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CHAPTER-1

INTRODUCTION
To have sustainable growth and social progress, it is necessary to meet the energy
need by utilizing the renewable energy resources like wind, biomass, hydro, co-generation,
etc. In sustainable energy system, energy conservation and the use of renewable source are
the key paradigm. The need to integrate the renewable energy like wind energy into power
system is to make it possible to minimize the environmental impact on conventional plant.
The integration of wind energy into existing power system presents a technical challenges
and that requires consideration of voltage regulation, stability, power quality problems. The
power quality is an essential customer-focused measure and is greatly affected by the
operation of a distribution and transmission network. The issue of power quality is of great
importance to the wind turbine.
There has been an extensive growth and quick development in the
exploitation of wind energy in recent years. The individual units can be
of large capacity up to 2 MW, feeding into distribution network,
particularly with customers connected in close proximity. Today, more
than 28,000 wind generating turbines are successfully operating all over
the world. In the fixed-speed wind turbine operation, all the fluctuation
in the wind speed are transmitted as fluctuations in the mechanical
torque, electrical power on the grid and leads to large voltage
fluctuations. During the normal operation, wind turbine produces a
continuous variable output power. These power variations are mainly
caused by the effect of turbulence, wind shear, and tower-shadow and
of control system in the power system.
Thus, the network needs to manage for such fluctuations. The
power quality issues can be viewed with respect to the wind generation,
transmission and distribution network, such as voltage sag, swells,

flickers, harmonics

etc.

However

the wind

generator

introduces

disturbances into the distribution network. One of the simple methods of


running a wind generating system is to use the induction generator
connected directly to the grid system. The induction generator has
inherent advantages of cost effectiveness and robustness. However;
induction generators require reactive power for magnetization. When
the generated active power of an induction generator is varied due to
wind, absorbed reactive power and terminal voltage of an induction
generator can be significantly affected. A proper control scheme in wind
energy generation system is required under normal operating condition
to allow the proper control over the active power production. In the
event of increasing grid disturbance, a battery energy storage system
for wind energy generating system is generally required to compensate
the fluctuation generated by wind turbine. A STATCOM based control
technology has been proposed for improving the power quality which
can

technically

manages

the

power

level

associates

with

the

commercial wind turbines. The proposed STATCOM control scheme for


grid connected wind energy generation for power quality improvement
has following objectives.
Unity power factor at the source side.
Reactive power support only from STATCOM to wind Generator
and Load.
Simple bang-bang controller for STATCOM to achieve fast
dynamic response.
The paper is organized as fallows. The Section II introduces the
power quality standards, issues and its consequences of wind turbine.
The Section III introduces the grid coordination rule for grid quality
limits. The Section IV describes the topology for power quality

improvement. The Sections V, VI, VII describes the control scheme,


system performance and conclusion respectively.

CHAPTER-2
2.1 POWER QUALITY
The contemporary container crane industry, like many other industry segments, is often
enamored by the bells and whistles, colorful diagnostic displays, high speed performance, and
levels of automation that can be achieved. Although these features and their indirectly related
computer based enhancements are key issues to an efficient terminal operation, we must not
forget the foundation upon which we are building. Power quality is the mortar which bonds the
foundation blocks. Power quality also affects terminal operating economics, crane reliability, our
environment, and initial investment in power distribution systems to support new crane
installations.
To quote the utility company newsletter which accompanied the last monthly issue of my
home utility billing: Using electricity wisely is a good environmental and business practice
which saves you money, reduces emissions from generating plants, and conserves our
Natural resources. As we are all aware, container crane performance requirements continue to
increase at an astounding rate. Next generation container cranes, already in the bidding process,
will require average power demands of 1500 to 2000 kW almost double the total average
demand three years ago. The rapid increase in power demand levels, an increase in container
crane population, SCR converter crane drive retrofits and the large AC and DC drives needed to

power and control these cranes will increase awareness of the power quality issue in the very
near future.
2.2 POWER QUALITY PROBLEMS
Any power problem that results in failure or disoperation of customer equipment,
manifests itself as an economic burden to the user, or produces negative impacts on the
environment.

When applied to the container crane industry, the power issues which degrade power quality
include:
Power Factor.
Harmonic Distortion.
Voltage Transients.
Voltage Sags or Dips.
Voltage Swells.
The AC and DC variable speed drives utilized on board container cranes are significant
contributors to total harmonic current and voltage distortion. Whereas SCR phase control creates
the desirable average power factor, DC SCR drives operate at less than this. In addition, line
notching occurs when SCRs commutate, creating transient peak recovery voltages that can be 3
to 4 times the nominal line voltage depending upon the system impedance and the size of the
drives. The frequency and severity of these power system disturbances varies with the speed of
the drive. Harmonic current injection by AC and DC drives will be highest when the drives are
operating at slow speeds. Power factor will be lowest when DC drives are operating at slow
speeds or during initial acceleration and deceleration periods, increasing to its maximum value
when the SCRs are fazed on to produce rated or base speed.
Above base speed, the power factor essentially remains constant. Unfortunately,
container cranes can spend considerable time at low speeds as the operator attempts to spot and

land containers. Poor power factor places a greater kVA demand burden on the utility or enginealternator power source. Low power factor loads can also affect the voltage stability which can
ultimately result in detrimental effects on the life of sensitive electronic equipment or even
intermittent malfunction. Voltage transients created by DC drive SCR line notching, AC drive
voltage chopping, and high frequency harmonic voltages and currents are all significant sources
of noise and disturbance to sensitive electronic equipment
It has been our experience that end users often do not associate power quality problems
with Container cranes, either because they are totally unaware of such issues or there was no
economic Consequence if power quality was not addressed. Before the advent of solid-state
power supplies, Power factor was reasonable, and harmonic current injection was minimal. Not
until the crane Population multiplied, power demands per crane increased, and static power
conversion became the way of life, did power quality issues begin to emerge.
Even as harmonic distortion and power Factor issues surfaced, no one was really
prepared. Even today, crane builders and electrical drive System vendors avoid the issue during
competitive bidding for new cranes. Rather than focus on Awareness and understanding of the
potential issues, the power quality issue is intentionally or Unintentionally ignored. Power
quality problem solutions are available. Although the solutions are not free, in most cases, they
do represent a good return on investment. However, if power quality is not specified, it most
likely will not be delivered.
Power quality can be improved through:
Power factor correction,
Harmonic filtering,
Special line notch filtering,
Transient voltage surge suppression,
Proper earthing systems.

