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GEK106899

April 1998
Replaces SUSFSS01

GE Power Systems
Gas Turbine

Starting/Shutdown Sequence and Control

I. GENERAL
Starting the gas turbine involves proper sequencing of command signals to the accessories, starting device
and fuel control system. Since a safe and successful startup depends on proper functioning of almost all of
the gas turbine equipment, it is important to verify the state of selected devices in sequence. Much of the
control logic circuitry is associated not only with actuating control devices, but enabling protective circuits,
and obtaining permissive conditions before proceeding. Reference to the SPEEDTRONIC documentation
is necessary for complete understanding of all the logic functions included for the particular equipment provided with a gas turbine. The operating sequences of the Control Specifications are written to explain significant functions which pertain to a specific gas turbine.
A block diagram of all SPEEDTRONIC circuits which can interplay to control startup, is shown in Figure
1. Detailed descriptions are found in the SPEEDTRONIC panel information included in this manual and in
the SPEEDTRONIC documentation. Utilize Figure 2, a plot of a typical startup, to aid in understanding the
sequences described here.
Startup and shutdown cycle improvements have been included to reduce low cycle fatigue of hot gas path
parts.
II. SPEED DETECTORS
An important part of the startup/shut- down sequence control of the turbine is proper speed sensing. This is
necessary for the logic sequences in startup and shutdown of the gas turbine. The following speed detectors
and speed relays are used: L14HR Zero-Speed Detector (approximately 0% speed), L14HM Minimum Firing Speed Relay Detector (approximately 15% speed), L14HA Accelerating Relay Speed Detector (approximately 50% speed), and L14HS High-Speed Relay (approximately 95% speed), L14HP Purge Speed Relay
detector (approximately 25% speed), and L14HT Turning Gear Operation Speed Relay (approximately
0.5% speed).
The zero-speed detector, L14HR, provides the signal when the turbine shaft starts rotating. The Purge Speed
Relay Detector indicates that the shaft has achieved purge speed. This speed is held until the Purge Timer
times out. Speed relay L14HT indicates that the turning gear is running which permits static starter operation. The minimum speed detector L14HM indicates that the turbine has reached the minimum firing speed
and initiates the purge prior to ignition. The dropout of the L14HM minimum-speed relay provides several
permissive functions in the restarting of the gas turbine after shutdown.

These instructions do not purport to cover all details or variations in equipment nor to provide for every possible
contingency to be met in connection with installation, operation or maintenance. Should further information be desired or
should particular problems arise which are not covered sufficiently for the purchasers purposes the matter should be
referred to the GE Company.
1998 GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY

