Você está na página 1de 28




Television System and scanning Principles: Sound and picture transmission
scanning process
video signals
characteristics of human eye
brightness perception and Photometric qualities
Aspect ratio and Rectangular scanning
persistence of vision and flicker
vertical resolution
Kell factor
Horizontal Resolution and video bandwidth
Interlaced scanning
Camera tubes
camera lenses
auto focus systems
camera pick-up devices
Image orthicon
silicon diode array vidicon
CCDsolid state image scanners
Comparison of Camera tubes
camera tube deflection unit
video processing of camera signals
color television signals and systems


A television system is a Canadian term for a group of television stations which
share common ownership, branding, and programming, but are not legally considered a
full television network. Systems may be informally referred to as networks by some
people, but are not true networks under current Canadian broadcasting regulations.
Systems are differentiated from networks primarily by their less extensive service area
while a network will serve most Canadian broadcast markets in some form, a system will
typically serve only a few markets. As well, a system may or may not offer some classes
of programming, such as a national newscast, which are typically provided by a network.
Television systems should not be confused with twinsticks, although some individual
stations might be part of both types of operations simultaneously.


Fig: 1.1

The scanning technique is simillar to reading and writing information on a page,

starting at top left and processing to end at right bottom.

The scanning is done by line by line.

Horizontal scanning from left to right at fast rate and vertically from top to bottom
at slow rate.

The retrace and trace period obtained during scanning of lines.

The retrace of beam is very fast compared to forward scan by cutting off the beam
during horizontal and vertical flyback intervals.


Camera signal corresponding to picture or scene is transmitted.

Blanking pulses to make horizontal and vertical retrace as invisible.

Sync pulses to synchronize the transmitter and receiver scanning system.

Information about some color signal and some sample of color sub-carrier

Fig: 1.2


Formulating therequirements of camera tube scanning and reproducing system,

this must considered.

Characteristics are

1. Visual activity-resolving fine details in picture

2. Persistence of vision
3. Brightness and color sensation.

Fig: 1.3




brightness - the apparent luminance of a patch in an image.

Lightness - apparent reflectance of a perceived surface. the perceived light level

of a patch relative to other patches in the same image.

1.5.1 Photometric Measurements

Quantitative determinations of the values of quantities characterizing optical

radiation OR such optical properties of materials as transparency and reflectivity.
Photometric measurements can be made with instruments that contain optical detectors.
In the simplest cases in the visible light range, the human eye is used as a detector in
evaluating photometric quantities.
Table 1. Principal photometric qualities

Symbol Defining





Q = vdt



l=d v/d



K = v/e

lumen per watt


Luminous flux

Luminous energy

Luminous intensity (of a light l


source in some direction) .

Luminous efficacy of radiant K

in a given direction)

meter (formerly, nit) lux

Illuminance (at a point of a E


square cd/m2

Luminance (at a given point and L

E = dv/dA




lumen per square meter lm/m2

Luminous exitance


of H




Luminous pulse remittance


H=dQ/dA = E lux-second

of a X




X = dx/d

photometric quantity



The aspect ratio of an image is the ratio of the width of the image to its height,
expressed as two numbers separated by a colon. That is, for an x:y aspect ratio, no matter
how big or small the image is, if the width is divided into x units of equal length and the
height is measured using this same length unit, the height will be measured to be y units.
For example, consider a group of images, all with an aspect ratio of 16:9. One image is
16 inches wide and 9 inches high. Another image is 16 centimeters wide and 9
centimeters high. A third is 8 yards wide and 4.5 yards high. Two dimensional sector
scanning which a slow sector scanning section is superimposed on a rapid sector in a
scanning perpendicular direction.


Rectangular or Progressive scanning, as opposed to interlaced, scans the
entire picture line by line every sixteenth of a second. In other words,
captured images are not split into separate fields like in interlaced
scanning. Computer monitors do not need interlace to show the picture
on the screen. It puts them on one line at a time in perfect order i.e. 1, 2,
3, 4, 5, 6, 7 etc. so there is virtually no "flickering" effect. As such, in a
surveillance application, it can be critical in viewing detail within a
moving image such as a person running away. However, a high quality
monitor is required to get the best out of this type of scan.

