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Name _____________________________ Per______ Due: Friday, 2/20 (B) or

Monday, 2/23 (A)

Chapter 10 - From DNA

to Protein: Gene
Using your book or e-book
(http://ebooks.bfwpub.com/hillis1e.php) and the book
companion site
(http://bcs.whfreeman.com/pol1e/#t_787195____ ) to
complete the following questions. Be sure to give detailed, sufficient

a) Briefly explain Garrods one gene to one enzyme concept.

b) How did he come about this concept?

c) Later, the study of what protein led scientists to modify Garrods

hypothesis? What
did they call this new concept?

2. What is the difference between gene transcription and gene translation?

3. Go to your book companion site.

Complete Activity 10.1: Eukaryotic Gene
Expression. Click on the names and match
them to the question marks on the diagram.
If you get one wrong, just try again! Sketch
the picture you completed with the correct
names in the box. If you cannot get on the
ebook site, sketch the diagram in Figure 10.3
in your textbook instead.

4. Transcription synthesizes/forms __________ from ___________.

5. Transcription has 3 steps, for each step briefly explain what happens.
a) Initiation:
b) Elongation:
c) Termination:
6. When a piece of RNA is made from DNA during transcription, sections of
the DNA interrupt what actually needs to be made.
a) What are these non-coding sequences called?
b) What are the actual coding regions/sequences called?
7. In the e-book or on the book companion site, click on Animated Tutorial
10.2 RNA Splicing. (Or see page 195.)
a) In a few sentences, explain how the cell removes these non-coding

b) Is the new RNA strand the same as it was coming off the original
DNA template?
8. A DNA template strand has the sequence 5ATG-GTGTACG3 What will be
the sequence of the RNA transcribed from this DNA? (Be careful to specify
the 5 and 3 ends and remember there are no Ts in RNA).

9. Now that we have an mRNA strand coded from a DNA template, what
happens next?

10. Each mRNA strand uses each set of 3 bases called __________________
(there are _______ of them) to code for the proper amino acid (there are
_______ amino acids).

11. A particular eukaryotic protein is 1200 amino acids long. In order to find
out how many nucleotides in DNA that codes for this protein, think of how
many bases code for ONE amino acid. Then multiply that number by the
1200 above. How many nucleotides in DNA code for this protein?
12. What are the 4 main type of DNA mutations? Give a short description of

13. A deletion of two consecutive base pairs in the coding region of DNA
causes a frame-shift mutation. A deletion of three consecutive base pairs
causes the deletion of only one amino acid, with the rest of the polypeptide
chain intact. Explain why this is so.

14. In the e-book or the book companion site, click on Animated Tutorial
10.4 and go through the 6 steps of translation. (Or use the textbook to
describe the 3 steps starting on pg. 201.)


a) What is another name for tRNA?

b) What does the tRNA carry with it?

c) What is the code of bases called on the tRNA molecule, and what do
they match up
d) If a tRNA molecule has a code for AUG, what code would it match
up with on the
mRNA strand?
16. Make a sketch below of the ribosome sandwiching an mRNA strand. Be
sure to label the 3 sites. Which site does the first tRNA enter to bond with
the mRNA strand? Site _________. Now draw a tRNA carrying an amino acid,
and point to which site it will enter.

17. In translation, once the P and A sites of the ribosome are occupied, the
amino acids are bonded, what happens next?