions (superposition theorem).12
The bases for the following considerations are the Telegraph equations
(5.75a) and (5.75b). These are linear partial differential equations of second
order with constant coefficients and are identical for voltage and current.
Hence, solutions (for u(x, t) and i(x, t)) are both of the same form.
We now introduce phasors for u(x, t) and i(x, t):
u(x, t) = 2 U (x) ejt
i(x, t) = 2 I (x) ejt
where U and I denote the voltage and current phasors and = 2f is the
angular frequency. These phasors are now inserted into equations (5.74a)
11
This is due to the fact that the function sin (t), its derivative and each linear combination of it also have a sinusoidal form.
12
Of course, this is valid only for a linear system.
93
(5.77a)
(5.77b)
The phasor I can now be eliminated from equations (5.77a) and (5.77b):
d2 U
= R + jL G + jC U
2
dx
(5.78)
In contrast with equation (5.75a) the time is not explicitly appearing anymore in equation (5.78). By introducing the phasors, the partial differential
equation (5.78) has been converted into an ordinary linear differential equation with respect to x of second order with constant coefficients.
By elimination of U from equations (5.77a) and (5.77b) we find an equation for the current analogous to (5.78):
d2 I
= R + jL G + jC I
2
dx
(5.79)
The equations (5.78) and (5.79) are the Wave Equations of the lossy line
and are normally written in the following form:
d2 U
= 2U
dx2
d2 I
= 2I
dx2 p
with = (R + jL ) (G + jC ) = + j
(5.80b)
U (x) = U a + U b = U a0 ex + U b0 ex
(5.81a)
(5.80a)
(5.80c)
I(x) = I a + I b = I a0 e
+ I b0 e
(5.81b)
If (5.81a) is differentiated with respect to x and inserted together with equation (5.80c) into equation (5.77a), we find a relation between the line voltages
and currents:
s
1
dU
G + jC
x
x
I (x) =
=
U
e
U
e
(5.82)
a0
b0
R + jL dx
R + jL
94
5. Lines
5.4.4
1
(U a0 ex U b0 ex )
ZW
(5.84)
The solutions in equations (5.81a) and (5.81b) will now be studied in more
detail. Eq. (5.81a) written out as time function reads
u(x, t) =
n
o
2 U a0 ex ejt + U b0 ex ejt

{z
} 
{z
}
a)
(5.85)
b)
We can split up the wave propagation constant to real and imaginary part:
=
with
(R + jL ) (G + jC ) = + j
(5.86)
= 8.686
dB/m
Np/m
(5.87)
(5.88)
95
Ub 
x
Ua
Ub
Ua
U 
Ub
U
The phase velocity of the wave in the other direction, part b) in the
equation (5.85), is by a similar reasoning found to be
vp =
(5.89)
The phase velocity in overhead power lines reaches almost the speed of light
in vacuum or air, see below.
The left picture in figure 5.25 shows the forward travelling damped wave,
the middle picture in figure 5.25 shows the backward travelling damped
wave, and the right picture in figure 5.25 shows the sum of the forward
and the backward travelling waves. These pictures show however only theoretically the behaviour of the line voltage: In real voltage waves the wave
length is approx. 6000 km, thus the shadowed part in picture 5.25 represents
already a line length of 750 km!
5.4.5
The constants U a0 and U b0 in the voltage equation (5.81a) result from the
boundary conditions at the beginning and the end of the power line. These
constants can thus be determined if these conditions are known, as will be
shown in the following. We will study two cases that are common in practice,
i.e. that the voltage and current are known at the beginning and at the end
of the line, respectively. Often the beginning of the line is referred to as the
sending end and the end of the line to as the receiving end.
96
5. Lines
(5.90)
1
(U a0 U b0 )
ZW
(5.91)
U a0 =
(5.92a)
U b0
(5.92b)
I 1 ex
2 ZW
2 ZW
U (x) =
(5.93a)
(5.93b)
ex + ex
ex ex
ZW I1
2
2
(5.94)
and analogously for I(x). Using the cosh and sinh functions we get
U (x) = U 1 cosh x Z W I 1 sinh x
(5.95a)
U1
I(x) = I 1 cosh x
sinh x
(5.95b)
ZW
Specification of Current and Voltage at the End of the Line
If current and voltage at the line ending are specified, equation (5.81a) yields:
U (x = l) = U 2 = U a0 el + U b0 el
(5.96)
and from equation (5.81b) for the current at the end of the line
I (x = l) = I 2 =
1
U a0 el U b0 el
ZW
(5.97)
97
U a0 =
(5.98a)
U b0
(5.98b)
These are now inserted into the general wave equation, eqs. (5.81a) (5.81b),
and we obtain
1
1
U (x) = (U 2 + Z W I 2 ) e(lx) + (U 2 Z W I 2 ) e(lx)
(5.99a)
2
2
1 U2
1 U2
I(x) =
+ I 2 e(lx)
I 2 e(lx)
(5.99b)
2 ZW
2 ZW
This is the general form of the line equations with current and voltage specified at the line end. By introducing the hyperbolic functions we obtain
analogously:
(5.100a)
U (x) = U 2 cosh (l x) + Z W I 2 sinh (l x)
U2
I(x) = I 2 cosh (l x) +
sinh (l x)
(5.100b)
ZW
5.4.6
A special and important case is the lossless line. As the inductive reactance
dominates for high voltage power lines (For voltages from around 130 kV
R
L . 0.1) and the losses due to the shunt conductance are very low, the
power transmission line can be modelled as lossless as a simplification, i.e.
R = G = 0
(5.101)
2
ZW
2
U (x) = U 1
(5.102a)
(5.102b)
Thereby, the values of current and voltage at the beginning of the line are assumed to be known. The propagation constant becomes purely imaginary
in this special case:
= j L C = j
(5.103)
98
5. Lines
The surge impedance is purely real in the special case of a lossless line and
is given by
ZW =
L
C
(5.104)
For the sine and cosine functions the following relations hold:
sin (z) =
ejz ejz
2j
cos (z) =
ejz + ejz
2
(5.105)
When applying the relations from equation (5.105) for equations (5.102a)
and (5.102b), we obtain the wave equations for the lossless line.
U (x) = U 1 cos (x) jZW I 1 sin (x)
U1
sin (x)
I(x) = I 1 cos (x) j
ZW
(5.106a)
(5.106b)
Analogously, we obtain the wave equations for the lossless line, when current
and voltage at the end of the line are known.
U (x) = U 2 cos ( (l x)) + jZW I 2 sin ( (l x))
U2
sin ( (l x))
I(x) = I 2 cos ( (l x)) + j
ZW
(5.107a)
(5.107b)
For the lossless line we can now calculate the phase constant, , by using
the equations derived in section 5.2 for
0
dm
L =
ln
2
req
20
C =
dm
ln
req
We thus obtain
v
u
dm
u
ln
req
= L C = t0 0 0 0 =
c
m
ln dreq
(5.108)
where c denotes the light velocity in vacuum or air. Therewith, the phase
constant for the lossless line is only dependent on the operation frequency
99
5.5
Line Models
In practice, one does not always want to use the relatively complicated wave
equation; the exact propagation of current and voltage along a line is not
always of interest. Often, one is only interested in determining e.g. the voltage drop along a line or in calculating the total reactive power demand. For
these kinds of examinations some simplifications of the wave equation can
be made without losing any accuracy of the results. Simplified line models
are thus obtained which are suitable for different problems. In the following
a few line models and their application areas are discussed.
5.5.1
!
!
Yq
1
+
Z
Z
l
l
U1
2
U2
= Y
(5.109)
Yq
Yq
q
I1
I2
2
+
Z
1
+
Z
l 2
l 2
2

{z
}
A1
Zl
I1
U1
Yq
2
I2
Yq
2
U2
100
5. Lines
The same relations can be expressed with the wave equations (5.100a) and
(5.100b):
!
!
!
cosh l
Z W sinh l
U1
U2
=
(5.110)
1
I1
I2
cosh l
Z W sinh l

{z
}
A2
l
Yq
1
1 l
Y l
=
tanh
=
(5.112b)
2
ZW
2
ZW 2
2
(5.113a)
(5.113b)
This length is here always related to the operation frequency of 50 Hz. At higher
frequencies the limits become shorter according to the shorter wave length.
14
We will later see that AC cables can be utilized anyway only up to a length of around
60 km. The reason for this is the high capacitive current which results from the high
capacitance of the cable.
101
In practical power flow calculations, longer lines are often split into several
short pieces, which are then each modelled as elements and connected
together.
5.5.2
Lossless Line
(5.114a)
(5.114b)
For overhead lines sometimes only the resistive part of the shunt conductance is neglected:
G = 0
The elements of the equivalent circuit diagram are with this simplification
Z l = Z l = R l + jX l
Yq
Y
=
l=j l
2
2
2
(5.115a)
(5.115b)
This model yields a very good approximation for lines with nominal voltage
starting at around 130 kV.
5.5.3
Additional Simplifications
Models for overhead lines can be further simplified. For example, the overall
shunt impedance can be neglected under certain circumstances and the line
can be modelled as a pure series impedance. Normally, lines are divided into
three categories according to their line length: 15
Short Lines (until 100 km): Lines with a length of around 100 km normally have a very low shunt capacitance and the ohmic part of the
shunt conductance is low as well. These short lines can be modelled as
a single series impedance Z = R l + jL l.
Medium Length Lines (100 until 300 km): For line lengths in the range
of 100 until ca. 300 km the simplified model (5.113) can be used
without great loss of accuracy.
15
The lengths given here serve as approximate benchmarks and not as strict rules.
