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# How to use the Integrator

## option of the Transfer

Function in HYSYS 3.0.1
Author: Mohamed Abouelhassan
Introduction:
The Integrator option in the Transfer
Function operation provides a special type
of ramping functionality, where the PV
value is used to trigger ramping direction
and rate but will not influence the final OP
value.

## simplicity we will use a PV range of 0 to 100 too. In the Q

& A section below we will discuss the usage of different
ranges for the PV and OP and how it affects the output
signal.
The PFD below represents the model used:
Figure 2

The Integrator option is part of the Transfer
Function operation.

Figure 3

Figure 1

## Using the Integrator function:

Setting up the Integrator Function is composed of the
following:
1- Selecting the connections, on the Connections tab). The
PV signal is optional and a constant user-input PV can
be used in place of a connection.
2- Filling the PV and OP ranges (minimum and maximum
values for the PV and OP), on the Parameters tab
Configuration page.
3- Specifying a PV value if a connection is not specified.
Note that the PV value cannot be entered until the PV
range has been specified.
4- Check the Integrator option and specify the Integrator
Period (the default value is 10 minutes).
The behavior of the Integrator function is best described
through an example.
Example:
An Integrator function is used to ramp the feed valve of a
three-phase separator between fully closed and fully opened.
The OP range is clearly the range of opening allowed by the
control valve, 0 to 100%. A user-input PV will be used in
this case, and we can select any PV range we desire. For
Transfer Function - Integrator-3.doc

## So how does it work?

The description below is not how the calculations are done
internally within HYSYS, but is just a way to clarify what
the function does.
1- A PVerror is evaluated as follows:
PVerror = (PV PVmin) / (PVmax PVmin)
HYSYS 3.0.1

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## 2- A OP/time is then calculated as follows:

OP/time = PVerror * OPrange / T (time)
where T = Integrator Period
3- The OP is then evaluated as follows:
OP = OPold + OP/time
4- The OP is then checked against the OP range as follows:
If OP > OPmax Then OP = OPmax
If OP< OPmin Then OP = OPmin

Scenario 3:
Integrator Period = 10 Minutes
Initial OP = 100
PV set to -100%
PVerror = (-100 0) / 100 = -1
OP/minute = -1 * 100 / 10 = -10
OP will be ramped down from 100 to 0 using a ramp rate of
10% per minute. It will take 10 minutes to reach 0%.

## So how does this apply to our example above?

Let us consider the following scenarios (using the ranges
shown in the above):
Scenario 1:
Integrator Period = 10 Minutes
Initial OP = 0
PV set to 50%
PVerror = (50 0) / 100 = 0.5
OP/minute = 0.5 * 100 / 10 = 5
OP will be ramped from 0 to 100 using a ramp rate of 5%
per minute. It will take 20 minutes to reach 100%.
1- HYSYS wouldnt accept a PV value outside the PV
range, Why?
The transfer function has an option to limit the PV
values to only those within the PV range. If you uncheck
this option (found on the Parameters tab Configuration
page) you will be able to change the PV value to any
value you want. Note that cases read from older versions
of HYSYS (2.x) will have this option checked by
default. For cases created in HYSYS 3.0.1 or later this
option is unchecked by default.

Scenario 2:
Integrator Period = 10 Minutes
Initial OP = 0
PV set to 5%
PVerror = (5 0) / 100 = 0.05
OP/minute = 0.05 * 100 / 10 = 0.5
OP will be ramped from 0 to 100 using a ramp rate of 0.5%
per minute. It will take 200 minutes to reach 100%.

## 2- Can I use a PV that is larger than the PV maximum?

Yes. It will just make your PVerror term bigger and
will ramp the OP faster.
3- To ramp down, should I always use a negative PV
value?
To ramp-down use a PV that is less than the PV
minimum. Any value will work, as it will make the
PVerror term negative. For example if the PV range was
50 to 100, a PV of 40 will result in the following:
PVerror = (40 50) / (100 50) = -0.2, which will
result in a negative OP (ramping down).
4- What happens when the PV = PV minimum?
When PV = PV minimum the PVerror = 0 and no
ramping occurs.
5- What happens when the PV = PV maximum?
When PV = PV maximum the PVerror = 1 and the
ramping time becomes equal to the Integrator Period.
6- Can I use the Integrator with other transfer
functions?
Yes. Any of the functions can be combined.

How HYSYS Works is a series of short documents intended to shed light on specific tasks and operations in HYSYS and how
they work. These documents are offered free of charge to our clients courtesy of our Worldwide Technical Support team.
Transfer Function - Integrator-3.doc

HYSYS 3.0.1

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