Você está na página 1de 2

nffi Mining

o
o
s)
trr

g
r!

Mining is the processof ertracting usefulminerals from the earth'scrust - the land and the seas.
The processinvolves the plrvsical removal of rock and earth. Excavationstake place in different
types of mines. Undergroundmines are constructedwhen any ore lies deepbelow the surface.
There are severaltypesof surfacemining, but the three most common are open-pitmining, strip
mining, and quarrying. Thesediffer from one another in:
. their structure

o
o
3

. the mining techniquesemployed

. the minerals produced.

There are typically four stagesto mining:


prospecting- looking for mineral deposits
exploring- assessingthe size,shape,location, and economicvalue of the deposit
developing- preparing accessto the depositso that the minerals can be mined
exploiting- extracting the minerals

z
.o
7

o
T

Mining is an extremelydangerousactivity.The health and safetyof mine workers and the


protection of the public are achievedby regular mine safetyaudits and mine site inspections.

ttt

an

Variousprolessionnls
are employedin mining to extract minerals.The output from mines can be
divided lnto nrctalliferous,nonnTetalliJ.erous
and builng andorruunual stones.

Professionals
in mining
drillsupervisor. environmental
engineer. geochemist. geologist. geophysicist
. miner . miningengineer. prospector. safetyengineer
hydrogeologist
Minerals: metalliferous ores
copper r $old . iron . lead . manganese tin o zinc
Minerals: nonmetalliferousores
asbestos . bauxite . borax . coal feldspar
phosphaterock quartz . talctrona
Building and ornamental stones
granite r limestone . marble . slate traprock . travertine
What's in a mine?
cog o chute . conveyor o draline . drift . drill . dump truck
explosive headframe o mechanicalloader . mine g r pump o raise
shovel . skip . stope . strippingmachine r sur'r'rF ventilationshaft

Here is a comparisonof the propertiesof different gradesof coal:


Peatis the lowestgradeof coal. It is cornposedof 90'/owater, 5% carbon, and 5'lovolatile
materials.Becauseof its high water content, it is not commonly usedfor fuel. The secondlowest
gradeof coal is lignite. It is formed in swampsand then coveredby large amounts of water,
usually an oceanor sea,The secondhighest grade of coal is calledbituminous or "soft coal". It is
formed when the weight of overlyingsediment,the depth of burial, and the length of time are
slightly increased.The highest and most desirablegrade of coal, calledanthracite, is formed
when previouslyformed coal depositsare subjectedto substantiallyincreasedheat and pressure.

48

Iilgg
t

Match the following words rndphrasesrvith their definitions.


deposit

a n a t u r a lo c c u r r e n c eo f a u s e f u lm i n e r a li n s u f f i c i e n tq u a n t i t i e sf o r
ex0loitation

excavate

a n a t u r a lr e s o u r c ee x t r a c t e df r o m t h e e a r t h f o r h u m a nu s e , e . g . ,o r e s ,
s a l t s , c o a l ,o r p e t r o l e u m

exprore

a n o p e n o r s u r f a c em i n e r a lw o r k i n g u
, s u a l l yf o r t h e e x t r a c t i o no f b u i l d i n g
s t o n e ,s u c h a s s l a t e a n d l i m e s t o n e

extract

e x a m i n ea t e r r i t o r yf o r i t s m i n e r a w
l ealth

mineral

removecoal or ore from a mine

mining

removesoil and/or rock materialsfrom one locationand transportthem


to another

ore

s e a r c hf o r c o a l , m i n e r a l s o
, r ore

prospect

t h e n a t u r a l l yo c c u r r i n gm a t e r i a fl r o m w h i c ha m i n e r a lo r m i n e r a l so f
economicvalue can be extracted

quarry

t h e s c i e n c e t, e c h n i q u e a, n d b u s i n e s so f m i n e r a ld i s c o v e r ya n d e x p l o i t a t i o n

o
o
g)
ct

g,
-

=
z
E

Irl

Label the fbllowing itenrsof mining equipmentwith words from the box.

shovel
conveyor
drift
headframe
mlningskip
dragline
drill
ta6

dumptruck

Rearrangethe lettersto completethe short descriptionsof the activitiesof differentminins


professionals.

There
aretwomainactivities
in myjob.Firstly
to make

phenomena
I studyandinvestigate
whichcause

holesin rocksothatsamoles
of therockcanbetakenand

movement
of theearth's
surface.
Through
mystudies

(a)
to nsert

I heloothers
to locate
oetroleum
andmineral
(tseopids)

(leoivsxspe)
for blasting

I makeevaluations
of conditions
ata
(b)

( i e n ma)n dc h e caki rp o l l u t i o n ,

waste
disposal,
mined
andpreviously
areas.

I specialize
in varlous
branches
of work,including
(f)

(goespnrctip),
surveying,
and

technical
underground
management.
Myjobisto studythechemistry
of (c)
thematerials
of whichit is made.
Thisinformation
helos

M yj o bi st o i n s p e a
c tl lp o s s i bdl ea n g esrp o t si nt h em i n e ,
prepare
(g)
(sutdai)
andcooperate
with

(d)
usto discover

c0mmittees
t0 prevent
unnecessary
dangers

(htare)
I specialize
materials.
inthestudyof theplanet
and
( n l r i a m easn)df u e l s

49