102
5. Lines
Long lines (over 300 km): For line lengths over about 300 km the effects of the distributed parameters are significant. Thus, these lines
should be modelled as series connections of shorter line elements or
the lumped parameters should be computed with the exact relations
according to (5.111).
5.5.4
In the following the results of different line models are discussed on the basis
of an example. Given are the surge impedance and the propagation constant
of a 230 kV line:
Z W = 382.2 j 16.5
und
Yq
1 l
2
ZW 2
103
l in km
50
100
300
500
l
0.0552
0.1105
0.3314
0.5523
a)
1.0015
1.0060
1.0565
1.1710
b)
1.0015
1.0061
1.0570
1.1730
c)
1.0015
1.0060
1.0540
1.1503
d)
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.15
a)
b)
c)
d)
U 2  in p.u.
1.10
1.05
1.00
0.95
50
100
200
300
400
500
l in km
Figure 5.27. Absolute value of the noload voltage at the line end,
computed with different models. a) exact b) with lossless wave equation, c) with model (5.112), d) with serial impedance.
models yield almost identical values for the output voltage. At longer lines,
the series impedance model d) differs considerably from the other models.
At a line length of 300 km the deviation between the results of the complete
wave equation a) and those of the model c) amounts to around 0.24%, at
500 km to 1.77%. Obviously, the lossless wave equation b) models the exact
conditions very accurately, the results almost coincide with the exact values:
At a line length of 500 km the difference is only 0.17%. By this reason, the
lossless model is used very often in practice for high voltage power lines
when voltage drops should be calculated. For loss calculations, this model is
of course of no value.
104
5. Lines
6
Power Transmission Fundamentals
In this chapter the steady state current and voltage characteristics as well as
the active and reactive flows of threephase power lines will be described. After some basic considerations the operational behavior of different situations
will be analyzed.
In the discussion of the operational characteristics of power lines the
analysis will be restricted to onephase equivalent systems, because for the
time being only symmetrical conditions will be considered. In the chapter 7
we are going to discuss how nonsymmetrical systems could be described as
three decoupled onephase equivalent systems.
The second very important assumption of the following analysis is that
the system is in steady state. For the calculations of dynamic phenomena
(e.g. transient oscillations after switching operations) other models must be
used.
6.1
Decoupled quantities
P2 + jQ2
P1 + jQ1
U1 1
Power line
105
U2 2
106
Not all of these quantities are independent of each other. The angles
of voltages U1 and U2 (1 and 2 ), for instance, are coupled through the
properties of the line (length, phase constant). We will later see that in all
formulae only the difference between 1 and 2 will occur. One of the angles
can then be chosen as reference (e.g. 2 = 0), thereby there are only seven
quantities of interest.
The power at the beginning and the end of the line are not independent of
each other, either. If e.g. active and reactive power are given at the beginning
of the line , the powers at the end of the line are a function of the line
parameters and the transmission voltage. Either U1 or U2 can be given. If
the complex voltages at the beginning and at the end of the line (three real
values) are given, this will uniquely determine the active and reactive powers
at the two ends of the line.
The complex current and voltage along the line are related according
to the two complex equations (5.95a) and (5.95b). Thus, the number of
independent variables is reduced by two complex or four real quantities.
The above discussion concerning the quantities describing the power
flows in a line can be summarized as:
number of quantities
8
a voltage angle as reference
1
2 complex = 4 real U /Iequations 4
independent real quantities
3
The number of the independent quantities in figure 6.1 is thus reduced
to three real quantities. This means that from eight real quantities, which
describe the power transmission, only three can be chosen freely and the
other will then be given by the power line equations. These three quantities
are referred to as independent (decoupled) quantities.
Not every combination of three independent quantities is meaningful
from a practical point of view. In power system analysis and operation the
following three combinations of independent quantities are most common:
U1 , 1 , U2 : The active and reactive powers are then given by the line
equations. This case occurs, e.g. when the power line is connecting two
large networks where the voltage and angle are fixed and independent
of the loadings in the systems. This is a typical situation for lines in a
meshed system with good voltage control.
U1 , P2 , Q2 (or P1 , Q1 , U2 ): If the voltage is given at one end of the
power line and the powers at the other end. This case corresponds to
when a distant load is fed via a power line and the voltage is controlled,
e.g. by a generator, at the sending end.
U1 , P1 , Q1 : In this case the voltage magnitude and the powers are
given at the same end of the line. This is e.g. the case when a power
station feeds a certain power over a line into a power grid.
107
6.2
By the surge impedance loading of a circuit one understands the power which
is transmitted when the power line is loaded with an impedance equal to its
surge impedance.
6.2.1
PSIL = P2 =
U 2 2
U 2 2
=
Z2
ZW
(6.2)
U2
U2
=
Z2
ZW
(6.3)
If we now insert equation (6.3) into the equations for the lossless circuit
(5.107a) and/or (5.107b), we obtain the voltage and current at the beginning
of the circuit (x = 0):
U2
sin (l)
ZW
= U 2 (cos (l) + j sin (l)) = U2 ejl
1
U2
sin (l) +
cos (l)
I 1 = jU 2
ZW
ZW
U2
=
(cos (l) + j sin (l)) = I 2 ejl
ZW
(6.4a)
(6.4b)
The results show that current and voltage are phase shifted over the line with
the same angle, l, while the amplitudes are unchanged. If one calculates
the quantities along the line (x 6= 0), then the phasors are phase shifted
proportionally to the distance from the circuit end. The amplitudes of the
2
Here we use the convention from chapter 2 : For the computation of the threephase
quantities
P , Q and S the phase quantities of the current and voltage are multiplied with
108
current and voltage along the circuit remain the same. The power at the
beginning of the circuit is the same as at the end of it:
P1 =
U 1 2
= P2
ZW
(6.5)
because no losses appear on the circuit. This special load case is called surge
impedance loading (SIL) PSIL .
PSIL =
U 2
ZW
(6.6)
With this load one achieves in a sense optimum power transmission conditions. Current and voltage have constant amplitudes along the line and
the angular phase shift between the beginning and the end of the circuit
amounts to l. However, in practice the transmitted powers deviate most
often from the surge impedance loading.
At surge impedance loading the power line is in a state of reactive power
balance. This means that the series inductance consumes exactly the same
amount of reactive power as the shunt capacitances produces. The reactive
power produced in the shunt capacitances depends on the shunt capacitances
and the operating voltage. The reactive power consumed in the series inductance depends on the line current and on the value of the series inductance.
At a loading equal to the surge impedance loading the two reactive powers
are equal:
QC = QL U 2 C = I 2 L
U2
L
2
=
= ZW
I2
C
(6.7)
The surge impedance of overhead circuits lies within the range of approximately 200 to 400 . Dominant parameter is the series inductance,
its reactance is very high in comparison with the shunt reactance. The reactive power consumed in the series inductance QL exceeds already for a
relatively low current the reactive power generated in the shunt capacitance
QC . For this reason overhead circuits are usually operated above their surge
impedance loading.
Cables have relatively small surge impedances compared with overhead
circuits, approximately within the range 30 to 50 . The influence of the
shunt capacitance is dominating. Hence a higher surge impedance loading
for the same operating voltage U results. The surge impedance loading lies
most often above the thermal power limit of the cable. While overhead circuits can transmit powers several times higher than the surge impedance
loading, cables are always operated below their surge impedance loading.
The characteristics and features of cables are described more in detail in the
section 6.10.
109
6.2.2
In the case of a lossy power line the surge impedance is a complex quantity.
For following investigation an impedance equal to the surge impedance is
connected at the end of the line. The current at the end of the line is equal
to
I2 =
U2
U2
=
Z2
ZW
(6.8)
The complex power at the end of the circuit can now be calculated
S 2 = P2 + jQ2 = U 2 I 2 =
U 2 2
Z W
(6.9)
If the equation (6.8) is inserted in the circuit equations (5.100a) and (5.100b)
the voltage and current at the beginning of the line can be calculated
U2
U 1 = U 2 cosh l + Z W
sinh l
ZW
= U 2 cosh l + sinh l = U 2 el
U2
U2
I1 =
cosh l +
sinh l
ZW
ZW
U2
=
cosh l + sinh l = I 2 el
ZW
(6.10a)
(6.10b)
U 2 2l
e = S 2 e2l
Z W
(6.11)
The phase relationship between current and voltage remains constant also
in the lossy case over the entire circuit, but the amplitudes are not the same
110
anymore. Active and reactive power increase toward the beginning of the
circuit, the power at the input is higher with a (real) factor e2l than at
the output. Also the amplitudes of the voltage and the current rise along
the circuit (when moving along the line from end to the beginning, i.e. from
point 2 to point 1) proportional to ex . The angle phase shift is still x. The
distance x is here measured from 2 (line end) towards 1 (line begin).
6.2.3
Typical values for the surge impedance and the surge impedance loading of
overhead power lines and power cables are given in the tables below.
Overhead power lines [13]:
nominal voltage in kV
ZW in
PSIL in MW
132
150
50
275
315
240
115
36.2
365
230
37.1
1426
380
295
490
6.3
500
50.4
4960
After the discussion of the surge impedance loading, the behavior of lines
in the two extreme cases of no load, or open line, and short circuit will be
examined. For the sake of simplicity the lines are considered in each case as
lossless.
