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Submitted by

In partial fulfillment for the award of the degree






Certified that this project report STUDY AND PERFORMANCE

ANALYSIS OF 210 MW LMW TURBINE is the bonafide work of

carried out the project work under my supervision.











Pavai college of technology,

Pavai college of technology,

Namakkal -637 018.

Namakkal-637 018.

Submitted for the viva voce examination held on..........................




At the outset we wish to express our sincere gratitude and indebted need to
our esteemed institution of Pavai College of technology, pachal which has given
this opportunity to have sincere bases in management and fulfilment our most
cherish of reaming goal of becoming successful leader.
We wish to express our sincere thanks to chairman
shri.CA.N.V.Natarajan,B.com,F.C.A., correspondent smt.Mangainatarajan,
M.sc., for providing us the needed facilities to do our project work. We express
our thanks to our Director Administrative Dr.K.K.Ramasamy,ME., (Ph.D).
For his motivation to carrying out our project work. We express our thanks to
our Principal Dr.J.Sunderarajan, M.Tech., Ph.D., for this encouragement
given to us in carrying on the project work.
We express our sincere gratitude to the head of mechanical engineering
department prof.S.Dinakaran, ME.,(Ph.D). for his timely support and
encouragement throughout the project completion.
We express our sincere gratitude to the supervisor of our project
C.Prabhu,M.E(PhD)., of the mechanical engineering, who lead a helping
hand power, whenever we are in need of it and who gave us valuable
suggestions, advice , motivation and encouragement
We express our guide to friends who have helped us directly or indirectly
for the successful completion the project work.
Last but not least we express our deep gratitude to our parents for the
their encouragement and support throughout the project work.


Steam turbine is an excellent prime mover to convert heat energy of

steam to mechanical energy. Of all heat engines and prime movers the steam
turbine is nearest to the ideal and it is widely used in power plants and in all
industries where power is needed for process.
In power generation mostly steam turbine is used because of its
greater thermal efficiency and higher power-to-weight ratio. Because the turbine
generates rotary motion, it is particularly suited to be used to drive an electrical
generator about 63% of all electricity generation in the world is by use of
steam turbines.
The project deals with the study and performance analysis of
typical 210 MW LMW turbine, which is one of the deciding factor used for
analysis of power and efficiency and giving the suggestion .


In power generation mostly steam turbine is used because of its
greater thermal efficiency and high power to weight ratio. Because the turbine
generates rotary motion, it is particularly suited to be used to drive an electrical
generator about 63% of all electricity generation in the world is by use of
steam turbines. Steam turbine has an ability to utilize high pressure and high
temperature steam.
The power generation in a steam turbine is at a uniform rate,
therefore necessity to use flywheel is not felt. Much higher speeds and greater
range of speed is possible for a a steam turbine. No internal lubrication is
required as there are no rubbing parts in the steam turbine. It can utilise high
vacuum very advantageously.
Due to the above said salient features, of all heat engines and
prime movers the steam turbine is nearest to the ideal and is widely used in
power generation.
The steam turbine is essentially a flow machine in which heat
energy in the steam is transferred into kinetic energy and its kinetic energy is
utilised to rotate the rotor while steam flows through the turbine. During the
flow of steam through the nozzle, the heat energy is converted into kinetic
energy. The steam with high velocity enters the turbine blades and suffers a
change in direction of motion which gives rise to change of momentum and
therefore to a force. This constitutes the driving force of the turbine. This force
acting on the blades in the circumferential direction sets up the rotation of the
wheels or rotor. As the wheel rotates each one of the blades fixed on the rim of
the wheel comes into action of the jet of steam which causes the wheel to rotate



Before discussing in details about various features of the steam
turbine and its auxiliaries let us have an over view of the system as a whole.
(Fig.2.1) shows the schematic of a 21OMW steam turbine (BHEL/LMW).
Superheated steam (130KglcM2,535'c) from the boiler enters in to the High
pressure turbine through two emergency stop valves (ESVs) and four control
valves (CVs). The high pressure turbine (HPT) comprises of 12 stages, the first
stage being governing stage. The steam flow in High pressure turbine (HPT)
being in reverse direction, the blades in high pressure turbine HPT are designed
for anticlockwise rotation, when viewed in the direction of steam flow.
After passing through High pressure turbine (HP]) steam (27
Kg/cm 327'C) flows to boiler for reheating and reheated steam (24.5 Kglcm2,
535oC) comes to the intermediate pressure turbine (IP'T) through two
interceptor valves (IVs) and four control valves (CVs) mounted on the IPT it
self. The intermediate pressure turbine has 1 1 stages. High pressure turbine
(HPT) and intermediate pressure turbine (I PT) rotors are connected by rigid
coupling and have a common bearing.
After flowing through intermediate pressure turbine (IPT), steam
enters the middle part of low pressure turbine (LPT) through two crossover
pipes. In low pressure turbine, steam flows in the opposite paths having four
stages in each path. After leaving the low pressure turbine the exhaust steam
(0.09 KgIcm2 abs) condenses in the condensers welded directly to the exhaust
part of the low pressure turbine. Rotors of intermediate and low pressure
turbines are connected by a semi flexible coupling.

The direction of rotation of the rotors is clock wise when viewed

from the front bearing end towards the generator. The three rotors are supported
in five bearings. The common bearing of High pressure and Intermediate
pressure rotors is a combined journal and radial thrust bearing. Turbine is
equipped with a turning (barring) gear which rotates the rotor of the turbine at a
speed of nearly 3.4 rpm for providing uniform heating during starting and
uniform coiling during shut down. Seven steam extractions for feed water
heating have been taken from gth, 12th, 1 Sth, 18th, 21 st, 23rd & 25th stage.
Condensate from the hot well of condenser is pumped by the condensate
pumps, and supplied to the deaerator through ejectors, gland steam cooler and
four number low pressure heaters. Steam is extracted from the various points of
the turbine to heat the condensate in these heat exchangers. From deaeratc)r the
feed water is supplied to boiler by boiler feed pumps through three number
High pressure heaters.

What is Turbine?
Turbine is the prime mover for the Generator
It is a rotating machine.

Receives energy in the form of Heat.

Thermal energy is converted into rotational energy by means of blades of
Impulse and Reaction.
This rotational energy is used in Generator to generate power


Steam turbine is a rotating machine which- CONVERTS HEAT
of different capacities, varying from 15 MW to 500MW, are employed in the
field of thermal power generation. The design, material, auxiliary systems etc.
vary widely from each other depending on the capacity and manufacturer of the
sets. Therefore the discussions in the chapters will follow the general patterns
applicable to almost all types of turbines, with reference to the specific features
of 21 0 MW steam turbines (both L.M.W. Soviet & KWU German Designs)'and
500 MW (KWU) turbines which form the backbone of the thermal power sector
in India.

