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2011/12 Edition

EXAMPLE 9.2 Part I


PCI Bridge Design Manual
BULB T (BT-72)
THREE SPANS, COMPOSITE DECK
LRFD SPECIFICATIONS
MaterialscopyrightedbyPrecast/PrestressedConcreteInstitute,2011.Allrightsreserved.Unauthorizedduplicationofthe materialor
presentationprohibited.

BRIDGE LAYOUT - Longitudinal

Continuous for Live Load

2011/12 Edition

BRIDGE LAYOUT Cross Section

DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS

LRFD 5th Edition (2010)


HL-93 Truck Loading
No Skew
Composite Deck

2011/12 Edition

DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS
Concrete:
fc = 7.0 ksi @ 28 days
fci = 5.5 ksi @ release
wc = 0.150 kcf
Ecb = 33000w1.5 (fc)0.5 (LRFD 5.4.2.4)
= 33000(0.150)1.5(7.0)0.5 = 5072 ksi

Prestressing Steel:
GR 270 (fpu = 270 ksi; fpy = 243 ksi)
strand (Ap = 0.153 in2 / strand)
Ep = 28500 ksi

DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS

Mild Steel
GR 60 (fy = 60 ksi)
Es = 29000 ksi

Future Wearing Surface


2 thick
wws =0.150 kcf

Barriers
New Jersey type
0.300 k/ft

2011/12 Edition

DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS
Deck
7.5 Structural thickness
0.5 wearing surface
Total thickness = 8
fc = 4.0 ksi @ 28 days
wc = 0.150 kcf
Ecs = 33000w1.5 (fc)0.5 (LRFD 5.4.2.4)
= 33000(0.150)1.5(4)0.5 = 3 834 ksi

Note LRFD uses kip, inch, foot units in


formulae

CONTINUOUS FOR LL PRECAST BRIDGES

Precast beams are made in a factory


and shipped to site. The beam is set on
simple supports beam carries self
weight and prestressing force as a
simple beam.

2011/12 Edition

CONTINUOUS FOR LL PRECAST BRIDGES

The deck is formed and poured. Since the


beams are NOT shored, the beams carry the
deck load as simple beams.

CONTINUOUS FOR LL PRECAST BRIDGES


The deck is cast continuous over the piers. When the
deck hardens, a continuous structure is formed. The
negative moment connection is usually made with
non-prestressed steel over the piers. Thus, the
negative moment region is conventionally
reinforced.

2011/12 Edition

CONTINUOUS FOR LL PRECAST BRIDGES


Once the deck hardens and continuity is
established, any superimposed dead load
(asphalt surfaces, barriers, utilities) is carried by
the beams as a continuous structure.
All live load is carried as a continuous structure.

CONTINUOUS FOR LL PRECAST BRIDGES

After the slab is poured, the beams will


continue to creep and shrink; cambering
up.
Temperature will also cause camber.
Positive moments will form causing
cracking.

2011/12 Edition

CONTINUOUS FOR LL PRECAST BRIDGES

A positive moment connection is


required. The requirements for this will
be discussed later. (LRFD 5.14.1.4)

CONTINUOUS FOR LL PRECAST BRIDGES

It is thought that creep and shrinkage


will redistribute dead load, so some
states design using simple spans for all
dead load and assuming a continuous
bridge for live load only.
Some states completely ignore the
continuity and design as simple span for
all loads.

2011/12 Edition

DESIGN SPANS

Beams:
Overall Length
110 ft. end spans
119 ft center span

Design Spans Simple Span beam


109 ft. end spans
118 ft. center span

Design Spans Continuous Beam


110 ft. end spans
120 ft. center span

PROPERTIES OF BT-72
2
A = 767 in.
h = 72 in.
4
I = 545 894 in.
yb = 36.60 in.
yt = 35.40 in.
3
Sb = 14 915 in.
3
St = 15 421 in.
w = 0.799 k/ft

2011/12 Edition

PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE
BT-72
Ecs = 3834 ksi

Ecb = 5072 ksi (prev. defined)

Modular ratio: n = Ecs /Ecb = 3834/5072 = 0.7559


LRFD 4.6.2.6.1 (NEW IN 2009):
The effective flange width is now the TRIBUTARY
AREA:
bf = 144 inches

PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE
BT-72

Note: inch haunch


assumed.
Shaded area is
transformed.

