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Chapter 2

Bell 412
Electrical Power System
Sound

Types & Purposes of Electrical


Power

DC Electrical Power
Primary power source
Used for majority of aircraft systems
24 VDC Battery Power
Used for starting
Backup source of DC power
28 VDC Generator Power
Primary DC power source after engine start
Used on all DC systems for normal operations

Types & Purposes of Electrical


Power

5 VDC Power
Used for instrument lighting
Derived from 24 or 28 VDC power
24 or 28 VDC External Power
Used for starting/maintenance
GPU is limited to 28 VDC and 1000 Amps
AC Power
Derived from DC power thru solid state inverters
115 VAC and 26.5 VAC

Control of Power Distribution


Cockpit Controls

Battery Bus
switches
Generator switches
Inverter switches
Non Essential Bus
switch
Emergency Load
switch

Protection & Separation

Protected by circuit
breakers

Circuit breakers are


bracketed by system
NON ESSENTIAL BUS

10
ESSENTIAL BUS

EMERGENCY BUS

10

10

Battery
Battery Power
Power

Battery
Battery Start
Start

External
External Power
Power Start
Start

Remote
Remote Start
Start

Generator
Generator ON
ON at
at 71%
71% N
N11 --

AC Electrical Power
INVERTER SWITCHES

TWO SOLID STATE


115 VAC & 26.5 VAC
INVERTERS

Inverter
Inverter Operation
Operation

Inverters
Inverters
CHECKED
CHECKED

Control of Power Distribution


DC Control Units
Connected to each
generator

Provide voltage
regulation

Provide
over/under voltage
protection

Provide reverse
current & ground
fault protection

Control of Power Distribution


Circuit Breakers

Automatic trip due to


short or overload

Used manually to
effect system change

Used to reduce
electrical load on nonswitched items

Used to check system


operation

Indications of Electrical Power


DC Electrical Power & AC Electrical Power

GENERATOR
RELAY OPEN

DC Electrical Power Caution


Panel Lights

GENERATOR
RELAY OPEN

GENERATOR
OVERHEATED

GENERATOR
OVERHEATED

BOTH BAT BUS


SWITCHES
IN SAME
POSITION

BATTERY
HOT
BATTERY
HOT
deactivated
with lead acid
battery

EXTERNAL
POWER
DOOR OPEN

AC Electrical Power Caution


Panel Lights

115VAC
POWER
OUTPUT
FAILURE

115VAC
POWER
OUTPUT
FAILURE

Sources of Electrical
Power
BATTERY
34

AMP
hour rating
Nickel Cadmium or
Lead Acid Optional
Ram air cooling
system in flight

Cockpit lndications

DC voltmeters show battery voltage on essential Bus (may be as


high as 26 VDC initially)
BATTERY
BATTERY caution panel light indicates
both battery bus relays are in same position - Closed
If BATTERY switch wont stay on - check BAT BUS CBs - in
Low battery voltage - Use GPU or replace battery

Caution Panel Light


BATTERY

BATTERY CPS illuminates with both BAT BUS relays in


same position

Normal during engine starting and with only 1 generator on

When 2nd generator switched ON - # 1 BUS bat switch


snaps to OFF

Battery CPS extinguishes with 1 relay open & 1 relay closed

If CPS does not extinguish with 1 switch ON and 1


switch OFF - Both BAT BUS relays still closed (means
Independent electrical Systems [Generators] still connected)
Check both generators - ON
Reverse BAT BUS switches - If no help, have maintenance
check BUS BAT relays

Warning Light
BATTERY
TEMP

( NI-CAD ONLY)

Indicates internal battery temp = 145 F


Thermoswitch presses

against bottom of
battery case - Switch activates at 130 F
Internal battery temp vs case temp = 15 F
May also have indication of high amps due
to excessive charging
Procedure - Both BAT BUS switches - OFF

Low Battery Voltage


Use external power
Do not attempt start with less than

20 VDC

External Power

Battery pack or Ground


Power Unit (GPU)
Always disconnect prior to
flight
Closing external power
door - Microswitch
extinguishes EXTERNAL
POWER caution light
28 VDC (1000 Amps)
maximum

EXTERNAL
POWER

Starter/Generators
Rated @ 200 Amps - De-rated by BHT to 150

Amps
Mounted on N1
Accessory
section of each
engine
Designed shear point to prevent damage to
engine in case of failure
Generators turn anytime engine is running

Activation
Generator Switches

- 3 position
ON - closes
generator relay
OFF - opens
generator relay
Reset- Re-energizes
generator field

Generator Relays & Circuit


Breakers
Generator Relays -

Connect generator
output into elec. system
Interconnected with
start relay for engine
start
Generator Circuit
Breakers - generator
field & Generator reset

START
RELAY
GEN
RELAY

GEN 1

GEN 2

GEN 1

GEN 2

10

10

10

10

RESET

RESET

FIELD

FIELD

Cockpit lndications

DC voltmeters - Display DC voltage on ESNTL BUS 1 &

ESNTL BUS 2
Ampmeters - Show each generators load
DC GENERATOR CPS - Indicates generator relay
position
DC
GENERATOR

Inverters

450 volt/amp
Solid state/static (No moving parts)
Converts DC to AC
400 cycle power
Requires DC input - 18 to 30 VDC
Outputs both 115 VAC and
26.5 VAC
Requires 115 VAC to produce 26.5 VAC
Inverter switch for each inverter
DC circuit breaker protection for inverter power
115 VAC sensors and Bus control relay determine
active buses