In most cases, the person specifying and/or buying a container crane may not be fully
aware of the potential power quality issues. If this article accomplishes nothing else, we would
hope to provide that awareness.
In many cases, those involved with specification and procurement of container cranes
may not be cognizant of such issues, do not pay the utility billings, or consider it someone elses
concern. As a result, container crane specifications may not include definitive power quality
criteria such as power factor correction and/or harmonic filtering. Also, many of those
specifications which do require power quality equipment do not properly define the criteria.
Early in the process of preparing the crane specification:
Consult with the utility company to determine regulatory or contract requirements that
must be satisfied, if any.
Consult with the electrical drive suppliers and determine the power quality profiles that
cable expected based on the drive sizes and technologies proposed for the specific
project.
Evaluate the economics of power quality correction not only on the present situation, but
consider the impact of future utility deregulation and the future development plans for the
terminal
2.3 THE BENEFITS OF POWER QUALITY
Power quality in the container terminal environment impacts the economics of the
terminal operation, affects reliability of the terminal equipment, and affects other consumers
served by the same utility service. Each of these concerns is explored in the following
paragraphs.
Economic Impact
The economic impact of power quality is the foremost incentive to container terminal
operators. Economic impact can be significant and manifest itself in several ways:
Power Factor Penalties

Many utility companies invoke penalties for low power factor on monthly billings. There
is no industry standard followed by utility companies. Methods of metering and calculating
power factor penalties vary from one utility company to the next. Some utility companies
actually meter kVAR usage and establish a fixed rate times the number of kVAR-hours
consumed. Other utility companies monitor kVAR demands and calculate power factor. If the
power factor falls below a fixed limit value over a demand period, a penalty is billed in the form
of an adjustment to the peak demand charges. A number of utility companies servicing container
terminal equipment do not yet invoke power factor penalties. However, their service contract
with the Port may still require that a minimum power factor over a defined demand period be
met. The utility company may not continuously monitor power factor or kVAR usage and reflect
them in the monthly utility billings; however, they do reserve the right to monitor the Port
service at any time. If the power factor criteria set forth in the service contract are not met, the
user may be penalized, or required to take corrective actions at the users expense. One utility
company, which supplies power service to several east coast container terminals in the USA,
does not reflect power factor penalties in their monthly billings, however, their service contract
with the terminal reads as follows:
The average power factor under operating conditions of customers load at the point
where service is metered shall be not less than 85%. If below 85%, the customer may be required
to furnish, install and maintain at its expense corrective apparatus which will increase the power
factor of the entire installation to not less than 85%. The customer shall ensure that no excessive
harmonics or transients are introduced on to the [utility] system. This may require special power
conditioning equipment or filters. The IEEE Std. 519-1992 is used as a guide in determining
appropriate design requirements.
The Port or terminal operations personnel, who are responsible for maintaining container
cranes, or specifying new container crane equipment, should be aware of these requirements.
Utility deregulation will most likely force utilities to enforce requirements such as the example
above. Terminal operators who do not deal with penalty issues today may be faced with some
rather severe penalties in the future. A sound, future terminal growth plan should include
contingencies for addressing the possible economic impact of utility deregulation.

System Losses
Harmonic currents and low power factor created by nonlinear loads, not only result in
possible power factor penalties, but also increase the power losses in the distribution system.
These losses are not visible as a separate item on your monthly utility billing, but you pay for
them each month. Container cranes are significant contributors to harmonic currents and low
power factor. Based on the typical demands of todays high speed container cranes, correction of
power factor alone on a typical state of the art quay crane can result in a reduction of system
losses that converts to a 6 to 10% reduction in the monthly utility billing. For most of the larger
terminals, this is a significant annual saving in the cost of operation.

2.4 Power Service Initial Capital Investments


The power distribution system design and installation for new terminals, as well as
modification of systems for terminal capacity upgrades, involves high cost, specialized, high and
medium voltage equipment. Transformers, switchgear, feeder cables, cable reel trailing cables,
collector bars, etc. must be sized based on the kVA demand. Thus cost of the equipment is
directly related to the total kVA demand. As the relationship above indicates, kVA demand is
inversely proportional to the overall power factor, i.e. a lower power factor demands higher kVA
for the same kW load. Container cranes are one of the most significant users of power in the
terminal. Since container cranes with DC, 6 pulse, SCR drives operate at relatively low power
factor, the total kVA demand is significantly larger than would be the case if power factor
correction equipment were supplied on board each crane or at some common bus location in the
terminal. In the absence of power quality corrective equipment, transformers are larger,
switchgear current ratings must be higher, feeder cable copper sizes are larger, collector system
and cable reel cables must be larger, etc. Consequently, the cost of the initial power distribution
system equipment for a system which does not address power quality will most likely be higher
than the same system which includes power quality equipment.
2.5 Equipment Reliability

Poor power quality can affect machine or equipment reliability and reduce the life of
components. Harmonics, voltage transients, and voltage system sags and swells are all power
quality problems and are all interdependent. Harmonics affect power factor, voltage transients
can induce harmonics, the same phenomena which create harmonic current injection in DC SCR
variable speed drives are responsible for poor power factor, and dynamically varying power
factor of the same drives can create voltage sags and swells. The effects of harmonic distortion,
harmonic currents, and line notch ringing can be mitigated using specially designed filters.