6.3.1
Open circuit
The case of open line operation can occur if an unloaded line is energized,
or if the load at one end of the line is switched off. This case is characterized
by the fact that the current at the end of the line is I 2 = 0. Thus from the
line equations we get (5.100a) and (5.100b):
(6.12a)
U 1 = U 2 cosh l
U2
I1 =
sinh l
(6.12b)
ZW
The voltage U 1 is assumed to be the phase reference, i.e. it coincides with
the real axis, and the equations (6.12a) and (6.12b) when R = G = 0 can
111
(6.13a)
(6.13b)
If the voltage is fixed, then the voltage U2 at the end of the line becomes
U2 =
U1
cos (l)
(6.14)
jU2
jU1 tan (l)
sin (l) =
ZW
ZW
(6.15)
Obviously, the amplitude of the voltage over the opencircuited line rises
towards line end, while the current amplitude decreases (see figure 6.2). The
rise of U1 to U2 over the opencircuited line is called the Ferranti Effect. In
extreme cases resonant conditions can arise if l = 2 = 90 , i.e. the line
length for 50 Hz is around 1500 km. Even if no resonant conditions arise,
still in practice the Ferranti effect can cause substantial overvoltages at the
open end if no measures are taken.
Here again the software PowerWorld can be mentioned. An example that
illustrates the Ferranti effect can be found under the set of examples provided
on the course web site  the file Long Line Example. With changing load
at the end of the line, the voltage distribution along the line changes too.
By switching the load off the voltage increase along the line becomes most
significant.
Finally we calculate the input impedance of the opencircuited high voltage transmission line:
U1
ZW
= Z 1 = j
I1
tan (l)
(6.16)
The charging current is defined as the current that flows through the line at noload
conditions.
112
U1 = U (x = 0)
U2 = U (x = l)
U (x), I(x)
P2 = 0
Q2 = 0
x
l = 300 km
1.05
U (x)
p.u.
1.00
0.3
I(x)
p.u.
0.2
0.1
0.0
0
100
200
300
x in km
Figure 6.2. Voltage and current characteristics for a 300 km long line
in noload operation with a fixed voltage at the beginning of the line
(L = 1 mH/km, C = 10 nF/km).
6.3.2
Short circuit
A short circuit at the end of the line can be analyzed in a similar way as the
noload case. In the case of an ideal short circuit at the end of the line the
output voltage is U 2 = 0, which for a lossless lines implies
U 1 = jI 2 ZW sin (l)
(6.17a)
I 1 = I 2 cos (l)
(6.17b)
In particular the short circuit current at the end of the line becomes equal
to
I2 =
I1
cos (l)
(6.18)
113
is given by
U1
= Z1 = jZW tan (l)
I1
(6.19)
For 50Hz systems the short circuit impedance is inductive for line lengths
up to 1500 km.
6.4
If power is transmitted over a power line, then losses, active and reactive,
arise. In the resistive elements of the line (series resistance and shunt conductance) active power losses arise, in the reactive elements (series inductance
and shunt capacitance) reactive power is either consumed or generated. The
complex power at one end of the line differs consequently from the complex
power at the other end of the line, and the difference between these two
complex powers gives the active and reactive losses of the line. The active
losses are of course always positive, but as will be shown the reactive losses
can be either positive or negative. Negative reactive power losses means that
the line is a net producer of reactive power. For the voltage profile of the
line the reactive power is particularly important as will be discussed in the
following.
We consider the wave equation for a lossless line:
cos (l)
jZW sin (l)
U1
U2
=
j
cos (l)
I1
I2
ZW sin (l)
The power input at the beginning of the line S 1 = U 1 I 1 = P1 + jQ1 depends
on the power output at the end of the line S 2 = U 2 I 2 = P2 + jQ2 . For given
voltage U 2 and surge impedance loading PSIL = U 2 2 /ZW , the power at
the line input is
1 S 2 2
P1 + jQ1 = P2 + j Q2 cos (2l) +
PSIL sin (2l)
(6.20)
2 PSIL
For a lossless line P1 = P2 . The available reactive power Q1 is determined
besides Q2 to a high degree by the net consumption Q of the line. With
the approximation cos (2l) 1 one gets
1 S 2 2
Q = Q1 Q2
PSIL sin (2l)
(6.21)
2 PSIL
The reactive power demand of a line consists, according to this, of two parts:
inductive part:
QL =
1 S 2 2
sin (2l)
2 PSIL
(6.22)
114
(6.23)
The two parts are balanced at surge impedance loading of the line, i.e. the
shunt capacitances produce exactly the amount of reactive power as the
series inductance consumes:
Q = QL QC = 0 with
S 2  = PSIL
(6.24)
With S 2  > PSIL the line absorbs reactive power (QL > QC ), with S 2  <
PSIL the line generates reactive power (QL < QC ). The reactive power during noload operation QC is capacitive, i.e. reactive power is produced by
the line, and is referred to as the charging power. This accounts for a
lossless line with R = G = 0
1
QC = PSIL sin (2l)
2
(6.25)
U 2
l = U 2 C l
ZW
(6.26)
If the line is in noload operation, i.e. S 2 = 0, then according to equation (6.22) the inductive reactive power demand QL is in both cases (lossless/short line) equal to zero.
We consider now the reactive power demand in dependence of the transmitted active power. We assume again a lossless line. The equation (5.106a)
with x = 0 is
U 1 = U 2 cos (l) + jZW I 2 sin (l)
(6.27)
The current at the end of the line can be calculated by use of the apparent
power at the end of the line as
P2 jQ2
U 1 = U 2 cos (l) + jZW sin (l)
(6.28)
U 2
We now introduce the transmission angle, , i.e. the phase angle difference
between U 1 and U 2 , and using U 2 as the phase angle reference, i.e. U 2 is
parallel with the real axis
U 1 = U1 (cos + j sin )
(6.29)
115
Q2 = Q1
0.4
300 km
200 km
0.2
Q1
PSIL
0.2
0.4
0.6
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.6
1.4
P2
PSIL
Figure 6.3. The reactive power demand at the beginning of the line
as function of the active power at the end of the line. (U1 = U2 , lossless
line)
If we split the voltage into real and imaginary parts, then we achieve
{U 1 } = U1 cos = U2 cos (l) + ZW sin (l)
{U 1 } = U1 sin = ZW sin (l)
Q2
U2
P2
U2
(6.30a)
(6.30b)
The real part of the above equation gives the following expression for the
reactive power at the end of the line:
Q2 =
(6.31)
(6.32)
(6.33)
Figure 6.3 shows the reactive power demand at the beginning of the line
according to the equation (6.33) for lines of different lengths as function of
the active power transmitted over the line.
Both the active and the reactive power can be related to the surge
impedance loading of the line, PSIL . If the active power at the end of the
line is smaller than the surge impedance loading of the line (P2 < PSIL ),
116
U1
P2 + jQ2
B
2
Pload + jQload
U2 0
B
2
the line can be regarded as a capacitance and generates at both line ends
reactive power. In case P2 > PSIL the line behaves like an inductance and
reactive power has to be supplied. Thus, high voltage transmission lines can
be operated with variable load and approximately constant voltages at both
line ends only when at both line ends sufficient sources of reactive power are
available.
6.5
In this section expressions for the voltage drop along a transmission line will
be derived for different power transfers.
We assume the model in figure 6.4. The parameters R, X and B will
be calculated from the distributed parameters of the line, R , L and C (G
is neglected in the following). At the receiving end of the line the complex
power Pload + jQload is delivered.
The shunt admittances, B/2, of the line model consist of the shunt capacitances, i.e. they deliver reactive power. We obtain the reactive power
flow through the series inductance for the right part of the model Q2 by
subtracting the reactive power, which is produced in the capacitive shunt
element B/2 from the inductive reactive load Qload . The transmitted active
power P2 corresponds to the active part of the load Pload . We thus get
P2 = Pload
(6.34a)
Q2 = Qload Qc
(6.34b)
S 2
P2 jQ2
=
U 2
U2
(6.35)
117
R + jX
U2 0
P2 + jQ2
Figure 6.5. Model of a transmission line for the computation of the
voltage drop.
U1
RP2
U2
I2
U2
RI 2
XP2
U2
jXI 2
RQ2
U2
XQ2
U2
(6.36)
(6.37)
A phasor diagram of these relations is shown in fig. 6.6. For a lossless line
with R = 0 equation (6.37) is simplified to
s
XQ2 2
XP2 2
+
(6.38)
U1 =
U2 +
U2
U2
This simplified equation between U 1 and U 2 is given for a lossless line as a
phasor diagram in fig. 6.7. For realistic cases XP2 /U2  U2 , therefore the
right part of the equation (6.38) can be neglected and we get
U1 U2 +
XQ2
U2
(6.39)
118
U1
j
jXI 2
XP2
U2
U2
I2
XQ2
U2
From fig. 6.7 it can be seen that the phase angle difference between the
two voltages on the first line is determined by the active power flow P2 , and
that the voltage (amplitude) difference U = U1 U2 is caused mainly by
the reactive power Q2 .
In the above investigations we assumed that voltage and powers are
known at the same end of the line. However, it is often so that the voltage
at one end of the line, e.g. at the generator end, and the powers at the
other end of the line, e.g. at the load, are given. In that case the equation
(6.37) is still valid, but now the voltage U1 is the known and U2 is the
unknown quantity. U2 can then be calculated from U1 , P2 and Q2 through
transformation of the equation (6.37).
6.6
=
=
=
=
0.031 /km
1.06 mH/km
11.9 nF/km
50 Hz
1
km
(6.40)
(6.41)
6.7. P U Diagram
119
(6.42)
The active power, which is consumed by the load at the end of the line
amounts to
U22
(420 kV)2
= 591 MW
=
ZW
298.5
(6.43)
(6.44)
(6.45)
(6.46)
6.7
In case too much power is consumed at the end of a high voltage transmission
line, a substantial voltage drop can arise along the power line. This can lead
to stability problems. Therefore the relation between delivered power and
voltage of a power line is of importance.