Historically, first steam turbine was produced by Hero, a Greek
Philosopher, in 120B.C. (Fig. 1. l.). As the fig. shows, k was a pure reaction
turbine (explained at 1.4).In 1629, an Malian. Named Branch actually
anticipated the boiler-steam turbine combination that is a major source of power
today. The concept, is illustrated in (Fig. 1.2). First practical steam turbine was
introduced by Charles Parsons in 1884 which was also of the reaction type. Just

after five years, in 1889, Gustav De Lava] produced the first practical impulse

Active development of steam turbine made ft the principal prime

mover of generating stations by 1920. Most units used 14 kg/cm2 and 276oc
steam and capacity ranged from 5,000 'La 30,000 KW. By 1930 steam M2
conditions rose to 48 kg/c and 398oc and by 1940 steam condition of 81 kg/cm'
and 509oc was achieved. After second world war (1 945), reheat. cycle was
adopted widely and capacity increased gradually. While turbines of 900 MW are
in use in USSR, in India the largest capacity is 50&MW with steam condition of

When steam is allowed to expand through a narrow orifice, ft assumes
kinetic energy at the expense of its enthalpy (heat emrgy). This kinetic energy of
steam is changed to mechanical (rotational) energy through the impact
(impulse) 6r reaction of steam against the blades. It should be realized that the
blade of the turbine obtains no motive force from the static pressure of the
steam or from any impact of the steam jet. The blades are designed in such a
way, that steam will glide on and off the blade without any tendency to strike it.
As the steam moves over the blades, its direction is continuously changing
and centrifugal pressure exerted as the result is normal to the blade surface at all
points. The total motive force acting on the blade is thus the resultant of all the
centrifugal forces plus the change of momentum. (Fig. 1.3). This causes the
rotational motion of the blades.
PDF created


Basically there are two broad classifications of steam turbines:
i) Impulse:

In Impulse turbine(Fig.1.4),the steam is expanded (i.e. pressure is

reduced) in fixed nozzles. The high-velocity steam issuing from the nozzles
does work on the moving blades which causes the shaft to rotate, The essential
feature of an impulse turbine is that all the pressure drops occur in the nozzles
only, and there is no pressure drop over the moving blades.
ii) Impulse-reaction :
In this type, pressure is reduced in both fixed and moving
blades. Both fixed and moving blades act like nozzles and are of same shape.
Work is done by the impulse affect due to the reversal of direction of the high
velocity steam plus a reaction effect due to the expansion of steam through the
moving blades. This turbine is commonly called a reaction turbine and is shown
below in (Fig.1.5).
Several problems crop up if the energy of steam is converted in one
step, i.e. in a single row of nozzle-blade combination. With all heat drop taking
place in one row of nozzles (or single row of nozzles and blades in case of
reaction turbine) the steam velocity becomes very high and even supersonic
(velocity of steam is proportional to square root of heat drop in nozzle;
V=44.8/K(H1-H2) m/s. K=constant, H, Enthalpy at nozzle inlet ; H 2 Enthalpy
at nozzle outlet. The rotational speed of the turbine also becomes very high and
impracticable. So, in order to convert the energy of steam within practical speed
range, it is necessary to convert R in several steps and thus reducing the velocity
of steam and rotor speed to practical levels. This is termed compounding.
Following are the various types of compounding.

Velocity Compounded Impulse Turbine (Fig. 1.6)

Like simple impulse turbine this has also only one set of nozzles and
entire steam pressure drop takes place there. The kinetic energy of high velocity
steam issuing from nozzles is utilised in a number of moving row of blades with
fixed blades in between them (instead of a single row of moving blades in
simple impulse turbine). PDF created


Two are more turbine using that is called multi stage turbine
.following turbine used for this system

High pressure turbine

Inter mediate turbine
Low pressure turbine

Impulse Reaction Turbine

No of stages :12(1+11)
Shaft out put:65MW
Inlet/outlet Steam flow :630/590 t/hr
Inlet/outlet Steam temp : 535/330 deg
Inlet/outlet Steam pr. : 130/26 ksc

Reaction Turbine
No of stages :11
Shaft out put:105MW
Inlet/outlet Steam flow :540/461 t/hr
Inlet/outlet Steam temp : 535/190 deg
Inlet/outlet Steam pr. : 24/1.32 ksc


No of stages :8(4+4)
Shaft out put:40MW
Inlet/outlet Steam flow :461/446 t/hr
Inlet/outlet Steam temp : 190/45 deg
Inlet/outlet Steam pr. : 1.32/0.06 ksc

The Rankine cycle is a model that is used to predict the performance
of steam turbine systems. The Rankine cycle is an idealized thermodynamic
cycle of a heat engine that converts heat into mechanical work. The heat is
supplied externally to a closed loop, which usually uses water as the working
fluid. It is named after William John Macquorn Rankine, a Scottish polymath
and Glasgow University professor.

Physical layout of

the four

main devices used in


Rankine cycle
cycle closely


the process by which steam-operated heat engines commonly found in thermal

power generation plants generate power. The heat sources used in these power
plants are usually nuclear fission or the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal,
natural gas, and oil.
The efficiency of the Rankine cycle is limited by the high heat of
vaporization of the working fluid. Also, unless the pressure and temperature
reach super critical levels in the steam boiler, the temperature range the cycle
can operate over is quite small: steam turbine entry temperatures are typically
around 565C and steam condenser temperatures are around 30C. This gives a
theoretical maximum Carnot efficiency for the steam turbine alone of about

63% compared with an actual overall thermal efficiency of up to 42% for a

modern coal-fired power station. This low steam turbine entry temperature
(compared to a gas turbine) is why the Rankine (steam) cycle is often used as a
bottoming cycle to recover otherwise rejected heat in combined-cycle gas
turbine power stations.
The working fluid in a Rankine cycle follows a closed loop and is
reused constantly. The water vapor with condensed droplets often seen
billowing from power stations is created by the cooling systems (not directly
from the closed-loop Rankine power cycle) and represents the means for (low
temperature) waste heat to exit the system, allowing for the addition of (higher
temperature) heat that can then be converted to useful work (power). This
'exhaust' heat is represented by the "Qout" flowing out of the lower side of the
cycle shown in the T/s diagram below. Cooling towers operate as large heat
exchangers by absorbing the latent heat of vaporization of the working fluid and
simultaneously evaporating cooling water to the atmosphere. While many
substances could be used as the working fluid in the Rankine cycle, water is
usually the fluid of choice due to its favorable properties, such as its non-toxic
and unreactive chemistry, abundance, and low cost, as well as its
thermodynamic properties. By condensing the working steam vapor to a liquid
the pressure at the turbine outlet is lowered and the energy required by the feed
pump consumes only 1% to 3% of the turbine output power and these factors
contribute to a higher efficiency for the cycle. The benefit of this is offset by the
low temperatures of steam admitted to the turbine(s). Gas turbines, for instance,
have turbine entry temperatures approaching 1500C. However, the thermal
efficiencies of actual large steam power stations and large modern gas turbine
stations are similar.