Normal AC Power
412SP/HP/EP

NO.1 EMER DC BUS

26.5 VAC
115 VAC

NO. 1
INVERTER

NO.2 EMER DC BUS

26.5 VAC
115 VAC

NO. 1
INVERTER
SWITCH

INVERTER 1

SENSOR
RELAY

AC BUS
SENSING AND CONTROL
RELAYS

NO. 2
INVERTER
NO. 2
INVERTER
SWITCH

SENSOR
RELAY

INVERTER 2

115 VAC
EMER BUS

26.5 VAC
EMER BUS

NO. 1 115VAC
BUS

VM

NO. 1 26.5 VAC


BUS

VM

NO. 2 26.5 VAC


BUS

NO. 2 115VAC
BUS
NO. 3 115VAC
BUS

NO. 3 26.5 VAC


BUS

Normal AC Power
Early 412

NO.2 ESS DC BUS

NO.1 ESS DC BUS

26.5 VAC
115 VAC

NO. 1
INVERTER

26.5 VAC
115 VAC

NO. 1
INVERTER
SWITCH

INVERTER 1

NO. 1 115VAC
BUS
NO. 2 115VAC
BUS
NO. 3 115VAC
BUS

SENSOR
RELAY

AC BUS
SENSING AND CONTROL
RELAYS

NO. 2
INVERTER
NO. 2
INVERTER
SWITCH

SENSOR
RELAY

INVERTER 2

VM

NO. 1 26.5 VAC


BUS

VM

NO. 2 26.5 VAC


BUS
NO. 3 26.5 VAC
BUS

Cockpit Indications
AC voltmeters
Gyro instruments activate automatically
indicates 115 VAC output
Pressure instruments indicate
26.5 VAC output
INVERTER CPS out also indicates
115 VAC output

NO. 1
INVERTER

NO. 2
INVERTER

Engine
Start

Battery Switches ON
All busses energized
except non-essential
buses
Start relay &
Generator relay close
Engage starter for
normal start

Engine
Start

Starter disengaged at
55% N1
Generator - turned
on at 71% N1
minimum
Generator now
powers all busses
except nonessential buses
Generator will not
come on line until
starter is
disengaged

Engine
Start
Second engine

Second engine
start is generator
assisted (cross
start)

Same procedure
for disengaging
starter and
turning on
generator as first
engine start

Battery Bus No. 1


switch will
automatically
switch off

Engine
Start

All buses now


active, including
non essential

Both generators
sharing load

Normal in-flight
configuration

Generator Malfunctions

NO.1
DC GENERATOR FAILURE

DC
GENERATOR

Generator
Failures

Possibly caused
by internal
failure, voltage
problem, engine
failure, popped
CB

Affected
generator
ammeter reads 0
amps

DC Generator
CPS illuminated

NO.2
DC GENERATOR FAILURE

DC
GENERATOR

Generator
Failures

Possibly caused
by internal
failure, voltage
problem, engine
failure, popped
CB

Affected
generator
ammeter reads 0
amps

DC Generator
CPS illuminated

Generator Failures
DC
DC
GENERATOR
GENERATOR

All lighting and avionics on non-non-essential buses


inoperative

GEN FIELD and GEN RESET CBs - Check in

GEN switch (affected generator) - RESET, then ON

If generator remains inoperative, turn GEN switch OFF

If #2 generator failed - BATTERY BUS 2 - OFF


BATTERY BUS 1 switch - ON

NON-ESNTL BUS switch - MANUAL

DC AMPS - Monitor; if load exceeds limit:

NON-ESNTL BUS switch - As desired. Switch off


unnecessary equipment as required

Non-Essential Bus Switch

DUAL
DC GENERATOR FAILURE

DC
GENERATOR

DC
GENERATOR

Generator
Failures

Voltmeters
indicate battery
voltage - 24 VDC

Both ammeters 0 amps

Land within 30
minutes

Emergency load
switch may be
used to extend
battery (90
minutes) if
authorized

Emergency Load Switch


Used to extend battery power from 30 to 90

minutes
Disconnects power from
most electrical items
Navigation and approach
under IMC may be impossible
CAUTION: Never use above 5000 HP, as both
boost pumps will be turned off

NO. 1
INVERTER

NO. 2
INVERTER

115 VAC EMERGENCY BUS

26.5VAC EMERGENCY BUS

AC Power Flow

ONLY
412SP/HP/EP
HAVE AC
EMERGENCY
BUSES

AC Power Failure
NO.1
NO.1
INVERTER
INVERTER

NO.2
NO.2
INVERTER
INVERTER

Possible loss of of power to certain ac


instruments (with or without inverter
light)
Check both AC voltmeters to determine
that the remaining inverter automatically
assumed all AC load
INV PWR CBs - Check in
Re-engage AP1(HP1) or AP2(HP2)

If power is lost to

only certain ac
instruments, but
INVERTER
caution light
remains out,
proceed as follows

AC FEEDERS CBs
(8 each) - Check in

During IFR flight,

if both inverters
fail, land as soon as
practical: or
continue flight
under VFR, if
desired

AC FEEDERS

AC FEEDERS

Dual Inverter Failure

Both inverter caution lights illuminated

AFCS

NO.1
NO.1
INVERTER
INVERTER

NO.2
NO.2
INVERTER
INVERTER

caution light
illuminated
HSI & ADI display OFF & ATT flags
ALL pressure instruments fail
Fuel Quantity System (412)- Gage sticks at
last position (Back up with FUEL LOW caution
light)
Fuel Quantity System (412SP/HP/EP) - No
effect (DC powered)

Inverter Malfunctions

AEROSERVICIOS
ESPECIALIZADOS

Bell 412
Electrical Power System
Sound
Sound