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# How does the image data looks like

f(x,y)

## 95 102 94 102 95 98 102 99 103 105 110

94 99 94 101 100 98 100 101 101 107 104
97 86 83 97 96 98 104 96 100 102 102
105 91 85 93 89 98 92 95 98 100 102
106 105 99 90 93 96 84 88 93 89 89
98 94 102 99 81 87 86 84 90 91 88
101 104 87 82 90 84 86 87 86 95 102
99 102 90 74 92 101 87 74 77 83 100
92 95 102 100 92 96 110 93 72 71 83
101 87 103 101 105 88 76 94 93 71 69
105 99 105 104 111 101 84 59 78 102 72

Image transforms
l

Fourier transform
For analysis of frequency spectrum in a image

## Cosine, sine transform

Compression, e.g. jpeg, mpeg

## Hotelling, KL, PCA

Statistically optimal basis. Used in
compression,

representation

## Image transforms are some of the most

important methods in image processing

## lWill be used later in:

1. Filtering
2. Restoration
3. Enhancement
4. Compression
5. Image analysis

## Recall: 1-D CFT

Continuous Fourier Transform (CFT)

W (f ) Fw ( t ) w ( t ) e j2ft dt

W (f ) X (f ) j Y (f )
W (f ) W (f ) e
Amplitude
Spectrum

Frequency, [Hz]

j ( f )
Phase
Spectrum

## Recall: 1-D DFT

Equal time intervals

Discrete Domains
Discrete Time:
Discrete Frequency:

k = 0, 1, 2, 3, , N-1
n = 0, 1, 2, 3, , N-1
Equal frequency intervals

## Discrete Fourier Transform

X[n ]
Inverse DFT

2 nk

j

N 1
x[k ] e N ;
k 0

2 nk
j

N 1
X[n ] e N ;

1
x[k ]
N n 0

n = 0, 1, 2,.., N-1

k = 0, 1, 2,.., N-1

## 2-D Continuous Fourier Transform

F(u, v)

f ( x, y )e j 2 (uxvy ) dxdy

x y

x
y
Spatial
Domain

v
Spatial
Frequency
Domain

## 2-D Discrete Fourier Transform

N 1 N 1

2 (ux vy )
F(u, v) f ( x, y ) exp j

x 0 y 0

v=N

v=N/2

v=0

u=0

u=N/2

u=N

Inverse 2D DFT
uxvy
j2
N

1
N

1
N
f(x,y) 1 F(u,v)e
N.N
u0v0

y= 0,1,N-1

## The two dimensional DFT is separable into two one

dimensional DFTs which can be implemented with an FFT
algorithm.

Digital image

## from the complex results

We can see that the DC-value is by far the largest component of the image.
However, the dynamic range of the Fourier coefficients
(i.e. the intensity values in the Fourier image) is too large to be displayed on the
screen, therefore all other values appear as black

image we obtain

## The phase of the Fourier transform

of the same image is

Shift Property
As in one dimension, there is a simple
relationship that can be derived for shifting an
image in one domain or the other. Since both
the space and frequency domains are
considered periodic for the purposes of the
transforms, shifting means rotating around the
boundaries. The equations describing this are:

Scale Property
Just as in one dimension, shrinking in one
domain causes expansion in the other for the
2D DFT. This means that as an object grows in
an image, the corresponding features in the
frequency domain will expand. The equation
governing this is:

Rotation Property
This is a property of the 2D DFT