Power System Adequacy


When considering the installation of additional cranes to an existing power distribution
system, a power system analysis should be completed to determine the adequacy of the system to
support additional crane loads. Power quality corrective actions may be dictated due to
inadequacy of existing power distribution systems to which new or relocated cranes are to be
connected. In other words, addition of power quality equipment may render a workable scenario
on an existing power distribution system, which would otherwise be inadequate to support
additional cranes without high risk of problems.
Environment
No issue might be as important as the effect of power quality on our environment.
Reduction in system losses and lower demands equate to a reduction in the consumption of our
natural nm resources and reduction in power plant emissions. It is our responsibility as occupants
of this planet to encourage conservation of our natural resources and support measures which
improve our air quality.

2.5. POWER QUALITY STANDARDS, ISSUES AND ITS


CONSEQUENCES

A. International Electro Technical Commission Guidelines


The guidelines are provided for measurement of power quality of wind turbine. The
International standards are developed by the working group of Technical Committee-88 of
the International Electro-technical Commission (IEC), IEC standard 61400-21, describes
the procedure for determining the power quality characteristics of the wind turbine . The
standard norms are specified.
1) IEC 61400-21: Wind turbine generating system, part-21. Measurement and
Assessment of power quality characteristic of grid connected wind turbine
2) IEC 61400-13: Wind Turbine measuring procedure in determining the power behavior.
3) IEC 61400-3-7: Assessment of emission limits for fluctuating load IEC 61400-12: Wind
Turbine performance. The data sheet with electrical characteristic of wind turbine provides
the base for the utility assessment regarding a grid connection.
B. Voltage Variation
The voltage variation issue results from the wind velocity and generator torque.
The voltage variation is directly related to real and reactive power variations. The voltage
variation is commonly classified as under:

Voltage Sag/Voltage Dips.


Voltage Swells.
Short Interruptions.
Long duration voltage variation.

The voltage flicker issue describes dynamic variations in the network caused by
wind turbine or by varying loads. Thus the power fluctuation from wind turbine occurs
during continuous operation. The amplitude of voltage fluctuation depends on grid
strength, network impedance, and phase-angle and power factor of the wind turbines. It is
defined as a fluctuation of voltage in a frequency 1035 Hz. The IEC 61400-4-15 specifies
a flicker

C. Harmonics
The harmonic results due to the operation of power electronic converters. The
harmonic voltage and current should be limited to the acceptable level at the point of wind
turbine connection to the network. To ensure the harmonic voltage within limit, each
source of harmonic current can allow only a limited contribution, as per the IEC-61400-36
guideline. The rapid switching gives a large reduction in lower order harmonic current
compared to the line commutated converter, but the output current will have high
frequency current and can be easily filter-out.
D. Wind Turbine Location in Power System
The way of connecting the wind generating system into the power system highly
influences the power quality. Thus the operation and its influence on power system depend
on the structure of the adjoining power network.
E. Self Excitation of Wind Turbine Generating System
The self excitation of wind turbine generating system (WTGS) with an
asynchronous generator takes place after disconnection of wind turbine generating system
(WTGS) with local load. The risk of self excitation arises especially when WTGS is
equipped with compensating capacitor. The capacitor connected to induction generator
provides reactive power compensation. However the voltage and frequency are determined
by the balancing of the system. The disadvantages of self excitation are the safety aspect
and balance between real and reactive power.
F. Consequences of the Issues
The voltage variation, flicker, harmonics causes the malfunction of equipments
namely microprocessor based control system, programmable logic controller; adjustable
speed drives, flickering of light and screen. It may leads to tripping of contractors, tripping
of protection devices, stoppage of sensitive equipments like personal computer,

programmable logic control system and may stop the process and even can damage of
sensitive equipments. Thus it degrades the power quality in the grid.

CHAPTER-3
FACTS
Flexible AC Transmission Systems, called FACTS, got in the recent years a well known
term for higher controllability in power systems by means of power electronic devices. Several
FACTS-devices have been introduced for various applications worldwide. A number of new
types of devices are in the stage of being introduced in practice.
In most of the applications the controllability is used to avoid cost intensive or landscape
requiring extensions of power systems, for instance like upgrades or additions of substations and
power lines. FACTS-devices provide a better adaptation to varying operational conditions and
improve the usage of existing installations. The basic applications of FACTS-devices are:
Power flow control,
Increase of transmission capability,
Voltage control,
Reactive power compensation,
Stability improvement,

Power quality improvement,


Power conditioning,
Flicker mitigation,
Interconnection of renewable and distributed generation and storages.
The usage of lines for active power transmission should be ideally up to the thermal
limits. Voltage and stability limits shall be shifted with the means of the several different FACTS
devices. It can be seen that with growing line length, the opportunity for FACTS devices gets
more and more important.
The influence of FACTS-devices is achieved through switched or controlled shunt
compensation, series compensation or phase shift control. The devices work electrically as fast
current, voltage or impedance controllers. The power electronic allows very short reaction times
down to far below one second.

The development of FACTS-devices has started with the growing capabilities of power
electronic components. Devices for high power levels have been made available in converters for
high and even highest voltage levels. The overall starting points are network elements
influencing the reactive power or the impedance of a part of the power system. Figure 1.2 shows
a number of basic devices separated into the conventional ones and the FACTS-devices
For the FACTS side the taxonomy in terms of 'dynamic' and 'static' needs some
explanation. The term 'dynamic' is used to express the fast controllability of FACTS-devices
provided by the power electronics. This is one of the main differentiation factors from the
conventional devices. The term 'static' means that the devices have no moving parts like
mechanical switches to perform the dynamic controllability. Therefore most of the FACTSdevices can equally be static and dynamic.