2011/12 Edition

PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE BT-72


Transformed Flange Width =
(Effective Flange Width)*n = 144(0.756)= 108.9 in.
Transformed Flange Area = 108.9(7.5) = 816.8 in2
Note: only 7.5 of deck thickness is structural.

PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE
BT-72
Haunch assumed over BT-72 flange width to account
for differential camber in the beams.
Transformed Haunch Width = 0.756(42) = 31.75 in.
Transformed Haunch Area = 31.75(0.5) = 15.87 in2

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2011/12 Edition

PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE BT-72


yb

Ayb

A(ybc-yb)2

in2

in.

in.3

in.4

in.4

in.4

767.00

36.60

28072

325484

545894

871378

Haunch 15.87

72.25

1147

3601

3601

Deck

816.8

76.25

62280

296420

3829

300249

Sum

1599.7

Atr

Beam

91500

I+A(ybc-yb)

1175230

ybc = 91500/1599.7 = 57.20 in.


(distance to bottom of composite)

PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE BT-72

Ac = 1599 in2
Ic = 1175230 in4
hc = 80 in.
ybc = 91477/1599.4 = 57.20 in.
(distance to bottom of composite)
ytc = 80 57.20 = 22.80 in.
(distance to top of composite)
ytg = 72 57.20 = 14.80 in.
(distance from composite neutral axis to top of
beam)

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2011/12 Edition

PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE
BT-72
Composite Section Modulus to Bottom:
Sbc = Ic / ybc = 1175230 /57.20 = 20545 in.3
Composite Section Modulus to Top of
Composite:
Stc = Ic /nytc = 1175230/(0.756*22.8) = 68180 in.3
Note: 1/n converts stress in transformed
concrete to stress in actual concrete.
Composite Section Modulus to Top of Beam:
Stg = Ic / ytg = 1175230 /14.8 = 79400 in.3

DEAD LOADS - DC
DC Applied to precast only.
Beam self weight wg = 0.799 kip/ft.
Slab weight include integral wearing
surface.
ws = (8/12/ft)(12 ft.)(0.150 kcf) = 1.20 kip/ft
Haunch
wh = (0.5/12)(42/12)(0.150 kcf) = 0.022 kip/ft

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2011/12 Edition

DEAD LOADS - DC
DC Applied to composite section. To
determine if the barrier weight and the
future wearing surface can be equally
distributed, the following must be met
(LRFD 4.6.2.2.1):
1) Width of deck constant OK
2) Number of beams > 4 OK
3) Curvature < specified in 4.6.2.1.4 OK
straight
4) Cross section matches one given in LRFD
Spec. table 4.6.2.2.1-1 OK type k

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2011/12 Edition

DEAD LOADS - DC
5) The overhang of the roadway, from the
outside of the web, de < 3.0 ft.

de = 3 ft OK

Def. of de changed in
2008 interim (LRFD 4.6.2.2.1).

DEAD LOADS - DC

DC Applied to composite section


Barrier weight 0.30 kip/ft
wb = 2 barriers (0.3 k/ft) / (4 beams) =
0.150 k/ft/beam
Diaphragm weight assumed steel X
braces. Weight ignored in this example.
Typically, they weigh a few hundred
pounds.

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2011/12 Edition

DEAD LOADS - DW

DW Future wearing surface and utilities.


Future wearing surface 2 @ 0.150 kcf
(2/12)(0.150 kcf) = 0.025 ksf
0.025 ksf (42 roadway width) / 4 beams
= 0.263 k/ft /beam

UNFACTORED DEAD LOADS


All loads are uniform. DL moments and
shears on the precast can be found from:

Vx w 0.5L x

Mx 0.5wx L x
Use overall length at initial (release)
condition.
Center to center of bearing at deck
placement.