Example: Capturing moving objects

When a camera captures a moving object, the sharpness of the frozen
image will depend on the technology used. Compare these JPEG images, captured by

three different cameras using progressive scan, 4CIF interlaced scan and 2CIF


The rate of 24 pictures/sec in motion pictures and scanning of 25 frames/sec in

TV pictures is enough to cause image continuity.

They are not enough to allow brightness of 1 frame to blend smoothly into next
through the time, when the screen is blanked between suceesive frames.

This results in FLICKER of light that is annoying to observer when the screen is
made alternately bright and dark.

This problem is solved in motion pictures by showing a picture twice, so 48 views

of scene are shown per second. Although the same 24 pictures frame per second.


The Kell factor, named after RCA engineer Raymond D. Kell, is a parameter
used to limit the bandwidth of a sampled image signal to avoid the appearance of beat
frequency patterns when displaying the image in a discrete display devices, usually taken
to be 0.7. The number was first measured in 1934 by Raymond D. Kell and his associates
as 0.64 but has suffered several revisions given that it is based on image perception,
hence subjective, and is not independent of the type of display. It was later revised to 0.85
but can go higher than 0.9, when fixed pixel scanning (e.g., CCD or CMOS) and fixed
pixel displays (e.g., LCD or plasma) are used, or as low as 0.7 for electron gun scanning.
From a different perspective, the Kell factor defines the effective resolution
of a discrete display device since the full resolution cannot be used without viewing
experience degradation. The actual sampled resolution will depend on the spot size and
intensity distribution. For electron gun scanning systems, the spot usually has a Gaussian
intensity distribution. For CCDs, the distribution is somewhat rectangular, and is also
affected by the sampling grid and inter-pixel spacing.

Kell factor is sometimes incorrectly stated to exist to account for the effects
of interlacing. Interlacing itself does not affect Kell factor, but because interlaced video
must be low-pass filtered (i.e., blurred) in the vertical dimension to avoid spatio-temporal
aliasing (i.e., flickering effects), the Kell factor of interlaced video is said to be about
70% that of progressive video with the same scan line resolution.


The "vertical resolution" of NTSC TV refers to the total number of lines
(rows) scanned from left to right across the screen - BUT Counted from Top to Bottom,
or Vertically. This number is set by the NTSC TV 'Standard' .This Vertical Resolution
number is static - it doesn't change. Therefore, the Vertical Resolution is the same for
ALL TV's manufactured to meet a specified Standard.
The horizontal resolution of television, and other video displays, is dependent
upon the quality of the video signal's source. As an example - the horizontal resolution of
VHS tape is (about) 240 lines; broadcast TV (about) 330 lines, laserdisc (about) 420
lines; and DVD (about) 480 lines.
To avoid getting entangled too deeply within the inherent complexities of TV
technology, it's sufficient to note that there are a number of variables contributing to the
'stated' horizontal resolution value. Even the measurement methods are not always
consistent. For instance - how the vertical columns (dots/dashes) are counted ... as single
black / white (dark and light) lines, or as "line pairs - (1) black and (1) white line."
A TV's resolution can be reported as the result of counting the total number of
picture elements (pixels) per scan line, across the entire screen-width, multiplied by the
total number of scan lines. However, TV screen-sizes vary, making an equal comparison
of different displays more complex. TV's also differ technically, functionally and in
component quality; this results in additional complications.

An alternative method is to count the number of pixels that fit within a prescribed
circle, having a diameter equal to the screen height. Known as LPH - Lines per Picture
Height - this is the 'correct' method in determining TV resolution.
As this shows, along with other, similar variables, the accuracy of a 'stated'
horizontal resolution for a particular display, may depend on who is doing the 'stating' .
However, for the purpose of this overview of HDTV-Resolution, the primary point
regarding horizontal resolution, is that it is variable. Unlike vertical resolution which is
'fixed,' horizontal resolution can differ from one TV display to another.