The left column in Figure 1.2 contains the conventional devices build out of fixed or
mechanically switch able components like resistance, inductance or capacitance together with

transformers. The FACTS-devices contain these elements as well but use additional power
electronic valves or converters to switch the elements in smaller steps or with switching patterns
within a cycle of the alternating current. The left column of FACTS-devices uses Thyristor
valves or converters. These valves or converters are well known since several years. They have
low losses because of their low switching frequency of once a cycle in the converters or the
usage of the Thyristors to simply bridge impedances in the valves.
The right column of FACTS-devices contains more advanced technology of voltage
source converters based today mainly on Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT) or Insulated
Gate Commutated Thyristors (IGCT). Voltage Source Converters provide a free controllable
voltage in magnitude and phase due to a pulse width modulation of the IGBTs or IGCTs. High
modulation frequencies allow to get low harmonics in the output signal and even to compensate
disturbances coming from the network. The disadvantage is that with an increasing switching
frequency, the losses are increasing as well. Therefore special designs of the converters are
required to compensate this.
3.1 Configurations of FACTS-Devices:
Shunt Devices:
The most used FACTS-device is the SVC or the version with Voltage Source Converter
called STATCOM. These shunt devices are operating as reactive power compensators. The main
applications in transmission, distribution and industrial networks are:
Reduction of unwanted reactive power flows and therefore reduced network losses.
Keeping of contractual power exchanges with balanced reactive power.
Compensation of consumers and improvement of power quality especially with huge
demand fluctuations like industrial machines, metal melting plants, railway or
underground train systems.
Compensation of Thyristor converters e.g. in conventional HVDC lines.
Improvement of static or transient stability.

Almost half of the SVC and more than half of the STATCOMs are used for industrial
applications. Industry as well as commercial and domestic groups of users require power quality.
Flickering lamps are no longer accepted, nor are interruptions of industrial processes due to
insufficient power quality. Railway or underground systems with huge load variations require
SVCs or STATCOMs.
SVC:
Electrical loads both generate and absorb reactive power. Since the transmitted load
varies considerably from one hour to another, the reactive power balance in a grid varies as well.
The result can be unacceptable voltage amplitude variations or even a voltage depression, at the
extreme a voltage collapse.
A rapidly operating Static Var Compensator (SVC) can continuously provide the reactive
power required to control dynamic voltage oscillations under various system conditions and
thereby improve the power system transmission and distribution stability.
Applications of the SVC systems in transmission systems:
To increase active power transfer capacity and transient stability margin
To damp power oscillations
To achieve effective voltage control
In addition, SVCs are also used:
1. In transmission systems
To reduce temporary over voltages
To damp sub synchronous resonances
To damp power oscillations in interconnected power systems
2. In traction systems
To balance loads

To improve power factor


To improve voltage regulation
3. In HVDC systems
To provide reactive power to acdc converters.
4. In arc furnaces
To reduce voltage variations and associated light flicker
Installing an SVC at one or more suitable points in the network can increase transfer
capability and reduce losses while maintaining a smooth voltage profile under different network
conditions. In addition an SVC can mitigate active power oscillations through voltage amplitude
modulation.
SVC installations consist of a number of building blocks. The most important is the
Thyristor valve, i.e. stack assemblies of series connected anti-parallel Thyristors to provide
controllability. Air core reactors and high voltage AC capacitors are the reactive power elements
used together with the Thyristor valves. The step up connection of this equipment to the
transmission voltage is achieved through a power transformer.

SVC building blocks and voltage / current characteristic


In principle the SVC consists of Thyristor Switched Capacitors (TSC) and Thyristor
Switched or Controlled Reactors (TSR / TCR). The coordinated control of a combination of
these branches varies the reactive power as shown in Figure. The first commercial SVC was
installed in 1972 for an electric arc furnace. On transmission level the first SVC was used in
1979. Since then it is widely used and the most accepted FACTS-device.

Comparison of the loss characteristics of TSCTCR, TCRFC compensators and


synchronous condenser
These SVCs do not have a short-time overload capability because the reactors are usually
of the air-core type. In applications requiring overload capability, TCR must be designed for
short-time overloading, or separate thyristor-switched overload reactors must be employed.
3.2 SVC USING A TCR AND TSC:
This compensator overcomes two major shortcomings of the earlier compensators by
reducing losses under operating conditions and better performance under large system
disturbances. In view of the smaller rating of each capacitor bank, the rating of the reactor bank
will be 1/n times the maximum output of the SVC, thus reducing the harmonics generated by the
reactor. In those situations where harmonics have to be reduced further, a small amount of FCs
tuned as filters may be connected in parallel with the TCR.

SVC of combined TSC and TCR type.


When large disturbances occur in a power system due to load rejection, there is a
possibility for large voltage transients because of oscillatory interaction between system and the
SVC capacitor bank or the parallel. The LC circuit of the SVC in the FC compensator. In the
TSCTCR scheme, due to the flexibility of rapid switching of capacitor banks without
appreciable disturbance to the power system, oscillations can be avoided, and hence the
transients in the system can also be avoided. The capital cost of this SVC is higher than that of
the earlier one due to the increased number of capacitor switches and increased control
complexity.
3.3 STATCOM:
In 1999 the first SVC with Voltage Source Converter called STATCOM (STATic
COMpensator) went into operation. The STATCOM has a characteristic similar to the
synchronous condenser, but as an electronic device it has no inertia and is superior to the
synchronous condenser in several ways, such as better dynamics, a lower investment cost and
lower operating and maintenance costs. A STATCOM is build with Thyristors with turn-off
capability like GTO or today IGCT or with more and more IGBTs. The static line between the
current limitations has a certain steepness determining the control characteristic for the voltage.
The advantage of a STATCOM is that the reactive power provision is independent from
the actual voltage on the connection point. This can be seen in the diagram for the maximum
currents being independent of the voltage in comparison to the SVC. This means, that even
during most severe contingencies, the STATCOM keeps its full capability.

In the distributed energy sector the usage of Voltage Source Converters for grid
interconnection is common practice today. The next step in STATCOM development is the
combination with energy storages on the DC-side. The performance for power quality and
balanced network operation can be improved much more with the combination of active and
reactive power.

STATCOM structure and voltage / current characteristic.