We are going to discuss this relation for a 300 km long, lossless overhead
line with = 0.0013 rad/km. The voltage at the beginning of the line is
fixed and amounts to 1.0 p.u., at the end of the line a power of P2 + jQ2
is delivered. From these data the current at the end of the line can be
calculated:
P2 jQ2
(6.47)
I2 =
U 2
If we could now put the equation (6.47) into the line equation (5.107a) with
x = 0, we get
U 1 = U 2 cos (l) + jZW I 2 sin (l) = U 2 cos (l) + jZW
P2 jQ2
sin (l)
U 2
(6.48)
120
1.0
0.98
stable
1.0
0.98
U2
U1
0.5
unstable
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
P2
PSIL
Figure 6.8. Voltage at the end of the line as function of the delivered
active power for different line loadings.
2
U 1 jZW P2 jQ
sin (l)
U
2
cos (l)
(6.49)
We will now examine this equation in more detail. The voltage at the end of
the line U 2 appears twice in the equation: once on the left side, and a second
time as complex conjugate on the right side. Since the complex voltage U 2
appears in different forms in equation (6.49) an analytic solution is not
easily obtainable. However U 2 can easily be calculated in an iterative way:
One begins with an initial value (usually 1 p.u. real) for U 2 and calculates
with this value the right side of (6.49). The complex conjugate of U 2 is
then inserted into the right side of the equation and a new estimate of
U 2 is calculated. One repeats this iteration until the complex voltage does
not change significantly anymore between two iterations, i.e. the result has
converged.
The figure 6.8 shows the voltage at the end of the line as function of the
delivered active power at the end of the line for different load cases. Because
of its form this representation is often called the nose curve of the power
line.
From figure 6.8 it is noticed that there exists a maximum transferable
active power, and that this limit is highly dependent on the power factor
of the load(cos ). Further, as shown in the figure 6.8, the power factor of
6.8. P Diagram
121
the load has a significant influence on the voltage at the end of the line at
the maximum transferable power. The maximum transferable active power
and the voltage at the end of the line are lower in the case of an inductive
power factor. For a capacitive power factor of the load, the voltage profile at
the upper range of the curve in figure 6.8 becomes flatter and the maximum
transferable active power larger. That means that the voltage at the end of
the line can be adjusted by additional capacitances at the end of the line
(= reactive shunt compensation).
Figure 6.8 shows also that an active power transfer below the maximum
transferable active power can be done theoretically at two different voltage levels. Normally the higher value is selected, with a voltage magnitude
around 1.0 p.u. For the lower voltage value, the current must be larger, so
that still the same amount of active power can be transferred over the line.
Thus the power losses in the line would increase and thus the line could come
closer to (or even exceed) its thermal limits. The operation of the line at the
lower voltages (below the dashed line in figure 6.8) can lead to transmission
instabilities.
6.8
(6.51)
(6.52a)
(6.52b)
122
(6.53)
= 1 2 is here the angle difference between the voltage at the beginning and the end of the line and is often referred to as the transmission
angle. The reactive power Q1 follows directly from the imaginary part of
equation (6.53):
Q1 = U12
1
1
U1 U2
cos
XL
XL
(6.54)
123
2.0
P2
PSIL
2.012
1.0
0.0
29.8
180
90
Transmission angle in
1.5
1.0
Um
U1
0.5
2.012
0.0
0.5
1.0
P2
PSIL
1.5
2.0
2.5
to 100% for stability reasons, but normally only to approx. 70% of this limit,
which in this case is 0.7 2.012 PSIL = 1.4084 PSIL .
The analysis in this chapter represents an idealized situation. The assumption that voltage amplitude at the end and the beginning of the line is
constant and independent of the line loading, is not always valid.
6.9
Pioneering work in this area was carried out by H. P. St. Clair [14], who
first derived the curves for load limits of high voltage transmission lines
from practical experiences, which subsequently were further elaborated by
other engineers.
High voltage transmission lines have certain loading limits. Fundamen
124
Pmax
1.0
Plimit
Pmax sin
P2
PSIL
0.0
29.8
180
90.0
Transmission angle in
tally the power lines are subject to three different limits originating from
different physical phenomena:
Thermal limit: If the temperature of the conductor gets too high due to
the resistive losses, this will lead to an increased sag of the power line
(see p. 78). An increased sag implies that the clearing distances to
objects on the ground, e.g. trees, decreases and the risk for flashovers
rises. High temperatures in power cables can lead to accelerated aging
of the insulation.
Voltage drop: For operational reasons and for reasons of power quality
the voltage at a bus should not deviate too much from the nominal
voltage (typically less than 10%).
Transmission angle: For stability reasons a certain transmission angle
should be not exceeded but a steady state stability margin should be
kept. This is defined as
steady state stability margin =
Pmax Plimit
100%
Pmax
(6.55)
125
3.0
2.5
Line
2.0
Pline
PSIL
1.5
1.0
0.5
2
160
3
320
480
640
800
960
Line length in km
Figure 6.11. Maximum active power loading as function of the line length.
6.10
Power cables
A threephase AC cable consists of three phase conductors, whereby a conductor usually consists of several twisted copper or aluminium wires. A highvoltage cable has at the outside of the metallic conductor, which is placed
in the center, an electric insulation consisting of either solid (e.g. a polymer), in layers solid/liquid (e.g. oilimpregnated paper4 ), or gaseous (e.g.
4
Instead of the oilimpregnated paper today also a light oil, under pressure, is used as
isolating medium, which decreases the creation of voids (places of partial discharges) and
thus the aging of the insulating medium.
126
=
=
=
75 m/km
0.35 mH/km
0.2 F/km
2
Unominal
(420 kV)2
=
= 4.2 GW
ZW
42
(6.57)
To transmit this power a phase current of I = 5774 A would be necessary. With a realistic conductor cross section of 500 mm2 this would imply
a current density of 11.5 A/mm2 and losses of 2.5 MW/km. These are values which are neither technically nor economically realistic. Based on the
possible heat dissipation and the economic optimization a nominal power
of approximately 500 MVA is realistic. The nominal phase current is then
approximately 700 A.
127
U
tanh l
ZW
(6.58)
(6.59)
The phase constant, , of the cable is about three times as large as of a typical overhead line of the same nominal voltage. The characteristic impedance
on the other hand is only approximately 1/10 of the surge impedance of a
comparable overhead line. If a value of 700 A is taken as limit of acceptable
current load, then the opencircuited cable (without compensation) may be
not much longer than approximately 50 km. This length can be determined
by means of equation (6.13b):
I1 =
jU2
sin (l) 3 790A
ZW
(6.60)
128
7
Symmetrical components in threephase
systems
In this chapter unbalanced operation conditions in threephase systems will
be investigated, which e.g. arise due to ground faults or shortcircuits. The
so called symmetrical components will be introduced in order to analyze unsymmetries in an efficient way. The influence of different ways of neutral
point grounding will also be discussed.
7.1
130
dangerous fault types in electrical power systems because of the high mechanical and thermal stresses due to the high short circuit currents through
different pieces of equipment. The short circuit current can be several times
higher than the normal load currents. They can cause substantial damage to
the equipment if this is not designed to withstand these stresses, and they
can also be a hazard to personnel.
By series faults one understands failures along the power line, that
causes undesirable interruptions or connections in the circuit. Examples of
series faults are if a conductor is disrupted or a breaker does not trip the
three phases as desired. Possible series faults in threephase systems are:
Singlephase disruption
Twophase disruption
Threephase disruption
Due to series faults asymmetrical operating conditions can occur, which
could damage the equipment. For example threephase asynchronous machines in twophase operation, after the loss of one phase, can be subject to
a high thermal loading which can in worst case lead to the destruction of
the machine.
During threephase shortcircuits/interruptions the symmetrical conditions remain, all other faults will imply unsymmetrical conditions. An efficient method for analyzing unsymmetrical conditions in multiphase systems
is by the so called symmetrical components, which consist in a mathematical transformation of the three physical phase quantities (RST) into a new
system with three new quantities called the positive, negative and zero sequence components. Through this coordinate transformation unsymmetrical
conditions can often be analyzed in a more efficient way.
7.2
Symmetrical components
A multiphase system with linear relationships between currents and voltages can generally be described by system matrices, e.g. the admittance and
the impedance matrices Y and Z. The voltages and the currents at a component, e.g. a generator, transformer, or consumer, are a linear function of
the voltages of the feeding generators in the system. A simple example will
clarify this.
A threephase generator feeds a delta connected load. The complex currents, magnitude and phase, can be calculated with the help of the admittance matrix from the complex generator voltages. For linear circuits we
have
I=Y E
(7.1)
131
Zl
IR
US
Zd
ES
Zl
IS
UT
Zd
Zd
ET
Zl
IT
IR =
(7.2a)
(7.2b)
(7.2c)
In these equations the phase voltages are given by the source voltages and
the phase currents
U R = ER Zl I R
(7.3a)
U S = ES Zl I S
(7.3b)
U T = ET Zl I T
(7.3c)
IR
2 1 1
ER
1
IS =
1
2 1 E S
(7.4)
3 Zl + Zd
IT
1 1
2
ET
 {z } 
{z
}  {z }
I
132
IR
ER
I S = E S
IT
ET

{z
}
(7.5)
cyclicly symmetric
(7.6)
The vector x does not change direction by multiplication with the matrix,
but its magnitude is only changed by a (scalar) factor . A further characteristic of the eigenvectors is that the matrix A can be diagonalized by the
transformation matrix T, whose columns are the eigenvectors of A:
D = T1 AT
(7.7)
Not all matrices can be diagonalized but normally the admittance matrix
Y of a threephase circuit can be diagonalized. If an admittance matrix
133
Symmetrical components
Eigenvectors
Eigenvalues
Positive sequence
x1 = a2
a
1 = + a2 + a
Negative sequence
Zero sequence
1
x2 = a
a2
2 = + a + a2
x0 = 1
1
0 = + +
is diagonal, this means that the currents in eq. (7.1) are each dependent
only on one voltage and independent of the others, and we have decoupled
singlephase systems.