BWS = 1/2 [(K AR (VLT) FR) (KH / KV)]
BWS = Total signal bandwidth
K = Kell factor
AR = Aspect ratio (the width of the display divided by the height of the display)
VLT = Total number of vertical scan lines
FR = Frame rate or refresh rate
KH = Ratio of total horizontal pixels to active pixels
KV = Ratio of total vertical lines to active lines
The circuits that process video signals need to have more bandwidth
than the actual bandwidth of the processed signal to minimize the degradation of the
signal and the resulting loss in picture quality. The amount the circuit bandwidth needs to
exceed the highest frequency in the signal is a function of the quality desired. To
calculate this, we assume a single-pole response and use the following equation:
H(f)(dB) = 20log(1/(1+(BWS/BW-3dB)).5)
Rearranging and solving for the -0.1dB and the -0.5dB attenuation points, we get the
BW-3dB min = BWS (-0.1db) 6.55

BW-3dB-min = BWS(-0.5db) 2.86

BW-3dB = the minimum -3db bandwidth required for the circuit
A minimum bandwidth that's about six and a half times' the highest frequency in
the signal. If you can tolerate 0.5dB attenuation, it needs to be only about three times. To
account for normal variations in the bandwidth of integrated circuits, it is recommended
that the results from equations 3 and 4 be multiplied by a factor of 1.5. This will ensure
that the attenuation performance is met over worst-case conditions. In equation mode, it
is expressed as follows:
BW-3dB nominal = BW-3dB-min 1.5
In addition to bandwidth, the circuits must slew fast enough to faithfully reproduce the
video signal. The equation for the minimum slew rate is as follows:
SRMIN = 2 pi BWS Vpeak
Substituting and simplifying,
SRMIN = BWS 6.386
This is because some distortion can occur as the frequency of the signal approaches the
slew-rate limit. This can introduce frequency distortion, which will degrade the picture
quality. Multiplying the equation 6 result by a factor of at least two or three will ensure
that the distortion is minimized.
In equation form:
SRnominal = SRMIN 2
As an example, let's assume we have a standard NTSC video signal and the following
VLT = 525
TVL = 346
AR = 1.3333
KH = 1.17
FR = 29.94
KV = 1.09

Using equation 1, we calculate a maximum signal bandwidth (BWS) of about 4.2MHz.

This is the highest frequency in the signal. Now let's assume that we need less than 0.1dB
attenuation. Using equation 3, we calculate the minimum signal bandwidth necessary to
be 27.5MHz. Using equation 5, to account for variations, gives 41.3MHz. This is the
circuit -3dB bandwidth required to achieve our desired resolution and maintain the signal
quality. The last calculation we need to make for our example is the minimum slew-rate
requirement. Using equations 6 and 7 and plugging in the 4.2MHz value for BWS, we see
that we will need at least a slew rate of 52V/s and a more desirable value of 80V/s.


Interlaced scan-based images use techniques developed for Cathode Ray Tube
(CRT)-based TV monitor displays, made up of 576 visible horizontal lines across a
standard TV screen. Interlacing divides these into odd and even lines and then alternately
refreshes them at 30 frames per second. The slight delay between odd and even line
refreshes creates some distortion or 'jaggedness'. This is because only half the lines keeps
up with the moving image while the other half waits to be refreshed.

Fig: 1.5
The effects of interlacing can be somewhat compensated for by using de-interlacing. Deinterlacing is the process of converting interlaced video into a non-interlaced form, by
eliminating some jaggedness from the video for better viewing. This process is also
called line doubling. Some network video products, such as Axis video servers, integrate
a de-interlace filter which improves image quality in the highest resolution (4CIF). This

feature eliminates the motion blur problems caused by the analog video signal from the
analog camera.
Interlaced scanning has served the analog camera, television and VHS video world very
well for many years, and is still the most suitable for certain applications. However, now
that display technology is changing with the advent of Liquid Crystal Display (LCD),
Thin Film Transistor (TFT)-based monitors, DVDs and digital cameras, an alternative
method of bringing the image to the screen, known as progressive scanning, has been


1.13.1 Lens Focal Length
We define focal length as the distance from the optical center of the lens to the focal
plane (target or "chip") of the video camera when the lens is focused at infinity.
We consider any object in the far distance to be at infinity. On a camera lens the symbol

(similar to an "8" on its side) indicates infinity.

Since the lens-to-target distance for most lenses increases when we focus the lens on
anything closer than infinity (see second illustration), we specify infinity as the standard
for focal length measurement.



generally measured

in millimeters. In the

case of lenses with

fixed focal lengths,

we can talk about a

10mm lens, a 20mm

lens, a 100mm lens,

etc. As we will see,

this designation tells

a lot about how the

lens will reproduce

subject matter.