STATCOMs are based on Voltage Sourced Converter (VSC) topology and utilize either
Gate-Turn-off Thyristors (GTO) or Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT) devices. The
STATCOM is a very fast acting, electronic equivalent of a synchronous condenser. If the
STATCOM voltage, Vs, (which is proportional to the dc bus voltage Vc) is larger than bus
voltage, Es, then leading or capacitive VARS are produced. If Vs is smaller then Es then lagging
or inductive VARS are produced.

6 Pulses STATCOM.

The three phases STATCOM makes use of the fact that on a three phase, fundamental
frequency, steady state basis, and the instantaneous power entering a purely reactive device must
be zero. The reactive power in each phase is supplied by circulating the instantaneous real power
between the phases. This is achieved by firing the GTO/diode switches in a manner that
maintains the phase difference between the ac bus voltage ES and the STATCOM generated
voltage VS. Ideally it is possible to construct a device based on circulating instantaneous power
which has no energy storage device (ie no dc capacitor).
A practical STATCOM requires some amount of energy storage to accommodate
harmonic power and ac system unbalances, when the instantaneous real power is non-zero. The
maximum energy storage required for the STATCOM is much less than for a TCR/TSC type of
SVC compensator of comparable rating.

3.4 STATCOM Equivalent Circuit:


Several different control techniques can be used for the firing control of the STATCOM.
Fundamental switching of the GTO/diode once per cycle can be used. This approach will
minimize switching losses, but will generally utilize more complex transformer topologies. As an
alternative, Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) techniques, which turn on and off the GTO or IGBT
switch more than once per cycle, can be used. This approach allows for simpler transformer
topologies at the expense of higher switching losses.
The 6 Pulse STATCOM using 1 harmonics. There are afundamental switching will of
course produce the 6 N variety of methods to decrease the harmonics. These methods include the
basic 12 pulse configuration with parallel star / delta transformer connections, a complete

elimination of 5th and 7th harmonic current using series connection of star/star and star/delta
transformers and a quasi 12 pulse method with a single star-star transformer, and two secondary
windings, using control of firing phase shift between the two 6 pulse bridges. This angle to
produce a 30 method can be extended to produce a 24 pulse and a 48 pulse STATCOM, thus
eliminating harmonics even further. Another possible approach for harmonic cancellation is a
multi-level configuration which allows for more than one switching element per level and
therefore more than one switching in each bridge arm. The ac voltage derived has a staircase
effect, dependent on the number of levels. This staircase voltage can be controlled to eliminate
harmonics.

Substation with a STATCOM.


3.5 Series Devices:
Series devices have been further developed from fixed or mechanically switched
compensations to the Thyristor Controlled Series Compensation (TCSC) or even Voltage Source
Converter based devices.

The main applications are:


Reduction of series voltage decline in magnitude and angle over a power line,
Reduction of voltage fluctuations within defined limits during changing power
transmissions,
Improvement of system damping resp. damping of oscillations,
Limitation of short circuit currents in networks or substations,
Avoidance of loop flows resp. power flow adjustments.
3.6 TCSC:
Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitors (TCSC) address specific dynamical problems in
transmission systems. Firstly it increases damping when large electrical systems are
interconnected. Secondly it can overcome the problem of Sub Synchronous Resonance (SSR), a
phenomenon that involves an interaction between large thermal generating units and series
compensated transmission systems.
The TCSC's high speed switching capability provides a mechanism for controlling line
power flow, which permits increased loading of existing transmission lines, and allows for rapid
readjustment of line power flow in response to various contingencies. The TCSC also can
regulate steady-state power flow within its rating limits.
From a principal technology point of view, the TCSC resembles the conventional series
capacitor. All the power equipment is located on an isolated steel platform, including the
Thyristor valve that is used to control the behavior of the main capacitor bank. Likewise the
control and protection is located on ground potential together with other auxiliary systems.
Figure shows the principle setup of a TCSC and its operational diagram. The firing angle and the
thermal limits of the Thyristors determine the boundaries of the operational diagram.

Advantages:
Continuous control of desired compensation level.
Direct smooth control of power flow within the network.
Improved capacitor bank protection.
Local mitigation of sub synchronous resonance (SSR). This permits higher levels of
compensation in networks where interactions with turbine-generator torsional
vibrations or with other control or measuring systems are of concern.
Damping of electromechanical (0.5-2 Hz) power oscillations which often arise
between areas in a large interconnected power network. These oscillations are due to
the dynamics of inter area power transfer and often exhibit poor damping when the
aggregate power tranfer over a corridor is high relative to the transmission strength.
3.7 Dynamic Power Flow Controller:
A new device in the area of power flow control is the Dynamic Power Flow Controller (DFC).
The DFC is a hybrid device between a Phase Shifting Transformer (PST) and switched series
compensation.
A functional single line diagram of the Dynamic Flow Controller is shown in Figure 1.19. The
Dynamic Flow Controller consists of the following components:

A standard phase shifting transformer with tap-changer (PST) series-connected


Thyristor Switched Capacitors and Reactors .(TSC / TSR).
A mechanically switched shunt capacitor (MSC). (This is optional depending on the
system reactive power requirements).

Based on the system requirements, a DFC might consist of a number of series TSC or
TSR. The mechanically switched shunt capacitor (MSC) will provide voltage support in case of
overload and other conditions. Normally the reactance of reactors and the capacitors are selected
based on a binary basis to result in a desired stepped reactance variation. If a higher power flow
resolution is needed, a reactance equivalent to the half of the smallest one can be added.
The switching of series reactors occurs at zero current to avoid any harmonics. However,
in general, the principle of phase-angle control used in TCSC can be applied for a continuous
control as well. The operation of a DFC is based on the following rules:
TSC / TSR are switched when a fast response is required.
The relieve of overload and work in stressed situations is handled by the TSC / TSR.
The switching of the PST tap-changer should be minimized particularly for the currents
higher than normal loading.
The total reactive power consumption of the device can be optimized by the operation of
the MSC, tap changer and the switched capacities and reactors.
In order to visualize the steady state operating range of the DFC, we assume an
inductance in parallel representing parallel transmission paths. The overall control objective in

steady state would be to control the distribution of power flow between the branch with the DFC
and the parallel path. This control is accomplished by control of the injected series voltage.
The PST (assuming a quadrature booster) will inject a voltage in quadrature with the
node voltage. The controllable reactance will inject a voltage in quadrature with the throughput
current. Assuming that the power flow has a load factor close to one, the two parts of the series
voltage will be close to collinear. However, in terms of speed of control, influence on reactive
power balance and effectiveness at high/low loading the two parts of the series voltage has quite
different characteristics. The steady state control range for loadings up to rated current is
illustrated in Figure 1.20, where the x-axis corresponds to the throughput current and the y-axis
corresponds to the injected series voltage.