The four processes in the Rankine cycle

Ts diagram of a typical Rankine cycle operating between pressures of

0.06bar and 50bar
There are four processes in the Rankine cycle. These states are identified
by numbers (in brown) in the above Ts diagram.
Process 1-2: The working fluid is pumped from low to high pressure. As
the fluid is a liquid at this stage, the pump requires little input energy.
Process 2-3: The high pressure liquid enters a boiler where it is heated at
constant pressure by an external heat source to become a dry saturated
vapour. The input energy required can be easily calculated using mollier
diagram or h-s chart or enthalpy-entropy chart also known as steam
Process 3-4: The dry saturated vapour expands through a turbine,
generating power. This decreases the temperature and pressure of the

vapour, and some condensation may occur. The output in this process can
be easily calculated using the Enthalpy-entropy chart or the steam tables.
Process 4-1: The wet vapour then enters a condenser where it is
condensed at a constant pressure to become a saturated liquid.
In an ideal Rankine cycle the pump and turbine would be isentropic, i.e.,
the pump and turbine would generate no entropy and hence maximize the net
work output. Processes 1-2 and 3-4 would be represented by vertical lines on
the T-S diagram and more closely resemble that of the Carnot cycle. The
Rankine cycle shown here prevents the vapor ending up in the superheat region
after the expansion in the turbine, [1] which reduces the energy removed by the



The boiler feedwater used in the steam boiler is a means of transferring

heat energy from the burning fuel to the mechanical energy of the spinning
steam turbine. The total feed water consists of recirculated condensate water
and purified makeup water. Because the metallic materials it contacts are
subject to corrosion at high temperatures and pressures, the makeup water is
highly purified before use. A system of water softeners and ion exchange
demineralizers produces water so pure that it coincidentally becomes an
electrical insulator, with conductivity in the range of 0.31.0 microsiemens per
centimeter. The makeup water in a 500 MWe plant amounts to perhaps 120 US
gallons per minute (7.6 L/s) to replace water drawn off from the boiler drums
for water purity management, and to also offset the small losses from steam
leaks in the system.
The feed water cycle begins with condensate water being pumped out of
the condenser after traveling through the steam turbines. The condensate flow
rate at full load in a 500 MW plant is about 6,000 US gallons per minute (400

Diagram of boiler feed water deaerator (with vertical, domed aeration section
and horizontal water storage section).

The water is pressurized in two stages, and flows through a series of

six or seven intermediate feed water heaters, heated up at each point with steam
extracted from an appropriate duct on the turbines and gaining temperature at
each stage. Typically, in the middle of this series of feedwater heaters, and
before the second stage of pressurization, the condensate plus the makeup water
flows through a deaerator[8][9] that removes dissolved air from the water, further
purifying and reducing its corrosiveness. The water may be dosed following this
point with hydrazine, a chemical that removes the remaining oxygen in the
water to below 5 parts per billion (ppb).[vague] It is also dosed with pH control
agents such as ammonia or morpholine to keep the residual acidity low and thus
Boiler operation
The boiler is a rectangular furnace about 50 feet (15 m) on a side and
130 feet (40 m) tall. Its walls are made of a web of high pressure steel tubes
about 2.3 inches (58 mm) in diameter.
Pulverized coal is air-blown into the furnace through burners located at
the four corners, or along one wall, or two opposite walls, and it is ignited to
rapidly burn, forming a large fireball at the center. The thermal radiation of the
fireball heats the water that circulates through the boiler tubes near the boiler
perimeter. The water circulation rate in the boiler is three to four times the
throughput. As the water in the boiler circulates it absorbs heat and changes into
steam. It is separated from the water inside a drum at the top of the furnace. The
saturated steam is introduced into superheat pendant tubes that hang in the
hottest part of the combustion gases as they exit the furnace. Here the steam is
superheated to 1,000 F (540 C) to prepare it for the turbine.

Plants designed for lignite (brown coal) are increasingly used in

locations as varied as Germany, Victoria, Australia and North Dakota. Lignite is
a much younger form of coal than black coal. It has a lower energy density than
black coal and requires a much larger furnace for equivalent heat output. Such
coals may contain up to 70% water and ash, yielding lower furnace
temperatures and requiring larger induced-draft fans. The firing systems also
differ from black coal and typically draw hot gas from the furnace-exit level and
mix it with the incoming coal in fan-type mills that inject the pulverized coal
and hot gas mixture into the boiler.
Plants that use gas turbines to heat the water for conversion into steam
use boilers known as heat recovery steam generators (HRSG). The exhaust heat
from the gas turbines is used to make superheated steam that is then used in a
conventional water-steam generation cycle, as described in gas turbine
combined-cycle plants section below.
Boiler furnace and steam drum
The water enters the boiler through a section in the convection pass
called the economizer. From the economizer it passes to the steam drum and
from there it goes through downcomers to inlet headers at the bottom of the
water walls. From these headers the water rises through the water walls of the
furnace where some of it is turned into steam and the mixture of water and
steam then re-enters the steam drum. This process may be driven purely by
natural circulation (because the water is the downcomers is denser than the
water/steam mixture in the water walls) or assisted by pumps. In the steam
drum, the water is returned to the downcomers and the steam is passed through
a series of steam separators and dryers that remove water droplets from the
steam. The dry steam then flows into the superheater coils.

The boiler furnace auxiliary equipment includes coal feed nozzles and
igniter guns, soot blowers, water lancing and observation ports (in the furnace
walls) for observation of the furnace interior. Furnace explosions due to any
accumulation of combustible gases after a trip-out are avoided by flushing out
such gases from the combustion zone before igniting the coal.
The steam drum (as well as the super heater coils and headers) have air vents
and drains needed for initial start up.
Steam condensing
The condenser condenses the steam from the exhaust of the turbine into
liquid to allow it to be pumped. If the condenser can be made cooler, the
pressure of the exhaust steam is reduced and efficiency of the cycle increases.