1.13.2 Zoom and Prime Lenses

Zoom lenses came into common use in the early 1960s. Before then, TV cameras
used lenses of different focal lengths mounted on a turret on the front of the camera, as
shown on the right. The cameraperson rotated each lens into position and focused it when
the camera was not on the air.
Today, most video cameras use zoom lenses. Unlike the four lenses shown here, each of
which operate at only one focal length, the effective focal length of a zoom lens can be
continuously varied. This typically means that the lens can go from a wide-angle to a
telephoto perspective.
To make this possible, zoom lenses use numerous glass elements, each of which is
precisely ground, polished, and positioned. The space between these elements changes as
the lens is zoomed in and out. (Note cutaway view on the right below.)

Fig: 1.7
With prime lenses, the focal length of the lens cannot be varied. It might seem that
we would be taking a step backwards to use a prime lens or a lens that operates at only
one focal length.
Not necessarily. Some professional videographers and directors of photography -especially those who have their roots in film -- feel prime lenses are more predictable in
their results. (Of course, it also depends on what you're used to using!)
Prime lenses also come in more specialized forms, for example, super wide angle, super
telephoto, and super fast (i.e., it transmits more light).
However, for normal work, zoom lenses are much easier and faster to use. The latest of
HDTV zoom lenses are extremely sharp -- almost as sharp as the best prime lenses.

1.13.3 Angle of View

Angle of view is directly associated with

lens focal length. The longer the focal length (in
millimeters), the narrower the angle of view (in
You can see this relationship by studying the
drawing on the left, which shows angles of view
for different prime lenses.
A telephoto lens (or a zoom lens operating at
maximum focal length) has a narrow angle of
view. Although there is no exact definition for a
"telephoto" designation, we would consider the
angles at the top of the drawing from about 3 to
10 degrees in the telephoto range.
The bottom of the drawing (from about 45 to 90
degrees) represents the wide-angle range.
The normal angle of view range lies between telephoto and wide angle.
With the camera in the same position, a short focal lens creates a wide view and a long
focal length creates an enlarged image in the camera.


There are two main ways for cameras to focus automatically: contrast detection
and phase detection. The former uses data from the CCD or CMOS sensor and looks at
how sharp the resulting photograph would be. It's simple, but slow, as the camera has to
go through all of the possibilities until it finds one where the subject is clearly contrasted
from the background. The latter uses a tool that works like a rangefinder, which
accurately calculates the correction needed to get the subject in focus. It's fast, but
difficult to operate as the light coming into the lens needs to reach both the phase detector
and the sensor (or the film) at the same time. This has meant that phase detection has
traditionally been reserved for SLRs, which already have a mirror that sends the image to
the viewfinder. At the same time, a second mirror also sends it down to the phase
detector. While focussing is taking place, the sensor is covered by these mirrors, which
rules out video. SLRs that do shoot video fold their mirrors out of the way and rely on
the contrast detection found on ordinary compacts.


The scene of picture is focused with help of lens system on a photosensitive target
near a pickup tube.

The electrical state of each area varies with intensity of light.

The electrical response of each element is read of f with help of electron beam
circuit produce electrical pulses.

The target plate is held with electrical potential with respect to cathode of pick up

The actyal beam varies in accordance with electrical state of picture element.

The beams scans the image horizontally by means of magnetic field setup by
horizontal deflection coil.

Similarly the beams scans the image vertically by means of magnetic field setup
by vertical deflection coil.

The scanning must done in fast speed over the changing or moving pictures.


The image orthicon was common in American broadcasting from 1946 until
1968. A combination of the image dissector and the orthicon technologies, it replaced the
iconoscope and the orthicon, which required a great deal of light to work adequately.
While the iconoscope and the intermediate orthicon used capacitance
between a multitude of small but discrete light sensitive collectors and an isolated signal
plate for reading video information, the image orthicon employed direct charge readings
from a continuous electronically charged collector. The resultant signal was immune to
most extraneous signal "crosstalk" from other parts of the target, and could yield
extremely detailed images. For instance, image orthicon cameras were used for capturing

Apollo/Saturn rockets nearing orbit after the networks had phased them out, as only they
could provide sufficient detail.
An image orthicon camera can take television pictures by candlelight because
of the more ordered light-sensitive area and the presence of an electron multiplier at the
base of the tube, which operated as a high-efficiency amplifier. It also has a logarithmic
light sensitivity curve similar to the human eye. However, it tends to flare in bright light,
causing a dark halo to be seen around the object; this anomaly is referred to as
"blooming" in the broadcast industry when image orthicon tubes were in operation.
Image orthicons were used extensively in the early color television cameras, where their
increased sensitivity was essential to overcome their very inefficient optical system.