Operational diagram of a DFC:


Operation in the first and third quadrants corresponds to reduction of power through the
DFC, whereas operation in the second and fourth quadrants corresponds to increasing the power

flow through the DFC. The slope of the line passing through the origin (at which the tap is at
zero and TSC / TSR are bypassed) depends on the short circuit reactance of the PST.
Starting at rated current (2 kA) the short circuit reactance by itself provides an injected
voltage (approximately 20 kV in this case). If more inductance is switched in and/or the tap is
increased, the series voltage increases and the current through the DFC decreases (and the flow
on parallel branches increases). The operating point moves along lines parallel to the arrows in
the figure. The slope of these arrows depends on the size of the parallel reactance. The maximum
series voltage in the first quadrant is obtained when all inductive steps are switched in and the
tap is at its maximum.
Now, assuming maximum tap and inductance, if the throughput current decreases (due
e.g. to changing loading of the system) the series voltage will decrease. At zero current, it will
not matter whether the TSC / TSR steps are in or out, they will not contribute to the series
voltage. Consequently, the series voltage at zero current corresponds to rated PST series voltage.
Next, moving into the second quadrant, the operating range will be limited by the line
corresponding to maximum tap and the capacitive step being switched in (and the inductive steps
by-passed). In this case, the capacitive step is approximately as large as the short circuit
reactance of the PST, giving an almost constant maximum voltage in the second quadrant.
3.8 Unified Power Flow Controller:
The UPFC is a combination of a static compensator and static series compensation. It acts
as a shunt compensating and a phase shifting device simultaneously.

Principle configuration of an UPFC.

The UPFC consists of a shunt and a series transformer, which are connected via two
voltage source converters with a common DC-capacitor. The DC-circuit allows the active power
exchange between shunt and series transformer to control the phase shift of the series voltage.
This setup, as shown in Figure 1.21, provides the full controllability for voltage and power flow.
The series converter needs to be protected with a Thyristor bridge. Due to the high efforts for the
Voltage Source Converters and the protection, an UPFC is getting quite expensive, which limits
the practical applications where the voltage and power flow control is required simultaneously.

3.8.1 OPERATING PRINCIPLE OF UPFC:


The basic components of the UPFC are two voltage source inverters (VSIs) sharing a
common dc storage capacitor, and connected to the power system through coupling transformers.
One VSI is connected to in shunt to the transmission system via a shunt transformer, while the
other one is connected in series through a series transformer.

A basic UPFC functional scheme is shown in fig.


The series inverter is controlled to inject a symmetrical three phase voltage system (Vse),
of controllable magnitude and phase angle in series with the line to control active and reactive
power flows on the transmission line. So, this inverter will exchange active and reactive power
with the line. The reactive power is electronically provided by the series inverter, and the active
power is transmitted to the dc terminals. The shunt inverter is operated in such a way as to
demand this dc terminal power (positive or negative) from the line keeping the voltage across the
storage capacitor Vdc constant. So, the net real power absorbed from the line by the UPFC is
equal only to the losses of the inverters and their transformers. The remaining capacity of the
shunt inverter can be used to exchange reactive power with the line so to provide a voltage
regulation at the connection point.
The two VSIs can work independently of each other by separating the dc side. So in that
case, the shunt inverter is operating as a STATCOM that generates or absorbs reactive power to
regulate the voltage magnitude at the connection point. Instead, the series inverter is operating as
SSSC that generates or absorbs reactive power to regulate the current flow, and hence the power
low on the transmission line.

The UPFC has many possible operating modes. In particular, the shunt inverter is operating in
such a way to inject a controllable current, ish into the transmission line.
The shunt inverter can be controlled in two different modes:
VAR Control Mode: The reference input is an inductive or capacitive VAR request. The
shunt inverter control translates the var reference into a corresponding shunt current
request and adjusts gating of the inverter to establish the desired current. For this mode of
control a feedback signal representing the dc bus voltage, Vdc, is also required.
Automatic Voltage Control Mode: The shunt inverter reactive current is automatically
regulated to maintain the transmission line voltage at the point of connection to a
reference value. For this mode of control, voltage feedback signals are obtained from the
sending end bus feeding the shunt coupling transformer. The series inverter controls the
magnitude and angle of the voltage injected in series with the line to influence the power
flow on the line. The actual value of the injected voltage can be obtained in several ways.
Direct Voltage Injection Mode: The reference inputs are directly the magnitude and phase
angle of the series voltage.
Phase Angle Shifter Emulation mode: The reference input is phase displacement between
the sending end voltage and the receiving end voltage. Line Impedance Emulation mode:
The reference input is an impedance value to insert in series with the line impedance.
Automatic Power Flow Control Mode: The reference inputs are values of P and Q to
maintain on the transmission line despite system changes.

