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Digital Track: Project

DTMF signal generator

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Agenda

DTMF
CORDIC
Fixed point arithmetic
Project

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DTMF
Dual Tone Multiple Frequency

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Dual-tone multi-frequency signaling


Used for telecommunication signaling over analog
telephone lines
Introduced by AT&T in 1963. Replaced the rotary dial.
Standardized by ITU

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Example of DTMF signal


DTMF output is the sum of a low and a high frequency
sinusoidal waves

697 Hz Sine Wave

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1209 Hz Sine Wave

DTMF Tone "1"

DTMF Keypad: Frequencies


Keypad is a 4x4 matrix
Rows represents low frequencies
Columns represents high frequencies
Upper band
1209 Hz 1336 Hz 1477 Hz 1633 Hz
Lower
band

697 Hz

770 Hz

852 Hz

941 Hz

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Mark and space

The time which a Dtmf digit tone is actually producing


signaling, is called the "Mark" time.
The silence after a mark is called the "Space".
Most Dtmf decoders and controllers will list a minimum
Mark/Space speed, expressed in millisecond

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CORDIC
COordinate Rotation DIgital Computer

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We need to create sine waves


We only have logic gates and flip flops
Several approaches could exists to calculate the
trigonometric functions
Most of them will require multipliers and dividers which are
expensive in terms of performance and area

We need an alternative to compute these functions

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COordinate Rotation DIgital Computer:


CORDIC
Also known as the digit-by-digit method and Volder's
algorithm (1959)
It is a simple and efficient algorithm to calculate
hyperbolic and trigonometric functions.
It is commonly used when no hardware multiplier is
available (e.g., simple microcontrollers and FPGAs)
It only requires: addition, subtraction, bit-shift and table
lookup.
It can lead to an area efficient hardware implementation
For k bit precision, k iterations are required

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CORDIC bases
It uses pseudo-rotations with fixed angles.
it explodes mathematical properties of , and .
fixed angles are selected to use division by 2 (binary
shift)

more info: http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Digital_Circuits/CORDIC and Google


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Using the Cordic: rotation mode


+1 = 2
+1 = + 2
+1 =
= arctan 2 values are
precomputed
= ( )
if 0 =

and 0 = 0 then

= cos 0
= sin(0 )

=
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1
=0

1 + 2

Fixed point arithmetic

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Fixed-point number representation (1/2)


Value of a n-bit binary fixed point number with digits :
= 2

=0 2

=0 2

where:
is a constant giving the position of the binary point (from left)

resolution: = 2
number of fractional bits: = .

Signed numbers: use 2s complement. Notation: .


s
0

p
1

f
0

8 bits

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Fixed-point number representation (2/2)


Binary fixed-point to decimal: to convert to an integer and
multiply by
Decimal number to fixed-point binary number:
(a) multiply by 2
(b) round to nearest whole integer (max. error = r/2)
(c) resulting decimal integer to binary integer

s
0

p
1

f
0

8 bits

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example and operations


E.g.:

Format

Number

Integer

Value

1.3

1.011

0.125 (2^-3)

11

1.375 (11/8)

s1.3

01.011

0.125 (2^-3)

11

1.375 (11/8)

s1.3

11.011

0.125 (2^-3)

-5

-0.625 (-5/8)

2.4

10.0111

0.0625 (2^-4)

39

2.4375 (39/16)

The four basic operations (+,-,*,/) on fixed-point binary


numbers can be performed as if they were integers.
Adding two . fixed-point numbers could give a result
that is a ( + 1). fixed-point number.

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Project
DTMF Generator

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Objective
To design and implement a simple DTMF generator
No silences between key changes are required
No digital to analog conversion

To use CORDIC algorithm to calculate sine or cosine


To use Fixed-point numbers for calculations.

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Specifications
Output of 16 bits named out[15:0]
Input of 5 bits for keypad named key[4:0]
16 key stroke combinations + 1 no-stroke
unused combinations must not produce signaling

Asynchrony Reset called rst


Pin Clock clk
Clock frequency must be determined by you.

mark=40ms; space=40ms
Minimize Power and Area, but achieve accurate timing
All paths must complete on a clock period
Accurate output wave frequencies are required.

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Stamp the idea in paper


DMFT Diagram
keypad
Digital Input

DECODE

sin(wt)
CORDIC

Frequency
Lookup
Table

Modulated
Digital Tone

sin(wt)
CORDIC

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Can we physically implement our


designs?

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MOSIS (Metal Oxide Semiconductor


Implementation Service)
Is probably the oldest (1981) integrated circuit (IC)
foundry service
MOSIS is operated by the Information Sciences Institute
at the University of Southern California (USC)
MOSIS has prototyped more than 50,000 chip designs
for private businesses, government agencies, research
agencies and universities

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MOSIS Educational Program (MEP)


Instructional Program
The MOSIS Instructional program provides free fabrication of
integrated circuits designed by students in organized classes
associated with an accredited university.

These runs are currently sponsored by MOSIS.


Available technologies:
ON Semiconductor 0.50 micron C5 (5 parts per design)
IBM 0.18 micron 7RF (14 parts per design)

Max die size: 1.5mmX1.5mm


MOSIS will provide ceramic or OCP packaging

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DIP 28 package

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Thank You

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