Diagram of a typical water-cooled surface condenser.[6][7][10][11]

The surface condenser is a shell and tube heat exchanger in which
cooling water is circulated through the tubes.[6][10][11][12] The exhaust steam from
the low pressure turbine enters the shell where it is cooled and converted to
condensate (water) by flowing over the tubes as shown in the adjacent diagram.
Such condensers use steam ejectors or rotary motor-driven exhausters for
continuous removal of air and gases from the steam side to maintain vacuum.

For best efficiency, the temperature in the condenser must be kept as low as
practical in order to achieve the lowest possible pressure in the condensing
steam. Since the condenser temperature can almost always be kept significantly
below 100 C where the vapor pressure of water is much less than atmospheric
pressure, the condenser generally works under vacuum. Thus leaks of noncondensible air into the closed loop must be prevented.
Typically the cooling water causes the steam to condense at a
temperature of about 35 C (95 F) and that creates an absolute pressure in the
condenser of about 27 kPa (0.592.07 inHg), i.e. a vacuum of about 95 kPa
(28 inHg) relative to atmospheric pressure. The large decrease in volume that
occurs when water vapor condenses to liquid creates the low vacuum that helps
pull steam through and increase the efficiency of the turbines.
The limiting factor is the temperature of the cooling water and that, in
turn, is limited by the prevailing average climatic conditions at the power plant's
location (it may be possible to lower the temperature beyond the turbine limits
during winter, causing excessive condensation in the turbine). Plants operating
in hot climates may have to reduce output if their source of condenser cooling
water becomes warmer; unfortunately this usually coincides with periods of
high electrical demand for air conditioning.
Steam turbine governing is the procedure of controlling the flow rate
of steam into a steam turbine so as to maintain its speed of rotation as constant.
The variation in load during the operation of a steam turbine can have a
significant impact on its performance. In a practical situation the load frequently
varies from the designed or economic load and thus there always exists a
considerable deviation from the desired performance of the turbine.[1] The

primary objective in the steam turbine operation is to maintain a constant speed

of rotation irrespective of the varying load. This can be achieved by means of
governing in a steam turbine.

Steam Turbine Governing is the procedure of monitoring and
controlling the flow rate of steam into the turbine with the objective of
maintaining its speed of rotation as constant. The flow rate of steam is
monitored and controlled by interposing valves between the boiler and the
turbine.[2] Depending upon the particular method adopted for control of steam
flow rate, different types of governing methods are being practiced. The
principal methods used for governing are described below.
Throttle governing
In throttle governing the pressure of steam is reduced at the turbine
entry thereby decreasing the availability of energy. In this method steam is
allowed to pass through a restricted passage thereby reducing its pressure across
the governing valve.[2] The flow rate is controlled using a partially opened steam
control valve. The reduction in pressure leads to a throttling process in which
the enthalpy of steam remains constant.[1]

Figure1: 2-D schematic of throttle governor

Throttle governing small turbines
Low initial cost and simple mechanism makes throttle governing the
most apt method for small steam turbines. The mechanism is illustrated in figure
1. The valve is actuated by using a centrifugal governor which consists of flying
balls attached to the arm of the sleeve. A geared mechanism connects the turbine
shaft to the rotating shaft on which the sleeve reciprocates axially. With a
reduction in the load the turbine shaft speed increases and brings about the
movement of the flying balls away from the sleeve axis. This result in an axial
movement of the sleeve followed by the activation of a lever, which in turn
actuates the main stop valve to a partially opened position to control the flow

Throttle governing big turbines

In larger steam turbines an oil operated servo mechanism is used in
order to enhance the lever sensitivity. The use of a relay system magnifies the
small deflections of the lever connected to the governor sleeve.[2] The
differential lever is connected at both the ends to the governor sleeve and the
throttle valve spindle respectively. The pilot valves spindle is also connected to
the same lever at some intermediate position. Both the pilot valves cover one
port each in the oil chamber. The outlets of the oil chamber are connected to an
oil drain tank through pipes. The decrease in load during operation of the
turbine will bring about increase in the shaft speed thereby lifting the governor
sleeve. Deflection occurs in the lever and due to this the pilot valve spindle
raises up opening the upper port for oil entry and lower port for oil exit.
Pressurized oil from the oil tank enters the cylinder and pushes the relay piston
downwards. As the relay piston moves the throttle valve spindle attached to it
also descends and partially closes the valve. Thus the steam flow rates can be
controlled. When the load on the turbine increases the deflections in the lever
are such that the lower port is opened for oil entry and upper port for oil exit.
The relay piston moves upwards and the throttle valve spindle ascend upwards
opening the valve. The variation of the steam consumption rate (kg/h) with
the turbine load during throttle governing is linear and is given by the willans
Nozzle governing
In nozzle governing the flow rate of steam is regulated by opening and
shutting of sets of nozzles rather than regulating its pressure.[3] In this method
groups of two, three or more nozzles form a set and each set is controlled by a
separate valve. The actuation of individual valve closes the corresponding set of
nozzle thereby controlling the flow rate. In actual turbine, nozzle governing is

applied only to the first stage whereas the subsequent stages remain unaffected.

Since no regulation to the pressure is applied, the advantage of this method

lies in the exploitation of full boiler pressure and temperature. Figure 2 shows
the mechanism of nozzle governing applied to steam turbines.[2] As shown in the
figure the three sets of nozzles are controlled by means of three separate valves.

Figure2: 2-D schematic of nozzle governor

By pass governing
Occasionally the turbine is overloaded for short durations. During such
operation, bypass valves are opened and fresh steam is introduced into the later
stages of the turbine. This generates more energy to satisfy the increased load.
The schematic of bypass governing is as shown in figure3.

Figure3: 2-D schematic of bypass governor

Combination governing
Combination governing employs usage of any two of the above
mentioned methods of governing. Generally bypass and nozzle governing are
used simultaneously to match the load on turbine as shown in figure 3.
Emergency governing
Every steam turbine is also provided with emergency governors which
come into action under the following condition.[2]
When the speed of shaft increases beyond 110%.
Balancing of the turbine is disturbed.

Failure of the lubrication system.

Vacuum in the condenser is quite less or supply of coolant to the
condenser is inadequate.