1 + j 3
j120
=
(7.8a)
a=e
2
1 j 3
and a2 = ej240 =
(7.8b)
2
This complex constant is frequently used in calculations in threephase systems. It has a magnitude
a = ej120
=1
(7.9)
(7.10)
134
a2
1
a2
Figure 7.2. Eigenvectors of a cyclic symmetric matrix.
One should also mention that the eigenvectors in table 7.1 (contrary to
the eigenvalues) are not dependent on the elements , and of the cyclic
symmetric matrix. The eigenvectors can consequently be chosen as identical
for all cyclically symmetrical matrices and are thus suitable for calculations
in arbitrary threephase systems.
With
1
1
1
T = x1 x2 x0 = a2 a 1
(7.11)
a a2 1
the admittance matrix can be diagonalized:
Y1 0
1 0 0
0
Y 120 = T1 Y T = 0 2 0 = 0 Y 2 0
0 0 0
0
0 Y0
(7.12)
Hence and from the table 7.1 it is obvious that for = the positive and
negative sequence admittances are equal.
The voltage sources and current vectors E120 , I120 of the symmetrical
components are consequently
I120 = Y 120 E120
120
I
TI
120
= T
(7.13)
120
YTE
= Y T E120
E = ES
= T E 2 = T E120
ET
E0
(7.14)
(7.15)
(7.16)
(7.17)
With these relations and the equations (7.3a), (7.3b) and (7.3c) it can also
be shown that
135
U1
UR
U = U S = T U 2 = T U120
UT
U0
(7.18)
The matrix Y 120 is diagonal, i.e. there are no coupling impedances between the positive, negative and zero sequence systems, and the symmetrical
components are thus totally decoupled from each other. Therefore calculations are much more easily done in the 120 system. It should be noted that
the admittance matrices in the RST system and the corresponding one in
the 120 system contain the same information.
The basic steps for the analysis of threephase circuits with symmetrical
components have thus been explained. The transformations RST 120
and 120 RST are linear, where the backtransformation matrix T has as
columns the eigenvectors of the cyclically symmetric admittance matrix. The
eigenvectors could be multiplied with any scalar factor 6= 0, without losing
their particular characteristic. The choice of eigenvectors made here means
that elements of T have the magnitude 1, which implies that a symmetrical
threephase system quantity corresponds to a positive sequence quantity
of the same amplitude. This means that the transformation is amplitude
invariant. (Other choices of the magnitudes of the eigenvectors can e.g. result
in power invariant transformations.)
The transformation matrix S , which is used for the transformation RSTsystem 120system, is calculated as the inverse of T . The definition of
the eigenvectors having elements of magnitude 1 results in the fact that all
elements of the matrix S have the magnitude 1/3.
1 1 1
T = a2 a 1
a a2 1
S = T 1
1 a a2
1
= 1 a2 a
3
1 1 1
(7.19)
The transformation between the RST and 120 systems and of the corresponding backtransformation can be summarized in one equation. Thereby
Y = T Y 120 S
is used in (7.1) resulting in:
(7.20)
136
IR
I S =
IT
1
= a2
a

ER
ES =
(7.21)
ET
1 1
Y1 0
0
1 a a2
ER
1
a 1 0 Y 2 0 1 a2 a E S
3
0
0 Y0
a2 1
1 1 1
ET

{z
}
First step: Transformation
{z
{z
}
}
The expansion of this equation from right to left corresponds to the following
steps:
1. Transformation (RST 120) by multiplication with S (This step is
sometimes called symmetrization.)
2. Calculation in the 120system by use of the diagonal admittance matrix
Y 120
3. Transformation (120 RST) by multiplication with T (This step is
sometimes called desymmetrization.)
As an overview the formulae, which are needed for the above transformations, are given in eq. (7.22).
RST
I
U
E
Y
I
=
=
=
=
120
T
T
T
T
I120
U120
E120
Y120 S
= YE
I120
U120
E120
Y120
I120
=
=
=
=
S
S
S
S
I
U
E
YT
= Y 120 E120
(7.22)
137
We consider now the calculation of the phase voltages of the RST system
from the phase voltages of the symmetrical components in order to get a
better understanding of the positive, negative and zero sequence systems.
UR = U1 + U2 + U0
(7.23a)
U S = a2 U 1 + a U 2 + U 0
(7.23b)
UT = a U1 + a U2 + U0
Positive sequence system
system are
(7.23c)
(7.24a)
U 1S
U 1T
(7.24b)
= a U1
(7.24c)
= a U1
U 1T
a
a2
U 1R
U 1S
138
(7.25a)
U 2S = a U 2
(7.25b)
U 2T
= a U2
(7.25c)
U 2S
a
U 2R
a2
U 2T
(7.26a)
U 0S
U 0T
= U0
(7.26b)
= U0
(7.26c)
139
U 0R = U 0S = U 0T
Even if a positive sequence system is the dominating one, the phase voltage phasors become unequal due to the zero sequence system. Zero sequence
system currents can only flow through the neutrals of the wye connections,
and are always zero if such a return path does not exist. Contrary to positive
and negative sequence systems, the grounding of the neutrals is therefore of
critical importance for the zero sequence system. The impedances Z 0 = Y 1
0
of the lines and transformers in the zero sequence system are generally bigger than in the positive and negative sequence systems.
It must always be clearly stated whether the components are expressed
in RST or in the symmetrical component system. From eq. (7.23a) it is seen
that the corresponding phasors of the symmetrical component system can
be added vectorially when transforming from the 120 system to the RST
system. For the systems in the figures 7.3, 7.4 and 7.5 this is shown in the
figure 7.6.
U 1T
U 2T
U 0T
U 0S
U 2S
UT
US
UR
U 1R
U 0R
U 2R
U 1S
Figure 7.6. Change from symmetrical component system to the RST system.
140
7.3
(7.27)
We will now express the complex power using the symmetrical components
of the threephase system. For the currents and the voltages in the RST
system we can use the vectors in the 120 system multiplied by the matrix
T:
U = T U120
I = TI
120
(7.28)
(7.29)
(7.30)
3E
(7.31)
where E represents the identity matrix. Thus the equation (7.30) gives
T
S = 3 U120 I120 =
= 3 (U 1 I 1 + U 2 I 2 + U 0 I 0 )
(7.32)
Due to the choice of the eigenvectors and the T matrix a factor 3 arises
between the expressions of the powers in the RST and symmetrical component systems. The symmetrical three phase system is transformed into a
positive sequence system of the same amplitude, i.e. the phasors of the 120
system can be just added vectorially, in order to obtain the values in the
RST system, as done in figure 7.6. Therefore the transformation used here
is called amplitude invariant. Generally the conversion of the powers is quite
straightforward, because each element of the RST system carries exactly the
triple power as compared with its equivalent in the symmetrical component
system.
The reason for this factor 3 can also be explained as follows. In section
7.2 we saw that the phase voltages in the RST system consist each one
141
(7.33)
Since the voltage U 1R and the related current I 1R arise from the same phase
angle shift U 1 , and I 1 respectively, the product is the same as from U 1 I 1 .
The same applies for the second and third term of the right side of (7.33).
If the same is done for the S and T phases, we see that
U R I R + U S I S + U T I T = 3 U 1 I 1 + 3 U 2 I 2 + 3 U 0 I 0
(7.34)
From these considerations it should be clear that in each phase of the RST
system positive, negative, and zero sequence currents flow as well. Since
these differ only by phase shifts, they can be calculated from single positive,
negative, and zero sequence systems.
We have already mentioned that the used positive sequence transformation is amplitude invariant. One can also define a power invariant transformation between the two systems. The transformation and back transformation matrices differ from those in (7.19) by a scalar factor. For the power
invariant transformation one has
(7.35)
S = U 1P I 1P + U 2P I 2P + U 0P I 0P =
= (SP U)T (SP I)
T
= 3 (S U) (S I)
(7.36)
(7.37)
SP = 3 S
(7.38)
and the back transformation matrix is
1
TP = T
(7.39)
3
This means that the transformation matrix of the power invariant transformation correspondsto that of the amplitude invariant transformation
multiplied by a factor 3 and the back transformation matrix to that of the
amplitude invariant transformation multiplied by a factor 13 . Consequently
U 120
=
3 U120
(7.40)
P
120
120
IP
=
3I
(7.41)
For the calculation of the phasors in the RST system from those in the 120
system of the power invariant transformation, the amplitudes of the 120
phasors must be multiplied first by 13 and then they can be added.
In the following sections we will use the amplitude invariant transformation.
142
7.4
7.4.1
The starting point is the Thevenin equivalent of a three phase power system
in figure 7.7. Here Z S are the self impedances of the threephase system and
Z M are the mutual impedances.