An image orthicon consists of three parts: a photocathode with an image
store ("target"), a scanner that reads this image (an electron gun), and a multistage
electron multiplier.
In the image store, light falls upon the photocathode which is a photosensitive plate at a
very negative potential (approx. -600 V), and is converted into an electron image (a
principle borrowed from the image dissector). Once the image electrons reach the target,
they cause a "splash" of electrons by the effect of secondary emission. On average, each

image electron ejects several "splash" and these excess electrons are soaked up by the
positive mesh effectively removing electrons from the target and causing a positive
charge on it in relation to the incident light in the photocathode. The result is an image
painted in positive charge, with the brightest portions having the largest positive charge.
A sharply focused beam of electrons (a cathode ray) is generated by the
electron gun at ground potential and accelerated by the anode around the gun at a high
positive voltage (approx. +1500 V). Once it exits the electron gun, its inertia makes the
beam move away from the dynode towards the back side of the target. At this point the
electrons lose speed and get deflected by the horizontal and vertical deflection coils,
effectively scanning the target. Thanks to the axial magnetic field of the focusing coil,
this deflection is not in a straight line, thus when the electrons reach the target they do so
perpendicularly avoiding a sideways component. The target is nearly at ground potential
with a small positive charge, thus when the electrons reach the target at low speed they
are absorbed without ejecting more electrons. This adds negative charge to the positive
charge until the region being scanned reaches some threshold negative charge, at which
point the scanning electrons are reflected by the negative potential rather than absorbed
(in this process the target recovers the electrons needed for the next scan). These reflected
electrons return down the cathode ray tube toward the first dynode of the electron
multiplier surrounding the electron gun which is at high potential. The number of
reflected electrons is a linear measure of the target's original positive charge, which, in
turn, is a measure of brightness.
Additional amplification is also performed via secondary emission in the
electron multiplier which consists of a stack of charged dynodes (pinwheel-like disks
surrounding the electron gun) in progressively higher potentials. As the returning electron
beam hits the first dynode, it ejects electrons similarly to the target; for each electron
striking a dynode, many are emitted. These secondary electrons are then drawn toward
the next dynode at a higher potential, where the splashing continues for a number of
steps. Consider a single, highly energized electron hitting the first dynode, causing, say,
four electrons to be emitted and drawn towards the next dynode. Each of these might then
cause four each to be emitted. Thus, by the start of the third stage, you would have about

16 electrons to the original one. As many as 5 to 10 stages were not unusual, thus the
achieved amplification is very important.
The mysterious "dark halo" around bright objects in an IO-captured
image is based in the very fact that the IO relies on the splashing caused by highly
energized electrons. When a very bright point of light) is captured, a great preponderance
of electrons is ejected from the image target. So many are ejected that the corresponding
point on the collection mesh can no longer soak them up, and thus they fall back to
nearby spots on the target much as splashing water when a rock is thrown in forms a ring.
Since the resultant splashed electrons do not contain sufficient energy to eject enough
electrons where they land, they will instead neutralize any positive charge in that region.
Since darker images result in less positive charge on the target, the excess electrons
deposited by the splash will be read as a dark region by the scanning electron beam.

A vidicon tube is a video camera tube design in which the target material is a
photoconductor. While the initial photoconductor used was selenium, other targets
including silicon diode arrayshave been used.


The vidicon is a storage-type camera tube in which a charge-density pattern is
formed by the imaged scene radiation on a photoconductive surface which is then
scanned by a beam of low-velocity electrons. The fluctuating voltage coupled out to a
video amplifier can be used to reproduce the scene being imaged. The electrical charge
produced by an image will remain in the face plate until it is scanned or until the charge
dissipates. Pyroelectric photocathodes can be used to produce a vidicon sensitive over a
broad portion of the infrared spectrum.

Plumbicon is a registered trademark of Philips for its Lead Oxide
(PbO) target vidicons. Used frequently in broadcast camera applications, these tubes have
low output, but a high signal-to-noise ratio. They had excellent resolution compared to
Image Orthicons, but lacked the artificially sharp edges of IO tubes, which caused some
of the viewing audience to perceive them as softer. CBS Labs invented the first outboard
edge enhancement circuits to sharpen the edges of Plumbicon generated images.