3.9 STATIC SYNCHRONOUS COMPENSATOR (STATCOM):


Introduction
The STATCOM is a solid-state-based power converter version of the SVC.
Operating as a shunt-connected SVC, its capacitive or inductive output currents can be controlled

independently from its terminal AC bus voltage. Because of the fast-switching characteristic of
power converters, STATCOM provides much faster response as compared to the SVC. In
addition, in the event of a rapid change in system voltage, the capacitor voltage does not change
instantaneously; therefore, STATCOM effectively reacts for the desired responses. For example,
if the system voltage drops for any reason, there is a tendency for STATCOM to inject capacitive
power to support the dipped voltages.
STATCOM is capable of high dynamic performance and its compensation does
not depend on the common coupling voltage. Therefore, STATCOM is very effective during the
power system disturbances.
Moreover, much research confirms several advantages of STATCOM. These
advantages compared to other shunt compensators include:
Size, weight, and cost reduction .
Equality of lagging and leading output.
Precise and continuous reactive power control with fast response.
Possible active harmonic filter capability.
This chapter describes the structure, basic operating principle and characteristics
of STATCOM. In addition, the concept of voltage source converters and the corresponding
control techniques are illustrated.
STRUCTURE OF STATCOM
Basically, STATCOM is comprised of three main parts (as seen from Figure
below): a voltage source converter (VSC), a step-up coupling transformer, and a controller. In a
very-high-voltage system, the leakage inductances of the step-up power transformers can
function as coupling reactors. The main purpose of the coupling inductors is to filter out the
current harmonic components that are generated mainly by the pulsating output voltage of the
power converters.

Reactive power generation by a STATCOM.

CHAPTER-4
GRID COORDINATION RULE

The American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) led the effort in the united state
for adoption of the grid code for the interconnection of the wind plants to the utility
system. The first grid code was focused on the distribution level, after the blackout in the
United State in August 2003. The United State wind energy industry took a stand in
developing its own grid code for contributing to a stable grid operation. The rules for
realization of grid operation of wind generating system at the distribution network are
defined as-per IEC-61400-21. The grid quality characteristics and limits are given for
references that the customer and the utility grid may expect. According to EnergyEconomic Law, the operator of transmission grid is responsible for the organization and
operation of interconnected system.
1) Voltage Rise (u):
The voltage rise at the point of common coupling can be approximated as a function of
maximum apparent power of the turbine, the grid impedances R and X at the point of
common coupling and the phase angle [7], given in (1)

Where

-phase

difference, U-is the nominal voltage of grid. The Limiting voltage rise value is <2%
2) Voltage Dips (d):
The voltage dips is due to start up of wind turbine and it causes a sudden reduction of
voltage. It is the relative %voltage change due to switching operation of wind turbine. The
decrease of nominal voltage change is given in (2).

Where d is relative voltage change, rated apparent power, short circuit apparent power,
and sudden voltage reduction factor. The acceptable voltage dips limiting value is 3%.
3) Flicker:
The measurements are made for maximum number of specified switching operation
of wind turbine with 10-min period and 2-h period are specified, as given in (3)

Where

Long term flicker.

Flicker coefficient calculated from Rayleigh

distribution of the wind speed. The Limiting Value for flicker coefficient is about , for
average time of 2 h .
4) Harmonics:
The harmonic distortion is assessed for variable speed turbine with a electronic
power converter at the point of common connection [9]. The total harmonic voltage
distortion of voltage is given as in (4):

Where Vn is the nth harmonic voltage and V1 is the fundamental frequency (50) Hz. The
THD limit for 132 KV is <3 %.
THD of current is given as in (5)

Where In is the nth harmonic current and I1 is the fundamental frequency (50) Hz. The
THD of current and limit for 132 KV is <2.5%.
5) Grid Frequency:
The grid frequency in India is specified in the range of 47.551.5 Hz, for wind farm
connection. The wind farm shall able to withstand change in frequency up to 0.5 Hz/s.

4.1 TOPOLOGY FOR POWER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT


The STATCOM based current control voltage source inverter injects
the current into the grid in such a way that the source current are
harmonic free and their phase-angle with respect to source voltage has
a desired value. The injected current will cancel out the reactive part
and harmonic part of the load and induction generator current, thus it
improves the power factor and the power quality. To accomplish these
goals, the grid voltages are sensed and are synchronized in generating
the current command for the inverter. The proposed grid connected
system is implemented for power quality improvement at point of
common coupling (PCC), as shown in Fig. 1. The grid connected system
in Fig. 1, consists of wind energy generation system and battery energy
storage system with STATCOM.
A. Wind Energy Generating System
In this configuration, wind generations are based on constant speed topologies with
pitch control turbine. The induction generator is used in the proposed scheme because of
its simplicity, it does not require a separate field circuit, it can accept constant and variable
loads, and has natural protection against short circuit. The available power of wind energy
system is presented as under in (6).

Where p (kg/m ) is the air density and A (m2 ) is the area swept out by turbine
blade, Vwind is the wind speed in mtr/s. It is not possible to extract all kinetic energy of
wind, thus it extract a fraction of power in wind, called power coefficient Cp of the wind
turbine, and is given in (7).

Where Cp is the power coefficient, depends on type and operating condition of


wind turbine. This coefficient can be express as a function of tip speed ratio and pitch
angle. The mechanical power produce by wind turbine is given in (8)

Where R is the radius of the blade (m).

4.2. BESS-STATCOM
The battery energy storage system (BESS) is used as an energy storage element for
the purpose of voltage regulation. The BESS will naturally maintain dc capacitor voltage
constant and is best suited in STATCOM since it rapidly injects or absorbed reactive power
to stabilize the grid ystem. It also controls the distribution and transmission system in a
very fast rate. When power fluctuation occurs in the system, the BESS can be used to level
the power fluctuation by charging and discharging operation. The battery is connected in
parallel to the dc capacitor of STATCOM [10][14]. The STATCOM is a three-phase
voltage source inverter having the capacitance on its DC link and connected at the point of
common coupling. The STATCOM injects a compensating current of variable magnitude
and frequency component at the bus of common coupling.