Z1
ER
ZS
IR
~
ES
ZS
ZM
~
ZS
UR
Z2
US
E2
ZM
IT
U1
ZM
IS
ET
E1
I1
I2
U2
UT
Z0
ZE
I0
IR + IS + IT
E0
U0
(7.42)
ER
ZS + ZE
E S = Z M + Z E
ET
ZM + ZE
ZM + ZE
ZS + ZE
ZM + ZE
ZM + ZE
IR
UR
Z M + Z E I S + U S (7.43)
ZS + ZE
IT
UT
143
With the aid of (7.22) this can be transformed into the 120 system:
E1
Z1
0
0
I1
U1
E 2 = 0 Z 2
0
I 2 + U 2
(7.44)
E0
0
0 Z0
I0
U0
Positive sequence system The circuit of the positive sequence system corresponds to the singlephase equivalent circuit of the balanced three phase
system. The voltage of the generator in the positive sequence system, which
is equal to the voltage E R of a symmetrically operated generator, feeds
the circuit. The impedances of the positive sequence system are included
with their impedances Z 1 . It should be noted that the Z 1 is independent
from neutral to ground impedance Z E . For the positive sequence system the
grounding of the neutrals is irrelevant, since the sum of the currents is zero.
Delta connected elements must be transformed into wye connections. In the
symmetrical, threephase circuit all neutral points have the same potential,
it does not matter whether they are connected or not. In the equivalent
circuit of the positive sequence all neutral points can thus be regarded as
connected with each other.
Negative sequence system The equivalent circuit of the negative sequence
system is fundamentally derived analogously to the positive sequence system.
However the voltage source component of the generator voltage is zero, so
that usually no supply voltage exists in the circuit. In the passive part of
the network the impedances Z 2 , are equal to Z 1 . Hence, the neutral point
grounding has likewise no influence on the negative sequence system. In the
equivalent circuit of the negative sequence system, delta wye transformations
must be done and all neutral points must be connected to each other.
Zero sequence system The zero sequence system is fed by the zero sequence component of the generator voltage, which is zero for symmetrical
generators. The zero sequence impedances Z 0 of the passive elements, which
generally differ from the positive and negative sequence system impedances,
144
US
UT
ET = a ER
ER
E1
1 a a2
ER
1
E 2 = 1 a2 a a2 E R = 0
3
E0
1 1 1
a ER
0
(7.45)
(7.46)
(7.47)
The generator voltages in the negative and in zero sequence systems are thus
zero. In figure 7.9 the resulting equivalent circuits are given.
7.4.2
As pointed out already several times, the treatment of the neutral point is
very important. So far we have assumed that the generator neutral point is
grounded through an impedance Z E , but this is not always the case. In figure
145
I1
U1
Z2
I2
U2
Z0
I0
U0
7.10, a three phase system, whose generator neutral point is not grounded,
is shown.
In the preceding sections, it was already mentioned that for a system as
in figure 7.10 no zero sequence current can flow. But what does this actually
mean? In figure 7.10 the corresponding 120 system is given. The positive and
negative sequence systems remain unchanged. However, in the zero sequence
system the ground connection is interrupted. Thus no current can flow there.
One could also regard the zero sequence impedance Z 0 as infinitely large,
which has the same effect as the circuit interruption.
146
ER
E1
ZS
I1
U1
UR
~
ES
Z2
ZS
I2
US
~
ET
U2
ZS
UT
Z0
I0
U0
7.4.3
(7.48)
7.4.4
Transformers
Transformers are very important for the analysis using symmetrical components and for the neutral point grounding of systems. Foremost the zero se
147
E1
ZS
Z 2,S
ZS
U1
I2
US
~
ET
Z 1,L
UR
~
ES
I1
Z 2,L
U2
ZS
ZL
ZL
UT
Z 0,S
ZL
Z 0,L
I0
U0
148
Primary side
Nr.
Secondary side
Z T 0 + 3 Z Ep + Z Es
1
S
T
Z Ep
Z Es
ZT 0 3 5 Z1
ZT 0
2
ZT 0 Z1
R
ZT 0
S
3Z Ep
S
T
Z Ep
ZT 0 Z1
Figure 7.12. Zero sequence impedance of different three phase transformer connections.
149
ZS
~
ES
Transformer
Z T1 , Z T2 , Z T0
Z Es
ZS
UR
US
~
ET
ZS
UT
ZL
ZL
ZL
7.5
7.5.1
If the neutral point of the feeding system is grounded with a low impedance, then
one speaks also of ground shortcircuit. In case that different phases have ground contact
at different places, then depending upon the number of affected phases one has a double
or triple ground fault. Another type of fault is the twophase shortcircuit with earth
contact, which occurs if two phases have contact with the ground at the same location
and are shortcircuited.
150
E1
Z T1
I1
Z 1,L
Z 1,S
U1
Z T2
I2
U2
Z 2,L
Z 0,S
Z 0,L
Z T0
I0
3Z Es
U0
overhead line has fallen down and touches the ground, or that a tree has
come in contact with one of the conductors. The singlephase ground fault
is the most frequent contingency in transmission grids. In highvoltage transmission grids with nominal voltages higher than 130 kV this fault constitutes
about 80% of all disturbances. Depending upon the type of disturbance the
fault resistance between the phase and the ground can vary significantly.
Generally each connection between a single phase and the ground can be
considered as singlephase unbalance, thus e.g. also a singlephase load.
The starting point of the analysis is the symmetrical grid on figure 7.8. In
case of a fault the grid is loaded additionally by a fault resistance R between
a phase and the ground (Figure 7.15). Thus an unsymmetrical system of
currents and voltages will occur, which with the use of the three symmetrical
components can be analyzed. The left side corresponds to the symmetrical
system, the right side represents the faulted part of the grid with a fault
resistance, R, between the phase R and the ground.
For the analysis of the unsymmetrical part of the circuit we will use
the right part of the circuit in figure 7.15. The unbalanced conditions will be
described as relations between the voltages U R , U S , U T and the currents I R ,
I S , I T , at the fault location. In order to describe the unbalance completely,
three equations are needed, which contain the six quantities or some of them.
151
E1
E2 = E0 = 0
Z 1, Z 2, Z 0
IR
UR
IS
US
If
IT
UT
(7.49a)
IS = 0
(7.49b)
IT = 0
(7.49c)
a I1 + a I2 + I0 = 0
a I 1 + a2 I 2 + I 0 = 0
(7.50a)
(7.50b)
(7.50c)
(7.52)
R 3 I1 = U 1 + U 2 + U 0
(7.53)
152
Positive sequenceE 1
I1
U1
Z2
I2
Negative sequence
U2
Z0
Zero sequence
3R
I0
U0
of the voltages of the three sequence systems equals the voltage drop over the
resistance 3R caused by the identical sequence currents. From the equivalent
circuit of the symmetrical components the identical currents of the three
symmetric component currents can now be calculated:
I1 = I2 = I0 =
E1
Z 1 + Z 2 + Z 0 + 3R
(7.54)
153
From the circuit in figure 7.16 the fault voltages can also be calculated.
One obtains
U 1 = E1 Z1I 1 = E1 E1
Z1
Z 1 + Z 2 + Z 0 + 3R
(7.58a)
U 2 = Z 2 I 2 = E 1
Z2
Z 1 + Z 2 + Z 0 + 3R
(7.58b)
U 0 = Z 0 I 0 = E 1
Z0
Z 1 + Z 2 + Z 0 + 3R
(7.58c)
From these equations the phase voltages of the RST system can be calculated. It is assumed that in the used threephase system = applies (see
section 7.2), so that Z 1 = Z 2 . We now introduce Z:
Z1 = Z2 = Z
(7.59)
By means of equations (7.58a), (7.58b) and (7.58c) the phase voltages at the
fault location are calculated as
U R = U 1 + U 2 + U 0 = ER
3R
2Z + Z 0 + 3R
(7.60a)
U S = a2 U 1 + aU 2 + U 0 = E S E R
Z0 Z
2Z + Z 0 + 3R
(7.60b)
U T = aU 1 + a2 U 2 + U 0 = E T E R
Z0 Z
2Z + Z 0 + 3R
(7.60c)
From these equations one can easily recognize that the zero sequence impedance of the system has a substantial influence on the voltage of thehealthy,
i.e. unfaulted, phases (in this case phases S and T). Two cases will be discussed below.
First we assume that the neutral point is solidly grounded, i.e. no impedance in the ground connection, and that the line is short, whereby the
zero sequence impedance Z 0 is equal to the positive sequence impedance Z 1
and the negative sequence impedance Z 2 . A further simplifying assumption
comes from the fact that the fault resistance R is very low, which is the
case for solid shortcircuits. With these assumptions (Z 0 = Z and R = 0)
equations (7.60a), (7.60b) and (7.60c) become
UR = 0
(7.61a)
U S = ES
(7.61b)
U T = ET
(7.61c)
154
ET
ET
UT
ER
ER
UR
US
ES
UR
US
ES
Figure 7.17. The three phase voltages during a single line to ground
fault. Left part: Z 0 = Z and R = 0. Right part: Z 0 = und R = 0.
(The dashed lines show the voltages prior to the fault, and the solid
lines the voltage phasors during the fault)
This means that with a ground fault in a system with solidly grounded neutral point, the voltages in the healthy phases are not affected. In a realistic
system with a solidly grounded neutral point some of the above assumption
might not be valid, but still the voltages in the unfaulted phases are affected
marginally.
The second case which is going to be investigated is the case of an ungrounded (isolated) neutral point (Z 0 = ). Thus the above equations
change to
UR = 0
(7.62a)
U S = ES ER
(7.62b)
U T = ET ER
(7.62c)
From the result one sees that with a singlephase to ground fault in a system
with ungrounded
neutral point the voltages of the healthy phases increases
with the factor 3. The figure 7.17 shows the voltages for both cases.
