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Inverters/Converters -- North America Requirement

Inverters/Converters North America Requirement


(Inverter: DC power to AC power)
1: Constructional Requirement
2: Testing Requirement
3: Document Requirement
4: Hot-discussion items
5: Q & A

10/22/2012

Known regional requirements, certification regulations


ANSI/UL1741 (call out IEEE 1547 &1547.1 for grid protection and
power quality, etc.), NRTL certification
- Tests acc. to the standard and 2-4 factory inspections per year
- Test mark issued by TUV Rhinalnd TUVus

National Electrical Code (NEC 70)


California CEC (California Energy Commission)
- Third party measurments per CEC Guideline
- As a member of NRTL, TV Rheinland reports are accepted

10.26.2012

USA

Known regional requirements, certification regulations

CSA C22.2 No. 107.1 certificate


- Tests acc. to the standard and 2-4 factory inspections per
year
- Test mark mark issued by TUV Rhinalnd, cTUV
Canada Electrical Code (CEC)

10.26.2012

Canada

1. Constructional Requirement (US & Canada)


- Enclosure (including materials, NEMA rating, openings, hazard
protections, etc.) and the frame construction;
- Spacings and/or Cl & Cr (UL840);
- Switch, Disconnect Devices;

- Connections and wiring means;

10.26.2012

Inverter/Converter

1. Constructional Requirement (US & Canada)


- Grounding, over-current protection;
- Isolation of circuits (Input Output Control Circuits)

- Built-in GFDI, means of design (fuse, or solid-state devices);


- Components and insulation materials;
- Utility interaction (field adjustable tripping, etc.)

10.26.2012

Inverter/Converter

2. Testing Requirements (US & Canada)


- UL 1741 Testing:
- Temperature rise measurement , need to be tested at a
chamber of max. specified environment temperature if it was
marked more than 40C;
- Output short-circuit test
- GFDI verification test

- Hi-Pot Test

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Inverter/Converter

2. Testing Requirements (US & Canada)


- IEEE 1547.1 part (call out part by UL 1741);
- Testing order (abnormal voltage abnormal frequency
synchronization EMI surge repeat);
- Anti-islanding test;
- Harmonics and DC injection if no isolating transformer;
- Reconnection time;
- Open phase.

10.26.2012

Inverter/Converter

2. Testing Requirements (US & Canada)


- Additional tests for Canada
- C22.2 #107.1 testing, which different to that of UL 1741, such
as grounding continuity/resistance measurement ;
- Grid-connection requirement, use IEEE 1547.1 test results

10.26.2012

Inverter/Converter

2. Testing Requirements (US & Canada)

- Manufacturing and production tests (routine test):


- Dielectric Voltage-Withstand (Hi-Pot) Test;
- Utility Voltage and Frequency Variation Test.

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Inverter/Converter

2. Testing Requirements (US & Canada)


- CEC testing and report for NRTL listed/certified inverters:
- Maximum continuous output power;
- Conversion Efficiency;
- Tare losses.

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Inverter/Converter

3. Document Requirements
- Rating and Nameplate;
- Warning, Cautionary Markings;
- Equipment Information and Instructions;
- Service Manual independent of User/Operation/Installation
manuals;
- Important Safety Instructions

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Inverter/Converter

3. Document Requirements
- Additional requirements for Canada:

- At least the Warning/Cautionary Markings in both English and


French;
- Manufacturing date, different wording to that of UL 1741, etc.
- More than one live circuit, etc.

- Others.

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Inverter/Converter

4. Hot-discussion Items
- Safety standard harmonization (UL62109-1) with IEC 62109-1:
Safety of power converters for use in photovoltaic power systems
Part 1: General requirements

and IEC 62109-2:


Safety of power converters for use in photovoltaic power systems
Part 1: Particular requirements for inverters
to be expected to be followed;

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Inverter/Converter

4. Hot-discussion Items

- New Standard: IEC 62477-1: 2012,


Safety requirements for power electronic converter systems and
equipment Part 1: General
It has a better suitability than EN 50178/IEC 62103: Electronic
equipment for use in power installations, for non-PV products,
such as wind power converters (AC AC), etc.

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Inverter/Converter

4. Hot-discussion Items

- Grid connection and power quality requirements


(differ by countries)

EN 50438: Requirements for the connection of microgenerators in parallel with public low-voltage
distribution networks

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Inverter/Converter

4. Hot-discussion Items
- Transformer-less inverters
Conventional inverters normally have an isolation transformer either
built-in the unit or connected external to the AC output terminals.
While transformer-less inverter means the AC output circuits (which
may directly connected to the 120Vac/480Vac grid) are not isolated
to the DC input circuits.
What the standard(s) says about this case?
Please see IEC 62109-2, also it was adopted into UL 1741 as
section 88-100.

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Inverter/Converter

4. Hot-discussion Items
- Input working voltage over 600Vdc
Though UL 1741 does not specify the max. working voltage is
600V, due to the rating limits of components, the spacing table,
etc., once the input working voltage is more than 600Vdc,
additional evaluations are needed to verify the compliances.
(see Article 690.80 of NEC 70 too)
In Canada, CSA C22.2 # 107.1 stated that it applies to a unit its
rated voltage not exceeding 600 V. What we need to do in the
case of the DC input is up to 1000V?

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Inverter/Converter

4. Hot-discussion Items

- PV Arc-fault detection/interruption per UL 1699B (based


with UL 1699)
Article 690.11 of NEC 70 (2011) requires listed DC Arc-fault circuit
interrupter when the PV system working voltage is more than 80V.
IF the PV arc-fault protection means are built-in type in the inverter, it
shall meet that all that 4 requirements specified in 690.11 of NEC 70.

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Inverter/Converter

4. Hot-discussion Items
- Built-in meter accuracy
SGIP(Self-Generation Incentive Program) Handbook and
CSIP(California Solar Initiative Program) Handbook, etc. have meter
accuracy requirements for built-in meter within inverters.
(+/-2% or +/-5% per the applicable protocols of ANSI C12.1)
The accuracy rating of the meter must be certified by an independent
testing body (i.e. a NRTL such as UL or TUV)

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5. Q & A

Contact :
Fred Z. Zhu
Phone: (925) 249-9123 ext. 186
Cell: (925) 918-5123
Email: zzhu@us.tuv.com

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Inverter/Converter