GEK106899

Starting/Shutdown Sequence and Control

The acceleration speed relay L14HA pickup indicates that the turbine has reached approximately 50 percent
in the acceleration cycle. The high-speed sensor L14HS pickup indicates that the turbine is at operating
speed, and that the accelerating sequence is complete. Should the turbine and generator bog down, L14HS
will drop out at the under frequency speed setting. The compressor bleed valves will open and inlet guide
vanes will close as a function of corrected speed. Approximately 1.5 seconds after 14HS drops out the generator breaker will trip open and the digital setpoint will be reset to 100.3%. As the turbine accelerates, 14HS
will pick up, and the inlet guide vanes will open. The turbine will then require a start signal before the generator breaker is permitted to close again.
The actual settings of the speed relays are programmed in the controllers as constants and are listed in the
Control Specifications.
III. STARTUP CONTROL
The startup control operates as an open loop control in the use of preset levels of the fuel command signal,
FSR. The levels set are FIRE, WARM-UP, and ACCELERATE LIMIT. The Control Specifications
provide proper settings calculated for the fuel anticipated. The FSR levels must be set in the SPEEDTRONIC
startup control.
Startup control FSR signals operate through the minimum value gate to insure that speed control and temperature control can limit FSR if required. During the starting sequence, rates of increase in speed and exhaust
temperature are restricted to protect the turbine parts from excessive mechanical and thermal stresses. The
rates of acceleration and temperature rise are controlled independently by the closed loops of the speed and
temperature control systems. The rate limits operate through the SPEEDTRONIC control circuits discussed
in those control systems.
The fuel command signals are generated by the SPEEDTRONIC startup software. See the Control Sequence
Program. In addition to the three startup levels, the software sets maximum and minimum FSR and provides
for manual control of FSR. Pressing the switches for MANUAL CONTROL and FSR GAG RAISE OR
LOWER allows manual adjustment of FSR setting between FSRMIN and FSRMAX.
While the turbine is at rest, electronic checks are made of the stop/speed ratio valve, the gas control valve,
the accessories, and the voltage supplies. At this time, the operator display will be normal and the SHUTDOWN STATUS will be displayed on the CRT. Activating the Master Operation Switch L43 from OFF
to an operating mode will activate the ready circuit. If all protective circuits and trip latches are permissive
the STARTUP STATUS and READY TO START messages will be displayed and indicates the turbine
will accept a start signal. Depressing the START Master Control Switch (L1. START) will introduce the
start signal to the panel.
The start signal energizes the Master Control and Protection circuits (the L4 circuit), and starts the necessary
auxiliary equipment. The turning gear is started. The start-up status message STARTING is displayed. See
point A on Figure 2.
The turbine rotor breaks-away, and the turning gear breaks away the turbine rotor to approximately 6 RPM.
The purge timer is started once the static starter has brought the unit to Purge Speed. The purge cycle purges
the turbine of any combustible mixture by forcing about four changes of air through the exhaust. At the end
of the purge cycle, the torque converter is drained if applicable and the turbine speed is allowed to decay
below firing speed (14HM drop-out speed). At this point the SPEEDTRONIC will require the static starter
to maintain the turbine at the minimum firing speed.

Starting/Shutdown Sequence and Control

GEK106899

When turbine speed reaches the firing level (14HM pickup), startup control FSR is set at the FIRING level,
the firing timer, L2F, is started, and fuel flow is enabled. See Point B on Figure 2. When flame detector output
signals indicate flame is established in the combustion chambers, the warmup timer, L2W, starts and the startup fuel command FSR is set at the WARM UP FSR level. The warmup time is provided to minimize thermal stresses during the initial part of the startup. During warmup the starting device is set at the maximum
acceleration torque position.
At the completion of the warmup period, the startup control FSR command is ramped to the maximum allowable startup value. This setting is called the ACCELERATE LIMIT. The static starter begins to roll off
once the unit reaches 85% speed and begins its reset sequence upon reaching 95% speed.
During startup the startup control establishes the maximum FSR fuel command. Other controls may reduce
FSR to perform their control functions. It is possible to reach the temperature control limit, speed control,
or acceleration rate limit. The lowest FSR command is always selected to control fuel. The control parameter
which is limiting or controlling is displayed on the control panel.
IV. CONTROL MODE DISPLAY AND OPERATING CONDITION
Display

Condition

STARTUP

Startup Program

ACCEL

Acceleration Control

DROOP SPEED

Speed Control

TEMP

Temperature Control

The startup cycle has been designed to moderate the highest firing temperature produced during acceleration.
This is done by programming a low acceleration rate control setting during startup. It also aids smooth transition to speed control at the end of the startup sequence. The startup sequence time is extended to an optimum
time to minimize strains produced on the hot gas path parts in mid-acceleration cycle.
The minimum FSR limit is incorporated into temperature, acceleration and speed control circuits. This prevents these controllers from driving FSR below the value which would cause flameout during a transient
condition.
When the generator breaker closes, the startup control FSR command is quickly ramped to MAX FSR.
Refer to Figures 1, 2, and 3 for starting sequence and control descriptions.
V. FIRED SHUTDOWN
A normal shut-down is initiated by selecting STOP from the control panel followed by execute. This activates the L94X signal. If the generator breaker is closed when the stop signal is initiated, FSR and load are
reduced until the reverse power relay operates to open the generator breaker. When this occurs, FSR is
ramped down as a function of corrected speed until the turbine reaches L14HM. Fuel to the turbine is shut
off when the flame detectors indicate a loss of flame. Fuel is shut off by clamping FSR to zero and tripping
the stop valve closed. In the event flame detection is maintained, fuel is turned off 60 seconds after turbine
speed falls below the run-back speed setpoint (K60RB approximately 20% TNH).
Cooldown sequence circuits ensure slow roll on turning gear until the cooldown timer expires.