Glands are used on turbine to prevent or reduce the leakage of steam or
air between rotating and stationary components which have a pressure
difference across them; this applies particularly where the turbine shaft passes
through the cylinder. If the cylinder pressure is higher than atmospheric pressure
there will be a general steam leakage outwards; d the cylinder is below

atmospheric pressure there Mil be a leakage of air inwards, and some sort of
sealing system must be used to prevent the air from entering the cylinder and
the condenser.
Water-sealed glands
Some turbine designs incorporate a shaft gland which depends on a
water seal to prevent steam or air leakage. A typical seal arrangement (Fig. 4.1)
consists of a shaft - mounted impeller with a series of vanes or pockets
machined on both faces. The impeller is contained within an annular chamber,
and, when water is admitted to the chamber, the impeller vanes force the water
to rotate, at a speed approximately equal to the impeller speed. The seal is
relatively inefficient at low speeds and air-sealed auxiliary labyrinth glands
must be used, in conjunction with high capacity air pumps, to raise vacuum
when starting. Water is usually injected into the seal at approximately hag of the
full operating speed.


purpose of oil system
The turbine oil system fulfils four fuctions. It:
a) Provides a supply of oil to the journal bearings to give an oil wedge at the
shaft rotates.
b) Maintains the temperature of the turbine bearings constant at the required
level. The oil does this by removing the heat which is produced by the shaft
conduction, the surface friction and the turbulence set up in the oil.

c) Provides a mediumfor hydraulically operating the governor gear and

controlling the steam admission valves.
d) Provides for hydrogen-cooled generators a sealing medium to prevent
hydrogen leaking out along the shaft. It is worth noting that for 500 MW unites
and above, h is becoming the practice to use fire resistant fluids in place of
lubricating oil for the control of governer gear and steam admission valves.
These eliminate the risk of fire caused by leakage which is particularly likely
when higher fluid pressures are used.
shows the schematic of the lubricating oil system for 21 0 MW
(BHEL/ LMW) turbine. Lubricating oil systems for power station steam
turbines of other make or ratings also are a more or less simillar.
1 . Recommended Oil
a) Turbine oil 14
b) Mobil DTE medium
2. a) Specific gravity at 50'c 0.852
b) Kinematic viscosity at 50'c 28 CS
c) Neutralisation number 0.2
d) Flash point 201'c (min)
e) Pour point -6.60c (max)
f) Ash percentage by weight 0.01%
g) Mechanical impurities Nil
The turbine oil system consists of the following:
1.Main oil pump
2. Starting oil pump
3. A.C. Lub oil pump

4.. D.C. emergency oil pump

5. Oil tank
6. Drain valve

Lubricating oil is supplied from oil tank (capacity 28,000 lftres) to

bearings and governing system with the help of pumps. During period of normal
operation the required oil is supplied through the main oil pump mounted on the
turbine shaft. A portion of discharge of the main oil pump is used as the
working oil for the injectors. In fact there are two injectors located in the oil
tank. The first injector supplies oil to the suction of the main oil pump and the
discharged oil is further pressurised through the second injector which supplies
oil to the bearings through coolers. During initial starting a A.C. driven starting
oil pump meets the requirement of both the bearing oil and governing oil.
Two standby oil pumps are incorporated in the system to supply bearing oil in
8.2.1 Main Oil Pump
This pump is mounted in the front bearing pedestal 'It is coupled with
turbine rotor through a gear coupling. When the turbine is running at normal
speed i.e. 3000 rpm or the turbine speed is more than 2800 rpm, then the desired
quantity of oil to the governing system at 20 Kg 1 cm' (gauge) and to the
lubrication system at 1 Kg 1 CM2 (gauge) is supplied by this oil pump.

The oil to the lubrication system at the level of turbine axis is supplied through
two injectors arranged in series.
8.2.2 Starting Oil Pump (Auxiliary Oil Pump)
It is a multi-stage centrifugal oil pump driven by A.C. electric motor.
Starting oil pump is provided for meeting the requirement of oil of the turbo set
during starting. During starting or when the turbine is running at a speed lower
than 2800 rpm ft supplies oil to governing system as well as to the lubrication
8.2.3 A.C. Lub Oil Pump
This is a centrifugal pump, driven by an A.C. electric motor. This runs for
about 10 minutes in the beginning to remove air from the governing system and
to fill the oil system with the oil. This pump automati over under inter lock
action whenever the oil pressure in lubrication system fails to 0.6 kg 1 CM2s
(guage). Thus
8.2.4 D.C. Emergency Oil Pump
This is a centrifugal pump, driven by D.C. electric motor. This pump has
been provided as a back-up protection to A. C. driven lub. oil pump. This
automatically cuts in whenever there is failure of A.C. supply at power station
and or the pressure in the lubrication system fails to 0.5 kg 1 cm, (gauge).
8.2.5 Oil Tank

The oil is stored in oil tank of 28000 litres capacity upto operating level
of the tank. About 4000 lit / min. oil remains in circulation. Liberally sized tank
holds the oil inside the tank for a period long enough to ensure liberation of air
from the oil. Different mesh sized fitters are located inside the tank to filter the
oil during its no~ course. The filters are easily accessible and removable for
cleaning even when turbine is in service. This oil tank is supported on the
framed structure just below the turbine floor at the left side of the turbine.

A casing is essentially a pressure vessel which must be capable of
withstanding the maximum working pressure and temperature that can be
produced within it. The cylinder is supported at each end. The cylinder has to be
extremely stiff in a longitudinal direction in order to prevent bending and to
allow accurate clearances to be maintained between the fixed and moving parts
of the turbine. This determines the length between bearing centres which in turn
determines the number of stages which can be accommodated within the
cylinder. The working pressure aspects demand thicker and thicker casing and
the temperature aspects demand thinner and thinner casings. Design
developments took place to take care of both pressure and temperature
considerations and resulted in the following three types of casing design.
i) Single shell casing
ii) Multiple(double)shell.easing
iii) Barrel type casing
3.1.1 H.P. Turbine Casing

a) Single Shell Split Casing : Barlier design turbines including the 21O
MW BHEL / L.M.W. varieties are of single shell split casing for H.P. cylinders.
In this type the casing thickness would be of the order of about20 cms for
the 21 0 MW turbine which will make the flange to about 40cms and the
jointing bolts to about 23 crm size. This ' leads to concentration of mass
where high temperature and sharp fluctuation in temperature h expected.
This poses several problems during machine start ups and load changes.
b) Double Sheli Casinci: With the rise of steam conditions there fore single
shell casings are of no more use for H igh Pressure (H P) and 1 ntermediate
Pressure (1 P) casings. By using a double shell casing , the casing
thickness has been reduced to 9 cms and bolt size to 1 1 cms. in 21 0 MW
turbine H.P. cylinder. (Fig. 3. 1) shows how a double shell reduces
temperature difference through metal casing.