Unbalances of the sources, i.e. the generators, imply sources in the negative and zero sequence systems, in addition to the (desired) one in the
positive sequence system. Unbalances in the passive part of the system, i.e.
in impedances, loads, or faults, are considered by connections (couplings)
between the three equivalent circuits of the 120 system. It should be remembered that in a completely symmetrical (balanced) system the equivalent circuits of the symmetrical components are completely uncoupled. In
the above regarded case of a single phase fault in phase R, the introduced
unbalance, as given by equations (7.52) and (7.53), can be imposed by connecting the three circuits of the symmetrical components in series so that
the three currents I 1 , I 2 , and I 0 are equal. The value of the fault resistance
R must be multiplied by three in order to fulfill eq. (7.53).
From the three values in the 120 system, e.g. voltages U 1 , U 2 and U 0 ,
the corresponding values in the RST system, magnitude and phase, can be
155
UR
US = T
UT
the T matrix
U1 + U2 + U0
U1
U 2 = a2 U 1 + aU 2 + U 0
U0
aU 1 + a2 U 2 + U 0
(7.63)
7.5.2
As a further unsymmetrical fault we will consider the twophase shortcircuit, i.e. a low ohmic connection between two phases. If a ground contact
does also exist, then one speaks of twophase ground fault.
We consider now a twophase shortcircuit without earth contact. The
circuit in figure 7.18 shows the asymmetrical fault with resistance R between
the phases S and T. Due to this fault unbalanced currents and voltages will
arise in the system.
E1
E2 = E0 = 0
Z 1, Z 2, Z 0
IR
UR
IS
US
IT
UT
If
R
Figure 7.18. RST equivalent circuit of a twophase shortcircuit without ground contact.
The assumption that the fault takes place between the phases S and T
simplifies the calculation compared with the other two possibilities. They
156
differ however only in phase shifts a and a2 , respectively. As in a singlephase ground fault, in case of a shortcircuit between the phases R and S or
R and T, the phases can also here be renamed.
With a resistance between the phases S and T the unsymmetrical conditions in the RST system are given by:
IR = 0
(7.64a)
I S = I T
(7.64b)
U S U T = R IS
(7.64c)
a I 1 + aI 2 + I 0 = aI 1 + a I 2 + I 0
a U 1 + aU 2 + U 0 aU 1 + a2 U 2 + U 0 = R a2 I 1 + aI 2 + I 0
2
(7.65a)
(7.65b)
(7.65c)
I 0 = I 1 I 2
(7.66)
(7.67)
(7.68)
One could have written the latter equation directly, because a zero sequence
current always flows through a possible connection between the neutral point
and the ground. In the case of a twophase shortcircuit there is no closed
current loop through the neutral point and the fault impedance. The current
paths I R , I S and I T do not have any possibility (in contrast with the singlephase failure case) to get closed through the ground and therefore they
do not contain any zero sequence component. The above properties of the
symmetrical component currents can now be used in eq. (7.65c) together
with the properties of the constant a giving:
I0 = 0
(7.69a)
I 1 = I 2
(7.69b)
U 1 U 2 = R I1
(7.69c)
157
Positive sequence E 1
I1
U1
R
Z2
I2
Negative sequence
U2
Z0
I0
Zero sequence
U0
I 1 = I 2 =
E1
Z1 + Z2 + R
(7.70)
with
1
E 1 = (E R + aE S + a2 E T ) = E R
3
(7.71)
158
= I S = a2 I 1 + a I 2 + I 0
= (a2 a) I 1 = (a2 a)
= j 3
7.5.3
(7.72)
E1
Z1 + Z2 + R
ER
Z1 + Z2 + R
(7.73)
(7.74)
Threephase shortcircuit
Contrary to the fault situations described above, the threephase shortcircuit is symmetrical in all phases, if we assume the same fault resistance
in the three phases. The figure 7.20 shows the faulted circuit in the RSTsystem.
E1
E2 = E0 = 0
Z 1, Z 2, Z 0
IR
UR
IS
US
IT
UT
This kind of shortcircuit arises very rarely, but normally causes the
highest short circuit currents (and thus the highest thermal and mechanical
stresses) and is used as worst case scenario in shortcircuit computations.
In the here considered example, it is assumed that a fault resistance R exists
between the phases and the ground. As symmetrical conditions do prevail,
the currents and the voltages in case of the threephase shortcircuit with
ground contact do not differ from the case without earth contact. (The
point, at which the resistances R in figure 7.20 are connected together and
grounded, would have zero voltage even without connection to the ground.)
For the voltages and currents in the RST system applies
U R = R IR
(7.75)
U S = R IS
(7.76)
U T = R IT
(7.77)
159
Positive sequence E 1
I1
Z2
U2
U0
I2
Negative sequence
Z0
U1
I0
Zero sequence
(7.78)
U 2 = R I2
(7.79)
U 0 = R I0
(7.80)
ER
Z1 + R
a2 E R
Z1 + R
aE R
Z1 + R
(7.81)
(7.82)
(7.83)
Comparing with (7.57) one can see that if the positive, negative and zero
sequence impedances all are equal, the same fault current as in the case of
160
the singlephase ground fault results, i.e. I f = I R . Since the system in this
case is balanced also during the fault, no zero sequence current flows through
the neutral points.
7.6
Resonant Grounding
There are certain advantages with an electric power system , which has
ungrounded neutral points when singlephase to ground faults occur: Since
no return path for the shortcircuit current exists no fault current will flow
(see equation (7.57)). This can also be seen in the equivalent circuit in figure
7.16, whose zero sequence system would be open if the neutral points are
left ungrounded. Thus, besides I 0 also I 2 vanishes, i.e. the currents remain
symmetrical since only the positive sequence system is active. However, the
phase voltages become unsymmetric. Due to the fact that one phase is forced
to ground potential by the fault,
the voltages of the two other phases increase
relative to ground by the factor 3 (see equations (7.62a)(7.62c) and figure
7.17). Medium voltage grids are usually operated ungrounded in Switzerland.
If the grid has a small geographic size the shortcircuit current is also small
and the corresponding arc at the overhead line insulator is often extinguished
automatically. The voltage increases for the healthy phases are acceptable
and are also used as a detection of singlephase to ground faults. Different
countries have different philosophies and practices concerning grounding of
low and medium voltage grids.
In an electric power system with grounded or lowohmic grounded neutrals a singlephase to ground fault implies a large shortcircuit current,
possibly causing damages, and requires isolation of the fault e.g. through
line tripping. All electric power systems with power lines or cables are actually grounded, if not over a direct connection (i.e. grounded neutrals) then
over the shunt capacities between the power lines and ground. Since high
and extrahigh voltage grids usually cannot withstand the voltage increases
incurred by singleline to ground faults in ungrounded systems, the neutrals
in these grids must be grounded through lowohmic impedances. As a consequence, the high fault currents caused by a singlephase to ground fault
has to be extinguished by action of protections and circuit breakers through
tripping of lines or other pieces of equipment where the fault actually occurs.
In circuits with low ohmic neutral grounding connections (effectively
grounded) the neutrals of individual or all transformers are in practice
grounded either directly or over a low ohmic impedance. The cost for the
lower shortcircuit currents in ungrounded or high impedance grounded grids
is the voltage increase in the unfaulted phases in connection with singleline
to ground faults. The insulation has to withstand these higher voltages. The
following three options are the ones used in practice in low and medium
voltage grids:
161
The neutrals of all transformers are grounded directly. In this case the
highest shortcircuit currents occur.
Only selected neutrals are grounded directly. The other neutrals are
ungrounded.
In order to decrease the shortcircuit current in the case of singlephase to ground faults the neutral points are not grounded directly,
but through impedances.
Figure 7.22 shows a symmetrical threephase power transmission system
with ungrounded neutral. The capacitances represent the (identical) capacitances between the conductors of the power line and ground. A singlephase
UR
R
IR
IS
S
IS
IT
IR
N (G)
UT
IT
US
CE
Figure 7.22. The power system in balanced operation; The capacitances CE corresponds to the capacitances between the conductors and
ground.
to ground fault on any phase will result in an unbalanced situation. For the
following considerations it is assumed that the singlephase to ground fault
appears on the phase R, as shown in figure 7.23. Additionally it is supposed
that the fault resistance is zero, so that the faulty phase is at ground potential at the fault location. This shift of the ungrounded neutral affects of
course also the two other phases S and T (see the voltage phasor
diagram in
162
If
R
G
S
IS
IS
N
T
IT
If
IT
U TR
U SR
CE
IS + IT
~
ES
~
ER
LP
~
CE
with 2 . Thus the two current contributions in the arc are phase shifted by
with respect to each other and by a suitable choice of the inductance
of the Petersen coil they will cancel out, resulting in a zero fault current.
The size of the Petersen coil must thus be selected in such a way that it
forms a parallel circuit together with the ground capacitances, which is in
resonance at the grid frequency. In this case no current can flow through the
zero sequence system and, consequently, not through the fault resistance R
in the ideal case, either.
In reality a small current will flow through the ground fault despite the
Petersen coil, since the real, not ideal coil has a resistance in addition to
the inductance. Furthermore, shunt resistances do exist in the grid, whereby
both the inductive and the capacitive currents are not purely reactive cur
163
rents and the capacitive and inductive currents are not exactly phaseshifted
by . Thus, the resonant circuit does not block the current completely, but
a small resistive current remains. This resistive current lies in real systems
in the order of magnitude of 3 to 10% of the uncompensated ground fault
current. This current is usually too small to maintain an arc for singlephase
to ground faults, which are as already mentioned the most common type of
faults in power systems.
