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pH Fuzzy Control for Juice Clarification

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International Research Publication House

http://www.irphouse.com

Sebastian George1 and Devendra N. Kyatanavar2

1,2

Abstract

In the process of manufacturing white consumption sugar, the

clarification of juice in the juice clarifier is a very important task. At

the clarifier, raw juice is treated with milk of lime and then with

Sulphur Dioxide for maintaining the treated juice pH around a predetermined value. The lime sulphitation pH control system provides

very effective clarification for the liquid phase reaction which

improves the quality of sugar produced. The mixed juice from the mills

contains soluble and non-soluble suspended non-sugars. These

impurities are to be precipitated by the judicious and controlled

addition of milk of lime and subsequent neutralization by Sulphur

Dioxide gas. In this paper, a hybrid Fuzzy logic P+I control of pH in

the juice clarifier is attempted. The Fuzzy controller is very successful

in handling such systems with non-linearities and various complexities

without having to develop their mathematical models in an explicit

form using any integral, differential or complex mathematical

equations. At the same time all the advantages of the conventional P+I

controllers are retained. The simulation has been performed in the

MATLAB environment using Simulink and Fuzzy Logic Toolbox. The

results show that the hybrid controller is more efficient in tracking the

set points and is more stable when compared with P+I controller.

Keywords: Fuzzy Logic Control, Juice Clarifier, Lime Sulphitation pH

Control, P+I Controller.

1. Introduction

Systems for pH control can be divided into two types, those where pH control is

incidental to carrying out the main reaction and those where the equipment serves only

to mix a reagent and process stream to give a certain pH[1]. Fermentation is an

example of the first type, and because of the large hold up of solution and slow

disappearance of reagent, pH control is fairly easy and on-off control is usually

adequate.

618

second and more difficult type of problem. In this application, the non linear change in

the pH with the reagent flow makes close control of pH difficult. A change in the set

point can change the process gain and optimum controller gain several fold and

perhaps lead to unstable oscillations. Also the system used for pH control have to cope

with severe load changes resulting from changes in concentration and change in flow.

Large load changes affect the process gain and may even alter the time constants of the

system, which makes it very difficult to design a control system that is moderately fast

yet stable for all conditions. For such systems, controlling with classical controllers

like a Proportional-Integral (P+I) controller is really difficult. On the contrary, a Fuzzy

controller is very successful in handling such systems with non-linearities and various

complexities. The Fuzzy controllers are capable of utilizing knowledge elicited from

human operators[2]. This is crucial in control problems for which it is difficult or even

impossible to construct precise mathematical models. Fuzzy logic systems can map the

physical non-linear relation of input-output model without a precise mathematical

formula.

In this paper, a Hybrid Fuzzy logic P+I Controller is designed for the juice

clarifier. The performance of this controller is compared with the classical P+I

controller.

The mixed juice from the mills contains soluble and nonsoluble suspended nonsugars.

These impurities are to be precipitated by the judicious and controlled addition of milk

of lime and subsequent neutralization by Sulphur Dioxide gas to maintain the pH

around a preset value. In earlier pH control systems, it was assumed that the flow of

SO2 is constant and SO2 flow control was hence not attempted. But later the need was

felt for an online continuous lime and SO2 flow control. A majority of the sugar

factories in India are based on double sulphitation process for clarifying mixed juices.

This process demands controlled addition of milk of lime (Figure 1) and Sulphur

Dioxide (Figure 2) depending upon the pH of the mixed juice[4].

619

The block diagram of the pH neutralization in a juice clarifier is shown in (Figure 3).

The process is simulated in MATLAB using Simulink. Two control valves are

included in the simulation, one for controlling the flow of milk of lime and the later for

control of flow of SO2 into the raw juice[7].

The classical approach and method most widely used in practice for establishing

appropriate values for the control parameters of a PID controller is the ZieglerNichols

tuning method. Although the approach is a proven method, in the case of highly non

linear systems a modified trial and error procedure to find the most appropriate

parameter settings is required[8].

620

In general, Fuzzy controllers are general expert systems. Its basic configuration

comprises Fuzzification interface, Rule base, Inference mechanism and

Defuzzification interface[6]. Figure 4 shows the logical diagram of Fuzzy logic P+I

controller[8]. The set point of the desired pH value is entered manually while other

process control variables are controlled automatically based on the information

(feedback) coming from the plant output. The job of the Fuzzy logic controller is to

maintain the corresponding pH value while manipulating the process control variables.

