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Certificate

This is to certify that the project entitled INTERNAL CURING OF HIGH


PERFORMANCE CONCRETE BY SUPER ABSORBENT POLYMER is a bonafide record
of project work carried out by ABDUL MUQSITH P.M, AKHIL.C.P, ANUSREE.T.V,
NASHAD HASSAN.P.K, NEENU.K.VIJAY under our guidance towards the partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Bachelor of Technology in the field of Civil
Engineering of the University of Calicut during the year 2014-15.

Guide

Head of Department

Ms Neethu.V.K

Dr.Sabeena M.V

Assistant Professor

Professor

Dept.of Civil Engineering

Dept.of Civil Engineering

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to dedicate this project report to those individuals, whom I am are indebted
to for thier guidance and encouragement.
First of all, I submit ourself and this project report to the Lord Almighty who guided us
through the course of collection of data for this project.
I want to convey our most sincere gratitude to Ms. NEETHU V.K, Assistant Professor,
Department of Civil Engineering, AWH Kuttikkattoor for taking out time from the hectic
schedule and guiding me all so in the most warm and friendly manner.
I sincerely acknowledge our HOD, Dr. SABEENA M.V for her support and guidence
during the project work.
I gratefull to our honourable principal, Mr. SHAHIR V.K for providing me with all
facilities.
I also express my special thanks to other staff members of Civil Engineering Department.

ABDULMUQSITH.P.M
AKHILC.P
ANUSREET.V

NASHADHASSAN.P.K
NEENUK.VIJAY

ABSTRACT
Now-a-days HPC has become an object of intensive research due to
its growing use in the construction practice. However, low w/c ratio (below
0.4) of HPC, which is necessary for the enhancement of strength and
durability, leads to self desiccation of concrete, as a result of cement
hydration process. This causes considerable volume changes, which in
turn lead to cracking as well as strength reduction. Internal Curing of
concrete using small well distributed water reservoirs seems to be able to
solve this problem. In this study, the effect of Super Absorbent Polymer as
an agent for internal curing on mechanical strengths of concrete with low
w/c is investigated. The effects of adding polymer on mechanical strength
of concrete are studied experimentally and the results are discussed.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CERTIFICATE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ii

ABSTRACT

iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

iv

LIST OF FIGURES

vii

LIST OF TABLES

viii

1.INTRODUCTION
1
1.1 OBJECTIVE

1.2 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT

1.3 DEFINITION OF INTERNAL CURING (IC)

1.4 NECESSITY OF INTERNAL CURING (IC)

1.5 POTENTIAL MATERIALS FOR INTERNAL CURING

1.6 ADVANTAGES OF INTERNAL CURING

1.7 CONCRETE DEFICIENCIES THAT IC CAN ADDRESS

1.8 IMPROVEMENTS TO CONCRETE DUE TO IC

1.9 SUMMARY

2.LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 GENERAL

2.2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.3 SUMMARY

15

3.SUPER ABSORBENT POLYMER

16

3.1 GENERAL

16

3.2 PROPERTIES OF SUPER ABSORBENT POLYMER

18

3.2.1 Shrinkage Reduction

18

3.2.2 Frost Protection

18

3.2.3 Fire protection

18

3.3 POTENTIAL APPLICATION

18

3.3.1 Shortcrete

19

3.3.2 Backfilling

19

3.3.3 Soil stabilization

19

3.3.4 Smart paint

19
4

19

3.3.5 Other applications in concrete construction

3.4 SUMMARY

20

4. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
21
4.1 CONSTITUENT MATERIALS USED

21

4.1.1 Cement

21
4.1.2 Aggregates

24

4.1.3 Silica Powder

27

4.1.4 Super-Absorbent Polymer (SAP)

27

4.2 FRESH CONCRETE PROPERTIES

28

4.2.1 Slump Test

28
29

4.2.2 Compacting Factor

4.3 HARDENED CONCRETE PROPERTIES

30

4.3.1 Compression Test on Concrete Cubes

30

4.3.2 Tensile Strength of Concrete (Split Tensile Test)

31

4.3.3 Flexural strength of Concrete

32

4.4 SUMMARY

33

5 MATERIAL TESTING RESULTS

34

5.1 Test on Cement

34

5.2 Test on Fine aggregate

34

5.3 Test on Coarse aggregate

35

6 MIX DESIGN

38

6.1 Definition

38

6.2 Objective of Mix Design

38

6.3 Factors to be Considered in Mix Design

38

6.3.1 Compressive strength

39

6.3.2 Type of cement

39

6.3.3 Type and size of aggregate

39

6.3.4 Water cement ratio

39
39

6.3.5 Type of mixing and curing

40

6.3.6 Degree of workability

6.3.7 Air content

40
6.3.8 Economy

40

6.3.9 Handling condition

40

6.3.10 Climatic condition and exposure

40

6.3.11 Aesthetics and appearance

41

6.4 mix composition


41
41

6.5 Calculation: Mix


7 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

45

7.1 Fresh Concrete Properties

45
45

7.2 Mechanical Properties


7.2.1 Compressive Strength

45
7.2.2 Split Tensile Strength

45

7.2.3 Flexural strength

46

7.3 Summary

47

8 COMPARISON OF RESULTS
48
8.1 SUMMARY

49

9 CONCLUSION

51

9.1 GENERAL

51

10 SCOPE OF FUTURE WORK

52

10.1 GENERAL

52

REFERENCE

53

LIST OF FIGURES
Fig.1.1 Internal Curing

Fig.3.1:SuperAbsorbent Polymer

17

Fig.3.2: SAP before and after addition of water

17

Fig.4.1:Vicat Apparatus

23

Fig.4.2:Slump Test

29

Fig.4.3: Compaction Factor Test

30

Fig.4.4:Compression Test on Cubes

31

Fig.4.5:Splitting Tensile Strength Test

32

Fig.4.6:Flexural Strength Test

33

Fig.5.1:Particle size distribution for fine aggregate

36

Fig.5.2:Particle size distribution for coarse aggregate

37

Fig.6.1: Moulds

44

Fig.8.1:Comparison of compressive strength

48

Fig.8.2:Comparison of split tensile strength

49

Fig.8.3:Comparison of flexural strength

50

LIST OF TABLES
Table.5.1: Physical Properties Of Ordinary Portland Cement
34
Table.5.2:Properties Of Fine Aggregate
35
Table.5.3:Properties Of Coarse Aggregate
35
Table.5.4:Sieve Analysis For Fine Aggregate
36
Table.5.5:Sieve Analysis For Coarse Aggregate
37
Table.6.1: Mix Proportion of Conventional Concrete per m3
43
Table.6.2:Mix proportion of HPC per m3
44
Table.7.1: Fresh Concrete Properties
45
Table.7.2: Compressive Strength Results

46

Table.7.3: Split Tensile Strength

47

Table.7.4:Flexural Strength

47