4.3 . System Operation


The shunt connected STATCOM with battery energy storage is connected with the
interface of the induction generator and non-linear load at the PCC in the grid system. The
STATCOM compensator output is varied according to the controlled strategy, so as to
maintain the power quality norms in the grid system. The current control strategy is
included in the control scheme that defines the functional operation of the STATCOM
compensator in the power system. A single STATCOM using insulated gate bipolar
transistor is proposed to have a reactive power support, to the induction generator and to
the nonlinear load in the grid system. The main block diagram of the system operational
scheme is shown in Fig. 2.

4.4 CONTROL SCHEME


The control scheme approach is based on injecting the currents
into the grid using bang-bang controller. The controller uses a
hysteresis current controlled technique. Using such technique, the
controller keeps the control system variable between boundaries of
hysteresis area and gives correct switching signals for STATCOM
operation.
The control system scheme for generating the switching signals to
the STATCOM is shown in Fig. 3.

The control algorithm needs the measurements of several


variables such as three-phase source current is abc, DC voltage Vdc ,
inverter current isabc with the help of sensor. The current control block,
receives an input of reference current is abc* and actual current isabc are
subtracted so as to activate the operation of STATCOM in current control
mode [16][18].
A. Grid Synchronization
In three-phase balance system, the RMS voltage source amplitude is calculated
at the sampling frequency from the source phase voltage ( Vsa Vsb Vsc ) and is
expressed, as sample template Vsm, sampled peak voltage, as in (9).

The in-phase unit vectors are obtained from AC sourcephase voltage and the
RMS value of unit vector as shown in (10).

The in-phase generated reference currents are derived using in-phase unit voltage
template as, in (11)

Where I is proportional to magnitude of filtered source voltage for respective


phases. This ensures that the source current is controlled to be sinusoidal. The unit
vectors

implement

the

important

function

in

the

grid

connection

for

the

synchronization for STATCOM. This method is simple, robust and favorable as


compared with other methods [18].

B. Bang-Bang Current Controller


Bang-Bang current controller is implemented in the current control scheme. The
reference current is generated as in (10) and actual current are detected by current
sensors and are subtracted for obtaining a current error for a hysteresis based bangbang controller. Thus the ON/OFF switching signals for IGBT of STATCOM are derived
from hysteresis controller [19].
The switching function Sa for phase a is expressed as (12).

Where HB is a hysteresis current-band, similarly the switching function can be


derived for phases b and c.

4.5 SYSTEM PERFORMANCE


The proposed control scheme is simulated using SIMULINK in power system
block set. The system parameter for given system is given Table I. The system performance
of proposed system under dynamic condition is also presented.
A. Voltage Source Current ControlInverter Operation
The three phase injected current into the grid from STATCOM will
cancel out the distortion caused by the nonlinear load and wind
generator. The IGBT based three-phase inverter is connected to grid
through the transformer. The generation of switching signals from
reference current is simulated within hysteresis band of 0.08. The choice
of narrow hysteresis band switching in the system improves the current
quality. The control signal of switching frequency within its operating
band, as shown in Fig. 4.
The choice of the current band depends on the operating voltage
and the interfacing transformer impedance. The compensated current
for the nonlinear load and demanded reactive power is provided by the
inverter. The real power transfer from the batteries is also supported by
the controller of this inverter. The three phase inverter injected current
are shown in Fig. 5.

4. 6 STATCOMPerformance Under Load Variations

The wind energy generating system is connected with grid having the nonlinear
load. The performance of the system is measured by switching the STATCOM at time
t=0.7s in the system and how the STATCOM responds to the step change command for
increase in additional load at 1.0 s is shown in the simulation. When STATCOM
controller is made ON, without change in any other load condition parameters, it starts
to mitigate for reactive demand as well as harmonic current. The dynamic performance
is also carried out by step change in a load, when applied at 1.0 s. This additional
demand is fulfill by STATCOM compensator. Thus, STATCOM can regulate the available
real power from source. The result of source current, load current are shown in Fig. 6(a)
and (b) respectively. While the result of injected current from STATCOM is shown in Fig.
6(c) and the generated current from wind generator at PCC are depicted in Fig. 6(d).

The DC link voltage regulates the source current in the grid system, so the DC
link voltage is maintained constant across the capacitor as shown in Fig. 7(a). The

current through the dc link capacitor indicating the charging and discharging operation
as shown in Fig. 7(b)

4.7 Power Quality Improvement


It is observed that the source current on the grid is affected due to the effects of
nonlinear load and wind generator, thus purity of waveform may be lost on both sides in
the system. The inverter output voltage under STATCOM operation with load variation is
shown in Fig. 8. The dynamic load does affect the inverter output voltage. The source
current with and without STATCOM operation is shown in Fig. 9.

This shows that the unity power factor is maintained for the source power when the
STATCOM is in operation. The current waveform before and after the STATCOM
operation is analyzed. The Fourier analysis of this waveform is expressed and the THD of
this source current at PCC without STATCOM is 4.71%, as shown in Fig. 10.

The power quality improvement is observed at point of common coupling, when


the controller is in ON condition. The STATCOM is placed in the operation at 0.7 s and

source current waveform is shown in Fig. 11 with its FFT. It is shown that the THD has
been improved considerably and within the norms of the standard.

The above tests with proposed scheme has not only power quality improvement
feature but it also has sustain capability to support the load with the energy storage through
the batteries.

CHAPTER-5
CONCLUSION
The paper presents the STATCOM-based control scheme for power
quality improvement in grid connected wind generating system and with
non linear load. The power quality issues and its consequences on the
consumer and electric utility are presented. The operation of the control
system developed for the STATCOM-BESS in MATLAB/SIMULINK for
maintaining the power quality is simulated. It has a capability to cancel
out the harmonic parts of the load current. It maintains the source
voltage and current in-phase and support the reactive power demand
for the wind generator and load at PCC in the grid system, thus it gives
an opportunity to enhance the utilization factor of transmission line. The
integrated wind generation and STATCOM with BESS have shown the

outstanding performance.

Thus the proposed scheme in the grid

connected system fulfills the power quality norms as per the IEC
standard 61400-21.

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