3.1.3 L.P. Turbine Casing

The LP turbine casing shown in Fig. 2.2 consists of a double-flow unit
and has a triple shell welded casing, The outer casing consists of the front and
rear walls, the two lateral longitudinal support beams and the upper part. The
front and rear walls, as well as the connection areas of the upper part are
reinforced by means of circular box beams. The outer casing is supported by the
ends of the longitudinal beams on the base plates 3.2 of the foundation.

The double-flow inner casing, which is of double-shell construction,

consists of the outer shell and the inner shell. The inner shell is attached in the
outer shell with provision forfree thermal movement. Stationary blading is
carried bythe innershell. The stationary blade rowsegments of the LP stages are
bolted tothe outer shell of the inner casing. The complete inner casing is
supported. The design of low pressure cylinders has changed a lot in recent
Before the advent of the 500 MW machines, condensers were invariably
situated beneath the low pressure turbine and the condenser tubes were at right
angles to the. axis of the machine. With the development of the 500 MW
machines several variations of the above turbine / condenser arrangement have
been adopted (Fig. 3.8) shows one such variation with condensers mounted on
each side of the I P. casings. These are called pannier condensers.

A turbine is equipped with one or more emergency stop valves, in order to cut
off the steam supply dun'rn pe~of shut down and to provide prompt interruption
of the steam flow in emergency. In addition govemirl valves are used to provide
accurate control of steam flow entering the turbine. Reheat turbines require add
ermrgency and interceptor valves . in the return path from the reheater and dual
pressure turbines require two of emergency and governing valves. (Fig.3.14)
shows some basic schematic designs ol valves in modem use.
a) Shows a double--beat" valve having two seatings, the object being to
balance the forces due to steam pressure. It is suitable for most pressures, but
not for high temperatures as differential expansion between the valve and cage
would cause one or other sealing to owrapm.
b) Shows another double-beat valve of the hollow type in which the steam from
one sealing is led through the centre of the valve. The thinner walls promote
even heating and lesser differential expansion.
d) Shows a similar valve fitted with an internal pilot valve which, by opening
first,equalises the pressures and provides initial fine control.
e) Shows a cylindrical valve in which steam pressure is prevented from acting
on the back of the valve by fine annular clearance.
f) Shows a flap valve, used for reheat emergency valves, where the steam
pressures are moderate and the specific volumes (and hence the valve
diameters) are large.
g) Shows a governing valve of the *mushroom' type, with a profiled skirt to
give a more linear area 1 lift relationship. Other types of valves, such as piston
and grid valves are used in pass-out turbines. The diameters of valves opening
are generally calculated to dive maximum steam veloc~ of about 60 m / sec for.
ermrgency valves, and about 120 m 1 sec for governing valves.
The seating upon which any such valves closes is invariably part of a
removable sleeve which is replaceable when worn. -rhe mating annular faces of
valves and their seats are nitrided or faced with Stelide to resist wear. Such wear

is due more to erosion by the steam than to mechanical impact and is particulars
lipme to taker place when the valve is cracked open and a jet of steam is
propelled at high velocity through the n arrow port opening by the large
pressure differential, impact damage can occur as a result of frequent test
ck)sures, and cushioning devices or slow motion testing may be adopted to
avoid this.


Steam passes from the steam chest to the turbine via loop pipes which
are normally U-shaped to give them sufficient flexibility (ft is important that
these loops be provided with drain rocks for use when starting up). With the use
of high pressures, the pipe walls have to be thick, making the pipes stiff. To
achieve the required flexibility and to avoid the imposition of large forces or

bending moments on the turbine very long loops are required.

Where pipes enter a double shell cylinder, it is preferable that they enter
radially, passing through as liding joint in the outer cylinder; in this way the two
sheli scan expand radially without losing concentricity. The sliding joint usually
contains piston rings made of nimonic alloy or special steel which will retain its
springiness at the prevailing steam temperature. See (Fig. 3.19 (a).
Cross-over pipes between cylinder must also be flexible, as they expand more
than the bearing pedestal and cylinders over which they pass. Pipes with long
loops are used for transmitting very hot steam. Where possible, crossover pipes
pass under or alongside cylinders rather than overhead, to improve cylinder
access. Expansion of LP cross over pipes is taken up by two or more hingelinked
bellows which allow bending but no axial movement (Fig. 3.19 (b) in this way
the pressure force in the pipe is transmitted through the links, thus protecting the

convolutions from the tenency to open out. Afternatively, straight linked

bellows may be used in pairs, as shown in

There are two types of turbine rotor used in large turbines which have
impulse type

a) The built up rotor also called Disc Rotor consisting of a forged steel shaft on
which separate forged steel discs are shrunk and keyed. (Fig. 3.20).

b) The integral rotor in which the wheels and shaft are formed from one solid
forging. (Fig. 3.21). The built up rotor is made up of a number of separately
forged discs or wheels and the hubs of these wheels are shrunk and keyed on to
the central shaft.
The outer rims of the wheels have suitable grooves machined to allow
for fixing the blades. The shaft is sometimes stepped so that the wheel hubs can
be threaded along to their correct positions. Suitable clearances are left between
the hubs to allow for expansion axially along the line of the shaft. Integral rotors
as said before have discs and shaft machined from one solid forging, the whole
rotor being one complete' icce of metal. This results in a rigid construction and
troubles due to lobse wheels of the shrunk on type are eliminated. Grooves are
machined in the wheel rims to take the necessary blading. These are also called
solid forged rotors.
integral rotor
The built-up rotor tends to be the cheaper of the two since the discs and shaft
are relatively easy to forge and inspect for flaws; also, the machining of these
components can be carried out concurrently. On the other hand, integral rotors
are and difficult to forge and there is a high incidence of rejects; there is

also a large amount of machinery time and waste material involved.