The inductance of the neutral point connection LP , as will be derived
in the next section, must fulfill
LP =
1
3 2 CE
(7.84)
Since only a small shortcircuit current flows through the fault, the power grid can thus
be operated for longer time with the ground fault without incurring any severe damages.
164
Z1
ET
E1
1
jCE
ES
I 2f
Z2
~
1
jCE
ER
LP
Z0
I 0f
CE
3jLP
U 0f
1
jCE
120
RST
1
jCE
(7.85)
1
3jLP jC
1
3jLP
E
=
=
1
jCE
3 2 LP CE + 1
3jLP + jCE
(7.86)
I 1f = I 2f = I 0f = 0
(7.87)
U 0f
1 3 2 LP CE !
= U 0f
=0
Z total
3jLP
(7.88)
The fault current vanishes if the numerator in equation (7.88) is zero. Consequently the inductance of the Petersen coil should be
LP =
3
1
3 2 CE
(7.89)
Of course one could formulate a condition for the blocking fault current: In resonance
the total impedance the fault current sees becomes infinitely large, i.e. the denominator
in equation (7.86) should be zero. From this one obtains the same result.
165
U1
Linear network
U2
Y1
y1
y2
Y2
166
Y1 = 0
U 1 = E(6= 0) U 2 6= 0
Y2 =0
(7.90)
U 2 = E(6= 0) U 1 6= 0
This means that, if the admittance is zero for one location, it will also be
zero for all other locations fulfilling the above, i.e. in practice at all locations
in the system.
To prove this we start with the calculation of the admittances Y 1 and
Y 2 of the circuit in figure 7.27:
y 1 + y 2 + z y 1 y2
1
=
z + 1/y 2
1 + z y2
y 1 + y 2 + z y 1 y2
1
Y 2 = y2 +
=
z + 1/y 1
1 + z y1
Y 1 = y1 +
(7.91a)
(7.91b)
A voltage applied at port 1 and port 2, respectively, will then give rise to
the following voltages at the other port, which are nonzero according to the
above stated conditions. This yields
E
6 0
=
1 + z y2
1
6 0
=
1 + z y2
U1 = E U2 =
E
6 0
=
1 + z y1
1
6 0
=
1 + z y1
(7.92a)
U2 = E U1 =
(7.92b)
167
this means that admittance in equation (7.91a), i.e. the admittance between
a phase and ground, which can be written as
Y1 =
y1 + y 2 + z y 1 y 2
=0
1 + z y2
(7.93)
(7.94)
Comparing this result with the expression for the admittance at location 2
in equation (7.91b), we see directly that
Y2 =
y1 + y 2 + z y 1 y 2
=0
1 + z y1
since
y 1 + y 2 + z y1 y 2 = 0 and
(7.95)
1
6= 0
1 + z y1
This means that the admittance at location 2 also is also equal to zero,
and thus for a linear passive power system with resonant grounding the
impedances between a phase and ground at all locations of system are the
same and consequently infinite.
In a real system where the losses are considered as well, the admittance
will not be identically zero. Furthermore, switching actions in the grid will
change the total capacitance, and the resonant circuit will in practice be
detuned. The compensation is sufficient, however, to keep the ground fault
currents to relative small values (e.g. 50 A for medium voltage level) so that
equipment will not be destroyed and system operation could be maintained
during singlephase to ground faults.
168
Appendix A
Zero sequence impedance of transformers
The zero sequence impedance in a threephase system is generally defined as
the ratio between phase voltages and phase currents when all three phases
are connected, see figure A.1. For the system in figure A.1 the zero sequence
impedance is thus defined as
Z0 =
U0
I0
(A.1)
I0
Phase R
I0
Phase S
I0
Phase T
3ph. System
U0
3I 0 neutral conductor
Figure A.1. Equivalent for the zero sequence impedance of a threephase system.
169
170
Limbs
Secondary winding
secondary) are wye connected is considered. The three equal voltages in the
three phases will cause three equal magnetic fluxes in all three limbs of the
transformer. These flows add to nonzero in the yoke. As return path this
resulting flux needs a magnetic connection outside the windings of the three
phases. In transformers with additional limbs, these will provide the return
path, and an example is given in figure A.2 where a five limb transformer is
shown.
In a three limb transformer there exists no return path in the iron core
for the magnetic flux. The return flux must thus flow outside the iron core,
i.e. through the air and transformer tank. Such a return path has a high
reluctance, which implies that a high magnetizing current is needed to drive
the flux. Hence it follows that the zero impedance of a three limb threephase transformer is relatively low. If a three limb transformer is fed by a
zero current of the amount of the nominal current, then the zero voltage lies
normally in the range 60. . . 100 % of the nominal voltage.
In a five limb transformer a return path is possible via the side limbs.
As these side limbs are practically reluctance free in unsaturated conditions,
even small currents will create a considerable voltage between the phase
conductors and the neutral. The voltage and current quotient reaches very
high values, i.e. the zero sequence impedance of the transformer is very
large. For large zero currents, saturation appears in the side limbs whereby
the reluctance decreases. Thus the voltage and current quotient decreases,
the zero sequence impedance is thus not constant.
If the transformer has delta connected windings, then these represent a
shortcircuit path for the induced zero voltage (see figure A.3). A counter
current will be induced which will correspond to the current in the wye connected windings. The total zero impedance of such a transformer connection
consists of two components:
1. The zero impedance of the wye connected winding without the delta
171
U0
U0
Figure A.3. Wye and delta connected windings. For the wye connection the zero voltages in the three phases add themselves to zero and
can be regarded as shortcircuited.
winding, plus
2. The mutual impedance between the two windings.
Figure 7.12 shows the zero impedances for different transformer connections. The value of the zero impedance Z 0 is not the same for all connections
no. 13. For wyewye configurations like in no. 1 the zero impedance is essentially dependent on the existence of the magnetic return path and on the
grounding impedances. For the case no. 1 the zero impedance consists of the
grounding impedances together plus the impedance between the two windings (the leakage reactance Z ). Since the triple zero current flows through
the neutral points impedances, these must be multiplied by three in the zero
sequence scheme. In case no. 2 no zero currents flow in the windings because
all three connection points R, S and T have the same zero voltage U 0 . Thus
the zero impedance becomes infinitely high. For connection no. 3 the zero
impedance results again from the coupling of the leakage fluxes and the neutral point impedance of the primary winding. This applies also to the case
when the primary and secondary windings are reversed.
172
Appendix B
Zero sequence impedance of overhead
lines
The basic equations for the calculation of the zero impedance of overhead
lines can be found in [20, 21, 22]. The derivation of these equations is relatively complex and will not be discussed here in detail. Instead the fundamental effects will be qualitatively discussed and some important results
will be highlighted.
B.1
We consider the circuit with ground return shown in the figure B.1. The
conductor with diameter 2r runs parallel to the earths surface level (y = 0)
at the height of y = h. For the resistivity of the ground an effective average
value can be assumed. The zero current I 0 in the conductor returns through
the ground, and accordingly a certain current density distribution arises.
Now one can assume that the ground return current is a concentrated current
at the depth y = . This equivalent depth of the return current depends
on the frequency and on the resistivity of the ground:
=
y
3.42
0
I0
(B.1)
2r
h
U0
0
173
174
Type of
ground
in m
in m
Moor
land
30
510
Clay and
farm land
100
930
Wet
sand
200
1320
Dry
sand or gravel
1000
2940
Stony
land
3000
5100
0
0
+j
8
2
ln
r
+
r
4
(B.2)
0
2
0
2
r
4
175
B.2
(B.3a)
(B.3b)
U 0 = I 0 Z 0T R + I 0 Z 0T S + I 0 Z 0T T
(B.3c)
(B.3d)
0
0
+ j
ln
8
2 dnm
(B.4)
Here Z nm is the mutual impedance per length unit between the phases n and
m; dnm is the distance between the conductors. Thus the zero impedance
(per length unit) of a threephase overhead line without ground wire results
to
0
0
Z 0 = R0 + jX0 = R + 3
+ j
3 ln
+
(B.5)
3
8
2
4
rD 2
where D is the geometric average distance between the three phases.
Zero sequence impedance with ground wire If the power line has ground
wire(s), then the coupling impedance between the phase conductors and the
ground wire needs also to be taken into account. Appropriate equations are
given in [23].
1
Primarily ground wires serve as shielding for lightning. Apart from that, however,
they still perform other tasks: Through the ground wire a parallel connection of the tower
grounding is established, which can lead to improved grounding conditions. In addition a
ground wire reduces the magnetic field from the line.
176
I0
I0
I0
U0
3I 0
IS
I0
I0
I0
U0
3I 0
IE
Figure B.2. Threephase overhead line without (upper part) and with
(lower part) ground wire.
177
Table B.2. Typical values for the positive and zero sequence
impedances of high voltage overhead power lines, one three phase system per tower, one ground wire [23].
Voltage
(kV)
110
220
380
Bundle
conductor
no
2
4
Positive sequence
Z 1 in /km
0.12 + j0.39
0.06 + j0.30
0.03 + j0.26
Zero sequence
Z 0 in /km
0.31 + j1.38
0.16 + j0.98
0.13 + j0.91
Apart from the existence of a ground wire, the zero impedance of a line
is determined particularly by the tower design, i.e. geometrical configuration
of the phase conductors and the ground wires at the tower and number of
threephase lines on the tower, and the conductivity of the ground. Table B.2
gives some typical values for zero sequence impedances of overhead lines.
178
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180
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