Compared to Saticons, Plumbicons had much higher resistance to burn in, and
comet and trailing artifacts from bright lights in the shot. Saticons though, usually had
slightly higher resolution. After 1980, and the introduction of the diode gun plumbicon
tube, the resolution of both types was so high, compared to the maximum limits of the
broadcasting standard, that the Saticon's resolution advantage became moot. While
broadcast cameras migrated to solid state Charged Coupled Devices, plumbicon tubes
remain a staple imaging device in the medical field.[84][85][86]
Narragansett Imaging is the only company now making Plumbicons, and it does so from
the factories Philips built for that purpose in Rhode Island, USA. While still a part of the
Philips empire, the company purchased EEV's (English Electric Valve) lead oxide camera
tube business, and gained a monopoly in lead oxide tube production.

Saticon is a registered trademark of Hitachi also produced by Thomson and Sony. It was
developed in a joint effort by Hitachi and NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation). Its
surface consists of Selenium with trace amounts of Arsenic and Tellurium added
(SeAsTe) to make the signal more stable. SAT in the name is derived from (SeAsTe). Newvicon
Newvicon is a registered trademark of Matsushita. The Newvicon tubes were
characterized by high light sensitivity. Its surface consists of a combination of Zinc
Selenide (ZnSe) and Zinc Cadmium Telluride (ZnCdTe) Trinicon

Trinicon is a registered trademark of Sony. It uses a vertically striped RGB color filter
over the faceplate of an otherwise standard vidicon imaging tube to segment the scan into
corresponding red, green and blue segments. Only one tube was used in the camera,
instead of a tube for each color, as was standard for color cameras used in television
broadcasting. It is used mostly in low-end consumer cameras and camcorders, though
Sony also used it in some moderate cost professional cameras in the 1980s, such as the
DXC-1800 and BVP-1 models.


The operation of solid state image scanners is based on MOS circuitry.

The CCD may be thought to be in a shift register formed by a string of very

closely spaced MOS capacitors.

It can store and transfer analog charge signals either electrons or holes in
electrically or optically.

The chip consists of a p-type substrate, the side is oxidized to form a film of
silicon dioxide, an insulator.

By photolithographic process, an array of metal electrodes known as gates, are

deposit on insulator film.

Results- creation of very large number of tiny MOS capacitors on either surface





It mounts itself inside a deflection coil unit which consists of focusing coil,
horizontal and vertical deflection coils, alignment coils and magnets.

The focusing coil surrounds entire tube extending from electron gun to face plate
of tube.

It produces axial field because of dc current passing through it.

The horizontal and vertical deflection coils are pair of coils each in a shape of
yokes mount on pick-up tube.

The horizontal deflection coils produce a vertical field and vertical deflection
coils produces horizontal field.

The field strength of deflecting magnetic field is about 1/10th of focusing coil.

The required currents have to be supplied by deflection drive circuits of camera


The alignment coils are a pair of coils positioned just outside the limiting aperture
that produce a magnetic field at right angles to the tube axis.


Digital video comprises a series of orthogonal bitmap digital images

displayed in rapid succession at a constant rate. In the context of video

these images are called frames. We measure the rate at which frames are
displayed in frames per second (FPS).

Since every frame is an orthogonal bitmap digital image it comprises a raster of

pixels. If it has a width of W pixels and a height of H pixels we say that the frame
size is WxH.

Pixels have only one property, their color. The color of a pixel is represented by a
fixed number of bits. The more bits the more subtle variations of colors can be
reproduced. This is called the color depth (CD) of the video.

An example video can have a duration (T) of 1 hour (3600sec), a frame size of
640x480 (WxH) at a color depth of 24bits and a frame rate of 25fps. This example
video has the following properties:


pixels per frame = 640 * 480 = 307,200


bits per frame = 307,200 * 24 = 7,372,800 = 7.37Mbits


bit rate (BR) = 7.37 * 25 = 184.25Mbits/sec size = 184Mbits/sec * 3600sec =

662,400Mbits = 82,800Mbytes = 82.8Gbytes


1. A-M-Dhake-" Television and video Engineering second Edition TMH 2003

2. R-R-Gulati-"Modern Television Practice -Technology and servicing -second
edition New age International publishes -2004.