In spite of the expenses involved, the advantages of integral rotors are such
that they are invariably used for the high pressure rotors on high temperature
plant; on reheatmachines in particular they are often used for intermediate
pressure and low pressure rotors as well. This is because of the difficulty of
ensuring that the shrunk-on discs on intermediate and low pressure rotors
cannot become loose, particularly at the high temperature end during start up
when the shafts may be relatively cool and the discs are hot. Another source of
trouble under conditions of high temperature and stress is the phenomenon of
creep which could also cause the shrink-fft to disappear after a large number of
running hours. With regard to low pressure rotors, the main problem is one of
centrifugal stress, the last stage being the most heavily stressed part of the
turbine. The last row wheels on the standard 500 MW turbine are the largest cap
able of operating at 1 000 rev 1 min; the blades are 900 mm in length and are
mounted on the disc so as to have a mean diameter of 2.5 m, the overall
diameter is therefore 3.45 m. On large turbines using 50 per cent reaction, four
types of rotor are used:

a) The hollow drum rotor which promotes even temperature distribution

because it is designed with the same thickness of material as the casing.
(Fig. 3.22) illustrates the construction of the hollow drum type rotor.
b) The solid drum rotor suitable for cylinders where there are lower
temperatures but large diameters, as in intermediate pressure cylinders without
c) The built up rotor previously described.
d) Welded Rotors which are built up. From a number of discs and two shaft
ends. These are joined together by welding at the circumferences and because,
there are no central holes in the discs the whole structure has considerable
strength. Small holes are drilled in the discs to allow steam to enter inside the
rotor body to give uniform heating when coming on load. Grooves are
machined in the discs to carry the blades and (Fig. 3.23) shows this type of rotor


These are most important components of the turbine . converting heat energy
to mechanical energy.
A blade has three main parts:
- AEROFOIL - It is the working part of the blade
- ROOT - It is the portion of the blade which is fixed with the
rotor or casing.
- SHROUD - It can be rivetted to the main blade or can be integrally
machined with the blade
(Note: Blades maybe without shroud also)
3.8.1 Type of Blades
Most modern turbines use reaction type blading throughout the machine.
Some designs have impulse in the H.P. and I.P.cylinders and reaction in the L.P.
cylinder. But use of impulse or reaction cannot always be dearly defined
because both principles may be combined in the same blade. For example large
L. P. blades are generally of twisted and tapered design (see fig. 3.24). These
blades produce varying conditions of impulse or reaction between root and tip
and are called vortex blades. The object of this design is to prevent uneven
steam flow caused by centrifugal forces forcing the steam towards blade tips.
This is done by changing the throat opening from root to tip. A 915 mrn (36m)
blade with zero reaction at the root has approximately 70 per cent reaction at the
tip. Also the inlet angle of the blade after along its length giving smooth and
efficient steam entry.
3.8.2 Impulse Type Moving Blades
lmpluse type moving blades (for H.P.. Turbine) are machined from solid

bar and the roots and s Tangs are left at the tips of the blades so that when fitted
in position in the wheel, shrouding can beattached.

The shrouding is made up from sections of metal strip punched with holes
to correspond with the tangs. As there is no pressure drop across the moving
blade, the seating arrangements are not of such great importance, as in the
reaction type. The shrouding on the impluse blading helps to guide the steam
through the moving blades, allowing larger radial clearance, as well as
strengthening the assembly.
Impulse Type Fixed Blading
The fixed blading in an ampluse turbine takes the form of nozzles
mounted in diaphragms. The diaphragm is made in two halves, one half being
fixed to the upper half of the cylinder casings by means of keys so that when
expansion occurs fouling of the shaft seals is avoided. Special carrier rinfs are
generally used to support the diaphragms in H.P. cylinders. Because of the
steam pressure difference on each side of the diaphragm, seals are provided at

the bore where the shaft passes through the diaphragm, to prevent steam leakage
along the shaft


In reaction type blading pressure drop occurs across both the fixed and
moving blades. So, very effective seal between fixed and moving blading is
essential to prevent steam leakage which would make the turbine inefficient.
The leakage of steam controlled by axial clearance is shown in (Fig. 3.27). This
type of sealing is called end tightening. Following is the details of Reaction type
blading of the H.P. Turbine of 210 Mw Set (KWU / BHEL).

Moving and Stationary Blades

The HP turbine blading consists of several drum strages. All stages are
reaction stages with 50 per cent. The stationary and moving blades of the front

stages (Fig. 3.28) are provided with T-roots which also determine the distance
between the blades. Their cover plates are machined intergral with the blades
and provide a continuous shroud after insertion. The moving stationary blades
are inserted into appropriately shaped grooves closed casing (1) and are bottom
caulked with caulking material (9). The insertion slot in the shaft (8) i a locking
blade which is fixed either by taper pins or grub screws. Special end blades
which lock with t horizontal joint are used at the horizontal joints of the inner
casing. Graub screws which are inserted from t joint into the material secure the
stationary blades in the grooves.
Turning gear is provided to rotate turbine shafts slowly during
the pre-run up operation and after shut down to prevent uneven heating or
cooling of the shafts. The uneven heating or cooling would lead to bending and

misalignment of shafts with possible fouling of stationary and moving parts.

Use of turning gear during starting eliminates the necessity of admitting

suddenly a large flow of steam to rotate the turbine from the rest.
The turning gear speed is chosen to ensure satisfactory lubrication of the
bearing and, at the same time, provide some circulation of air within the casing
(particularly at the low pressure end) after shut down. The speed of turning gear
varies considerably from one design to another. For example while BHEL 1
LMW 210 MW turbine is rotated by the turning gear atthe speed of 3.4 rpm, in
500 MW KWU turbines, the T/ G rotates the turbineshaft at 270 R.P.M. / or 240
R.P.M. depending on whether the condenser is under vacuum or not.
The turbine must remain on turning gear units metal temperature has
dropped below 150"c with normal cooling, this will take approximately 72
hours. Before putting the turbine on turning gear a few conditions like-adequate
bearing oil pressure, jacking oil pump running etc. must be satisfied.
JACKING OIL PUMPS (JOPS) are positive dispi - acement pumps that
provide high pressure (1 20 bar for KWU turbines) supply of oil under strategic
journals @~turbo generator and the oil lifts the shaft slightly, This ensures that
there is no metal contact between a journal and the bearing. This greatly reduces
the static friction and bearing wear, also the starting torque headed by the
turning gear drive. The JOP can be stopped after the lubricating oil film is
established between the shaft and bearings. On early turbo generators, turning
of TG was done by hand with the help of long bar fitted with rachet worm and
pinion mechanism. (Fig. 3.34). This gave the name "barring gear" or "barring"
to this operation. Now, the driving force is
provided by either electric motors or hydraulic pressure.
Hand barring gear is used, nowadays, in emergency, when T.G. motor is
non-operational, and for maintenance purposes, to rotate the turbine shaft
manually. An auxiliary source of power from U.P.S. (Uninterrupted Power
Supply) or Diesel Generating set is also provided in some cases for reliability of
T /G operation. Fig.3.35 shows the functional arrangement of a turning gear.