When the current pH value is less than the desired value, Fuzzy logic controller sets a

new point for the P+I valve flow rate controller[7]. The new value of current set point

depends upon the difference between the current pH value of effluent juice and the

desired value.

Figure 5 and 6 show the membership functions for the input and output sets

respectively[8]. The input set is the error in the pH value of the effluent juice. Output

set in this case determines the output for P+I controller ( whether to increase the pH

value by increasing the flow rate of milk of lime or to decrease the pH value by

increasing the flow rate of SO2).

621

Table 1 shows the Rule Base which defines the relationship between the input set

and output set parameters[7].

Table 1: IFTHEN Rule Statement Description

Error in

pH

NVL

NL

NM

NS

ZE

PS

PM

PL

PVL

Manipulated variable

for P+I controller

ONVL

ONL

ONM

ONS

OZE

OPS

OPM

OPL

OPVL

Regarding the set value of pH of the clarified juice, no fixed universal values are

available. It varies with the type of juice that is being handled at the clarifier. It is

desirable to maintain uniform pH since rapid changes in pH are likely to cause

secondary precipitation in the juice[4]. In our simulation a set value of 7.00 pH is

selected.

Servo and Regulator Problems. For every feedback control system, we can

distinguish two types of control problems: the Servo problem and the Regulator

problem[3]. In the Servo problem, the set value of the controlled variable undergoes a

change while the load disturbance remaining unchanged. On the contrary, in the

Regulator problem, the load disturbance changes with the set point remaining

unchanged. To study the Servo response, a step increase in the set value of pH is done

from 7.00 to 8.00 at 200 sec, 8.00 to 10.00 at 1500 sec, 10.00 to 9.00 at 800 sec, 9.00

to 6.00 at 1200 sec and then back to 7.00 at 500 sec. Similarly in the Regulator

problem, the set value is kept constant and a load disturbance is applied by changing

622

the influent flow of raw juice[5]. It is increased by 2%, 4%, 6%,8% and 10% from its

nominal value at 200sec, 500 sec, 800 sec, 1200 sec and 1500 sec respectively.

Integral Square Error It is observed that the steady state response of the process

under Hybrid controller is much better than that under P+I controller in both the Servo

problem and Regulator problem. As a dynamic performance criterion, the Integral

Square Error (ISE) has been calculated[5] for the process response under Hybrid

controller and P+I controller. The calculated value of ISE is found to be much less for

Hybrid controller in Regulator response and slightly less in case of Servo response

when compared with the P+I controller.

6. Conclusion

The scope of this paper was to design a classical P+I controller and a Hybrid Fuzzy

logic P+I controller for the simulated process. As such, no hardware implementation is

carried out. Hence typical problems like pH electrode lag, choking of feed valves and

feed channels with lime etc. are not given attention. The main objective of this work

was to demonstrate that the Hybrid controllers is much better when compared to

classical controllers to control those processes which are highly non-linear and where

the analytical model is not well known.

References

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

Peter Harriot, Process Control. Tata Mc-Graw Hill Publishing Co. Ltd., New

Delhi, pp 348357. 1993

George J. Klir, Bo Youn. Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic Theory and Applications.

Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, pp 330-338. 2003

George Stephanopoulos. Chemical Process Control, An Introduction to Theory

and Practice. Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, pp 258-263,302.

September 1995

Laxmi Narayan, K.S.N. Rao, S. Kota, G. N. Acharya. pH Control System for

Juice Clarification. Proceedings of Workshop on Modernisation of Sugar

Industry using Electronic Systems , pp 101 -123. CEERI Pilani. September 1986

Ranganath Muthu, Elamin El Kanzi. Fuzzy Logic Control of a pH Neutralization

Process. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Electronic Circuits

and Systems (ICECS-2003), pp 1066-1069. October 2003

Oon Pin Lim, T.C. Ling, K.K. Phang. Development of Fuzzy Logic Control

Systems. Malaysian Journal of Compuer Science, Vol. 11, No. 2. December 1998

Oumair Naseer, Atif Ali Khan. Hybrid Fuzzy logic and PID controller for pH

Neutralization Pilot Plant. International Journal of Fuzzy logic systems, Vol. 3,

No 2, April 2013.

Rosdiazli Ibrahim. Practical Modeling and Control Implementation Studies on a

pH Neutralization Process Pilot Plant. Department of Electronics and Electrical

Engineering, University of Glasgow, pp 109-166, March 2008.

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