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the structures and propensities inside people that explain their

characteristic patterns of thought, emotion and behavior.
What does personality capture?
what people are like
recurring regularities or trends in peoples responses to their
Examples of traits
responsible, easy going, polite, stuck up, reserved
Cultural Values
shared beliefs about desirable end states or modes of conduct in
a given culture.
-can influence the development of peoples personality traits as
well as how those traits are expressed in daily life.
the big five dimensions/factors
Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, neuroticism, openness to
experience, and extraversion.
Acronym for the Big Five
Which of the big 5 factors are the most dependent on your
extraversion and openness
Which big 5 factors change significantly over a persons
neuroticism, agreeableness and conscientiousness
Which of the Big 5 Factors has the most influence on job
Examples of Conscientiousness
dependable, hard working, reliable, ambitious,organized, and
Accomplishment Striving
reflects a strong desire to accomplish task-related goals as a
means of expressing personality.

-is a priority of conscientious employees

-its good for your health
Examples of Agreeableness
warm, kind, cooperative, sympathetic, helpful and courteous
Communion Striving
reflects a strong desire to obtain acceptance in personal
relationships as a means of expressing personality.
-is a priority of agreeable people
beneficial in some positions but detrimental in others.
-very important in customer service/ face-to-face contact with
Lived Day Analysis
a portion of a participants daily routine is recorded and analyzed
Examples of Extraversion
talkative, sociable, passionate, assertive, bold and dominant
Zero Acquaintance Situations
when two people have just met
Status Striving
reflects a strong desire to obtain power and influence within a
social structure as a means of expressing personality.
-is a priority for extraverts
-devote work efforts towards moving up and building a strong
Positive Affectivity
a dispositional tendency to experience pleasant, engaging moods
such as enthusiasm, excitement and elation
Where do extraverts excel?
in leadership roles and happiness with their job positions
Examples of Neuroticism
nervous, jealous, moody, emotional, insecure
Negative Affectivity
a dispositional tendency to experience unpleasant moods such as
hostility, nervousness and annoyance.
-comes hand-in-hand with neurotics

Differential Exposure to stressors

more likely to appraise day-to-day activities as stressful
-associated with neurotics
Differential Reactivity to stressors
less likely to believe they can cope with the stressors they
-Associated with neurotics
Locus of Control
reflects whether people attribute the causes of events to
themselves or to the external environment
Internal Locus of Control
people believe that their own behavior dictates events
Example of internal locus of control
I got a promotion because I worked hard, not because I got lucky
External locus of control
people believe that the events that occur around them are driven
purely by luck and fate.
Example of external locus of control
i am unhappy because I got dealt a bad hand
Which of the Big 5 has the most Alternate Labels
openness to experience
What are alternative names for openness?
inquisitiveness, intellectualness or even culture
expressions of personality that influence behavior through
preferences for certain environments and activities
suggests that personality types can be classified along two
dimensions: the degree to which employees prefer to work with
data versus ideas and the degree to which they prefer to work
with people versus things.
RAISEC Model personality types
Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising,

enjoys practical, hands on, real world tasks. tends to be frank,

practical, determined and rugged
enjoys abstract, analytical, theory-oriented tasks. Tends to be
analytical , intellectual, reserved and scholarly
enjoys entertaining and fascinating others using imagination.
Tends to be original, independent, impulsive and creative.
enjoys helping, serving, or assisting others.Tends to be helpful,
inspiring, informative and empathic
enjoys persuading, leading or outperforming others. Tends to be
energetic, sociable, ambitious and risk-taking
Enjoys organizing, counting, or regulating people or things.
Tends to be careful, conservative, self-controlled and structured
defined as the shared values, beliefs, motives, identities, and
interpretations that result from common experiences of
members of a society and are transmitted across generations
What are Hofstede's dimensions of cultural value?
individualism-collectivism, Power Distance(Low/high),
Uncertainty Avoidance(low/high), masculinity-Femininity,
Short-Term vs. Long-term oriented
a propensity to view ones own cultural values as right and those
of other cultures as wrong
What type of effect does conscientiousness have on job
performance and organizational Commitment
moderate positive effect
Typical performance
reflects performance in the routine conditions that surround
daily job tasks
Maximum Performance

reflects performance in brief, special circumstances that demand

a person's best efforts
Situational Strength
suggests that strong situations have clear behavioral
expectations, incentives, or instructions that make differences
between individuals less important, where as weak situations
lack those cues
Trait Activation
suggests that some situations provide cues that trigger the
expression of a given trait
Integrity tests
personality tests that focus specifically on a predisposition to
engage in theft and other counterproductive behaviors.
-also called honesty tests
Clear Purpose tests
ask applicats about their attitudes towards dishonesty, beliefs
abou tthe frequency of dishonesty, and desire to punish
dishonesty along with confession of past dishonesty
veiled Purpose test
do not reference dishonesty explicitly but instead assess more
general personality traits thata re associated with dishonest acts
exaggerating your responses to personality tests in a socially
desirable fashion.
Myers Briggs Type Indicator
evaluates individuals on the basis of four types of preferences:
extraversion vs. Introversion, sensing vs. intuition,thinking vs.
feeling, judging vs. Perceiving.
Institutional Collectivism
formalized practices encourage collective action and collective
distribution of resources
In-group collectivism
individuals express pride and loyalty to specific in groups
gender Egalitarianism
culture promotes gender equality and minimizes differences
between men and women

Future Orientation
culture engages in planning and investment in the future while
delaying individual or collective gratification
Performance orientation
Culture encourages and rewards members for excellence and
performance improvements
humane orientation
the culture encourages and rewards members for being generous,
caring, kind, fair and altruistic