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Artificial Intelligence : By Ms.

Rachna Minocha

AI is a branch of computer science which deals with the


study and creation of systems which are as follows :
That show some form of intelligence
That learn new concepts and tasks
That can understand a natural language
That can perceive and comprehend
That perform other types of facts that require human
type of intelligence

Artificial Intelligence is a branch of Science which deals


with helping machines find solutions to complex problems
in a more human-like fashion.
This generally involves borrowing characteristics from
human intelligence, and applying them as algorithms in a
computer friendly way.
A more or less flexible or efficient approach can be taken
depending on the requirements established, which
influences how artificial the intelligent behaviour appears.
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AI is generally associated with Computer Science, but it


has many important links with other fields such as Maths,
Psychology, Cognition, Biology and Philosophy, among
many others.
Our ability to combine knowledge from all these fields
will ultimately benefit our progress in the quest of
creating an intelligent artificial being.

Understanding Artificial Intelligence requires


understanding of related terms such as
Intelligence
Knowledge
Reasoning
Thought
Cognition learning etc.

Intelligence has the ability to acquire, understand and


apply knowledge or the ability to exercise thought and
reason.

Intelligence collects all the knowledge and facts , both


conscious and unconscious, which we have acquired
through study and experiences.

Systems which can solve complex problems in


mathematics
Systems that can be used for scheduling many diverse
tasks.
Systems that can be used for the military and for business
Systems that can be used for diagnosing medical diseases
Systems which can see well enough to recognize objects
from photographs, video cameras and other sensors

Goal of AI is to develop the working computer systems


that are truly capable of performing tasks that require
high level of intelligence.

AI is closely related with fields like engineering


(particularly electrical and mechanical), linguistics
(languages), psychology, cognitive science , philosophy
and Robotics.
AI is also involved in otherfields including medical
diagnosis, stock trading, law, remote sensing,
scientific discovery and toys.

The potential applications of Artificial Intelligence are


abundant.
They stretch from the military for autonomous control and
target identification, to the entertainment industry for
computer games and robotic pets.
Lets also not forget big establishments dealing with huge
amounts of information such as hospitals, banks and
insurances, who can use AI to predict customer behaviour
and detect trends.
As you may expect, the business of Artificial Intelligence is
becoming one of the major driving forces for research.
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Game playing :You can buy machines that can play master
level chess for a few hundred dollars. To beat a world
champion by brute force, requires being able to look at
200 million positions per second.
Speech recognition : In the 1990s, computer speech
recognition reached a practical level for limited purposes.
Thus United Airlines has replaced its keyboard for flight
information by a system using speech recognition of flight
numbers and city names. It is quite convenient.
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Understanding natural language : Just getting a sequence


of words into a computer is not enough. The computer
has to be provided with an understanding of the domain
the text is about, and this is presently possible only for
very limited domains.
computer vision : The world is composed of threedimensional objects, but the inputs to the human eye and
computers' TV cameras are two dimensional. Full
computer vision requires partial three-dimensional
information. At present there are only limited ways of
representing three-dimensional information directly.
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Expert systems : A ``knowledge engineer'' interviews


experts in a certain domain and tries to embody their
knowledge in a computer program for carrying out some
task. One of the first expert systems was MYCIN in 1974,
which diagnosed bacterial infections of the blood and
suggested treatments. It did better than medical students
or practicing doctors, provided its limitations were
observed.

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Heuristic classification : One of the most feasible kinds of


expert system given the present knowledge of AI is to put
some information in one of the fixed set of categories
using several sources of information. An example is
advising whether to accept a proposed credit card
purchase. Information is available about the owner of the
credit card, his record of payment and also about the item
he is buying and about the establishment from which he is
buying it (e.g., about whether there have been previous
credit card frauds at this establishment).

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