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2011/12 Edition

UNFACTORED DEAD LOADS


The shears and moments due to the future
wearing surface and the barrier weight are
computed by considering the bridge as a
continuous, three span structure.
The span lengths after continuity is
established are center of support to center of
pier for end spans and center of pier to
center of pier for the middle span.
Shears and moments can be found using any
analysis program or by a hand calculation.

Unfactored DL Moments

End
Spans

Middle
Span

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2011/12 Edition

LIVE LOAD DISTRIBUTION FACTORS


To use distribution factors, the following must be
met:
1) Width of deck constant OK
2) Number of beams > 4

OK

3) Curvature < specified in 4.6.2.1.4

OK straight

4) Cross section matches one given in LRFD Spec.


table 4.6.2.2.1-1
OK type k
5) de < 3 ft.

OK 3 ft.

6) Beams parallel and approximately same


stiffness.
OK

LIVE LOAD DISTRIBUTION


FACTORS - MOMENT
Number of design lanes = integer part of
42 ft. / (12 ft./lane) = 3 lanes
42 ft. is clear roadway width.
Interior Beams (Table 4.6.2.2.2b-1):
Two Lanes
0.6
0.2
S S Kg
DFM 0.075

3
9.5 L 12Lt s
One Lane
0.4
0.3
S S Kg
DFM 0.06
3
14 L 12Lt s

0.1

0.1

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2011/12 Edition

LIVE LOAD DISTRIBUTION


FACTORS - MOMENT
To use these factors:
1)
2)
3)
4)

3.5 < S < 16


4.5 < ts < 12
20 < L < 240
Nb > 4 beams

S = 12 ft.
ts = 7.5 in.
L = 120 ft.
Nb = 4 beams

OK
OK
OK
OK

Note: Although this is a 3 lane bridge, there is


NO reduction to the LL for multiple
presence. The distribution factors already
account for multiple presence.

LIVE LOAD DISTRIBUTION


FACTORS - MOMENT

K g n I Aeg2
Ec
n
Ecs

n = 5072/3834 = 1.3229
eg = (7.5/2)+0.5+35.4 = 39.65
= distance between centroids of beam and slab
A = area of non-composite beam
I = moment of inertia of non-composite beam

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2011/12 Edition

LIVE LOAD DISTRIBUTION


FACTORS - MOMENT

K g n I Aeg2
Kg = (1.323)[545894 + 767(39.65)2]
= 2 317 340 in4

LIVE LOAD DISTRIBUTION


FACTORS - MOMENT
Two Lanes
0.6
0.2
S S Kg
DFM 0.075

3
9.5 L 12Lt s

0.1

S = 12 ft.
L = 120 ft.
Kg = 2 317 340 in4
ts = 7.5
DFM = 0.905 lanes/beam

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2011/12 Edition

LIVE LOAD DISTRIBUTION


FACTORS - MOMENT
One Lane
0.4
0.3
S S Kg
DFM 0.06
3
14 L 12Lt s
S = 12 ft.
L = 120 ft.
Kg = 2 317 340 in4
ts = 7.5

0.1

DFM = 0.596 lanes/beam


DFM = 0.905 lanes/beam two lanes CONTROLS

LIVE LOAD DISTRIBUTION


FACTORS - SHEAR
Interior Beams:
Two Lanes
S S
DFV 0.2
12 35
One Lane

S
DFV 0.36
25

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2011/12 Edition

LIVE LOAD DISTRIBUTION


FACTORS - SHEAR
To use these factors:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

3.5 < S < 16


S = 12 ft.
4.5 < ts < 12
ts = 7.5 in.
20 < L < 240
L = 120 ft.
Nb > 4 beams
Nb = 4 beams
10 000 < Kg < 7 000 000
Kg = 2 317 340

OK
OK
OK
OK
OK

LIVE LOAD DISTRIBUTION


FACTORS - SHEAR
Two Lanes
S S
DFV 0.2
12 35
One Lane

S
DFV 0.36
25

S = 12 ft.
DFV = 1.082 lanes/beam two lane CONTROLS
DFV = 0.840 lanes/beam one lane

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