In BHEL 1 21 0 MW LMW turbine, the T./ G is mounted on LP rotor rear

coupling. It consists of a worm, worm wheel spur gear and pinion, spiral shaft
and sliding shaft with lever. The system comes into operation when the shaft
comes to stand still. When T / G isengaged, the turbine shaft rotates at 3.4 R.
P.M. In KWU turbines, the turning gear is hydraulic. It is engaged when shaft
speed comes down to 545 R.P.M The T 1 G rotates the shaft at 120 RPM or 80
R.P.M. depending on whether the condenser is under vacuum or not. The T / G
assembly is located in the front bearing pedestal of LP cylinder and consists of
two rows of moving blades mounted on coupling flange of I.P. rotor, an inlet
nozzle box with stationary nozzles and .,guideblades (Fig. 3.36). The TG shaft
system is rotated by the double row wheel which is driven by prerssurised oil
supplied by auxiliary oil pump. After passing through the blading the oil drains
to the bearing pedestal and combines with the bearing lube oil returning to the
iube oil tank. In addition, the system is equipped with facility for manual
barring in the even of failure of hydraulic turning gear.
3.12.1 Introduction
The need for couplings arises fromthe limiting length of shaft which it tis
possible to forge in one piece and from the frequent need to use different
materials for the various rotors, in view of the various conditions of temperature
and stress. Couplings are essentially devices fir transmitting torque, but they
may also have to allow relative angular misalignment: transmit axial thrust, and
ensure axial location or allow relative axial movement. They may be classified
as flexible,

semi-flexible or rigid.

Type of coupling used may vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. For

example, the BHEL / LMW 210 MW units employs a rigid coupling to connect
HP and IP Turbine and a semi flexible one for connecting IP and LP turbine;

whereas, both the couplings of 210 MW BHEL /KWU set are of rigid type.
Following are the brief descriptions of basic three types of couplings;
3.12.2 Flexible Coupling
Flexible couplings are capable of absorbing small amounts of angular misalign
as well as axial movement. Double flexible couplings can also accommodate
eccentricity. Semi-flexible couplings will allow angular bending only.
(Fig. 3.37) shows some designs in common use. The claw coupling, which
may be single or double, is robust and slides easily when transmitting light
load; on heavy load, however, friction causes ft to become axially rigid. The
Bibby coupling is satisfactory up to medium sizes and provides, in addition to
the other features, torsional resilience' The mutti tooth coupling transmits torque
by internal and external gear teeth of involute form, which are curved to
accommodate angular misalignment, All these couplings require continuous
lubrication, normally obtained from a jet of oil feeding into an annual recess,
from which k is led centrifugally to the coupling teeth through drilled
3.12.3 Semi flexible Coupling
The semi-flexible type of coupling requires no lubrication and is
normally interposed between the turbine and generator. It consists of a hollow
piece having one or more convolutions (Fig. 3.38. (a)
3.12.4 Rigid Couplings On large turbines the high torque to be transmitted
renders the use of flexiblecouplings impracticable.
Consequently rigid couplings are employed between the turbine
cylinders so that the turbine shaft behaves as one continuous rotor A spigot
locates the two half-couplings and numbered fitted bolts join the flanges

general calculations:

date: 23.2.2015
unit: 4
load: 208 MW
time:11.56 am

Total FW flow



Total coal flow



Calorific value of coal


MS pressure



MS flow temperature



MS flow



Enthalpy of main steam


CRH pressure



CRH temperature



Enthalpy of CRH steam


HRH pressure



HRH temperature



Enthalpy of HRH steam


FW temp at ECO F/L



Boiler outlet steam flow



AUX. steam flow



Heat equivalent to 1KW


IPT exhaust steam pressure



IPT exhaust steam temp



Enthalpy of IPT exhaust



LPT exhaust steam pressure



LPT exhaust steam temp



Enthalpy of LPT exhaust


1)Turbine efficiency
Turbine efficiency = (heat output by turbine)/(heat input to turbine)
a)heat input to turbine:
=(MS flow (MS enthalpy - FW enthalpy)103 ) +(HRH flow (HRH
enthalpy - CRH enthalpy) 103)
=650 (852.08 - 700) + 554 (849.68 744.37)
=157193.74103 kcal.
b) heat output by turbine:
1) work done in HPT:
= ( MS flow (MS enthalpy HPH 7 ES enthalpy)) + ((MS flow HPH 7
ES flow) [HPH 7 ES enthalpy CRH enthalpy] 103

650 (852.08 - 755) + [(650 31.05) (755 744.37)]

=69681.43103 kcal
2) work done in IPT:
A) HRH flow (HRH enthalpy HPH 5 enthalpy)
=554(849.68 803 )
=25860.72 kcal

B ) [HRH flow HRH 5 ES flow ] [HPT 5 enthalpy ] [LPH4 ES enthalpy]

=[554 15.26] [803 - 762]
=22088.34 kcal
C )[HRH flow (HPH5 ES flow + LPH4 ES flow) ] [LPH4 ES enthalpy
LPH3 ES enthalpy]
=[554 (15.26 + 23.34)] [762 715.8]
=24223.8 kcal
D ) [HRH flow (HPH5 ES flow + LPH4 ES flow + LPH3 ES flow)]
[LPH3 ES enthalpy LPH2 ES enthalpy]
=[554 (15.26+23.34+20.34)] [715.8 678.3]
=18564.75 kcal
Add equation A, B, C, D.
=90737.61 kcal
3) work done in LPT:
[LPT steam flow (LPT steam enthalpy LPH 1 enthalpy)] +[ (LPT steam flow
LPT 1 flow) (LPH 1 ES enthalpy LPT exhaust enthalpy)]
=[46 1.61 (678.5 622.17)] +[(461.61- 16.56 ) (622.17 581.22)]
=26002.49 kcal
Output of turbine

=69681.43103 + 90737.67 + 26002.49

=186421.53103 Kcal
=( 186421.53103 450993.74103 ) 100
Work done in regenerative system
=FW flow (enthalpy ECO in/out enthalpy of hot well water) 103
=680 (248 - 45) 103
=138040 103 kcal
overall efficiency
= (186421.53103 +138040103)


= 71.9%
turbine heat rate
=( MW generated ) (turbine input 0.9)
=860210 103 (4509930.9)
=0.44 =44%
Turbine efficiency
=860turbine heat rate
= 860 1932830.314