GEK106899

Starting/Shutdown Sequence and Control

Operation Sel.
Switch, L43

(Start-up Status)
Message on CRT
(Starting)
Start/
Stop
Circuits

Master Control
Switch, L1

(Stop)

Protective
Circuits

L4
TNH

Speed
Level
Detectors

(Ready to Start)
(Seq. in Progress)

Master
Protection
L4
Circuits

L14HM
L14HA
L14HS
L14HR
L14HP
L14HT

Starting
Device
Logic

Purge
L2TV, Fire
L2F Logic
(L14HM)

Speed
Logic
and
Aux.
Speed
Relays

Flame
Det.

(Cranking)
To Start Device
20TU1, 2, 20FG, 20FL
(Firing)
Spark Plugs

Ignition
Circuit

Flame
Det.
Warm-up
L2W L28FD

Complete
Sequence
L2TVX (Fire)
L28FDZ (Warm-up)
I2WX (Accel)
L52GX (Max)
L4

Four (4)
Flame
Detectors

Run Status
Full Speed No.

(Warming Up)

Startup

(Accelerating)
TNH

Speed
Min.
Gate

TTXD

Temperature
Control
System

Figure 1. Startup Sequence Flow Diagram.

FSR

Starting/Shutdown Sequence and Control

(Modulating IGV with HRSG Application)

%FSR, %TNH, 10X F, MW

120

Tx F

110
%TNH

100

Turbine Speed (TNH)


Exhaust Temperature (TTXD)
Fuel FSR (FSR)
MW

90
MW

80
70

Tx
%FSR

60
50
40
%TNH

30
20

%FSR

Standard Automatic Loading Rate


of 12 Min. from No Load to Full Load
as Shown. (4%/12 Min.)

10
0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Time (in Minutes)

Figure 2. Typical Startup/Loading (@ISO).

GEK106899

GEK106899

6
Ready to Start:
Select Operation:

Energized if Power to Panel Servo


Valve Checks and Voltage Checks Are
Satisfied and No Trip Signal.

Master selector switch


in Crank, Fire, Auto,
Remote or Manual.

If Check Circuit Is Energized, Protective


Status and Start Checks Are Satisfied.

Start Signal:
Master Control Switch.

The Master Control/Protective Relays


Are Energized, Which Results in
Energizing Relays To:
1. Start Auxiliary Oil Pump
2. Pressurize the Control Oil System
with Solenoid 20FL or 20FG
3. Engage the Starting Clutch

The Starting Means


Is Started.

Turbine Is Accelerated to
purge speed. Speed
Relay L14HP is Energized &
Turbine Timer (L2TV) Started
When Turbine Reaches Minimum
Fire Speed. Turbine Will Hold
This Purge Speed Until L2TV
Has Completed its Cycle. Fuel
Is Held Shut off. FSR Is Zero.

No Flame Detected:
Before L2F Timer Times out,
Turbine Master Control/
Protective Circuit Trips
the Turbine.

Turbine Speed Is Reduced


Firing Speed.
2. Firing Timer Initiated.
3. Firing FSR Set.
4. Spark Plugs Are Energized.

FSR Reduced to Warm-up and


Warm-up Timer Initiated.

Warm-up Time Complete:


Startup Control Permits
FSR to Ramp to FSR
Accelerate Limit
Acceleration Rate of
Turbine Held Below Low-Cycle
Fatigue Schedule Which Is a
Function of TNH.

Speed Relays
L14HA Indicates the Turbine Is in
the Acceleration Phase
of Start-up.
L14HS Indicates the HP Turbine Has
Reached the Min Governing
Speed.

Figure 3. Starting Sequence.

Full Speed No Load:


Indicated When L14HS
Is Satisfied. The
Turbine Will Trip if
Complete Sequence Is
Not Reached Before Incomplete Sequence Timer
Times out.

Starting/Shutdown Sequence and Control

Flame Detected

Turbine Vent Timer Complete:

PAGE LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK.

GE Power Systems
General Electric Company
One River Road, Schenectady, NY 12345
518 385 2211 TX: 145354

GEK 106866A
Revised, August 1999
Replaces LCGD03

GE Power Systems
Gas Turbine

Loading Characteristics General

I. GENERAL
Once the unit has been synchronized either manually or automatically it can be loaded by several loading
sequences. For instance, a unit can be loaded manually or automatically up to a temperature control limit,
or a (KW) output load limit. More details on the actual control panel features are described in the Operation
section of this manual.
II. SYNCHRONIZING
Automatic synchronizing is accomplished using a microprocessor synchronizing circuit. The circuit inputs
are transmitted through an interface module. The interface module contains an isolation transformer for the
generator and line input signals and the breaker closing relay. The synchronizing software is part of the
SPEEDTRONIC computer.
For synchronizing, the unit is brought to 100.3% of rated speed. If the system frequency has varied enough
to cause an unacceptably high slip frequency a speed matching circuit in the synchronizer will adjust the turbine governor to reduce the slip frequency and permit synchronizing.
For added protection a synchronism check relay is provided. It is used in series with both the auto synchronizing relay and the manual breaker close switch to prevent large out-of-phase breaker closures.
III. FULL-SPEED, NO-LOAD
The reason that the Full-Speed, No-Load adjustment is important is that it actually calibrates speed with
the called-for speed using the digital setpoint. The 100.3% setpoint will cause an increase in fuel command
necessary to raise the speed 0.3% above synchronous grid frequency. It is essential that the generator and
system frequency be matched within 0.33 Hz to synchronize quickly with the synchronizing relay. FullSpeed-No-Load therefore is an important setting to assure proper speed for synchronizing.
IV. LOAD CONTROL
Speed load control increases fuel through the digital setpoint to maintain output value. Most units have three
values of output control; reference to the Control Specifications for settings is required.

These instructions do not purport to cover all details or variations in equipment nor to provide for every possible
contingency to be met in connection with installation, operation or maintenance. Should further information be desired or
should particular problems arise which are not covered sufficiently for the purchasers purposes the matter should be
referred to the GE Company.
1999 GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY

GEK 106866A

Loading Characteristics General

1. Spinning Reserve Once the generator breaker is closed, the turbine will load to this setting.
2. Preselected Load This load is selected by giving the unit a second start signal after it is at spinning
reserve.
3. Load Limit The load is not selectable but is an output protection beyond which the unit is not
permitted to operate. It is normally the material limit for the generator.
V. MANUAL LOAD
The operator may increase or decrease load between no-load and base temperature control line. The loading
is accomplished by raising or lowering the digital setpoint.
VI. TEMPERATURE CONTROL
Temperature control is initiated by the switch 43BP. In this mode of control load is increased automatically until
a temperature control limit is reached. Load is then held at a constant firing temperature as more fully described
in the Temperature Control text. Turbine output in this mode of control is a function of ambient temperature.
VII. LOAD RATE
Load may be increased from FSNL to base load according to the following table for 4% droop:
Non-DLN

DLN

Model Series

Manual

Normal

Fast Load

Manual

Normal

Fast Load

MS5001P

30 sec

4 min

30 sec

30 sec

4 min

2 min

MS6001B

30 sec

4 min

30 sec

30 sec

4 min

2 min

MS7001EA

6 min

12 min

90 sec

6 min

12 min

3 min

MS7001FA

6 min

12 min

90 sec

6 min

12 min

4 min

MS9001E

6 min

12 min

90 sec

6 min

12 min

3 min

MS9001EC

6 min

12 min

90 sec

6 min

12 min

3 min

MS9001FA

6 min

12 min

90 sec

6 min

12 min

4 min

MS6001FA

6 min

12 min

N/A

6 min

12 min

N/A

NOTE
Manual load control is provided for full convenient rapid adjustment of load. It is not
intended to be used to raise load to rated output without interruption. Frequent use of
manual setpoint control to reach rated load rapidly can reduce hot gas path parts life.
Similarly excessive use of Fast Start can also reduce hot gas path parts life.

GE Power Systems
General Electric Company
One River Road, Schenectady, NY 12345
518 385 2211 TX: 145354